Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-25 (1059323)

Clipboard (0)

Related Articles

1.  Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma fibrinogen among subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan cohort study, Iran 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2014;10(5):238-243.
The role of plasma fibrinogen, a key regulator of inflammation processes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS) is currently under investigation. We assessed differences in the indicators of cIMT and also plasma fibrinogen level between MetS and non-MetS subjects. We also assessed the role of these two parameters for independently relationship with MetS state.
The subjects in this cross-sectional survey were population-based samples of 93 men and women aged ≥ 35 years and over who were selected from the Isfahan cohort study, Isfahan, Iran. Fibrinogen was measured by the clotting assay of Clauss. Ultrasound studies of the carotid artery were performed to measure cIMT. MetS defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III.
The mean level of plasma fibrinogen was not different in the two groups with and without MetS (240.10 ± 27.80 vs. 242.56 ± 35.82, P = 0.714), but the mean of cIMT was considerably higher in MetS group than in non-MetS group (0.85 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.66 ± 0.09 mm, P < 0.001). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, high cIMT could effectively predict MetS state with the presence of different components of MetS (odds ratio = 17.544, 95% confidence interval = 2.151-142.860, P = 0.008). The optimal cutoff point of cIMT for discriminating these two clinical states was 0.6 mm yielding a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 59.6%.
Individuals with MetS demonstrated increased cIMT values compared with those without MetS. However, high plasma fibrinogen level may not be associated with MetS state.
PMCID: PMC4251483  PMID: 25477980
Metabolic Syndrome; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness; Fibrinogen; Prediction
2.  A Cross-sectional Study of Intima-Media Thickness, Ethnicity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk in 2268 Study Participants 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2009;84(3):221-228.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between intima-media thickness (IMT) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to examine if the addition of IMT to a traditional MetS definition adds value to the assessment of predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a large multiethnic population.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, carotid IMT was measured in 2268 men and women as part of a wellness physical examination between August 1, 2000, and October 1, 2001. The wellness examination included a fasting lipid panel, physical examination, and medical history. Mean IMT was described by sex, ethnicity, and the MetS. Predicted risk for CVD was determined with IMT as a component of the diagnostic criteria for MetS.
RESULTS: Intima-media thickness increased with each additional component of the MetS, increasing from 0.516 mm for 0 components to 0.688 mm for 4 or more components (P<.001). In each ethnic group (non-Hispanic whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians), those with the MetS had higher mean IMT (increased by 0.084 mm to 0.134 mm) than those without MetS. The addition of IMT as a “new” component in the diagnosis of MetS allowed us to identify 78 (3.4%) participants who were not previously diagnosed as having MetS but who had a high 10-year estimated risk of MetS as measured by the Framingham risk score (11.67%).
CONCLUSION: The addition of IMT to the traditional criteria for the diagnosis of the MetS may help identify individuals who otherwise would not have been identified to be at high risk of CVD.
This article describes the association between intima-media thickness and metabolic syndrome and concludes that the addition of intima-media thickness to the traditional criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome may help identify individuals who otherwise would not have been identified to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
PMCID: PMC2664597  PMID: 19252108
3.  The metabolic syndrome and progression of carotid atherosclerosis over 13 years. The Tromsø study 
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examine if metabolic syndrome predicts progression of atherosclerosis over 13 years.
Participants were 1442 men and 1532 women in the population-based Tromsø Study who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations at baseline in the 4th (1994–5) and at follow-up in the 6th survey (2007–8). Of these, 278 men and 273 women fulfilled the criteria for the MetS, defined according to a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATPIII). Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as total plaque area (TPA) and mean intima-media thickness (IMT) at follow-up and as change in IMT and TPA from baseline to follow-up. Associations between MetS and its components and carotid atherosclerosis were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, total cholesterol and daily smoking, stratified by sex.
IMT and TPA levels at follow-up (p < 0.0001) and progression of TPA (p = 0.02) were higher in the MetS group compared to the non-MetS group. In stepwise multivariable models, MetS was associated with TPA (β = 0.372 mm2, p = 0.009) and IMT (β = 0.051 mm, p < 0.0001) in men, and with IMT (β = 0.045 mm, p = 0.001) in women after 13 years of follow-up, but not with progression of IMT or TPA. In analyses stratified by age, MetS predicted progression of IMT (β = 0.043 mm, p = 0.046) and TPA (β = 1.02 mm2, p = 0.002) in men below 50 years of age. Hypertension was predictive of follow-up TPA and IMT in both genders and of progression of TPA in women. Impaired glucose tolerance was associated with follow up levels of IMT and TPA as well as progression in IMT in men. None of the other components of MetS were associated with progression of atherosclerosis.
Subjects with MetS had higher levels of IMT and TPA at follow up than those without MetS. Mets predicted progression of IMT and TPA in those below 50 years of age, but not in other age groups, indicating that MetS may be involved in the initiation of the atherosclerotic process.
PMCID: PMC3539868  PMID: 22738646
Metabolic syndrome; Carotid artery; Atherosclerosis; Intima-media thickness; Plaque; Progression; Risk factor; Prospective; Population study
4.  Carotid Intima-media thickness in childhood and adolescent obesity relations to abdominal obesity, high triglyceride level and insulin resistance 
Aim: To investigate risk factors which impact on common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT).
Methods: A total of 86 obese children and adolescents and 22 healthy children and adolescents with normal weight were enrolled. Moreover, 23 of 86 obese children and adolescents were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The clinical, biochemical data and the IMT of the common carotid artery were measured in all subjects.
Results: Obese and obese with MetS subjects demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.01) thicker intima media (0.69mm, 0.66mm) as compared to the control group (0.38mm), but there was no significant difference of IMT between obese and MetS group. IMT was correlated to body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and fatty liver. Waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, triglyceride and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were independent determinants of mean IMT level.
Conclusion: Obesity especially abdominal obesity, high TG and insulin resistance may be the main risk predictors of increased IMT.
PMCID: PMC2934726  PMID: 20827427
obesity; metabolic syndrome; intima-media thickness; children; adolescents
5.  Cardiovascular Parameters Correlated with Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Community Cohort of Korea: The ARIRANG Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(7):1045-1052.
Although metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and the development of atherosclerosis, consensus is still lacking on the status of cardiovascular function and geometry in MetS patients. We investigated the relation between MetS and left ventricle (LV) geometry and function, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness in a community-based cohort of 702 adult subjects. Subjects were categorized into three groups according to the number of MetS components present, as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines: 1) Absent (0 criteria), 2) Pre-MetS (1-2 criteria) or 3) MetS (≥3 criteria). In female subjects, LV mass, LV mass/height2.7, deceleration time, and aortic pulse wave velocity increased, and E/A ration decreased in a stepwise manner across the three groups. These changes were not observed in male subjects. The mean carotid IMT was higher in the MetS group than in the other two groups. The degree of MetS clustering is found to be strongly correlated with geometric eccentricity of LV hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and arterial changes irrespective of age and blood pressure status, particularly in females. Waist circumference is found to have the most powerful effect on cardiovascular parameters.
PMCID: PMC2890882  PMID: 20592897
Metabolic Syndrome; Heart Ventricles; Geometry; Intima-media Thickness; Pulse Wave Velocity
6.  Plasma Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Carotid Atherosclerosis 
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a recently identified and potentially useful plasma biomarker for cardiovascular and atherosclerotic diseases. However, the correlation between the Lp-PLA2 activity and carotid atherosclerosis remains poorly investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The present study aimed to evaluate the potential role of Lp-PLA2 as a comprehensive marker of metabolic syndrome in individuals with and without carotid atherosclerosis.
We documented 118 consecutive patients with MetS and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects served as controls. The patients were further divided into two groups: 39 with carotid plaques and 79 without carotid plaques to elucidate the influence of Lp-PLA2 on carotid atherosclerosis. The plasma Lp-PLA2 activity was measured by using ELISA method and carotid intimal-media thickness (IMT) was performed by ultrasound in all participants.
Lp-PLA2 activity was significantly increased in MetS subgroups when compared with controls, and was higher in patients with carotid plaques than those without plaques (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that significant difference in Lp-PLA2 was obtained between patients with three and four disorders of metabolic syndrome (P < 0.01). Age (β = 0.183, P = 0.029), LDL-cholesterol (β = 0.401, P = 0.000) and waist-hip ratio (β = 0.410, P = 0.000) emerged as significant and independent determinants of Lp-PLA2 activity. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that LDL-cholesterol (β = 0.309, P = 0.000), systolic blood pressure (β = 0.322, P = 0.002) and age (β = 0.235, P = 0.007) significantly correlated with max IMT, and Lp-PLA2 was not an independent predictor for carotid IMT.
Lp-PLA2 may be a modulating factor for carotid IMT via age and LDL-cholesterol, not independent predictor in the pathophysiological process of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with MetS.
PMCID: PMC3031256  PMID: 21247435
7.  Relationship between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis Beyond Metabolic Disorders in Non-Diabetic Patients 
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and carotid artery atherosclerosis beyond metabolic disorders.
We studied 320 non-diabetic patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed NAFLD and 313 non-diabetic patients without NAFLD who have less than 40 g alcohol/week drinking history. Carotid atherosclerotic burden was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. All subjects were divided to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to International Diabetes Federation criteria.
NAFLD patients had a significantly increased mean carotid IMT (0.79 ± 0.18 vs. 0.73 ± 0.13 mm; p < 0.001) than those without the condition. The prevalence of increased IMT, defined as IMT ≥ 1 mm, and carotid plaque were 52.5% and 34.1% in the patients with NAFLD vs. 35.8% and 18.8% in the patients without this condition (p < 0.001). The difference in IMT and prevalence of plaque was also significant even in patients without MetS as well as those with MetS (all p < 0.05). NAFLD-associated adjusted odds ratio for increased IMT was 1.236 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.023-1.467, p = 0.016] without MetS and 1.178 (95% CI, 1.059-1.311, p = 0.003) with MetS. NAFLD-associated adjusted odds ratio of carotid plaque was 1.583 (95% CI, 1.309-1.857, p = 0.024) without MetS and 1.536 (95% CI, 0.512-4.604, p = 0.444) with MetS.
NAFLD is significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in non-diabetic outpatients even without MetS. Carotid screening for NAFLD might be beneficial for assessment of future atherosclerotic complications.
PMCID: PMC3498309  PMID: 23185655
Fatty liver; Carotid intima media thickness; Metabolic syndrome
8.  Relationship Between Brachial Flow - Mediated Dilation and Carotid Intima- Media Thickness in an Elderly Cohort: The Cardiovascular Health Study 
Atherosclerosis  2007;197(2):840-845.
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a large multi-ethnic elderly cohort.
Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a physiologic measure and Carotid IMT is an anatomic structural measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Both brachial FMD and carotid IMT have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events. The relationship between brachial FMD and carotid IMT is less clear especially in older adults.
Brachial FMD, carotid IMT and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 2338 adults, age 72–98 years who were participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The relationship between FMD and IMT was assessed both unadjusted and also after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity. BMI, HDL, LDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, hormone therapy and prior CVD.
Both brachial FMD and carotid IMT correlated significantly with age, HDL levels, waist/hip ratio, serum cholesterol and number of CV risk factors. Brachial FMD was not associated with CCA IMT in this elderly cohort (Pearson partial correlation coefficient= −0.0252, p=0.222). In the adjusted linear regression model with CCA IMT as the dependent variable, brachial FMD was also not associated with CCA IMT (beta coefficient= −0.006, p=0.470)
Brachial FMD and CCA IMT are not related in population-based older adults. Brachial FMD and CCA IMT may be distinct and independent stages in the complex atherosclerotic process.
PMCID: PMC4115586  PMID: 17804000
Brachial flow-mediated dilation; carotid intima-media thickness; endothelial function; atherosclerosis; elderly
9.  Endothelial wall thickness, cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese adolescents 
Increased carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) is considered a marker of early-onset atherosclerosis and it has been found in obese children and adolescents, but the risk factors associated with this population remain to be elucidated.
To compare and verify the relationship between c-IMT, metabolic profile, inflammatory markers, and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese and non-obese children and adolescents.
Thirty-five obese subjects (19 boys) and 18 non-obese subjects (9 boys), aged 10-16 years, were included. Anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and basal metabolic rate were evaluated. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin were assessed. c-IMT was measured by ultrasound.
The results showed that c-IMT, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and CRP values were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), adiponectin, and VO2max values were significantly lower in the obese group than in the non-obese group. The c-IMT was directly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, % body fat, and HOMA-IR and inversely correlated with % free fat mass, HDL-c, and VO2max.
Our findings show that c-IMT correlates not only with body composition, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation but also with low VO2max values in children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC4183237  PMID: 24675912
obesity; inflammation; atherosclerosis; adolescents; fitness; physical therapy
10.  Early signs of atherosclerosis are associated with insulin resistance in non-obese adolescent and young adults with type 1 diabetes 
Patients with type 1 diabetes have a substantial risk of developing cardiovascular complications early in life. We aimed to explore the role of insulin sensitivity (Si) as an early factor of atherosclerosis in young type 1 diabetes vs. non-diabetic subjects.
Forty adolescent and young adult individuals (20 type 1 diabetics and 20 non-diabetics), age 14–20 years, without characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, participated in this cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, Si was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m2) and calculated by glucose infusion rate (GIR). Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured in the common carotid artery with high-resolution ultrasonography. Risk factors of atherosclerosis (Body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, systolic blood pressure [sBP], triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol and HbA1c) were also investigated.
cIMT was increased (0.52 ± 0.1 vs. 0.47 ± 0.1 mm, P < 0.01), whereas GIR was decreased (5.0 ± 2.1 vs. 7.1 ± 2.2 mg/kg/min, P < 0.01) in type 1 diabetics vs. non-diabetics. The differences in cIMT were negatively associated with Si (r = −0.4, P < 0.01) and positively associated with waist circumference (r = 0.34, P = 0.03), with no such associations between BMI (r = 0.15, P = 0.32), sBP (r = 0.09, P = 0.58), triglycerides (r = 0.07, P = 0.66), HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.10, P = 0.55) and HbA1c (r = 0.24, P = 0.13). In a multivariate regression model, between cIMT (dependent) and group (explanatory), only adjustment for Si affected the significance (ß = 0.08, P = 0.11) vs. (ß = 0.07, P < 0.01) for the whole model. No interaction between cIMT, groups and Si was observed.
cIMT is increased and associated with insulin resistance in adolescent, non-obese type 1 diabetic subjects. Although, no conclusions toward a causal relationship can be drawn from current findings, insulin resistance emerges as an important factor reflecting early signs of atherosclerosis in this small cohort.
PMCID: PMC3538551  PMID: 23185996
Adolescent; Atherosclerosis; Carotid intima-media thickness; Insulin sensitivity; Type 1 diabetes
11.  Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:348.
HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT.
Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models.
L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671).
HIV-infected patients on cART with lipodystrophy defined by FMR, had a significantly higher cIMT. Carotid IMT was also associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors. In these patients, visceral adipose tissue had a significant impact on cIMT, although age was the strongest associated factor.
PMCID: PMC4087129  PMID: 24958511
Lipodystrophy; HIV; Carotid intima media thickness; Fat mass ratio; Body composition
12.  Metabolic syndrome and carotid intima-media thickness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), carotid intima media thickness (IMT), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the possible relationships among them.
Fifty stable COPD patients and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. The participants were further divided into four groups according to their smoking status. Pulmonary function tests were performed in COPD patients. Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis, serum CRP levels and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measurements were performed in all the study population.
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 43% in COPD patients and 30% in the control group (p = 0.173). FEV1% and FEV1/FVC were higher in COPD patients with MetS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.014, respectively) compared to those without MetS. Prevalence of MetS was significantly different among the COPD patients with different stages (p = 0.017) with the highest value in stage 2 (59%). Carotid IMT was significantly higher in COPD patients than in control group (1.07 ± 0.25 mm and 0.86 ± 0.18 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). Serum CRP levels were not different in COPD patients and controls, however they were higher in individuals with MetS compared to those without MetS regardless of COPD presence (p = 0.02).
Early markers of atherogenesis, in terms of carotid IMT, were found to be higher in COPD patients than in healthy controls. MetS prevalence was observed to decrease as the severity of airflow obstruction increased. Therefore, screening COPD patients for these cardiovascular risk factors would be a novel approach even in absence of symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3844672  PMID: 24040911
Atherosclerosis; Carotid IMT; COPD; Metabolic syndrome, Serum CRP
13.  Optimal Definitions for Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome in Andean Hispanics: The PREVENCION Study 
Diabetes Care  2010;33(6):1385-1388.
We aimed to establish optimal definitions for abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Andean adults.
Among 1,448 Andean adults, we assessed the relationship between waist circumference and subclinical vascular disease assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and manifest cardiovascular disease (M-CVD).
Optimal waist circumference cutoffs to classify individuals with abnormal cIMT or M-CVD were >97 and >87 cm in men and women, respectively. With these cutoffs, there was substantial disagreement between the original American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) and the recently updated MetS definition, particularly among men (κ = 0.85). Subjects with MetS identified by the updated definition but not meeting the original AHA/NHLBI MetS criteria demonstrated significantly increased cIMT (P < 0.001) compared with subjects who did not meet the MetS criteria by either definition.
Our findings support the use of ethnic-specific waist circumference cutoffs and the updated MetS definition in Andean adults.
PMCID: PMC2875461  PMID: 20200303
14.  Uric acid is an independent risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in a Japanese elderly population without metabolic syndrome 
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an useful surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease. Associations between uric acid (UA), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid IMT have been reported, but findings regarding the relationship have been inconsistent.
A total of 1,579 Japanese elderly subjects aged ≥65 years {663 men aged, 78 ± 8 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 916 women aged 79 ± 8 years} were divided into 4 groups according to UA quartiles. We first investigated the association between UA concentrations and confounding factors including MetS; then, we assessed whether there is an independent association of UA with carotid IMT and atherosclerosis in participants subdivided according to gender and MetS status.
Carotid IMT was significantly increased according to the quartiles of UA in both genders without MetS and women with MetS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that odds ratio (OR) {95% confidence interval (CI)} in men for carotid atherosclerosis was significantly increased in the third (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.02-3.02), and fourth quartiles (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.12-3.60) of UA compared with that in the first quartile of UA, and the OR in women was significantly increased in the fourth quartile (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.30-3.39). Similarly, the ORs were significantly associated with increasing quartiles of UA in both genders without MetS, but not necessarily increased in those with MetS.
UA was found to be an independent risk factor for incidence of carotid atherosclerosis in both genders without MetS.
PMCID: PMC3293733  PMID: 22234039
uric acid; metabolic syndrome; carotid atherosclerosis; cardiovascular risk factor; gender
15.  Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Obesity Phenotypes in the Northern Manhattan Family Study 
Background and Purpose
Both carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and obesity are independent determinants of stroke and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of obesity is higher in Hispanics. The genetic basis of IMT and obesity has not been well-characterized in Caribbean Hispanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental contributions to IMT and obesity in this population.
The data included 440 subjects from 77 Caribbean Hispanic families. Mean IMT and maximum IMT were measured in the internal carotid artery, common carotid artery, and carotid bifurcation. The total IMT was calculated as the mean value of IMT at all segments. Obesity phenotypes included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and skin-fold thickness. Variance component methods were used to estimate age-adjusted and sex-adjusted heritability. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test for genetic and environmental correlations between IMT and obesity.
Heritabilities for IMT ranged from 9% to 40%, with the highest for total maximum IMT and lowest for internal carotid artery maximum IMT. Heritabilities for BMI, waist circumference, WHR, and skin-fold thickness were 44%, 47%, 5%, and 36%, respectively. There were significant genetic, but not environmental, correlations between IMT and BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness. There were no genetic or environmental correlations between IMT and WHR.
We found a substantial genetic contribution to IMT, BMI, waist circumference, and skin-fold thickness. Obesity and IMT may share common genetic factors. Future gene mapping studies are warranted to identify genes predisposing to IMT and obesity in this population.
PMCID: PMC1325223  PMID: 15331789
carotid arteries; genetics; obesity; stroke
16.  Effects of Obesity, Body Composition, and Adiponectin on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Women 
Increased common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is predictive of coronary artery disease and stroke.
In this study, we investigated common carotid IMT by obesity category in a cohort of healthy women without previously known cardiovascular disease.
Design, Setting, Participants, and Main Outcome Measures
One hundred healthy women (aged 24-59 yr) from the general community enrolled in an observational study conducted at an academic medical center participated in the study. B-mode ultrasound imaging of the common carotid arteries was used to measure common carotid IMT in 99 subjects. Fat distribution was determined by computed tomography. Hormonal and inflammatory parameters related to cardiovascular disease and obesity were measured.
IMT was higher in obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2], compared with overweight women (BMI ≥ 25 and < 30 kg/m2) [0.69 mm, interquartile range (IQR) 0.60-0.75 mm] vs. 0.62 mm [IQR 0.56-0.68 mm), P = 0.044] and in comparison with lean women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) [0.69 mm (IQR 0.60-0.75 mm) vs. 0.59 mm (IQR 0.54-0.67 mm), P = 0.016]. In multivariate modeling, age (beta = 0.0050 mm change in IMT per year of age, P = 0.003), smoking (beta = 0.0044 mm change in IMT per pack-year, P = 0.046), and sc abdominal adiposity (beta = 0.00026 mm change in IMT per square centimeter, P = 0.010) were positively associated with IMT, whereas adiponectin (beta =–0.0042 mm change in IMT per milligram per liter, P = 0.045) was negatively associated with IMT. Visceral adiposity (beta = 0.00048 mm change in IMT per square centimeter, P = 0.092) was not significantly associated with IMT after adjusting for age, race, smoking, sc abdominal adiposity, and adiponectin.
Obesity is associated with increased common carotid IMT in young and middle-aged women. Adiponectin and sc abdominal adiposity are associated with carotid IMT in this population.
PMCID: PMC3210448  PMID: 16522690
17.  Serum uric acid level and its association with metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes 
We aimed to investigate whether elevated serum uric acid concentrations are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Shanghai, with a total of 395 men and 631 women age 41 to 92 years. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid atherosclerotic plaques (PLQ) were measured by B-mode ultrasound. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans.
Uric acid levels were negatively associated with duration of diabetes, fasting plasma glucose, glycohemoglobin, eGFR, HDL-cholesterol (all P < 0.001) and positively with BMI, CRP, waist circumference, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, ACR, HOMA-IR and IMT (all P < 0.05). In the highest quartile of uric acid levels, the risks were substantially higher for MetS [odds ratio 3.97, (95% confidence interval 2.58-6.13)] (P < 0.001 for trend) and PLQ [odds ratio 2.71 (95% confidence interval 1.62-4.47)] (p = 0.013 for trend) compared with that in the lowest quartile of uric acid levels after multiple adjustment. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for potential confounders.
Serum uric acid level is associated with MetS and is an independent risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3163178  PMID: 21816063
uric acid; metabolic syndrome; intima-media thickness; atherosclerosis
18.  Decreased serum obestatin consequent upon TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism exacerbates carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with metabolic syndrome 
Functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism has been associated with insulin resistance. Obestatin, improving insulin resistance, exerts obscure effects on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and carotid atherosclerosis. Aims to investigate whether the prevalent TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism has profound implications for alterations of serum obestatin and what effect obestatin exerts on carotid atherosclerosis.
A total of 518 unrelated Chinese subjects consisted of control (n = 258) and MetS (n = 260) groups. Clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected. The level of serum obestatin was measured. Genotype the functional TRIB3 Q84R polymorphism. All subjects underwent ultrasonography to determine carotid intima-media thickness (IMT).
Serum obestatin was significantly decreased in MetS as compared with the control group (P = 0.042). Among the MetS group participants possessing RR84 genotype had significantly lower levels of serum obestatin than those with QQ84 or QR84 genotypes (P = 0.008, P = 0.043) with similar significant difference among the control group. Factorial analyses showed statistically significant interactions between MetS and RR84 genotype (P = 0.009 for interaction for obestatin). On correlation analysis, obestatin correlated negatively with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (r = -0.163, P = 0.010) and IMT (r = -0.256, P = 0.011). On partial analyses, obestatin negatively correlated with IMT(r = -0.259, P = 0.024) after controlling for the confounding factors.
MetS individuals with TRIB3 RR84 genotype demonstrated further decreased serum obestatin. Decreased serum obestatin might in part exacerbate insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC3573955  PMID: 23245314
Obestatin; TRIB3; Metabolic syndrome; Carotid atherosclerosis
19.  Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study 
Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT.
This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity.
cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05).
Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with MS and regardless the presence of established cardiovascular risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3403942  PMID: 22651701
Atherosclerosis; Gestational diabetes; Intima-media thickness; Carotid doppler ultrasonography; Metabolic syndrome
20.  History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Risk of Atherosclerosis in Mid‐life: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study 
History of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increase risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether GDM increases risk of early atherosclerosis independent of pre‐pregnancy obesity and subsequent metabolic disease.
Methods and Results
Of 2787 women (18 to 30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we studied 898 (47% black) who were free of DM and heart disease at baseline (1985‐1986), delivered ≥1 post‐baseline births, reported GDM history, and had common carotid intima media thickness (ccIMT, mm) measured in 2005‐2006. We used multivariable linear regression to assess associations between GDM and ccIMT adjusted for race, age, parity, and pre‐pregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors. We assessed mediators (weight gain, insulin resistance, blood pressure), and effect modification by incident DM or MetS during the 20‐year period. Of the 898 women, 119 (13%) reported GDM (7.6 per 100 deliveries). Average age was 31 at last birth and 44 at ccIMT measurement for GDM and non‐GDM groups. Unadjusted mean ccIMT was 0.023 mm higher for GDM than non‐GDM groups (P=0.029), but pre‐pregnancy BMI attenuated the difference to 0.016 mm (P=0.109). In 777 women without subsequent DM or the MetS, mean ccIMT was 0.023 mm higher for GDM versus non‐GDM groups controlling for race, age, parity, and pre‐pregnancy BMI (0.784 versus 0.761, P=0.039). Addition of pre‐pregnancy insulin resistance index had minimal impact on adjusted mean net ccIMT difference (0.22 mm). Mean ccIMT did not differ by GDM status among 121 women who developed DM or the MetS (P=0.58).
History of GDM may be a marker for early atherosclerosis independent of pre‐pregnancy obesity among women who have not developed type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC4187501  PMID: 24622610
atherosclerosis; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnancy; prospective cohort studies; women
Atherosclerosis  2010;215(2):459-464.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components accelerate age-associated increases in arterial stiffness and thickness. We investigated whether specific proinflammatory cytokines contribute to arterial aging, independent of age, sex, MetS, and other traditional CV risk factors.
Research Design and Methods
MetS components (ATP III criteria) and arterial properties were assessed in 6,148 subjects, aged 14–102 in Sardinia, Italy. Common carotid artery (CCA) diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1), and inteleukin 6 (IL6) were measured.
While cytokine levels – except for MCP1 – were significantly higher (lower for adiponectin) in MetS than in control subjects, and the increased PWV and CCA IMT with aging were associated with MetS, this association was independent of cytokine levels (p< 0.001 for both PWV and CCA IMT). Specific cytokines, however, were significantly associated with arterial stiffness (higher leptin – p< 0.001 - and higher hsCRP – p< 0.001) or thickness (lower adiponectin – p< 0.05 - and higher IL6 – p< 0.001) – independent of age, sex, MetS and other traditional CV risk factors. The co-occurrence of both MetS and higher cytokines levels was associated with greater increases in arterial stiffness and thickness.
While MetS and specific cytokine patterns associated with arterial aging, the increases in arterial stiffness and thickness are greater when both MetS and higher cytokine levels are present, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of MetS and inflammation on the arterial wall.
PMCID: PMC3991114  PMID: 21241986
Cytokines; metabolic syndrome; aging; large artery properties; arterial stiffness; carotid intima media thickness
22.  Associations of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) With Risk Factors and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease 
The goal of this study was to compare internal carotid artery (ICA) intima-media thickness (IMT) with common carotid artery (CCA) IMT as global markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Cross-sectional measurements of the mean CCA IMT and maximum ICA IMT were made on ultrasound images acquired from the Framingham Offspring cohort (n = 3316; mean age, 58 years; 52.7% women). Linear regression models were used to study the associations of the Framingham risk factors with CCA and ICA IMT. Multivariate logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to compare the associations of prevalent CVD with CCA and ICA IMT and determine sensitivity and specificity.
The association between age and the mean CCA IMT corresponded to an increase of 0.007 mm/y; the increase was 0.037 mm/y for the ICA IMT. Framingham risk factors accounted for 28.6% and 27.5% of the variability in the CCA and ICA IMT, respectively. Age and gender contributed 23.5% to the variability of the CCA IMT and 22.5% to that of the ICA IMT, with the next most important factor being systolic blood pressure (1.9%) for the CCA IMT and smoking (1.6%) for the ICA IMT. The CCA IMT and ICA IMT were statistically significant predictors of prevalent CVD, with the ICA IMT having a larger area under the ROC curve (0.756 versus 0.695).
Associations of risk factors with CCA and ICA IMT are slightly different, and both are independently associated with prevalent CVD. Their value for predicting incident cardiovascular events needs to be compared in outcome studies.
PMCID: PMC3186063  PMID: 21098848
atherosclerosis; carotid artery; disease prevalence; intima-media thickness; risk factors
23.  Comprehensive analysis of circulating adipokines and hsCRP association with cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Arabs 
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death worldwide including the Middle East. This is caused in part by the dysregulation of adipose tissue leading to increased production of pro-inflammatory adipokines and reduction in cardio-protective adipokines such as adiponectin. Ethnicity has been recognized as a major factor in the association between CVD risk factors and the different circulating adipokines. In this study, for the first time, the relationship between traditional cardiovascular risk factors, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and circulating level of adipokines in Arab ethnicity was investigated.
We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey on 379 adult Arab participants living in Kuwait. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure (BP), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) were measured. Plasma levels of circulating Leptin, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and adipsin were assessed using the multiplexing immunobead-based assay.
Circulating levels of High sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), Leptin, PAI-1 and adiponectin were significantly higher in Arab women than men (p < 0.0001). In multi-variate analysis, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body mass index (BMI) showed strong association with most of the biomarkers (p < 0.05). HsCRP showed significant association with all risk factors (p < 0.05). Leptin, PAI-1 and adipsin showed significant positive correlation with BMI, unlike adiponectin which showed inverse correlation (p < 0.05). Subjects in the highest tertile of leptin, PAI-1 and hsCRP had higher odds of having Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (odd ratio [OR] = 3.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.47 – 6.19) and (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45 – 4.35), (OR = 4.26, 95% CI = 2.39 – 7.59) respectively. On the other hand subjects with highest tertile of adiponectin had lower odds of having MetS (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.12 – 0.40). Leptin, PAI-1 and hsCRP showed significant positive association with increased MetS components (P-trend <0.05), while adiponectin was negatively associated with increased MetS components (P-trend <0.0001).
Our results show positive association between hsCRP, leptin, PAI-1 with increased MetS components and increase the odds of having MetS. Adiponectin on the other hand showed inverse correlation with MetS components and associated with reduction in MetS. Overall, our data highlights the significant clinical value these markers have in MetS especially hsCRP which can be used as good marker of low grade inflammation in Arabs.
PMCID: PMC3997236  PMID: 24716628
Adipokine; Arab; Metabolic syndrome; Cardiometabolic risk factors; Lipid profile; hsCRP; Leptin; Adiponectin; Visfatin; Resistin; Adipsin; Low grade inflammation
24.  Differential impact of metabolic syndrome on subclinical atherosclerosis according to the presence of diabetes 
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased risks of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, data on the impact of MS and its individual components on subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA) according to diabetes status are scarce.
Surrogate markers of SCA, brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and carotid intima–medial thickness (IMT) and plaque were assessed in 2,560 subjects (60 ± 8 years, 33% men) who participated in baseline health examinations for a community-based cohort study.
The participants included 2,149 non-diabetics (84%) and 411 diabetics (16%); 667 non-diabetics (31%) and 285 diabetics (69%) had MS, respectively. Diabetics had significantly higher baPWV and carotid IMT, and more plaques than non-diabetics (p < 0.001, respectively). Individuals with MS had significantly higher baPWV and carotid IMT than those without MS only among non-diabetics (p < 0.001, respectively). Among MS components, increased blood pressure was significantly associated with the exacerbation of all SCA markers in non-diabetics. The number of MS components was significantly correlated with both baPWV and carotid IMT in non-diabetics (baPWV: r = 0.302, p < 0.001; carotid IMT: r = 0.217, p < 0.001). Multiple regression showed both MS and diabetes were significantly associated with baPWV (p < 0.001, respectively), carotid IMT (MS: p < 0.001; diabetes: p = 0.005), and the presence of plaque (MS: p = 0.041; diabetes: p = 0.002).
MS has an incremental impact on SCA in conditions without diabetes. The identification of MS and its individual components is more important for the risk stratification of CVD in non-diabetic individuals.
PMCID: PMC3599532  PMID: 23452437
Metabolic syndrome; Diabetes; Atherosclerosis
25.  Association Between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Pericardial Fat in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a sub-clinical marker of atherosclerosis and a strong predictor of stroke. Pericardial fat (PF), the fat depot around the heart, has been associated with several atherosclerosis risk factors. We sought to examine the association between carotid IMT and PF, and to examine whether such an association is independent from common atherosclerosis risk factors including measures of overall adiposity.
Unadjusted and multivariable adjusted linear regression analysis was used to examine associations between common (CCA-IMT) and internal (ICA-IMT) carotid IMT with PF in a random sample of 996 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who underwent carotid ultrasound and chest CT at baseline examination.
A significant positive correlation was observed between PF and CCA-IMT (r =0.27, P<0.0001) and ICA-IMT (r =0.17, P<0.0001). In an unadjusted sex-specific linear regression analysis, there was a significant association between PF (1-SD difference) and CCA-IMT (mm) in both women (β coefficient (95% CI): 0.06 (0.04, 0.08), P<0.0001) and men (0.03 (0.01, 0.05), P<0.0002), an association that persisted after further adjusting for age and ethnicity (0.02 (+0.00, 0.04), P=0.0120 for women, and 0.02 (+0.00, 0.03), P=0.0208 for men). However, after additional adjustment for atherosclerosis risk factors and either BMI or waist circumference, these relations were no longer significant in either sex. In similar analyses, PF was significantly associated with ICA-IMT in both men (0.11 (0.06, 0.15), P<0.0001) and women (0.08 (0.02, 0.13), P=041). These relations were no longer significant in women in multivariable adjusted models, but persisted in men in all models except after adjusting for age, ethnicity and waist circumference.
In the general population PF is associated with carotid IMT, an association that possibly not independent from markers of overall adiposity or common atherosclerosis risk factors.
PMCID: PMC2817960  PMID: 20123228

Results 1-25 (1059323)