Although both coronary artery dissection and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia may provoke myocardial infarction, it is extremely rare for both conditions to develop simultaneously in a single patient. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who sustained a head-on motor vehicle accident with associated chest trauma. During a subsequent hospitalization, she was exposed to subcutaneous heparin and developed significant thrombocytopenia. Shortly thereafter, she re-presented with an acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a spiral dissection with superimposed thrombosis within the right coronary artery, while laboratory testing confirmed the diagnosis of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. She was treated with catheter-based thrombectomy and adjunctive direct thrombin inhibitor therapy, followed by three months of systemic anticoagulation with warfarin. To our knowledge, this represents the first published case of a native vessel myocardial infarction due to the combination of coronary artery dissection and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
Both coronary artery perforation and intracoronary thrombus formation are life-threatening complications of percutaneous coronary interventions, which rarely occur simultaneously during angioplasty. We herein report a case of stent-related, left circumflex artery perforation, and subsequently acute left main artery thrombosis after the leakage was embolized with 7 microcoils. Intracoronary thromboectomy and systemic anticoagulant therapy were carefully used with good results. This case also represents some of our uncertainties regarding the best management of the patient.
Coronary vessels; Perforation; Thrombosis; Percutaneous coronary interventions; Cardiac tamponade
Coronary artery injury after blunt chest trauma is very rare, but this can result in a serious acute myocardial infarction. Coronary artery dissection is an uncommon complication of thoracic injuries. We report a case of a 17-year-old male who was presented with an anterior myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma after a bicycle accident. His coronary angiography revealed aneurysmal dilatation with dissection of the distal left main stem coronary artery. Intravascular ultrasound showed a dissecting flap at the left main stem coronary artery. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged without serious sequelae. When symptoms and electrocardiographic findings are compatible with acute myocardial infarction, careful evaluation is important in patients with thoracic injuries for proper management. If the patient is stable, medical therapy may be appropriate. But early intervention should be considered in the presence of ongoing myocardial ischemia.
Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula is a vascular condition that may result from coronary angiography. Many case reports have described arteriovenous fistula occurrence after coronary angiography using the transfemoral access route, but rarely as a complication of using the transradial approach. We report a rare case of a patient with arteriovenous fistula following transradial artery coronary angiography.
A 62-year-old Caucasian man underwent emergent coronary angiography using the right radial artery approach. One month after angiography, he discovered a turbulent sound near the access site. A right radial arteriovenous fistula was found upon duplex ultrasound investigation. The patient was treated conservatively. At 1-year follow-up, the arteriovenous fistula was unchanged and the patient remained hemodynamically stable and asymptomatic.
Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistula is a rare vascular complication of transradial artery coronary angiography. The natural history of arteriovenous fistula is benign and is thought to resolve spontaneously; therefore, a conservative approach, as opposed to surgical ligation, is recommended as the first-line treatment.
In contrast to widely recognized venous thrombotic complications, peripheral arterial thrombosis as a complication of nephrotic syndrome, especially without preceding iatrogenic venous puncture, corticosteroid treatment, or coagulation factor abnormalities, has rarely been reported in adult female patients. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with pain in the right lower leg accompanied by minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Lower-extremity angiography showed total occlusion of the right superficial femoral artery. Thrombectomy was performed with a balloon catheter, and the thrombi were successfully aspirated. Our experience indicates that even if few traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis are identified, a high index of suspicion and aggressive treatment of arterial thrombosis in adult nephrotic syndrome are crucial to minimize serious ischemic injuries.
Nephrotic syndrome; Nephrosis, lipoid; Peripheral arterial disease
We report on a case of thrombosis of the left common iliac artery following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) of L4-5 in a 79-year-old man with no previous medical problems, including peripheral vascular disease. After completing the ALIF procedure, the surgeon could not feel the pulsation of the left dorsalis pedis artery, and the oxygen saturation (SaO2) had fallen below 90% from pulse oxymetry on the left great toe. Thrombectomy was successfully performed after confirming the thrombus in the left common iliac artery using Computed Tomography (CT) angiography. Thrombosis of the common iliac artery is very rare following ALIF. However, delayed diagnosis can lead to disastrous outcome. Although elderly patients have no cardio-vascular disease or vessel calcification in pre-op evaluation, the possibility of a complication involving L4-5 should be considered.
Thrombosis; Common iliac artery; Anterior lumbar interbody fusion
Myocardial infarction complicates approximately 1 in 10,000 pregnancies. Although coronary artery dissection is the leading cause of pregnancy-related myocardial infarction during the postpartum period, the pathogenesis of coronary dissection during this period remains uncertain.
Herein, we report the case of a 52-year-old black postmenopausal woman with no apparent cardiovascular risk factors who gave birth to twins after in vitro fertilization. Ten days after delivery, she presented with an acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography revealed dissection of all 3 coronary arteries. Despite aggressive medical management, the patient experienced recurrent myocardial ischemia. Repeat coronary angiography revealed progression of the dissection process, which required urgent coronary artery bypass surgery. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. To our knowledge, this report is the 1st description of pregnancy-associated coronary artery dissections in a postmenopausal woman, and the 1st such event in a pregnancy that resulted from in vitro fertilization.
Chest pain/etiology; fertilization in vitro; myocardial infarction/complications; maternal age; postpartum period; pregnancy, high-risk; pregnancy complications, cardiovascular/diagnosis/etiology/radiography/therapy; postmenopause; puerperal disorders/complications/etiology/surgery; risk factors; rupture, spontaneous
Acute dissection of the aorta can be life-threatening. As a presenting manifestation of aortic dissection, neurologic complications such as paraplegia are rare.
Herein, we report the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia and ischemia of the legs, with no chest or back pain. His medical history included coronary artery bypass grafting. Physical examination revealed pulseless lower extremities, and computed tomography showed aortic dissection from the ascending aorta to the common iliac arteries bilaterally. A lumbar catheter was inserted for cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and axillary arterial cannulation was established. With the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the aortic dissection was corrected, and the previous coronary artery grafts were reattached. The surgery restored spinal and lower-extremity perfusion, and the patient walked unaided from the hospital upon his discharge 5 days later.
Although acute aortic dissection presenting as paraplegia is rare, it should be considered in patients who have pulseless femoral arteries bilaterally and sudden-onset paraplegia, despite no pain in the chest or back. Prompt diagnosis and intervention can prevent morbidity and death.
Aneurysm, dissecting/complications/diagnosis/surgery; aortic aneurysm/complications/diagnosis/surgery; diagnosis, differential; extremities/blood supply; ischemia/complications; pain/physiopathology; paraplegia/etiology/physiopathology; spinal cord ischemia/etiology/surgery; treatment outcome
Renal artery dissection is a rare cause of abdominal pain. The renal arteries are the commonest site of primary dissection involving visceral vessels but spontaneous bilateral dissection is extremely rare.
Presentation of case
We present a case of spontaneous bilateral renal artery dissection in a previously fit 43-year-old man who presented with right iliac fossa pain. He was treated conservatively with anticoagulation for 6 months, with resolution of the dissections on imaging at 6-month follow-up.
The presentation of spontaneous renal artery dissection is non-specific, making it a diagnostic challenge. Computed Tomography angiography is now the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.
This case highlights the importance of considering other causes of abdominal pain in a young man with normal initial investigations and the role of conservative management.
Spontaneous renal artery dissection; Management; CT angiography
Coronary artery dissections with or without rupture is a rare but well-recognized complication of coronary angiography with a high morbidity and mortality rate.
We present a rare case of right coronary artery dissection distal to a totally occluded vessel. The vessel dissected during the second injection of contrast agent without any direct mechanical manipulation (catheter or guide-wire induced). Hopefully the dissection had no clinical consequences and the patient was discharged after 48 hour intensive monitoring.
We believe that the contrast agent that was forced in the proximal part of the RCA increased through the anastomotic branches the sheer stress on the diseased endothelium of the distal artery causing it to dissect. It is an instructive -not previously described- phenomenon that underscores that atherosclerotic tissue is unpredictable and should be treated with extreme caution.
The ilio-inguinal approach has come to be used routinely in the management of acetabular fractures involving the anterior wall. Thrombotic complications following surgery via this route are a serious, but rare, complication.
We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient who slipped on an icy pavement and fell on his left hip. He sustained a comminuted acetabular fracture (a transtectal T-fracture with an incomplete posterior stem through the ischial tuberosity), and was operated on five days later, via an ilio-inguinal approach. In the recovery room, his left lower limb was found to be cool and pale. Immediate re-exploration showed a left external iliac artery thrombosis, and thrombectomy was performed. In the surgical management of acetabular fractures, thrombosis of a major pelvic artery is a rare but potentially devastating complication. We discuss the possible aetiology (initial vessel trauma versus iatrogenic, intraoperative arterial injury) and pathomechanism, and wish to draw attention to this complication and to recommend ways in which it can be prevented.
We recommend circulation monitoring in patients with acetabular fractures, especially where nerve blocks and/or deep sedation/analgesia have been used. High-risk patients should be identified and subjected to intensive preoperative screening, including ultrasonography and if necessary angiography.
Coronary aneurysms represent anomalies identified in 0.15%–4.9% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. At present, there is no uniform definition of this pathology. Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) are extremely uncommon, with an incidence of 0.1%. It has been demonstrated that atherosclerosis is the main cause of these anomalies in adults, and Kawasaki disease in children and adolescents. Other causes include connective tissue disorders, trauma, vasculitis, congenital, mycotic, and idiopathic. These dilated sections of the coronary artery are not benign pathology because they are subject to spasm, thrombosis, and subsequent distal embolism, spontaneous dissection and rupture. Treatment options include anticoagulation, custom-made covered stents, reconstruction, resection, and exclusion with bypass. Our report on an old case illustrates the giant saccular LMCA aneurysm leading to myocardial ischemia due to coronary steal phenomenon.
Coronary aneurysm; Coronary artery disease; Coronary angiography
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. We report an unusual case of multi vessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection in an elderly woman with successful medical management.
A 65 year-old woman with hypertension and Parkinson's disease presented with sudden onset severe chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed ischemic ST-segment elevation in inferior and lateral leads. Urgent cardiac catheterization revealed focal dissections in four small caliber coronary arteries in right and left coronary systems including right posterior decending, posterolateral, obtuse marginal and septal arteries. Angiography demonstrated no significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. The patient was medically managed with Eptifibatide, Aspirin, Clopidogrel and β blocker since dissected vessels were not technically suitable for percutaneous coronary intervention. Antiparkinson medications were held as a potential cause of dissection. She responded well to medical management.
Coronary dissection should be considered in all patients with an acute coronary syndrome. Medical management is an effective therapeutic option for the patient with small vessel dissections.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection and vertebral artery dissection are rare, life-threatening conditions. The pathophysiology of spontaneous coronary artery dissection during the peripartum period is poorly understood. We present a case of spontaneous multivessel dissection in a 32-year-old postpartum woman who presented with neck and chest pain. The patient's coronary and vertebral artery dissections were diagnosed with use of multiple imaging methods, and dissection of the internal mammary artery was discovered during surgery. The patient underwent successful coronary artery bypass grafting and remained asymptomatic 2 years later. To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous coronary, vertebral, and internal mammary artery dissection in a postpartum woman. Early recognition and treatment is crucial, given the high mortality rate associated with spontaneous dissection.
Acute coronary syndrome/etiology; coronary artery bypass; postpartum period; pregnancy complications, cardiovascular/diagnosis; rupture, spontaneous/diagnosis/etiology/surgery; treatment outcome; vertebral artery dissection/epidemiology/surgery/ultrasonography
Femoral arterial sheath thrombosis and distal embolization are well-recognized complications of cardiac catheterization but the occlusion is extremely rare. Heparinized saline flushes are used during diagnostic coronary angiography to prevent thrombus formation within the sheath lumen. However, the use of prophylactic intravenous heparin following the femoral arterial sheath insertion is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of 2000 units of intravenous heparin bolus in comparison to a saline placebo on the thrombus formation within the arterial sheath during the diagnostic coronary angiography.
Eligible patients were randomized to receive either a study drug or placebo at the time of femoral sheath insertion. The sheath was aspirated and flushed for any presence of thrombus after each catheter exchange and at the end of the procedure. Five milliliters of blood were extracted and visualized on clean gauze followed by a saline flush. The primary end-point was the effectiveness of the study drug on reducing the incidence of sheath-thrombus formation.
Three hundred and twenty patients were randomized into two arms. Three hundred and four patients were analyzed: 147 patients in heparin arm and 157 patients in placebo arm after exclusion of 13 patients in heparin arm and three in placebo arm because of incomplete reports. The baseline characteristics were similar and sheath-thrombi formation was observed in 20% of the total cohort.
Of the heparin arm, 12% (19 patients) developed sheath-thrombus formation, whereas 26% (42 patients) in the placebo arm, p-value = 0.002. An adjusted logistic regression model showed that the only predictor for the sheath-thrombus formation was the study drug (i.e. heparin). The odds ratio of developing a thrombus in the control arm was 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4–4.5, p = 0.003). There were no bleeding events observed.
The risk of thrombus formation is significant and intravenous heparin significantly reduced thrombus formation during diagnostic coronary angiography, with no excess bleeding events.
Femoral arterial access; Thrombus formation; Cardiac catheterization; Heparin
Iatrogenic injury to the vertebral artery during posterior cervical fusion is a rare and potentially disastrous complication. Differentiating arterial from brisk venous bleeding would be ideal to assist in the intra-operative management. Definitive angiography is typically not feasible during most routine spine surgery.
We describe the case of a patient undergoing an occipitocervical fusion, where brisk bleeding was encountered during dissection of the CB lateral mass. While the dissection was thought to be superficial to critical structures, the nature of the hemorrhage could not be definitely determined by visual inspection by two senior surgeons. The hemorrhage did not readily cease with standard maneuvers such as, the application of various hemostatic agents. Simultaneous blood gas analysis was performed on samples obtained from the patient’s radial artery and from the hemorrhage in the operative bed. Comparative analysis concluded that the bleeding encountered in the surgical field was venous in nature.
Blood gas analysis can be a useful adjunct in determining the nature of hemorrhage from vascular structures in spine surgery when visual inspection is indeterminate.
Blood gas analysis; Cerebrovascular trauma; Iatrogenic disease; Spine
Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. Thrombosis within the aneurysm can lead to distal embolization and myocardial infarction. These lesions can extend into adjacent coronary branches and can occur in the presence or absence of obstructive coronary disease. Depending on the severity of coexistent coronary stenoses, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either operatively or medically. We report the cases of 2 patients who were treated medically for large left main coronary aneurysms and concomitant right coronary artery ectasia.
Coronary aneurysm; coronary angiography
Acute occlusive embolism to the coronary arteries resulting in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an uncommon occurrence. Although cases of patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves resulting in this phenomenon have been reported in the setting of inadequate anticoagulation, reported cases resulting years after tissue aortic valve replacement (AVR) are rare. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who underwent a tissue AVR four years earlier and presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. ED door-to-balloon time was delayed (at 115 minutes) because of pre-existing left bundle branch block on electrocardiogram. Emergent coronary angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery by a coronary embolus. The patient was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and aspiration thrombectomy, and subsequently underwent a transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrating thrombus on the tissue aortic valve prosthesis. This case demonstrates that coronary embolism resulting in AMI, while rare, can occur in patients years after tissue AVR surgery.
We present a case of a 34-year-old male who presented to the emergency ward with fever and abdominal pain. The diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis and also antiphospholipid syndrome was made during an imaging workup of deep-vein thrombosis. A spontaneous coronary artery dissection was revealed in coronary CT angiography requested for chest pain and dyspnea. The patient was treated medically and discharged on close followup. The concurrence of spontaneous coronary artery dissection with antiphospholipid syndrome and Takayasu's arteritis has not been reported in the previous literature. The possibility of a spontaneous coronary artery dissection should be considered in patients presenting with both diseases.
Left main coronary artery dissection occurs very rarely during selective coronary angiography, but it generally progresses to complete coronary occlusion. The traditional treatment of occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery has been surgical. Percutaneous treatment has been sporadic and controversial. We report a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery during diagnostic coronary angiography, followed by successful stenting of the lesion.
Angioplasty, balloon; aneurysm, dissecting/etiology; coronary angiography/adverse effects; coronary stenosis/etiology; coronary vessels/injuries; iatrogenic disease; myocardial revascularization; stents
Background. The thrombosis risk is increased in active ulcerative colitis. The limited number of reported complications have predominantly been cerebrovascular but other vessel territories may also be affected. Patient. During a severe attack of ulcerative colitis a 37-year-old woman suffered occlusion of all left coronary artery branches. Serial angiographies showed progressive recanalisation of the coronary arteries during anticoagulation, but no atherosclerotic stenosis. The cause of infarction was thus considered to be an extensive coronary thrombosis. However, a large battery of blood tests failed to identify any procoagulant abnormality. Conclusion. Evidence is now accumulating that the increased thrombosis risk also may involve the coronary arteries, even in young patients. To the best of our knowledge this is the third reported case of myocardial infarction despite angiographically normal coronary arteries in a patient with active ulcerative colitis. The extent of affected myocardium was in this case exceptionally large.
Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) is a rare chronic myeloproliferative disease characterised by persistent thrombocytosis. Cerebral, myocardial and peripheral thrombosis are frequently seen complications, but bleeding and venous thrombosis are more rare. Here, a case of essential thrombocythaemia complicated by cerebral and myocardial thrombosis is presented. The patient’s platelet count was 680×109/litre on admission. Electrocardiogram showed a slight ST elevation in leads V1 to V4. A coronary angiography was performed and it revealed a severe stenosis of the left anterior descending artery. The patient had a successful off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. After the operation the platelet count was 390×109/litre. The patient received hydroxyurea and aspirin treatment preoperatively and continued postoperatively. ET is a rare myeloproliferative disease; its complications are also rare, but the occurrence of two life-threatening complications in the same patient is rarer still. Further investigations are needed to determine the risk stratification for patients with ET undergoing cardiac surgery.
Although mural thrombus in an abdominal aortic aneurysm is frequent and its role has been studied extensively, complete thrombosis of an abdominal aneurysm is extremely rare and its natural history in relation to the risk of rupture is not known. The case of a patient with a completely thrombosed infrarenal aneurysm is presented along with a literature review.
We report the case of a 56-year-old Caucasian man with an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, presenting at our hospital due to critical ischemia of his right lower limb. Computed tomography and angiography demonstrated complete aneurysm thrombosis and obstruction of both common iliac arteries.
During the operation, systolic and mean intrathrombotic pressures, measured in different levels, constituted 74.5-90.2% and 77.5-92.5% of systolic and mean intraluminal pressure and 73-88.4% and 76.5-91.3% of systemic pressure, respectively. Our findings show that there may be a continuing risk of rupture in cases of a thrombosed abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an unusual cause of acute myocardial ischemia. The natural history of spontaneous coronary artery dissection that persists on angiography after the acute event has not been well characterized. A case of a 36-year-old man who presented with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia 12 years following a myocardial infarction that occurred during his last course of bleomycin-etoposidecisplatin therapy for testicular cancer is reported. On further investigation, coronary angiography revealed a long chronic dissection of the right coronary artery. The patient was successfully treated with medical management and insertion of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The case also highlights the increased cardiovascular morbidity in testicular cancer survivors and evokes the possibility of mechanisms of myocardial ischemia other than atherosclerotic disease in these young patients.
Cisplatin; Coronary artery dissection; Myocardial infarction; Ventricular tachycardia
The occurrence of pulmonary artery dissection is extremely rare in patients without pulmonary hypertension, congenital cardiac abnormalities or cardiac intervention. A diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection is rarely made during life because it generally leads to cardiogenic shock and sudden death. The progression or natural course of pulmonary artery dissection is not known and the optimum management is not defined because of the paucity of cases in the literature.
We report a rare case of a 51-year-old female patient, without pulmonary hypertension or other cardiac abnormalities, who presented with acute chest pain and was found to have a pulmonary artery dissection.. The diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was confirmed by computed tomography scan of the chest and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The patient declined surgical intervention and was followed up closely with medical therapy. At almost a year after her initial presentation, the patient is stable with no complications.
To our knowledge, there are no similar cases reported in the literature of people with pulmonary artery dissection who have been followed up and who have not had surgical intervention. We review the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical associations, diagnosis and management of patients with pulmonary artery dissection.