The TIMI ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) score was developed and validated in a randomized controlled trial population. We sought to assess its accuracy in a community-based cohort of elderly patients hospitalized with STEMI.
We evaluated the TIMI STEMI score in 47882 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized with STEMI in US hospitals from 1994 to 1996. We assessed TIMI STEMI score discrimination and calibration for 30-day mortality and compared observed and published TIMI mortality rates.
The cohort’s median TIMI score was 6 (25th–75th percentile 4, 8). Thirty-day mortality rates were higher among patients with higher TIMI scores (TIMI score 2: 4.4% vs TIMI score >8: 35.6%, P < .0001 for trend). However, the TIMI score provided only modest discrimination (c = 0.67) and calibration (goodness-of-fit P < .0001). Mortality rates for TIMI scores differed between patients who did and did not receive reperfusion therapy (P < .0001 for TIMI score × reperfusion therapy interaction). Thirty-day mortality rates in the cohort were higher than published TIMI estimates (P = .001; eg, TIMI score 2: 4.4% cohort vs 2.2% published rate).
The TIMI score provided modest prognostic discrimination and calibration among elderly patients with STEMI. Our findings highlight the difficulties in applying risk scores developed in randomized controlled trial cohorts to elderly patients.
The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for Unstable Angina/Non-ST–elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk scores for in-hospital and 6-month mortality are established tools for assessing risk in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The objective of our study was to compare the discriminative abilities of the TIMI and GRACE risk scores in a broad-spectrum, unselected ACS population and to assess the relative contributions of model simplicity and model composition to any observed differences between the two scoring systems.
ACS patients admitted to the University of Michigan between 1999 and 2005 were divided into UA/NSTEMI (n = 2753) and STEMI (n = 698) subpopulations. The predictive abilities of the TIMI and GRACE scores for in-hospital and 6-month mortality were assessed by calibration and discrimination. There were 137 in-hospital deaths (4%), and among the survivors, 234 (7.4%) died by 6 months post-discharge. In the UA/NSTEMI population, the GRACE risk scores demonstrated better discrimination than the TIMI UA/NSTEMI score for in-hospital (C = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.81–0.89, versus 0.54, 95% CI: 0.48–0.60; p<0.01) and 6-month (C = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.76–0.83, versus 0.56, 95% CI: 0.52–0.60; p<0.01) mortality. Among STEMI patients, the GRACE and TIMI STEMI scores demonstrated comparably excellent discrimination for in-hospital (C = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78–0.90 versus 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78–0.89; p = 0.83) and 6-month (C = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.81, versus 0.71, 95% CI: 0.64–0.79; p = 0.79) mortality. An analysis of refitted multivariate models demonstrated a marked improvement in the discriminative power of the TIMI UA/NSTEMI model with the incorporation of heart failure and hemodynamic variables. Study limitations included unaccounted for confounders inherent to observational, single institution studies with moderate sample sizes.
The GRACE scores provided superior discrimination as compared with the TIMI UA/NSTEMI score in predicting in-hospital and 6-month mortality in UA/NSTEMI patients, although the GRACE and TIMI STEMI scores performed equally well in STEMI patients. The observed discriminative deficit of the TIMI UA/NSTEMI score likely results from the omission of key risk factors rather than from the relative simplicity of the scoring system.
Although there are multiple methods of risk stratification for ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), this study presents a prospectively validated method for reclassification of patients based on in‐hospital events. A dynamic risk score provides an initial risk stratification and reassessment at discharge.
Methods and Results
The dynamic TIMI risk score for STEMI was derived in ExTRACT‐TIMI 25 and validated in TRITON‐TIMI 38. Baseline variables were from the original TIMI risk score for STEMI. New variables were major clinical events occurring during the index hospitalization. Each variable was tested individually in a univariate Cox proportional hazards regression. Variables with P<0.05 were incorporated into a full multivariable Cox model to assess the risk of death at 1 year. Each variable was assigned an integer value based on the odds ratio, and the final score was the sum of these values. The dynamic score included the development of in‐hospital MI, arrhythmia, major bleed, stroke, congestive heart failure, recurrent ischemia, and renal failure. The C‐statistic produced by the dynamic score in the derivation database was 0.76, with a net reclassification improvement (NRI) of 0.33 (P<0.0001) from the inclusion of dynamic events to the original TIMI risk score. In the validation database, the C‐statistic was 0.81, with a NRI of 0.35 (P=0.01).
This score is a prospectively derived, validated means of estimating 1‐year mortality of STEMI at hospital discharge and can serve as a clinically useful tool. By incorporating events during the index hospitalization, it can better define risk and help to guide treatment decisions.
coronary artery disease; mortality; myocardial infarction; prognosis
The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk index for the prediction of 30-day mortality was developed and validated in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were being treated with thrombolytics in randomized clinical trials. When tested in clinical registries of patients with STEMI, the index performed poorly in an older (65 years and older) Medicare population, but it was a good predictor of early death among the more representative population on the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction-3 and -4 databases. It has not been tested in a population outside the United States or among non-STEMI patients.
The TIMI risk index was applied to the Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment (EFFECT) study cohort of 11,510 acute MI patients from Ontario. The model’s discriminatory capacity and calibration were tested in all patients and in subgroups determined by age, sex, diagnosis and reperfusion status.
The TIMI risk index was strongly associated with 30-day mortality for both STEMI and non-STEMI patients. The C statistic was 0.82 for STEMI and 0.80 for non-STEMI patients, with overlapping 95% CI. The discriminatory capacity was somewhat lower for patients older than 65 years of age (0.74). The model was well calibrated.
The TIMI risk index is a simple, valid and moderately accurate tool for the stratification of risk for early death in STEMI and non-STEMI patients in the community setting. Its routine clinical use is warranted.
Coronary disease; Myocardial infarction; Risk factors
The location of acute myocardial infarction (MI) is an important prognostic factor for risk stratification of patients with first ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI). The main goal of this study was to compare the severity and extension of coronary involvement in inferior and anterior MI.
This study reviewed angiographic reports of 579 patients with a first anterior wall STEMI and 690 with a first inferior STEMI that were referred to Tehran Heart Center between March 2004 and September 2007. The number of coronary vessels involvement and the presence of left main lesion were determined based on angiography reports. The Gensini score was also calculated for each patient from the coronary arteriogram.
Incidence of left main lesion was similar between the two groups. Although coronary arteries involvement according to Gensini score was more severe in anterior wall MI group compared with inferior wall MI group, the number of involved coronary arteries was significantly higher in the inferior MI patients. Recommendation of coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or medical treatment were the same for both groups; however, patients with anterior MI were treated more with primary PCI.
According to our angiography database, despite anterior wall MI is associated with more severity of coronary artery disease; inferior wall MI is more extent with regard to the number of involved coronary vessels. Location of MI can predict the severity and extension of infarction.
Myocardial Infarction; Coronary Vessels; Angiography
Risk stratification in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is important, such that the most resource intensive strategy is used to achieve the greatest clinical benefit. This is essential in developing countries with wide variation in health care facilities, scarce resources and increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to validate the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score for STEMI in a multi-ethnic developing country.
Data from a national, prospective, observational registry of acute coronary syndromes was used. The TIMI risk score was evaluated in 4701 patients who presented with STEMI. Model discrimination and calibration was tested in the overall population and in subgroups of patients that were at higher risk of mortality; i.e., diabetics and those with renal impairment.
Compared to the TIMI population, this study population was younger, had more chronic conditions, more severe index events and received treatment later. The TIMI risk score was strongly associated with 30-day mortality. Discrimination was good for the overall study population (c statistic 0.785) and in the high risk subgroups; diabetics (c statistic 0.764) and renal impairment (c statistic 0.761). Calibration was good for the overall study population and diabetics, with χ2 goodness of fit test p value of 0.936 and 0.983 respectively, but poor for those with renal impairment, χ2 goodness of fit test p value of 0.006.
The TIMI risk score is valid and can be used for risk stratification of STEMI patients for better targeted treatment.
Ischemic time is a major determinant of infarct size in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Emphasis is placed on reducing the door-to-reperfusion therapy time component, whereas the symptom-to-door time is often overlooked.
To correlate the symptom-to-door time with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with STEMI.
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)-McGill was a cohort study of consecutive patients with STEMI who presented to three adult university hospitals. Multivariate linear regression was performed to correlate the symptom-to-door time with postinfarction LVEF adjusted for reperfusion method, prior myocardial infarction and components of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score.
There were 188 patients, with a mean age of 66 years. On arrival to hospital, 23% of patients were in Killip class II to IV and 87% received reperfusion therapy (20% fibrinolytic therapy and 67% primary percutaneous coronary intervention). The median symptom-to-door time was 120 min (first quartile: 60 min, third quartile: 290 min) and the median door-to-reperfusion therapy time was 93 min (first quartile: 54 min, third quartile: 155 min). Three variables were independently correlated with LVEF in the study’s regression model: symptom-to-door time (beta: –0.66, 95% CI –1.18 to –0.14; P=0.01), Killip class II to IV on arrival (beta: –6.43, 95% CI –11.87 to –0.99; P=0.02) and anterior territory of the infarction (beta: –5.86, 95% CI –10.55 to –1.18; P=0.02).
Symptom-to-door time was negatively correlated with postinfarction LVEF in patients with STEMI. Strategies to shorten this delay, such as educating high-risk patients about the symptoms of AMI, should be considered.
Angioplasty; Echocardiography; Fibrinolysis; Myocardial infarction; Thrombolysis
Although the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score incorporates ST deviation, it does not account for characteristics of the ST deviations. In the present study, it was hypothesized that the magnitude and characteristics of ST deviation may add to the prognostic values of the TIMI risk score in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, particularly in lower-risk patients with a TIMI risk score of less than 5.
To evaluate the prognostic value of combining the TIMI risk score and characteristics of ST deviation in patients with non-ST elevation ACS and a TIMI risk score of less than 5.
The death/myocardial infarction (MI) rates of 1296 patients enrolled in the Platelet Receptor Inhibition in Ischemic Syndrome Management in Patients Limited by Unstable Signs and Symptoms (PRISM-PLUS) angiographic substudy were examined.
Patients without a TIMI risk score of 5 or greater, and without an ST deviation of 1 mm or greater had the lowest six-month rate of death/MI (5%). In patients with a TIMI risk score of less than 5, the six-month death/MI rate was increased in those with ST depression of 2 mm or greater compared with patients with a similar TIMI risk score and without ST deviation of 1 mm or greater (24% versus 5%, P<0.001). The presence of ST deviation of 2 mm or greater identified an additional 15% of patients with an increased six-month death/MI rate in patients with a TIMI risk score of less than 5.
ST segment deviation of 2 mm or greater confers additional prognostic information in non-ST elevation ACS patients with a TIMI risk score of less than 5. Patients with a TIMI risk score of less than 5 and ST deviation of 2 mm or less had the lowest risk of six-month death/MI.
Acute coronary syndromes; Electrocardiogram; Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; Unstable angina
The worse prognosis in patients without ST-elevation (non-STEMI) as compared to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), may be due to treatment differences. We aimed to evaluate the differences in characteristics, treatment and outcome in patients with non-STEMI versus STEMI in an unselected patient population.
Individual patient data from all patients in our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of MI between Jan 2001 and Jan 2002 were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained until December 2004. Patients were categorized according to the presenting electrocardiogram into non-STEMI or STEMI.
A total of 824 patients were discharged with a diagnosis of MI, 29% with non-STEMI and 71% with STEMI. Patients with non-STEMI were significantly older and had a higher cardiovascular risk profile. They underwent less frequently coronary angiography and revascularization and received less often clopidogrel and ACE-inhibitor on discharge. Long-term mortality was significantly higher in the non-STEMI patients as compared to STEMI patients, 20% vs. 12%, p = 0.006, respectively. However, multivariate analysis showed that age, diabetes, hypertension and no reperfusion therapy (but not non-STEMI presentation) were independent and significant predictors of long-term mortality.
In an unselected cohort of patients discharged with MI, there were significant differences in baseline characteristics, and (invasive) treatment between STEMI and non-STEMI. Long-term mortality was also different, but this was due to differences in baseline characteristics and treatment. More aggressive treatment may improve outcome in non-STEMI patients.
Early restoration of blood flow of the infarct-related artery is associated with an improved outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Previous studies have shown a low mortality in patients with TIMI 3 flow before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Most likely these patients had spontaneous recanalization of the infarct vessel and might constitute a low-risk subgroup. The purpose of the present analysis was to investigate whether TIMI 3 flow obtained with fibrinolysis before PCI is associated with a clinical outcome comparable to that in patients with spontaneous TIMI 3 flow.
Patients with STEMI <6 hours enrolled in the ASSENT-4 PCI study were randomized to facilitated PCI with tenecteplase or primary PCI. For this analysis, patients were divided into three groups according to the TIMI flow of the infarct vessel before PCI: TIMI 0/1, TIMI 2, and TIMI 3.
From a total of 1617 patients, 861 had TIMI 0/1, 279 had TIMI 2, and 477 TIMI 3 flow. The rates of TIMI 3 flow after PCI were 84.6, 89.7, and 95.6%, respectively. Complete ST resolution was observed most often in the TIMI 3 flow group (47.5, 53.6, and 58.6%). The incidence of cardiogenic shock (6.2, 5.5, and 3.6%) and 90-day mortality (6.1, 4.7, and 4.0%) were lowest in the group with TIMI 3 patency before PCI, respectively. The rate of TIMI 3 flow before PCI was higher in the facilitated PCI group than in the primary PCI group (43.9 vs. 15.2%). The 90-day mortality in patients with TIMI 3 before PCI was identical in the facilitated and the primary PCI groups (14/353, 4.0% vs. 5/124, 4.0%).
In this post-hoc analysis of ASSENT-4 PCI, TIMI grade 3 flow in the infarct-related artery before PCI, occurring either spontaneously or obtained by fibrinolysis, is associated with a higher TIMI patency after PCI, better improved ST resolution and a trend towards a favourable clinical outcome after 90 days.
Facilitated PCI; patency; primary percutaneous coronary intervention; ST-elevation myocardial infarction
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the preferred treatment method for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the required equipments are not available in all hospitals. Thus, due to shortage of time, some patients receive thrombolysis therapy first. Patients with chest pain and/or persistent ST segment elevation will then undergo rescue percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The present study evaluated and compared the frequency of no-reflow phenomenon and 24-hour complications after PCI among patients who underwent PPCI or rescue PCI.
This cross-sectional study assessed no-reflow phenomenon, 24-hour complications, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow in patients admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) with a diagnosis of STEMI during March-September, 2011. Subjects underwent PPCI if they had received eptifibatide. Rescue PCI was performed if patients had chest pain and/or persistent ST segment elevation despite receiving streptokinase (SK). Demographic characteristics, history of diseases, medicine, angiography findings, PCI type, and complications during the first 24 hours following PCI were collected. Data was then analyzed by Student’s t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis.
A total number of 143 individuals, including 67 PPCI cases (46.9%) and 76 cases of rescue PCI (53.1%), were evaluated. The mean age of the participants was 58.92 ± 11.16 years old. Females constituted 18.2% (n = 26) of the whole population. No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 51 subjects (37.1%). Although 9 patients (6.3%) died during the first 24 hours after PCI, neither the crude nor the model adjusted for age and gender revealed significant relations between rescue PCI and death or no-reflow phenomenon. Rescue PCI and no-reflow phenomenon were not significantly correlated even after adjustments for age, gender, history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, smoking, platelets number, myocardial infarction level, the extent of stenosis, and the involved artery.
According to the present study, although SK is more effective than eptifibatide in resolution of thrombosis and clots, rescue PCI did not differ from PPCI in terms of the incidence of no-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications.
Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Rescue Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; No-Reflow Phenomenon
Objective: To evaluate the impact of routine stenting, compared with balloon angioplasty, in unselected patients presenting with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Design: Randomised trial.
Setting: Tertiary referral centre.
Participants: All patients presenting with STEMI randomly assigned to stenting or balloon angioplasty. No exclusion criteria were applied.
Main outcome measure: The primary end point was combined death or reinfarction at one year’s follow up.
Results: 1683 consecutive patients with STEMI were randomly assigned before angiography to stenting (n = 849) or balloon angioplasty (n = 834). A total of 785 patients (92.5%) in the stent group and 763 patients (91.5%) in the balloon group actually underwent primary angioplasty. The groups were comparable in terms of postprocedural TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) flow, myocardial blush grade, and distal embolisation. No difference was observed in clinical outcome at both intention to treat (14% v 12.5%, not significant) and actual treatment analyses (12.4% v 11.3%, not significant).
Conclusions: Compared with balloon angioplasty, routine stenting does not seem to reduce death and reinfarction in a large cohort of unselected patients with STEMI.
primary stenting; myocardial infarction; real world angioplasty
Pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission to an expert for interpretation and triage reduces time to acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). In order to detect all STEMI patients, the ECG should be transmitted in all cases of suspected acute cardiac ischemia. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of an artificial neural network (ANN) to safely reduce the number of ECGs transmitted by identifying patients without STEMI and patients not needing acute PCI.
Five hundred and sixty ambulance ECGs transmitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) in routine care were prospectively collected. The ECG interpretation by the ANN was compared with the diagnosis (STEMI or not) and the need for an acute PCI (or not) as determined from the Swedish coronary angiography and angioplasty register. The CCU physician's real time ECG interpretation (STEMI or not) and triage decision (acute PCI or not) were registered for comparison.
The ANN sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for STEMI was 95%, 68%, 18% and 99%, respectively, and for a need of acute PCI it was 97%, 68%, 17% and 100%. The area under the ANN's receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96) and for predicting the need of acute PCI 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.97). If ECGs where the ANN did not identify a STEMI or a need of acute PCI were theoretically to be withheld from transmission, the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could have been reduced by 64% without missing any case with STEMI or a need of immediate PCI.
Our ANN had an excellent ability to predict STEMI and the need of acute PCI in ambulance ECGs, and has a potential to safely reduce the number of ECG transmitted to the CCU by almost two thirds.
Background and Objectives
Aspiration thrombectomy (AT) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an effective adjunctive therapy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). An elevated neutrophil count in STEMI is associated with microvascular dysfunction and adverse outcomes. We evaluated whether AT can improve microvascular dysfunction in patients with STEMI and an elevated neutrophil count.
Subjects and Methods
Seventy patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI from August 2007 to February 2009 in our institution were classified by tertiles of neutrophil count on admission (<5,300/mm3, 5,300-7,600/mm3, and >7,600/mm3). The angiographic outcome was post-procedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade. Microvascular dysfunction was assessed by TIMI myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade and ST-segment resolution on electrocardiography 90 minutes after PCI. The clinical outcome was major adverse cardiac event (MACE), defined as cardiac death, re-infarction, and target lesion revascularization at 9 months.
There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics and pre- and post-procedural TIMI flow grades between the neutrophil tertiles. As the neutrophil count increased, a lower tendency toward TMP grade 3 (83% vs. 52% vs. 54%, p=0.06) and more persistent residual ST-segment elevation (>4 mm: 13% vs. 26% vs. 58%, p=0.005) was observed. The 9-month MACE rate was similar between the groups. On subgroup analysis of AT patients (n=52) classified by neutrophil tertiles, the same tendency toward less frequent TMP grade 3 (77% vs. 56% vs. 47%, p=0.06) and persistent residual ST-segment elevation (>4 mm: 12% vs. 28% vs. 53%, p=0.05) was observed as neutrophil count increased.
A higher neutrophil count at presentation in STEMI is associated with more severe microvascular dysfunction after primary PCI, which is not improved with AT.
Myocardial infarction; Neutrophils
The TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) risk score is a seven item risk stratification tool derived from trials of patients with non‐ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) that has been validated in emergency department (ED) patients with potential ACS. We hypothesised that it might have different prognostic abilities in male and female patients.
This was a prospective cohort study of ED patients with potential ACS. Data included demographics, medical and cardiac history, and components of the TIMI risk score. Investigators followed the hospital course daily. The main outcome was death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or revascularisation within 30 days as stratified by TIMI risk score and compared between genders using χ2 tests.
There were 2022 patients enrolled: 1204 (60%) females and 818 (40%) males. The incidence of 30 day death, AMI, revascularisation (n = 168) according to TIMI score is as follows (female vs male): TIMI 0 (n = 670), 1.6% vs 2.0%, p = 0.2; TIMI 1 (n = 525), 4.6% vs 8.5%, p = 0.02; TIMI 2 (n = 378), 6.3% vs 10.4%, p = 0.05; TIMI 3 (n = 234), 6.5% vs 24.6%, p<0.001; TIMI 4 (n = 157), 22.7% vs 24.4%, p = 0.15; TIMI 5 (n = 52), 35.5% vs 39.1%, p = 0. 2; TIMI 6 or 7 (n = 6), 33.3% vs 66.7%, p = 1.0. The relationship between TIMI score and outcome was highly significant (p<0.001) for each gender; however, males tended to have worse outcomes at lower TIMI risk scores.
The TIMI risk score successfully risk stratifies both males and females with potential ACS at the time of ED presentation; however, males have worse outcomes at lower TIMI scores than females.
Traditionally, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been described as either STEMI (ST-elevation myocardial infarction) or non-STEMI myocardial infarction. This classification is historically related to the use of thrombolytic therapy, which is effective in STEMI. The current era of widespread use of coronary angiography (CAG), usually followed by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) puts this classification system into question.
To compare the outcomes of patients with STEMI and ST-depression myocardial infarction (STDMI) who were treated with emergency PCI.
This multicentre registry enrolled a total of 6 602 consecutive patients with AMI. Patients were divided into the following subgroups: STEMI (n = 3446), STDMI (n = 907), left bundle branch block (LBBB) AMI (n = 241), right bundle branch block (RBBB) AMI (n = 338) and other electrocardiographic (ECG) AMI (n = 1670). Baseline and angiographic characteristics were studied, and revascularisation therapies and in-hospital mortality were analysed.
Acute heart failure was present in 29.5% of the STDMI vs 27.4% of the STEMI patients (p < 0.001). STDMI patients had more extensive coronary atherosclerosis than patients with STEMI (three-vessel disease: 53.1 vs 30%, p < 0.001). The left main coronary artery was an infract-related artery (IRA) in 6.0% of STDMI vs 1.1% of STEMI patients (p < 0.001). TIMI flow 0–1 was found in 35.0% of STDMI vs 66.0% of STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Primary PCI was performed in 88.1% of STEMI (with a success rate of 90.8%) vs 61.8% of STDMI patients (with a success rate of 94.5%) (p = 0.012 for PCI success rates). In-hospital mortality was not significantly different (STDMI 6.3 vs STEMI 5.4%, p = 0.330).
These data suggest that similar strategies (emergency CAG with PCI whenever feasible) should be applied to both these types of AMI.
coronary artery disease; acute myocardial infarction; primary PCI
Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a patent infarct-related artery (IRA) experience lower mortality and better clinical outcome, but little is known about the predictors of IRA patency before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the setting of STEMI.
To assess possible predictors of patency of IRA before primary PCI in patients with STEMI.
A total of 880 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were prospectively included (646 male, 234 female; mean [± SD] age 58.5±12.4 years). Blood samples were obtained on admission to investigate biochemical markers. Preinterventional thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow was assessed in all patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to the pre-PCI TIMI flow as impaired flow group (TIMI flow 0, 1 and 2) and normal flow group (TIMI flow 3). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all patients.
Eighty-three (9.43%) patients had pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow in IRA. Uric acid levels and neutrophil to lymphocyte (N to L) ratio in the normal flow group were lower than in the impaired flow group (P<0.001 for both). However, ejection fraction (EF) was higher in the normal flow group than in the impaired flow group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that IRA patency was independently associated with serum uric acid level (β 0.673 [95% CI 0.548 to 0.826]; P<0.001), N to L ratio (β 0.783 [95% CI 0.683 to 0.897]; P<0.001) and EF (β 1.033 [95% CI 1.006 to 1.061]; P=0.016).
Serum uric acid level, N to L ratio and EF are independent predictors of the pre-PCI patency of IRA in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
Artery; Infarct; Lymphocyte; Neutrophil; TIMI; Uric acid
Younger, but not older, women have a higher mortality than men of similar age after a myocardial infarction (MI). We sought to determine whether this relationship is true for both ST elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI).
Retrospective cohort study.
1057 USA hospitals participant in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction between 2000 and 2006.
126 172 STEMI and 235 257 NSTEMI patients.
Main outcome measure
For both STEMI and NSTEMI, the younger the patient's age, the greater the excess mortality risk for women compared with men, while older women fared similarly (STEMI) or better (NSTEMI) than men (p<0.0001 for the age–sex interaction). In STEMI, the unadjusted women-to-men RR was 1.68 (95% CI 1.41 to 2.01), 1.78 (1.59 to 1.99), 1.45 (1.34 to 1.57), 1.08 (1.02 to 1.14) and 1.03 (0.98 to 1.07) for age <50 years, age 50–59, age 60–69, age 70–79 and age 80–89, respectively. For NSTEMI, corresponding unadjusted RRs were 1.56 (1.31 to 1.85), 1.42 (1.27 to 1.58), 1.17 (1.09 to 1.25), 0.92 (0.88 to 0.96) and 0.86 (0.83 to 0.89). After adjusting for risk status, the excess risk for younger women compared with men decreased to approximately 15–20%, while a better survival of older NSTEMI women compared with men persisted.
Sex-related differences in short-term mortality are age-dependent in both STEMI and NSTEMI patients.
Unstable plaque is believed to be responsible for major adverse cardiac events (MACE).
To determine whether coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) could be used to predict future MACE.
Patients undergoing CCTA between January 2008 and February 2010 were consecutively enrolled in the study. The hospital database was screened for patients who later developed acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or cardiac death. Plaque scores were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA to examine the relationship between plaque scores and MACE.
Of the 8557 patients who underwent CCTA, 1055 had hospital records available for follow-up. During follow-up, 25 patients experienced MACE including death (six patients), heart failure (two patients), STEMI (11 patients) and NSTEMI (six patients). The plaque scores were significantly increased in patients who later died, developed heart failure or experienced STEMI (P<0.05). Calcification, erosion and severe stenosis were responsible for the events (P<0.05). Mild and moderate lesions, positive remodelling, drug-eluting stent placement, occlusion and diffuse lesions were not predictive of MACE (P>0.05).
Severe calcification, erosion and severe stenosis predict death, heart failure and STEMI.
Coronary computed tomography angiography; Coronary plaque; Major adverse cardiac events; Risk factor
Haemorrhagic complications are strongly linked with adverse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Various risk scores (RS) are available to predict bleeding risk in these patients. We compared the performance of three contemporary bleeding RS in ACS.
We studied 4500 consecutive patients with ACS. We calculated the ACTION, CRUSADE, and Mehran et al. (2010) bleeding RS, and evaluated their performance for predicting their own major bleeding events and TIMI serious (major or minor) bleeding episodes, in patients with either non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTEACS) or ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow test, HL) and discrimination (c-statistic) for the three RS were computed and compared.
For RS-specific major bleeding, ACTION and CRUSADE showed the best prognostic discrimination in STEMI (c=0.734 and 0.791, respectively; p=0.04), and in NSTEACS (c=0.791 and 0.810; p=0.4); being CRUSADE significantly superior to Mehran et al. in both ACS types (p<0.05). All RS performed well in patients undergoing coronary arteriography using either a radial or femoral approach (all c≥0.718); however, their discriminative capacity was modest in patients not undergoing coronary arteriography and in those previously on oral anticoagulant (all c<0.70). For TIMI serious bleeding, ACTION and CRUSADE displayed the highest c-index values in both STEMI (0.724 and 0.703, respectively; p=0.3) and NSTEACS (c=0.733 and 0.744, respectively; p=0.6); however, calibration of ACTION was poor in both ACS types (HL p<0.05).
Of contemporary bleeding RS, the CRUSADE score was found to be the most accurate quantitative tool for NSTEACS and STEMI patients undergoing coronary arteriography.
Acute coronary syndrome; haemorrhage; risk score
Background. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) and myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) are both indices for myocardial perfusion in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). We aimed to compare MBG with MCE in the infarct-related artery segment for assessing infarct size in patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods. 43 patients underwent successful (postprocedural TIMI flow 3) primary PCI for STEMI. MBG was assessed at the end of the PCI procedure and MCE was assessed 1.7±1.8 days after PCI. Enzymatic infarct size was estimated by measurementof enzyme activities by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as the referenceenzyme. Cumulative enzyme release (LDHQ48) from at least five serial measurements up to 48 hours after symptom onset was calculated. Also peak creatine kinase, CK-MB and peak LDH were measured.
Results. MBG 0/1, 2 and 3 were observed in 14, 12 and 17 patients, respectively, and was compared with tertiles of MCE. We found a parallel correlation between both MBG and MCE and LDHQ48. However, there was no correlation between MCE and MBG. Patients with both normal MCE and a normal MBG had least myocardial damage and those with both impaired MCE and an impaired MBG had most myocardial damage.
Conclusion. Both MBG and MCE are good predictors of infarct size in STEMI patients treated with PCI. However, these markers are not mutually related, possibly due to time-related changes in myocardial perfusion. Combining these two markers may yield a more accurate prediction of final myocardial damage. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:25-30.)
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; myocardial blush grade; myocardial contrast echocardiography; infarct size
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the main treatment for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We investigated factors affecting the major complications of this procedure.
This case-control study assessed 200 patients receiving primary PCI for STEMI. Effects of some factors including age, sex, coronary artery risk factors, left ventricular function, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, and number of involved vessels on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were studied.
Two thirds of patients were male but sex had no significant effect on MACE. Similarly, age, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia did not significantly affect the incidence of MACE. However, Killip class, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, TIMI flow, and type of involved vessels had significant relations with the incidence of MACE.
According to our findings, factors such as diabetes, left ventricular function, left anterior descending artery involvement, and low TIMI flow are risk factors of MACE.
Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction; Major Adverse Cardiac Events
The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score uses clinical data to predict the short-term risk of acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or death from any cause. It was originally developed for use in patients with unstable angina or non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction. We sought to expand the clinical application of the TIMI risk score by assessing its prognostic accuracy in patients in the emergency department with potential acute coronary syndromes.
We searched five electronic databases, hand-searched reference lists of included studies and contacted content experts to identify articles for review. We included prospective cohort studies that validated the TIMI risk score in emergency department patients. We performed a meta-regression to determine whether a linear relation exists between TIMI risk score and the cumulative incidence of cardiac events.
We included 10 prospective cohort studies (with a total of 17 265 patients) in our systematic review. Data were available for meta-analysis in 8 of the 10 studies. Of patients with a score of zero, 1.8% had a cardiac event within 30 days (sensitivity 97.2%, 95% CI 96.4–97.8; specificity 25.0%, 95% CI 24.3–25.7; positive likelihood ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.28–1.31; negative likelihood ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.09–0.15). Meta-regression analysis revealed a strong linear relation between TIMI risk score (p < 0.001) and the cumulative incidence of cardiac events.
Although the TIMI risk score is an effective risk stratification tool for patients in the emergency department with potential acute coronary syndromes, it should not be used as the sole means of determining patient disposition.
We sought to examine the prognostic value of heart rate turbulence derived from electrocardiographic recordings initiated in the emergency department for patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina.
Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings were started in patients with cardiac symptoms approximately 45 minutes after arrival in the emergency department. Patients subsequently diagnosed with NSTEMI or unstable angina who had recordings with ≥18 hours of sinus rhythm and sufficient data to compute Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores were chosen for analysis (n = 166). Endpoints were emergent re-entry to the cardiac emergency department and/or death at 30 days and one year.
In Cox regression models, heart rate turbulence and TIMI risk scores together were significant predictors of 30-day (model chi square 13.200, P = 0.001, C-statistic 0.725) and one-year (model chi square 31.160, P < 0.001, C-statistic 0.695) endpoints, outperforming either measure alone.
Measurement of heart rate turbulence, initiated upon arrival at the emergency department, may provide additional incremental value in the risk assessment for patients with NSTEMI or unstable angina.
acute coronary syndrome; electrocardiographic monitoring; heart rate turbulence; non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; outcomes; prognosis; unstable angina
The expression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) was identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in culprit atherothrombotic plaque specimens harvested from patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
The atherothrombotic samples were collected from a consecutive cohort consisting of 20 individuals admitted with STEMI to Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, from 2005-2006, presenting angiographically with an acute thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery characterized by TIMI flow 0. The atherothrombotic plaques were obtained by aspiration thrombectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 hours from the onset of symptoms and prepared for IHC analysis.
In the IHC analysis staining for PAPP-A occurred in the extracellular matrix of the plaques and no evidence of staining for PAPP-A was found in the thrombi.
Our results indicate that in vivo PAPP-A is strongly expressed in atherothrombotic plaques harvested from patients admitted with STEMI, as documented by IHC.