Background and Aim
Adipose tissue is the most abundant endocrine tissue in the body, producing leptin, a hormone important in regulating hunger, and adiponectin, a hormone involved in insulin sensitivity and inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of gastric bypass surgery (GBS) on leptin levels and its relation to adipose tissue expression of adiponectin.
Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue and serum were obtained from 40 obese patients undergoing GBS, 13 patients one-year or more post-GBS, and 16 non-obese individuals (BMI 20-29). Adiponectin gene expression was measured by quantitative real time PCR and the gene expression was normalized for the GAPDH gene. Serum leptin and adiponectin were measured by a high-sensitivity enzymatic assay.
Leptin levels were significantly lower in the post-GBS patients as compared to pre-GBS patients (19.8±6.7 vs. 59.0±5.1, p=0.0001) and similar to non-obese controls (19.8±6.7 vs. 18.2±4, p=0.8). Univariate analysis showed an inverse correlation between serum leptin levels and omental adiponectin gene expression (r=-0.32, p=0.01).
Gastric bypass surgery results in resolution of the leptin resistance status that characterizes obese subjects. We also demonstrated a significant correlation between leptin and adiponectin. This correlation provides preliminary evidences for studying a potential adiponectin-leptin cross-talking that may represent one of the physiological pathways responsible for the regulation of food intake in humans.
adiponectin; leptin; gastric bypass surgery; bariatric surgery; visceral fat; adipose tissue
The complement system is part of the immune system in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in blood, and serum C1q binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We investigated the comparative evaluation of serum C1q-APN levels in males with ACS, stable angina pectoris (SAP) versus controls.
The study subjects were 138 Japanese patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. Blood total adiponectin (Total-APN), C1q-APN and C1q were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into three groups according to the clinical condition: ACS (n = 78), SAP (n = 41) or normal coronary (NC, n = 19) groups.
Serum C1q levels were significantly higher in the ACS group (54.9±1.2 μg/mL) than in the NC group (48.0±2.5 μg/mL). Although serum Total-APN levels were significantly lower in the SAP and ACS groups, compared with the NC group (7.0±0.5, 7.2±0.3, 10.6±2.0 μg/mL, respectively), serum C1q-APN levels were significantly higher in the ACS group than in the NC and SAP groups (112.1±4.1, 66.3±4.4, 65.7±2.9 units/mL, respectively).
Patients with ACS had higher serum C1q-APN levels.
Adiponectin; C1q; C1q-binding adiponectin; Acute coronary syndrome
Introduction. Experiments on genetically modified animals have discovered a complex cross-regulation between adipokines (leptin, adiponectin) and osteocalcin. The relationships between these molecules in human osteoporosis are still unclear. We evaluated the hypothesis of a bidirectional link between adipokines and osteocalcin. Materials and Methods. In a cross-sectional study of 294 older patients with osteoporotic hip fracture, we estimated serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, osteocalcin, parameters of mineral metabolism, and renal function. Results. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, serum osteocalcin concentration was inversely associated with resistin and positively with leptin, leptin/resistin ratio, and adiponectin/resistin ratio. In multivariate regression models, osteocalcin was an independent predictor of serum leptin, resistin, leptin/resistin, and adiponectin/resistin ratios. Conclusions. Our data support the bidirectional regulation between osteocalcin and adipokines, but contrary to the genetically modified animal models, in older subjects with osteoporotic hip fracture, serum osteocalcin is positively associated with leptin and inversely with resistin.
We evaluated the association of the sex hormone pattern and the serum level of the main adipokines to metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in 199 pharmacologically untreated subjects. Men and women included in the age-class subgroups were matched for body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, and plasma lipids. Men without MS had significantly lower leptin/adiponectin ratio than men with MS. Women without MS had lower leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio than women with MS but had significantly higher adiponectin, estrone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels. In men, the leptin/adiponectin ratio is the main factor associated to MS diagnosis (OR: 3.36, 95% CI 1.40–8.08), while in women adiponectin alone appears to be a protective factor (OR: 0.87, 95% CI 0.79–0.95). In conclusion, in a sample of pharmacologically untreated subjects, leptin/adiponectin ratio seems to be the factor more strongly associated to MS and its components.
Adiponectin and leptin are two adipokines secreted by white adipose tissue that regulate insulin sensitivity. Previously we reported that adiponectin but not leptin release depends on GGA-coated vesicle formation, suggesting that leptin and adiponectin may follow different secretory routes. Here we have examined the intracellular trafficking pathways that lead to the secretion of these two hormones. While adiponectin and leptin displayed distinct localization in the steady-state, treatment of adipocytes with brefeldin A inhibited both adiponectin and leptin secretion to a similar level, indicating a common requirement for class III ADP-ribosylating factors and an intact Golgi apparatus. Adiponectin secretion was significantly reduced by endosomal inactivation in both 3T3L1 and rat isolated adipocytes, whereas this treatment had no effect on leptin secretion. Importantly, endosomal inactivation completely abolished the insulin stimulatory effect on adiponectin release in rat adipocytes. Confocal microscopy studies revealed colocalization of adiponectin with endogenous rab11 a marker for the recycling endosome, and with expressed rab5-GFP mutant (rab5Q75L) a marker for the early endosome compartment. Colocalization of adiponectin and rab5Q75L was increased in endosome inactivated cells. Consistent with these findings adiponectin secretion was reduced in cells expressing mutants of Rab11 and Rab5 proteins. In contrast, expression of an inactive (kinase dead) mutant of Protein Kinase D1 moderately but significantly inhibited leptin secretion without altering adiponectin secretion. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin and adiponectin secretion involve distinct intracellular compartments and that endosomal compartments are required for adiponectin but not for leptin secretion.
adipokine; adiponectin; leptin; secretion; trafficking; adipocyte
There is growing evidence of a positive correlation between asthma and obesity in children and adults. Leptin and adiponectin regulate several metabolic and inflammatory functions. This study aims to evaluate serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations in asthmatic school children to investigate their association with obesity and the degree of asthma control. Obese asthmatic (OA) and nonobese asthmatic (NOA) children, aged 7 to 14, were randomly enrolled in this prospective study. Data on demographic, anthropometric, serum lipids, and spirometric measures and allergy status were collected and analyzed. Serum leptin was significantly higher (25.8 ± 11.1 versus 8.7 ± 11.1; P < 0.0001) and adiponectin levels were lower (2.5 ± 1.2 versus 5.4 ± 2.9; P < 0.0001) in OA compared to NOA children. The uncontrolled group had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to well and partially controlled asthma. BMI was positively correlated with leptin (r = 0.79; P < 0.001) and negatively with adiponectin (r = −0.73; P < 0.001). Mean BMI and leptin levels were observed to be higher in girls compared to boys. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher BMI and female gender had significant effect on serum leptin levels. Among asthmatic children higher serum leptin and lower adiponectin levels were significantly associated with obesity and showed no significant association with degree of asthma controls.
The control of growth and nutritional status in the foetus and neonate is a complex mechanism, in which also hormones produced by adipose tissue, such as adiponectin and leptin are involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin in appropriate (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) children during the 1st year of life and to correlate these with auxological parameters.
In 33 AGA and 29 SGA infants, weight, length, head circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin levels were evaluated at the second day of life, and at one, six and twelve months, during which a portion of SGA could show catch-up growth (rapid growth in infants born small for their gestational age).
Both total and isoform adiponectin levels were comparable between AGA and SGA infants at birth and until age one year. These levels significantly increased from birth to the first month of life and then decreased to lower values at 1 year of age in all subjects. Circulating leptin concentrations were higher in AGA (2.1 ± 4.1 ng/ml) than in SGA neonates (0.88 ± 1.03 ng/ml, p < 0.05) at birth, then similar at the 1st and the 6th month of age, but they increased in SGA from six months to one year, when they showed catch-up growth. Circulating insulin levels were not statistically different in AGA and SGA neonates at any study time point. Insulin levels in both AGA and SGA infants increased over the study period, and were significantly lower at birth compared to one, six and 12 months of age.
During the first year of life, in both AGA and SGA infants a progressive decrease in adiponectin levels was observed, while a difference in leptin values was correlated with the nutritional status.
The relationship of saliva with plasma protein levels makes saliva an attractive diagnostic tool. Plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy individuals or diabetes mellitus patients have been previously reported. Nevertheless, salivary levels of these adipocytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) have never been investigated. This study was aimed to determine adiponectin and leptin levels in saliva and plasma from patients with metabolic syndrome, and evaluate any correlation of these levels with MS.
Forty-six healthy and 82 MS patients were enrolled. Demographic data and blood biochemistries were recorded. Saliva and plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Adiponectin and leptin were higher in plasma than in saliva (p < .001). Plasma adiponectin was decreased and plasma leptin increased in patients with MS (p < .001). Salivary adiponectin and salivary leptin were not different between healthy subjects and MS patients (p = .619 and p = .523). Correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin showed significant association (r = .211, p = .018) while salivary and plasma leptin had no correlation (r = -.161, p = .069). Significant correlation was observed between the salivary adiponectin/salivary leptin ratio and plasma adiponectin (r = .371, p < .001), but not with any component of MS. Increased triglyceride and waist circumference were associated with risk of having a low level of plasma adiponectin (OR = 1.009; 95% CI 1.002–1.015 and OR = 1.125; 95% CI 1.029–1.230). For leptin, body mass index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with a high level of plasma leptin (OR = 1.621; 95% CI 1.212–2.168 and OR = .966; 95% CI .938–.996). The OR for MS as predicted by plasma adiponectin was .928 (95% CI .881-.977).
This study showed that salivary adiponectin and leptin do not correlate with MS. Although correlation between salivary and plasma adiponectin was observed, no association with MS was observed. Only plasma adiponectin may be useful for the prediction of MS.
Saliva; Plasma; Adiponectin; Leptin; Metabolic syndrome
We examined the associations between adiponectin or leptin and serum ICAM-1 levels in seventy-six hypercholesterolemic patients (mean age 59 yrs, 25 males and 51 females, LDL-cholesterol>=130mg/dL at screening). Blood lipid profiles and HOMA-IR derived from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were determined. Serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and ICAM-1 were analyzed using ELISA. The results showed that serum levels of leptin were positively associated with serum levels of ICAM-1 independent of age, sex and BMI (r =0.392, p<0.001). Serum levels of adiponectin were negatively associated with serum levels of ICAM-1 independent of age, sex and BMI (r =-0.343, p<0.005). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum leptin was an independent factor to be associated with serum ICAM-1 levels after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, blood lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and HOMA-IR (p<0.001). With respect to adiponectin, its association with serum ICAM-1 was attenuated but still significant when further adjustments were made for age, sex, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, blood lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and HOMA-IR (p<0.005). In conclusion, this study suggests that adiponectin and leptin are associated with endothelial derived inflammation.
Leptin; adiponectin; ICAM-1; adipokine; hypercholesterolemia
Although high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is believed to protect against atherosclerosis, the association between HMW adiponectin and the composition of coronary plaques is unknown. We evaluated whether the HMW to total adiponectin ratio was associated with the presence of coronary plaque and its composition using multi-slice computed tomography coronary angiography (MSCTCA).
Serum total and HMW adiponectin levels were measured in 53 consecutive patients (age, 71) with >50% coronary artery stenosis detected by MSCTCA. A low-attenuation coronary plaque was defined as a plaque with a mean CT density <50 Hounsfield units. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the predictors of the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques, which is thought to be high risk, on CT.
Decreased serum levels of total as well as HMW adiponectin were significantly associated with the presence of at least one calcified or non-calcified coronary artery plaque (total adiponectin level: odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.58–0.99, P = 0.048; HMW adiponectin level: odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.42–0.99, P = 0.047). A low ratio of HMW to total adiponectin was significantly associated with the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques (4.55, 1.94–21.90, P = 0.049). However, neither the total adiponectin nor the HMW adiponectin level was associated with the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques.
Lower total or HMW adiponectin levels are associated with the presence of calcified and non-calcified coronary plaques, whereas a lower ratio of HMW to total adiponectin associated with the presence of low-attenuation coronary plaques (thought to be high risk). Measurement of total and HMW adiponectin levels and the HMW to total adiponectin ratio may be useful for risk stratification of coronary artery plaques.
Adiponectin; High-molecular-weight adiponectin; Coronary artery plaque; Coronary low-attenuation plaque
Adiponectin is a circulating hormone that is produced exclusively by adipocytes and has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. The hypothesis that there are differences in adiponectin levels between stable and unstable coronary-artery disease patients remains controversial. Furthermore, the potential relationships between the plasma adiponectin level and the inflammatory and non-inflammatory markers (oxidized low density lipoprotein and nitric oxide) in patients with stable and unstable coronary-artery disease relative to normal subjects have not been assessed.
To assess whether plasma adiponectin levels differ among patients with stable and unstable coronary-artery disease and among control subjects, and to correlate plasma adiponectin level with inflammatory and clinical risk factors (such as oxidized-LDL and nitric oxide) in these patients.
This study included 50 control subjects, 50 stable angina patients and 50 unstable angina patients with angiographically documented coronary-artery disease. Plasma adiponectin and oxidized-LDL levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Plasma nitric oxide, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipid profile levels were also measured.
Plasma adiponectin levels were lower in the unstable angina patients (4.9±1.30 µg/mL) than in the stable angina patients (6.34±1.0 µg/mL) or in the controls (9.25±1.8 µg/mL); these levels were also significantly lower in stable angina patients versus controls (p<0.001). Plasma adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with oxidized-LDL, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile and other clinical risk factors but positively correlated with nitric oxide.
Plasma adiponectin levels were found to be lower in both stable and unstable angina patients relative to control subjects, and the correlation between plasma adiponectin and cardiovascular markers is weakened in these patients.
Adiponectin; Nitric oxide; Ox-LDL; Stable; Unstable
Adiponectin and leptin play critical roles in the development of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). The study was designed to assess circulating levels of adiponectin and leptin in early diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS).
This cross-sectional study was performed on 367 participants randomly selected from a well-characterized cohort of Mexican-Americans living at the US-Mexico border.
Significant differences in circulating levels of adiponectin and leptin were observed between males and females. The adiponectin/leptin ratio significantly correlated with MetS in this population. A receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that adiponectin/leptin ratio is a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis of MetS
Our study supported the central role of adiponectin and leptin in MetS, and demonstrated that adiponectin/leptin ratio can be used as a highly sensitive and specific biomarker for MetS.
adiponectin; computer-aided diagnosis; leptin; MetS; receiver operator characteristic
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). There is increasing recognition that lesion composition rather than size determines the acute complications of atherosclerotic disease. Low serum adiponectin levels were reported to be associated with coronary artery disease and future incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The impact of adiponectin on lesion composition still remains to be determined.
We measured serum adiponectin levels in 303 patients with stable typical or atypical chest pain, who underwent dual-source multi-slice CT-angiography to exclude coronary artery stenosis. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or non-calcified. In bivariate analysis adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with total coronary plaque burden (r = −0.21, p = 0.0004), mixed (r = −0.20, p = 0.0007) and non-calcified plaques (r = −0.18, p = 0.003). No correlation was seen with calcified plaques (r = −0.05, p = 0.39). In a fully adjusted multivariate model adiponectin levels remained predictive of total plaque burden (estimate: −0.036, 95%CI: −0.052 to −0.020, p<0.0001), mixed (estimate: −0.087, 95%CI: −0.132 to −0.042, p = 0.0001) and non-calcified plaques (estimate: −0.076, 95%CI: −0.115 to −0.038, p = 0.0001). Adiponectin levels were not associated with calcified plaques (estimate: −0.021, 95% CI: −0.043 to −0.001, p = 0.06). Since the majority of coronary plaques was calcified, adiponectin levels account for only 3% of the variability in total plaque number. In contrast, adiponectin accounts for approximately 20% of the variability in mixed and non-calcified plaque burden.
Adiponectin levels predict mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden. Low adiponectin levels may contribute to coronary plaque vulnerability and may thus play a role in the pathophysiology of ACS.
Body weight is positively associated with bone mineral density but the relationship between obesity and bone mineral density is unclear. Leptin and adiponectin are potential independent contributors to bone mineral density. We assessed the correlations of body composition, leptin and adiponectin with bone mineral density, and whether leptin, adiponectin and body composition determine bone mineral density independently in prepubertal girls. Forty-eight prepubertal girls were classified into obese and control groups by body mass index. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Bone mineral density was measured using dual energy radiography absorptiometry and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Lean and fat mass, and leptin were positively correlated with bone mineral density. Lean mass was a positive independent predictor of femoral and L-spine bone mineral density. Serum leptin was a postivie independent predictor of femoral bone mineral density. Fat mass was a negative independent predictor of femoral bone mineral density. In prepubertal girls, lean mass has a favorable effect on bone mineral density. Fat mass seems not to protect the bone structure against osteoporosis, despite increased mechanical loading. Serum leptin may play a biological role in regulating bone metabolism.
Bone Density; Body Composition; Leptin; Adiponectin; Obesity
Leptin and adiponectin are adipocyte-secreted hormones that regulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. Because their roles in the neonatal period and in early childhood are poorly understood, we aimed in this prospective cohort study to determine the extent to which umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin concentrations predict measures of adiposity and growth at 3 years of age.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
We studied 588 children participating in the prospective prebirth cohort study Project Viva. We examined associations of cord blood leptin and adiponectin levels with weight changes during the first 6 months of life, 3-year circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations, and the following adiposity-related outcomes at 3 years of age: BMI z score, height-for-age z score, and sums of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses to represent overall adiposity, as well as subscapular/triceps skinfold ratio to represent central adiposity.
Cord blood leptin and adiponectin were each directly associated with the duration of gestation and birth weight for gestational age z scores. Cord blood leptin levels were negatively associated with change in weight-for-length, weight-for-age, and length-for-age z scores between birth and 6 months of age. Similarly, cord blood adiponectin was negatively associated with change in weight-for-length and weight-for-age z scores. After adjusting for several maternal and child factors related to obesity, each 10 ng/mL increment of cord blood leptin was associated with a reduction in BMI z score and higher leptin levels at 3 years but not with skinfold thicknesses. Each 10 µg/mL increment of cord blood adiponectin was positively associated with a higher subscapular skinfold thickness/triceps skinfold thickness ratio at 3 years.
Lower cord blood leptin levels are associated with smaller size at birth but more pronounced weight gain in the first 6 months of life and higher BMI at 3 years of age. Cord blood adiponectin levels are also directly associated with birth weight for gestational age, inversely associated with weight gain in the first 6 months of life, and predict an increase in central adiposity at age 3 years.
leptin; adiponectin; children; obesity
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) accumulate in adipose tissue and some are described to possess endocrine disrupting capacities. Therefore, it is important to evaluate their effects on key endocrine pathways in adipose tissue (AT), to further evaluate their potential role in metabolic pathologies such as obesity.
The aim is twofold: (i) evaluate gene expression levels of obesity marker genes, i.e. the adipokines leptin (LEP), adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) and the nuclear receptor, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) in paired subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) AT of obese subjects (n = 50) and to relate these values to serum concentrations of LEP and ADIPOQ (ii) evaluate the association of expression levels of marker genes in AT and serum with POP concentrations in AT.
Results and Conclusions
Leptin and adiponectin levels in serum were positively correlated to respectively expression levels of leptin in SAT and adiponectin in VAT. Our study shows more significant correlations between gene expression of obesity marker genes and POP concentrations in VAT compared to SAT. Since VAT is more important than SAT in pathologies associated with obesity, this suggests that POPs are able to influence the association between obesity and the development of associated pathologies. Moreover, this finding reveals the importance of VAT when investigating the obesogen hypothesis. Concerning PPARγ expression in VAT, negative correlations with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations were found in non T2D patients. LEP serum concentrations correlated with several PCBs in women whereas in men no correlations were found. This strengthens the potential importance of gender differences in obesity and within the obesogen hypothesis.
Adiponectin is associated with asthma. The direction of this association is not known in humans. In mice, this association is bidirectional - allergen inhalation affects serum adiponectin and exogenous adiponectin administration affects asthma. We sought to evaluate whether allergen inhalation affects serum adiponectin in human asthma.
This study included eight sensitized mild asthmatics and six healthy controls. Asthmatics were challenged with inhaled specific allergen (positive allergen skin test), methacholine, and irrelevant allergen (negative allergen skin test). Controls were challenged with irrelevant allergen. Sequential serum samples were obtained before and nine times after each challenge. Serum adiponectin (primary outcome), leptin, adiponectin-to-leptin ratio, eotaxin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha - response curves, area under the curves, baseline and peak concentrations, were evaluated. Statistical analysis used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests.
There were no significant differences in outcome measures among the challenges in asthmatics or when compared to controls. Type II error is an unlikely explanation for these findings since the study was adequately powered to detect changes in serum adiponectin, as reported in the literature. Further, pooled data showed that serum adiponectin diurnal variation curves were lower in asthma than in controls.
Serum adiponectin concentrations are lower in asthma than controls. Specific allergen inhalation in asthma does not acutely affect serum adiponectin concentrations. The reverse association i.e. effect of adiponectin on asthma needs further study. If future studies prove adiponectin to be a protective factor for asthma, modulating adiponectin may open a new approach towards managing asthma.
Adipokine; Adiponectin; Allergen inhalation challenge; Asthma; Leptin
Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low molecular weight trimer to the high molecular weight octodecamer (18mer) Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control, and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin. The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high molecular weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum. An inverse relationship between adiponectin levels in milk and adiposity (weight-for-height) of the breastfed infant was observed, and could be due to modulation of infant metabolism by milk adiponectin, and may be related to the observed protection against obesity by breastfeeding. Human milk may be a medium whereby the hormonal milieu (in response to internal factors and the environment) of the mother can be used to communicate with the breastfed infant to modify infant metabolic processes. Transmission of information from mother to infant through milk may allow adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions.
infant development; body weight; BMI; adiposity
Background and aims. There is growing evidence that white adipose tissue is an important contributor in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We investigated serum concentrations of total adiponectin (Acrp30), leptin, and resistin in patients with chronic alcohol abuse and different grades of liver dysfunction, as well as ALD complications. Materials and Methods. One hundred forty-seven consecutive inpatients with ALD were prospectively recruited. The evaluation of plasma adipokine levels was performed using immunoenzymatic ELISA tests. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications. Results. Acrp30 and resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with ALD than in controls. Lower leptin levels in females with ALD compared to controls, but no significant differences in leptin concentrations in males, were found. High serum Acrp30 level revealed an independent association with advanced liver dysfunction, as well as the development of ALD complications, that is, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in serum leptin concentrations may influence the ALD course, different in females compared with males. Serum Acrp30 level may serve as a potential prognostic indicator for patients with ALD.
We evaluated the hypothesis that plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin are independently but oppositely associated with coronary calcification (CAC), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. In addition, we assessed which biomarkers of adiposity and insulin resistance are the strongest predictors of CAC beyond traditional risk factors, the metabolic syndrome and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP).
Adipokines are fat-secreted biomolecules with pleiotropic actions that converge in diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
We examined the association of plasma adipocytokines with CAC in 860 asymptomatic, non-diabetic participants in the Study of Inherited Risk of Coronary Atherosclerosis (SIRCA).
Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels had opposite and distinct associations with adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Plasma leptin was positively (top vs. bottom quartile) associated with higher CAC after adjusting for age, gender, traditional risk factors and Framingham Risk Scores (FRS) [tobit regression ratio 2.42 (95% CI 1.48–3.95, p=0.002)] and further adjusting for metabolic syndrome and CRP [ratio 2.31 (95% CI 1.36–3.94, p=0.002)]. In contrast, adiponectin levels were not associated with CAC. Comparative analyses suggested that levels of leptin, IL-6 and sol-TNFR2 as well as HOMA-IR predicted CAC scores but only leptin and HOMA-IR provided value beyond risk factors, the metabolic syndrome and CRP.
In SIRCA, while both leptin and adiponectin levels were associated with metabolic and inflammatory markers, only leptin was a significant independent predictor of CAC. Of several metabolic markers, leptin and the HOMA-IR index had the most robust, independent associations with CAC.
Adipokines are fat-secreted biomolecules with pleiotropic actions and represent novel markers for cardiovascular risk. We examined the association of plasma adipocytokines with CAC in 860 asymptomatic, non-diabetic Caucasians. Leptin was positively (top vs. bottom quartile) associated with higher CAC even after adjustment for age, gender, traditional risk factors, Framingham Risk Score, metabolic syndrome, and CRP [ratio 2.31 (95% CI 1.36–3.94, p=0.002)]. Adiponectin levels were not associated with CAC. Comparative analyses suggested that levels of leptin, IL-6 and sol-TNFR2 as well as HOMA-IR predicted CAC scores, but only leptin and HOMA-IR provided value beyond risk factors, the metabolic syndrome and CRP.
Adiponectin; Leptin; Coronary Artery Calcification; Atherosclerosis; Inflammation
Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipose tissue, has anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombogenic and anti-diabetogenic properties. Lower plasma adiponectin levels are present in diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin levels are higher in women compared to men. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships between total adiponectin, or the molecular weight fractions of adiponectin, with testosterone levels in African American men and pre-menopausal women. A sample (N=48) of men and premenopausal women were selected, based on high and low serum free testosterone level. All cases had data on blood pressure, metabolic risk factors, and sex hormone levels. Stored plasma samples were assayed for total adiponectin (ELISA). Molecular weight fractions of adiponectin were separated by gel-electrophoresis and quantified by western blot. Data analysis compared adiponectin (total and fractions) levels with androgen status in both genders. Among men with high testosterone, all fractions of adiponectin were significantly lower than men with low testosterone (P<0.05). In women with high testosterone, total adiponectin (P=0.02) and all fractions of molecular weight adiponectin (P<0.05) were lower compared to women with low testosterone. Plasma adiponectin levels are lower in both men and pre-menopausal women with relatively higher testosterone levels.
Testosterone; Adiponectin; Obesity
Objective. To evaluate leptin and adiponectin as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors even in nonobese children/adolescents. Methods. Serum leptin, adiponectin, leptin:adiponectin ratio, lipids, glucose, and insulin concentrations as well as body size parameters and pubertal development were evaluated in a large population of Chinese children/adolescents (n = 3505, 6–18 years, 1722 girls and 1783 boys). Results. Leptin concentration increased while adiponectin decreased with obesity, both were influenced by pubertal development. Central obesity had an additive effect on leptin levels (above obesity alone). Leptin/adiponectin increased 8.4-fold and 3.2-fold in overweight/obesity, and 15.8- and 4.5-fold with obesity plus MS, in early and late puberty, respectively. Even in normal weight children/adolescents, higher leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations associated with increased risk profile. Conversely, overweight/obese with lower leptin or higher adiponectin concentrations had a less compromised metabolic profile. Conclusion. Leptin, adiponectin, and leptin:adiponectin ratio are informative biomarkers for obesity, central obesity, MS, and abnormal metabolic profile even in normal weight children/adolescents.
Obesity is rapidly becoming a pandemic and is associated with increased carcinogenesis. Obese populations have higher circulating levels of leptin in contrast to low concentrations of adiponectin. Hence, it is important to evaluate the dynamic role between adiponectin and leptin in obesity-related carcinogenesis. Recently, we reported the oncogenic role of leptin including its potential to increase tumor invasiveness and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In the present study, we investigated whether adiponectin could antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HCC. We employed HCC cell-lines HepG2 and Huh7, nude mice-xenograft model of HCC and immunohistochemistry-data from tissue-microarray to demonstrate the antagonistic role of adiponectin on the oncogenic actions of leptin. Adiponectin treatment inhibited leptin-induced cell proliferation of HCC cells. Using scratch-migration and electric cell-substrate impedance-sensing based migration assays, we found that adiponectin inhibited leptin-induced migration of HCC cells. Adiponectin treatment effectively blocked leptin-induced invasion of HCC cells in matrigel invasion assays. While leptin inhibited apoptosis in HCC cells, we found that adiponectin treatment induced apoptosis even in the presence of leptin. Analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that adiponectin treatment reduced leptin-induced Stat3 and Akt phosphorylation. Adiponectin also increased suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3), a physiologic negative regulator of leptin signal transduction. Importantly, adiponectin significantly reduced leptin-induced tumor burden in nude mice. In HCC samples, leptin expression significantly correlated with HCC proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 while adiponectin expression correlated significantly with increased disease-free-survival and inversely with tumor size and local recurrence.
Collectively, these data demonstrate that adiponectin has the molecular potential to inhibit the oncogenic actions of leptin by blocking downstream effector molecules.
Adipocytokines; Obesity; HCC; Invasion; Migration
Several in vitro studies have suggested the effects of adipokines and insulin resistance on breast cancer cell proliferation and survival. However, little is known about the clinical significance of these findings.
We examined associations between breast cancer recurrence and adiponectin, leptin, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a cohort of 747 patients from 2001 to 2004.
Adjusted hazard ratios showed an inverse trend across the quartiles for serum adiponectin concentration in estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) -negative patients (P for trend = 0.027) but not in ER/PR-positive patients. Compared to the highest quartile for adiponectin level, the lowest quartile showed a hazard ratio of 2.82 (1.03 to 7.68). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) showed a positive trend for recurrence in the ER/PR-negative group (P for trend = 0.087) and a negative trend in the ER/PR-positive group (P for trend = 0.081). Leptin did not show any associations (P for trend >0.05). A linear trend was observed with the number of components of MetS in ER/PR-negative patients (P for trend = 0.044). This association disappeared when adjusted for adiponectin and HOMA-IR.
Adiponectin and HOMA-IR have prognostic significance in breast cancer recurrence and interventions related to these factors may protect against recurrence in ER/PR-negative patients. These findings were not observed in the case of ER/PR-positive patients. Further evaluation of these insignificant associations is needed because it might be biased by adjuvant chemotherapy or other confounders.
Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue
derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin
resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated
metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is
reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of
leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV
metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to
adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin
deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in
lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner
similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of
HIV; adipokine; adipocytokines; adiponectin; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance