Background. Spinal Cord Infarction (SCI) is a rare and disabling disease. This hospital-based study was conducted for clinical evaluation of SCI patients in east of Iran. Methods. Consecutive SCI patients admitted in Ghaem hospital,Mashhad during 2006–2010 were enrolled in a prospective clinical study. Diagnosis of SCI was made by neurologists and radiologists. Demographic features, clinical syndrome, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings were recorded. All of the patients underwent a standard battery of diagnostic investigations. All of the patients suspected to SCI had MRI of spinal cord at the symptomatic level of cord with a 0.5 Tesla generation, Philips NT Intra, Netherland equipment. An equal number of patients with Brain Infarction (BI) were randomly selected from our stroke registry data bank. Etiology and degree of disability were compared between these groups of patients. Results. Fourteen SCI patients (9 females, 5 males) with mean age 38.8 ± SD: 19.9 years were evaluated. Miscellaneous causes consisted 50% of etiologies in patients with SCI. Uncertain etiology, atherosclerosis, and cardioembolisms consisted 35.7%, 7.1%, and 7.1% of SCI causes, respectively. Distribution of etiologies was significantly different between SCI and BI patients, X2 = 12.94, df = 3, P = .003. Difference in mean disability score at acute phase of stroke was not significant between two studied groups, z = 1.54, P = .057. Difference in mean changes of disability score at 90 days postevent was significant in two groups of patients, z = 2.65, P = .019. Conclusion. SCI is a rare disease with poor recovery. Distribution of etiologies of SCI patients is quite different than of BI patients.
Anticoagulation therapy is a routine treatment in patients with hemorrhagic cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). However, fear of hemorrhagic complications and deterioration course following anticoagulation often disturbs the responsible physician.
This was a Prospective observational study on consecutive CVT patients with hemorrhagic venous infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) admitted in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, during 2006-2012. The diagnosis of CVT in suspected cases was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography (MRI/MRV), and computerized tomography (CT) angiography following established diagnostic criteria. Demographic data, clinical manifestations from onset to end of the observation period, location of thrombus, location and size of infarction and hemorrhage, and clinical course during treatment were recorded. Choice of the treatment was left to the opinion of the treating physician. Clinical course during 1 week of treatment was assessed based on the baseline modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Three or more points decrease or increase of modified NIHSS after 1 week of treatment was considered as improvement or deterioration courses, respectively. Other clinical courses were categorized as stabilization course.
102 hemorrhagic CVT patients (80 females, 22 males) with mean age of 38.6 ± 8 years were prospectively investigated. Of the 102 hemorrhagic CVT patients in the acute phase, 52 patients (50.9%) were anticoagulated with adjusted dose intravenous heparin infusion and 50 cases (49.1%) received subcutaneous enoxaparin 1mg/Kg twice daily. Decreased consciousness had a significant effect on the clinical course of the patients (X2 = 9.493, df = 2, P = 0.009). Presence of SAH had no significant effect on the clinical course of our anticoagulated hemorrhagic CVT cases (X2 = 0.304, df = 2, P = 0.914). Extension of Infarction in more than two thirds of a hemisphere had a significant influence on the distribution of clinical courses (X2 = 5.867, df = 2, P = 0.044). Difference in distribution of clinical course among the two groups of our hemorrhagic CVT patients was not significant (X2 = 8.14, df = 1, P = 0.87).
Patients with hemorrhagic CVT without other contraindication for anticoagulation should be treated either with dose-adjusted intravenous heparin or body-weight-adjusted subcutaneous low molecular-weight heparin.
Cerebral Vein; Thrombus; Hemorrhagic
Assessing the risk of recurrent ischemic events in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor ischemic stroke (MIS) is of a great importance in clinical practice.
Consecutive patients with TIA or MIS who were visited in Ghaem Hospital, (Mashhad, Iran) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2010 to 2011. Diagnosis of TIA or MIS was accomplished by a stroke neurologist. Only those who presented within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms were recruited. MIS was considered as an ischemic stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) < 4. The endpoint of the study was a new ischemic cerebrovascular event or vascular death in 90 days and additionally in 3 days. The decision to admit and type of treatment in each case was left to the discretion of the stroke neurologist. The association between 20 potential factors with recurrent ischemic events in 3 and 90 days was investigated using univariate and multivariate analysis (MVA).
393 TIA patients (238 males and 155 females) and 118 MIS patients (77 males and 41 females) were enrolled in the study. Stroke occurred in 117 (23.2%) patients, TIA in 99 (19.6%), and there was 11 (2.2%) vascular deaths within 3 months in the total 511 patients with minor ischemic events. Crescendo TIAs and multiple TIAs were associated with greater risk of stroke in 3 days in a univariate analysis (OR = 5.12, P < 0.001) and (OR = 3.98, P = 0.003), respectively. Patients with index stroke had 11.5% lower risk of recurrent stroke in 3 days than patients with index TIA in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.115, P = 0.039). Diabetes was independently associated with 3 months stroke recurrence in the patients with minor ischemic events (OR = 2.65, P = 0.039).
Multiple and crescendo TIAs are the main predictors of stroke recurrence, derived from the univariate analysis of the patients with minor ischemic events.
Transient Ischemic Attacks; Infarction; Brain; Recurrence; Risk
The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computerized Tomography Score (ASPECTS) was used to detect significant early ischemic changes on brain CT of acute stroke patients. We designed the modified ASPECTS and compared it to the above system based on the inter-rater reliability.
A cross-sectional validation study was conducted based on the inter-rater reliability. The CT images were chosen from the stroke data bank of Ghaem hospital, Mashhad in 2010. The inclusion criteria were the presence of middle cerebral artery territory infarction and performance of CT within 6 hours after stroke onset. Axial CT scans were performed on a third-generation CT scanner (Siemens, ARTX, Germany). Section thickness above posterior fossa was 10 mm (130 kV, 150 mAs). Films were made at window level of 35 HU. The brain CTs were scored by four independent radiologists based on the ASPECTS and modified ASPECTS. The readers were blind to clinical information except symptom side. Cochrane Q and Kappa tests served for statistical analysis.
24 CT scans were available and of sufficient quality. Difference in distribution of dichotomized ≤7 and >7 ASPECT scores between four raters was significant (Q=13.071, df=3, p=0.04). Distribution of dichotomized <6 and ≥6 scores based on modified ASPECT system between 4 raters was not significantly different (Q=6.349, df=3, p=0.096).
Modified ASPECT method is more reliable than ASPECTS in detecting major early ischemic changes in stroke patients candidated to tPA thrombolysis.
Computed Tomography; Cerebral Infarction; Thrombolysis; Inter-Rater Reliability
Human enteroviruses (EVs) may have a role as a possible risk factor in the pathogenesis of MI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of enterovirus genomic RNA in peripheral blood samples of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI).
We investigated the presence of enterovirus genomic RNA in the peripheral blood of 115 patients with acute MI hospitalized in the Coronary Care Unit of Imam Reza and Ghaem University Hospitals (Mashhad, Iran) by RT-PCR using the virus specific primers.
The subjects’ mean (±SD) age was 63.5 (±9.4) years (range: 38–82) and 38.3 % of the subjects were female. Of 115 patient specimens, 3 (2.6%) were positive in RT-PCR.
The prevalence of enterovirus in MI patients is considerable. More investigations are needed to determine the causal role of enteroviruses in MI.
Myocardial infarction; Enteroviruses; Polymerase chain reaction
Background. The impact of invasive methods of treatment on results in developing countries may differ from that in developed countries.
Methods. This is a prospective clinical study of consecutive patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) admitted to the Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad during the period from 2005 to 2009. The initial diagnosis and investigations were carried out by neurologists. The patients were divided into two groups. One received surgical treatment whilst the other group was managed medically. The decision as to the choice of the method of treatment was made by the neurosurgeons. The initial medical treatment was standardised for all the patients. The rate of complications and mortality was compared in both medical and surgical groups.
Results. 120 SAH patients (52% females) with a mean age of 50.6 ± 7 years were evaluated. The angiography revealed the presence of an aneurysm in 62 patients. 63.5% of the patients received medical treatment and 37.5% underwent aneurysmal surgery. Difference of rebleeding rate in the two therapeutic groups was not significant; X2 = .014, P = .91. The effect of rebleeding on mortality was not significant; X2 = 2.54, P = .14. Within 62 SAH patients with cerebral aneurysm, the mortality rate in both therapeutic groups was also not significantly different; X2 = .16, P = .77.
Conclusion. There is no significant difference in the mortality rate between the “surgical” and non-“surgical” groups of Iranian patients with SAH. This could be due to delay in performance of surgery in Iranian neurovascular centers.
Direct surgery or endovascular procedures are an accepted way of treating patients with Aneurismal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH). However the impact of invasive methods of treatment on results in developing countries may differ from that in developed countries.
This is a prospective clinical study of consecutive patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH) admitted in Ghaem hospital in Mashhad during 2005-2010. The initial diagnosis and investigations were carried out by neurologists. The patients were divided into two groups. One received surgical treatment whilst the other group was managed medically. The decision as to the choice of method of treatment was made by the neurosurgeons. The initial medical treatment was standardised for all the patients. The rate of complications and mortality was compared in both medical and surgical groups.
20 SAH patients (52% females) with a mean age of 50.6±7 years were evaluated. The angiography revealed the presence of an aneurysm in 62 patients. 63.5% of patients received medical treatment and 37.5% underwent aneurysmal surgery. Difference of rebleeding rate in two therapeutic groups was not significant; χ2=0.014, P=0.91. The effect of rebleeding on mortality was not significant; χ2=2.54, P=0.14. Within 62 SAH patients with cerebral aneurysm, the mortality rate in both therapeutic groups was also not significantly different; χ2=0.16, P=0.77.
There is no significant difference in the mortality rate between the “surgical” and non “surgical” groups of patients with SAH. This could be due to delay in performance of surgery in neurovascular centers in Iran.
Mortality; Subarachnoid; Surgery; Haemorrhage.
Cardioembolic stroke generally results in more severe disability, since it typically has a larger ischemic area than the other types of ischemic stroke. However, it is difficult to differentiate cardioembolic stroke from non-cardioembolic stroke (atherothrombotic stroke and lacunar stroke). In this study, we evaluated the levels of plasma brain natriuretic peptide in acute ischemic stroke patients with cardioembolic stroke or non-cardioembolic stroke, and assessed the prediction factors of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and whether we could differentiate between stroke subtypes on the basis of plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in addition to patient's clinical variables.
Our patient cohort consisted of 131 consecutive patients with acute cerebral infarction who were admitted to Kagawa University School of Medicine Hospital from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007. The mean age of patients (43 females, 88 males) was 69.6 ± 10.1 years. Sixty-two patients had cardioembolic stroke; the remaining 69 patients had non-cardioembolic stroke (including atherothrombotic stroke, lacunar stroke, or the other). Clinical variables and the plasma brain natriuretic peptide were evaluated in all patients.
Plasma brain natriuretic peptide was linearly associated with atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic renal failure, and left atrial diameter, independently (F4,126 = 27.6, p < 0.0001; adjusted R2 = 0.45). Furthermore, atrial fibrillation, mitral regurgitation, plasma brain natriuretic peptide (> 77 pg/ml), and left atrial diameter (> 36 mm) were statistically significant independent predictors of cardioembolic stroke in the multivariable setting (Χ2 = 127.5, p < 0.001).
It was suggested that cardioembolic stroke was strongly predicted with atrial fibrillation and plasma brain natriuretic peptide. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide can be a surrogate marker for cardioembolic stroke.
Hepatitis C is a disease with significant global impact. The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Mashhad (the Northeast and the biggest city after the capital of Iran) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive patients, and to study the relationship between types, virologic and demographic features of patients in Mashhad.
Three hundred and eighty-two clinical specimens obtained from HCV-infected patients referred to Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad during a period of 2009 to 2010 were selected. HCV genotype was determined by Nested PCR amplification of HCV core gene using genotype specific primers.
Totally, 299 patients were male (79.9%). The most common HCV genotype was genotype 3a, with 150 (40%) of subjects. Genotype 1a was the other frequent genotype, with 147(39.2%) subjects. Frequency of genotypes for 1b, 5 and 2 was 41(10.9%), 13(3.4%) and 9(2.4%), respectively. Mix genotype including 1a+1b in 4 (1.04%), 1a+3a in 3 (0.8%) was found in 7 patients. Four percent out of these samples had an undetermined genotype. Among the hemophilia patient, there were 13(48.1%) genotypes as 1a, 3(11.1%) 1b and 10(37%) 3a, respectively.
The dominant HCV genotype among patients living in Mashhad was 3a. This study gives added evidence of the predominant HCV genotypes in Iran.
HCV; Genotyping; Nested PCR; Iran
Several studies suggest transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be neuroprotective against ischemic stroke analogous to preinfarction angina's protection against acute myocardial infarction. However, this protective ischemic preconditioning-like effect may not be present in all ages, especially among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effect of TIAs (clinical equivalent of cerebral ischemic preconditioning) to neurologic damage after cerebral ischemic injury in patients over 65 years of age.
We reviewed the medical charts of patients with ischemic stroke for presence of TIAs within 72 hours before stroke onset. Stroke severity was evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and disability by a modified Rankin scale.
We evaluated 203 patients (≥65 years) with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke and categorized them according to the presence (n = 42, 21%) or absence (n = 161, 79%) of TIAs within 72 hours of stroke onset. Patients were monitored until discharged from the hospital (length of hospital stay 14.5 ± 4.8 days). No significant differences in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scale scores were observed between those patients with TIAs and those without TIAs present before stroke onset at admission or discharge.
These results suggest that the neuroprotective mechanism of cerebral ischemic preconditioning may not be present or functional in the elderly.
Cerebral ischemic preconditioning; transient ischemic attack; elderly; stroke
Background and Purpose
Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction is estimated to occur in 10% of ischemic strokes, but few patients undergo decompressive hemicraniectomy, a proven therapy. We determined the proportion of ischemic stroke patients without significant baseline disability with large MCA infarction who would have been potentially eligible for hemicraniectomy in an era before publication of recent hemicraniectomy trials.
Ischemic stroke cases that occurred in 2005 among residents of the five-county Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area were ascertained. Two study physicians reviewed all clinical and neuroimaging data for patients with baseline modified Rankin Score (mRS) <2, age ≥18 years with NIHSS ≥10. Large MCA infarction was defined as >50% of the MCA territory or >145mL on diffusion-weighted MRI. Other eligibility criteria for hemicraniectomy, based on the pooled analysis of recent clinical trials, were age 18–60 years and NIHSS >15.
Of 2227 ischemic strokes, 39(1.8%) with baseline mRS <2 had large MCA infarction. None underwent hemicraniectomy, and 16(41.0%) died within 30 days. Six patients (0.3% of all ischemic strokes) were potentially eligible for hemicraniectomy; one died within 30 days.
Based on criteria from clinical trials, only 0.3% of cases were eligible for hemicraniectomy. Given the survival and functional outcome benefit in treated patients, future studies should determine whether additional subgroups of ischemic stroke patients may benefit from hemicraniectomy.
decompressive surgery; stroke care; epidemiology
Background. Migraine is prevalent in young patients and a frequent stroke mimic. To distinguish stroke mimics from true stroke can be difficult, and there is a possibility of misdiagnosing a stroke as a migrainous attack in patients with migraine. We aimed to investigate if a history of migraine affects the rate of thrombolytic therapy in young stroke patients. Methods. All patients below 50 years of age admitted in the period 2006–2013 to the Bergen Stroke Centre with acute ischaemic stroke were included. The rate of thrombolytic therapy in patients with migraine was compared to patients with no history of migraine. A multivariate analysis was performed to adjust confounding factors. Results. A total of 170 young stroke patients were enrolled, 49 with migraine and 121 with no migraine. In total, 10.2% of young patients with migraine received thrombolytic therapy, compared with 26.5% of young patients with nomigraine (P = 0.02). Migraine was associated with a low rate of thrombolytic therapy when adjusting for possible confounding factors (OR 0.19 CI: 0.05–0.72, P = 0.02). Conclusion. Migraine is associated with a low rate of thrombolytic therapy in young patients admitted with acute ischaemic stroke. Migraine patients admitted with acute ischaemic stroke are at risk of maltreatment.
The assessment of inducible wall motion abnormalities during high-dose dobutamine-stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR) is well established for the identification of myocardial ischemia at 1.5 Tesla. Its feasibility at higher field strengths has not been reported. The present study was performed to prospectively determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of DCMR at 3 Tesla for depicting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis (≥ 50% diameter stenosis) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD).
Materials and methods
Thirty consecutive patients (6 women) (66 ± 9.3 years) were scheduled for DCMR between January and May 2007 for detection of coronary artery disease. Patients were examined with a Philips Achieva 3 Tesla system (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands), using a spoiled gradient echo cine sequence. Technical parameters were: spatial resolution 2 × 2 × 8 mm3, 30 heart phases, spoiled gradient echo TR/TE: 4.5/2.6 msec, flip angle 15°. Images were acquired at rest and stress in accordance with a standardized high-dose dobutamine-atropine protocol during short breath-holds in three short and three long-axis views. Dobutamine was administered using a standard protocol (10 μg increments every 3 minutes up to 40 μg dobutamine/kg body weight/minute plus atropine if required to reach target heart rate). The study protocol included administration of 0.1 mmol/kg/body weight Gd-DTPA before the cine images at rest were acquired to improve the image quality. The examination was terminated if new or worsening wall-motion abnormalities or chest pain occurred or when > 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate was reached. Myocardial ischemia was defined as new onset of wall-motion abnormality in at least one segment. In addition, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was performed. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers. Diagnostic accuracy was determined with coronary angiography as the reference standard. Image quality and wall-motion at rest and maximum stress level were evaluated using a four-point scale.
In 27 patients DCMR was performed successfully, no patient had to be excluded due to insufficient image quality. Twenty-two patients were examined by coronary angiography, which depicted significant stenosis in 68.2% of the patients. Patient-based sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 85.7% respectively and accuracy was 81.8%. Interobserver variability for assessment of wall motion abnormalities was 88% (κ = 0.760; p < 0.0001). Negative and positive predictive values were 66.7% and 92.3%, respectively. No significant differences in average image quality at rest versus stress for short or long-axis cine images were found.
High-dose DCMR at 3T is feasible and an accurate method to depict significant coronary artery stenosis in patients with suspected or known CAD.
Migraine is a common neurological disorder and can be severely disabling during attacks. The highest prevalence occurs between the ages of 25 and 55 years, potentially the most productive period of life. Migraine leads to a burden not only for the individual, but also for the family and society in general. Prior studies have found that migraine occurs together with other illnesses at a greater coincidental rate than is seen in the general population. These occurrences are called “comorbidities,” which means that these disorders are interrelated with migraine. To delineate the comorbidities of migraine is important, because it can help improve treatment strategies and the understanding of the possible pathophysiology of migraine. The comorbid illnesses in patients with migraine include stroke, sub-clinical vascular brain lesions, coronary heart disease, hypertension, patent foramen ovale, psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, and suicide), restless legs syndrome, epilepsy and asthma. In this paper, we review the existing epidemiological and hospital-based studies, and illustrate the connections between these illnesses and migraine.
migraine; cerebrovascular disorder; depression; anxiety; comorbidity
Evaluating the effect of zinc sulfate in improving the clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis in children younger than 2 years.
This was a double blind pilot trial on 50 patients aged 2 to 23 months at Ghaem and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad from January 2008 to March 2009. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: a case group received oral zinc sulfate and to the control group was given placebo.
Mean age of case group was 168.0±108.6 days and control group 169.2±90.4 days (P=0.98) with male predominance in both groups. At first there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in reducing the symptoms. But 24 hours after treating, improvement of some important manifestations including tachypnea, subcostal and intercostal retraction, wheezing and cyanosis revealed statistically significant difference in control group in comparison with case group (P=0.04).
Zinc sulfate has no benefit in improving clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis.
Zinc Sulfate; Acute Bronchiolitis; Cyanosis; Tachypnea; Infants
The detection of early neuropsychological abnormalities as precursors of cognitive decline of vascular origin in patients with lacunar stroke is a subject of increasing interest. The objective of this study was to assess whether there were differences in the performance of a battery of neuropsychological tests in first-ever lacunar stroke patients with and without associated silent multiple lacunar infarctions found incidentally on the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
A total of 72 consecutive patients with first-ever lacunar infarction were studied 1 month after stroke. All patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, which included the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Phonetic Verbal Fluency Test (PMR), Semantic Verbal Fluency Test (category “animals”), Digit Span Forward and Backward from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
A total of 38 patients (52.7%) had silent multiple lacunar infarcts, with corona radiata as the most frequent topography (P < 0.023). White matter hyperintensities (leukoaraiosis) were observed in 81.1% of patients with silent multiple lacunar infarcts and in 50% with a single lacunar infarction (P < 0.007). Patients in both groups showed similar scores in the MMSE, but those with associated silent lacunar infarctions showed a poorer performance in the semantic fluency test (P < 0.008) and in short delayed verbal memory (P < 0.001). In both cases, however, leukoaraiosis was not statistically significant in multivariate linear regression models adjusted by confounding covariates. In these models, multiple silent lacunar infarctions and education were independent predictors of poor performance in the semantic fluency test and in short delayed verbal memory.
The presence of silent multiple lacunar infarctions documented on brain MRI scans in patients with first-ever lacunar stroke was associated with mild neuropsychological abnormalities, particularly in the performance of executive functions (semantic fluency) and short delayed verbal memory. According to these findings, in the initial stages of small vessel disease, mild neuropsychological abnormalities appear to be related to lacunes rather than to leukoaraiosis or perivascular hyperintensities of vascular cause.
California verbal learning test; Lacunar infarction; Neuropsychological abnormalities; MRI; Semantic fluency; Silent multiple lacunar infarctions; Vascular cognitive impairment
In adults, migraine with aura is considered to be a risk factor for stroke, especially when other risk factors exist. However, the relationship between migraine with aura and risk of cerebral infarct in children has not been well established and requires further study. We describe four young patients who suffered from migraine with aura and focal neurological deficits. All four patients had migraine with aura and focal neurological deficits associated with headaches. Two of the four young patients had cerebral infarct during their migraine headaches. Detailed investigation did not reveal the etiology of the cerebral infarct in these two adolescents. No risk factor for stroke was apparent in any of the four patients and no specific risk factor or reliable clinical feature could be used to identify these young patients at risk for irreversible cerebral ischemia. Thus, our observations provide support that there may be an association between migraine with aura and risk of stroke in children. We, therefore, advocate aggressive treatment using prophylactic agents to prevent migraine attacks in children suffering from migraine with aura, especially when auras are prolonged.
Migraine with aura; children; risk factors; stroke; vasospasm.
Stroke is a leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Although a minority of ischemic strokes in the community affect younger adults, up to 40% of acute ischemic strokes in young adults are cryptogenic in nature, that is, no cause is determined. Underlying pathologies of stroke of unknown cause are multiple, including patent foramen ovale (PFO). The PFO is the most common defect of atrial septum of the heart. This study evaluated the frequency of PFO in brain stroke with unknown etiology in patients younger than 50 years of age in Kerman.
This cross-sectional study was done in Shafa Medical Center of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2008. For detection of the PFO, we used agitated saline test with transcranial Doppler sonography in brain stroke patients with unknown etiology and also a control group (normal persons).
PFO was found in 53% of patients. No significant difference was observed between sexes. The rate in the control group was 20%. Patients with large PFO had 2 or more attacks of stroke. Subjects in the control group did not have large PFO.
One of the most important underlying causes in young adults with cryptogenic stroke is PFO. It is better to prescribe antiplatelet drugs in patients with the first attack of stroke, but as for patients with recurrent stroke, closure of PFO must be considered.
Stroke; Young Adults; Patent Foramen Ovale; Agitated Normal Saline Test.
Background and Purpose
Silent brain infarctions are associated with an increased risk of stroke in healthy individuals. Risk of recurrent stroke in patients with both symptomatic and silent brain infarction (SBI) has only been investigated in patients with cardioembolic stroke in the European Atrial Fibrillation Trial. We assessed whether patients with recent non-cardioembolic stroke and SBI detected on MRI are at increased risk for recurrent stroke, other cardiovascular events, and mortality.
The prevalence of SBI detected on MRI was assessed in 1014 patients enrolled in the imaging substudy of the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) trial. The primary outcome was first recurrence of stroke in patients with both symptomatic stroke and SBI in comparison with age and sex matched stroke patients without SBI. Secondary outcomes were a combined vascular endpoint, other vascular events and mortality. The two groups were compared using conditional logistic regression.
Silent brain infarction was detected in 207 (20.4%) patients of the 1014 patients. Twenty-seven (13.0%) patients with SBI and 19 (9.2%) without SBI had a recurrent stroke (odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 2.56; p=0.24) during a mean follow-op of 2.5 years. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference for all secondary outcome parameters between patients with SBI and matched patients without SBI.
The presence of SBI in patients with recent mild non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke could not be shown to be an independent risk factor for recurrent stroke, other vascular events, or a higher mortality.
Cerebral infarction; silent brain infarction; ischemic stroke; magnetic resonance imaging; mortality
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play an important role in poststroke recovery. BDNF secretion is influenced by genetic and epigenetic profiles. This study aimed to investigate whether BDNF val66met polymorphism and promoter methylation status were associated with outcomes at two weeks and one year after stroke.
Methods and Findings
A total of 286 patients were evaluated at the time of admission and two weeks after stroke, and 222 (78%) were followed one year later in order to evaluate consequences of stroke at both acute and chronic stages. Stroke outcomes were dichotomised into good and poor by the modified Rankin Scale. Stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), physical disability (Barthel Index), and cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination) were measured. Associations of BDNF genotype and methylation status on stroke outcomes and assessment scale scores were investigated using logistic regression, repeated measures ANOVA and partial correlation tests. BDNF val66met polymorphism was independently associated with poor outcome at 2 weeks and at 1 year, and with worsening physical disability and cognitive function over that period. Higher BDNF promoter methylation status was independently associated with worse outcomes at 1 year, and with the worsening of physical disability and cognitive function. No significant genotype-methylation interactions were found.
A role for BDNF in poststroke recovery was supported, and clinical utility of BDNF genetic and epigenetic profile as prognostic biomarkers and a target for drug development was suggested.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary small vessel disease caused by mutations of the Notch3 gene. Clinical manifestations include migraine with or without aura, psychiatric disorders, recurrent ischaemic strokes and cognitive decline. Brain MRI shows confluent hyperintense signal alterations involving characteristically the anterior part of the temporal lobes and widespread areas of the deep and periventricular white matter. Focal or generalised seizures represent a rare neurological manifestation in CADASIL with a frequency of 6–10% in two large series.1,2 Status epilepticus, however, has not been reported so far. Herein we describe a patient with CADASIL with an acute focal neurological deficit following a prolonged migraine attack. The symptoms were first interpreted as an ischaemic stroke but subsequently diagnosed to be due to a non-convulsive status epilepticus.
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary small vessel disease caused by mutations of the Notch3 gene. Clinical manifestations include migraine with or without aura, psychiatric disorders, recurrent ischaemic strokes and cognitive decline. Brain MRI shows confluent hyperintense signal alterations involving characteristically the anterior part of the temporal lobes and widespread areas of the deep and periventricular white matter. Focal or generalised seizures represent a rare neurological manifestation in CADASIL with a frequency of 6–10% in two large series. Status epilepticus, however, has not been reported so far. Herein we describe a patient with CADASIL with an acute focal neurological deficit following a prolonged migraine attack. The symptoms were first interpreted as an ischaemic stroke but subsequently diagnosed to be due to a non-convulsive status epilepticus.
Acute isolated hemiataxia is in most cases due to infratentorial (cerebellar) stroke. It has only twice been described in supratentorial stroke--namely, after thalamic infarction and a capsular haemorrhage. Three patients with isolated hemiataxia after a supratentorial brain infarct are described. These patients were seen in a period of five years during which 899 patients with a first supratentorial brain infarct were registered. Clinically the hemiataxia was of the cerebellar type. In two patients, CT and MRI showed a small, deep (lacunar) infarct restricted to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, a site not previously reported in isolated hemiataxia. The third patient had a small, deep (lacunar) infarct in the thalamus extending into the adjacent posterior limb of the internal capsule. Isolated hemiataxia after a supratentorial brain infarct is a very rare clinical stroke syndrome. The cerebellar type hemiataxia was most likely caused by interruption of the cerebellar pathways at the level of the internal capsule. Our cases confirm prior observations that the cerebellar pathways run through the posterior part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule separately from the motor and sensory pathways.
The aim of this paper is to correlate the extent of silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the clinical severity of sickle cell disease (SCD) in adult patients. Twenty-four consecutive adult asymptomatic SCD patients (11 male and 13 female) with a mean age of 38.4 years (range 20-59) were submitted to brain MRI on a 1 Tesla Gyroscan Intera, Philips MR scanner with a dedicated head coil. The protocol consisted of TSE T2-weighted and FLAIR images on the axial and coronal planes. MRI readings were undertaken by two radiologists and consensus readings. Patients were compound heterozygotes (HbS/β-thal). The extent of SCIs was classified from 0-2 with 0 designating no lesions. Clinical severity was graded as 0-2 by the hematologist, according to the frequency and severity of vaso-occlusive crises. There was no statistically significant correlation between the severity of clinical disease and the extent of SCIs on MR imaging. The extent of SCI lesions did not differ statistically between younger and older patients. Patients receiving hydroxyurea had no statistically significant difference in the extent of SCI lesions. The extent of SCIs in heterozygous (HbS/β-thal) SCD patients is not age related and may be quite severe even in younger (<38.4 years) patients. However the extent of SCIs is not correlated with the severity of clinical disease.
sickle cell disease; heterozygous state; magnetic resonance imaging; silent cerebral infarcts
Perinatal stroke in neonates can lead to disability in later life. However, its etiology and prognosis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to describe clinical presentations and neurodevelopmental outcomes of our case series of perinatal stroke in Korea. Thirteen term and preterm neonates who were diagnosed with perinatal stroke in two university hospitals from March 2003 to March 2007 were enrolled. Seven term and 6 preterm neonates were diagnosed with perinatal stroke, based on the brain MRI findings. Perinatal stroke presented with seizure (4/13), perinatal distress (3/13) in term neonates, whereas stroke in preterm neonates did not present with noticeable clinical symptoms. Only one neonate had positive thrombophilic test (homozygous C677T polymorphism for MTHFR). Ten neonates had infarctions in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and 3 neonates had borderzone infarctions between the anterior cerebral artery and MCA. Neurodevelopmental outcome was abnormal in 4 neonates. Infarction in MCA main branch or posterior limb of internal capsule showed an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Our study is the first systematic study of perinatal stroke in Korea, and shows its clinical presentations and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The population-based study on incidence and prognosis of perinatal stroke in Korea is required in the future.
Perinatal Stroke; Newborn; Magnetic Resonance Imaging