Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of medicated ghee decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in psoriasis patients. A study on a rural population in India revealed a significantly lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in men who consumed higher amounts of ghee. Research on Maharishi Amrit Kalash-4 (MAK-4), an Ayurvedic herbal mixture containing ghee, showed no effect on levels of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, or triglycerides in hyperlipidemic patients who ingested MAK-4 for 18 weeks. MAK-4 inhibited the oxidation of LDL in these patients. The data available in the literature do not support a conclusion of harmful effects of the moderate consumption of ghee in the general population. Factors that may be involved in the rise of CAD in Asian Indians include the increased use of vanaspati (vegetable ghee) which contains 40% trans fatty acids, psychosocial stress, insulin resistance, and altered dietary patterns. Research findings in the literature support the beneficial effects of ghee outlined in the ancient Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic use of ghee for thousands of years in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.
Anhydrous milk fat; cholesterol; clarified butter; coronary artery disease; ghee; lipid peroxidation; vanaspati; vegetable ghee.
The plasma lipoprotein profiles and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were characterized in patients with the genetic disease cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX). Abnormalities in the HDL may contribute to their increased atherogenesis and excessive deposits of tissue sterols in the presence of low or low-normal concentrations of plasma cholesterol (165 +/- 25 mg/dl) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). The mean HDL-cholesterol concentration in the CTX plasmas was 14.5 +/- 3.2 mg/dl, about one-third the normal value. The low HDL-cholesterol reflects a low concentration and an abnormal lipid composition of the plasma HDL. Relative to normal HDL, the cholesteryl esters are low, free cholesterol and phospholipids essentially normal, and triglycerides increased. The ratio of apoprotein (apo) to total cholesterol in the HDL of CTX was two to three times greater than normal. In the CTX HDL, the ratio of apoAI to apoAII was high, the proportion of apoC low, and a normally minor form of apoAI increased relative to other forms. The HDL in electron micrographs appeared normal morphologically and in particle size. The abnormalities in lipoprotein distribution profile and composition of the plasma HDL result from metabolic defects that are not understood but may be linked to the genetic defect in bile acid synthesis in CTX. As a consequence, it is probable that the normal functions of the HDL, possibly including modulation of LDL-cholesterol uptake and the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues, are perturbed significantly in this disease.
Fruits and vegetables may be beneficial on lipid profile of hyperlipidemic subjects. The present study was aimed to verify the effect of golden delicious apple on Lipid Profile in hyperlipidemic and overweight men.
Forty six hyperlipidemic and overweight men were randomly divided into two groups. Intervention group received 300g golden delicious apple per day for 8 weeks. Control group had the regular dietary regimen for the same period of time. Blood samples were analyzed for serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), lipoprotein a (Lp a) and LDL/HDL ratio at baseline and after intervention.
Total polyphenols and fibers were 485 mg/kg and 4.03 g/100g in fresh apple respectively. After 8 weeks, significant statistical differences were observed considering the TG and VLDL levels between two groups, but no significant differences were observed regarding TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.
Consumption of Golden delicious apple may be increased serum TG and VLDL in hyperlipidemic and overweight men. We need more studies to assay the effect of apple consumption on serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo (B), Lp (a) and LDL/HDL ratio.
Malus; Hyperlipidemia; Dietary fiber; Polyphenols; Overweight; Lipid profile
Four groups of subjects: normal healthy normotensive nonpregnant women (Group A), normal normotensive pregnant women (Group B), women with preeclamptic toxaemia (Group C) and eclamptic women (Group D): with fifty subjects in each group, were investigated for serum lipid profile in the third trimester of pregnancy. There was significant increase in serum triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol leve as well as decrease in LDL cholesterol in normal pregnancy, while total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels did not show any statistically significant alteration. The preeclampsia (Group C) was associated with a significant rise in triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol and fall in HDL cholesterol concentration, while eclamptic women showed significant fall in HDL cholesterol and rise in LDL cholesterol as compared to normal pregnant women. However, interestingly, elevation of the ratios of total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol and triglyceride: HDL cholesterol as well as diminuition of the ratio of HDL cholesterol: VLDL cholesterol showed statistical significance in pregnancy induced hypertension in both Groups C and D, while eclamptic women showed significant elevation of LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratio in addition.
Blood Lipids; Dyslipidemia; Normal Pregnancy; Pre-eclampsia; Eclampsia; PIH
To investigate potential roles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apolipoprotein (apoE) in inflammation and apoptosis promoting pathological changes in preeclampsia in pregnant mice with apoE and/or iNOS knock out.
B6.129 mice were crossed to produce WT, apoE−/−, apoE+/−, iNOS−/−, iNOS+/− and apoE−/−iNOS−/− groups. Variants were confirmed by PCR. Serum lipid parameters (triglycerides, TG; total cholesterol, TC; high density lipoprotein, HDL; and low density lipoprotein, LDL), NO levels and placental electronic microscopic ultrastructures were evaluated, and blood pressure (BP), 24-hour urine protein and pregnancy outcomes were recorded for pregnant F1 generation mice. Placental expressions of inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α; interleukin-6, IL-6; nuclear factor-κB, NF-κb) and apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 associated X protein, Bax, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were evaluated via Western blot.
Serum lipids, BP and 24-hour urine protein levels were shown to be significantly higher and parturition and placenta weights were lower in apoE−/− and apoE−/−iNOS−/− groups (p<0.05). NO levels were lower in the apoE−/−iNOS−/− group. In addition, inflammatory/apoptosis parameters, including TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κb, Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 in the apoE−/−iNOS−/− group (p<0.01), as well as in the apoE−/− group (p<0.05), and NF-κB, Bax in iNOS−/− group (p<0.05) were higher compared with WT group. However, most of the inflammatory/apoptosis parameters in the iNOS+/− and the apoE+/− groups (p>0.05) showed no differences. In addition, placenta vascular endothelial and trophoblast cell morphological changes were demonstrated in both the apoE−/−iNOS−/− and apoE−/− groups.
Elevated lipid metabolism and inflammatory/apoptosis parameters suggest a potentially significant role of apoE in preeclampsia pathology, as well as a relationship between iNOS and preeclampsia progression.
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. A high-fat diet, rich in saturated fatty acids and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, is said to be an important cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
In this experimental study, 40 male rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups of five to receive normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet, normal diet plus ghee, normal diet plus olive oil, normal diet plus hydrogenated oil, hypercholesterolemic diet plus ghee, hypercholesterolemic diet plus olive oil, and hypercholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil. They received rabbit chow for a period of 12 weeks. At the start and end of the study, fasting blood samples were taken from all animals to measure biochemical factors including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, aorta, left and right coronary arteries were dissected at the end of the study to investigate fatty streak formation (FSF). Data was analyzed in SPSS at a significance level of 0.05.
In rabbits under normal diet, ghee significantly increased TC, LDL, and HDL compared to the beginning (P < 0.01) and also to the other two types of fat (P < 0.05). Moreover, normal diet plus olive oil significantly enhanced FSF in left coronary arteries and aorta compared to normal diet plus ghee. In groups receiving hypercholesterolemic diets, ghee significantly increased HDL and CRP (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased FBS (P < 0.01). The hypecholesterolemic diet plus olive oil significantly increased HDL (P < 0.01). Supplementation of hypecholesterolemic diet with ghee significantly increased HDL and FBS in comparison with hydrogenated oil. Significant increase of FBS was also detected with the use of ghee compared to olive oil. Ghee also significantly reduced FSF in left and right coronary arteries compared to olive oil. FSF in left coronary arteries was significantly lower in the hypecholesterolemic diet plus ghee group compared to the hypecholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil group.
According to the achieved results, future clinical trial studies and investigation of other risk factors such as inflammatory factors are required.
Fatty Streak; Ghee; Hypercholesterolemic; Olive Oil
Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and has various risk factors. Lipid profile i.e. low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides playing important role in its causation. Recently interest has been shown in the oxidized fraction of LDL as one of the risk factors. In the present study 60 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals were taken as controls and 60 patients of CAD were taken. Cholesterol was measured by enzymatic method, HDL cholesterol by phosphotungstate precipitation method. Serum levels of LDL fraction of cholesterol was measured by a new and simpler method of precipitation. Result was expressed as mol/L of diene conjugates. It was observed that LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol: HDL cholesterol were significantly raised and HDL cholesterol was significantly low in patients. (p<0.001). Though HDL cholesterol was significantly raised in females as compared to males in both the groups (p<0.001). Serum level of total cholesterol, oxidized LDL:HDL cholesterol were also raised significantly (p<0.05). The level of oxidized LDL showed an increasing trend in patients.
Oxidised; LDL; lipoprotein; coronary artery disease
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are 5–8 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than the general population. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of the small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol particle in patients with SLE.
We recruited 50 consecutive patients with SLE who had no evidence of hypertension or renal failure. Fifty age- and gender-matched healthy controls were also recruited. We measured serum lipid levels and LDL particle diameters by gradient gel electrophoresis in both patients and controls.
Patients with SLE had significant dyslipidemia, characterized by elevated plasma triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, Apoprotein B, triglyceride:high-density (HDL) lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and decreased plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol. The LDL particle size in SLE (24.8 ± 1.23 nm) was significantly (P < 0.01) smaller than that in controls (26.1 ± 1.31 nm). The prevalence of the LDL phenotype B (the atherogenic phenotype) was 52% in SLE but only 20% in healthy controls.
We conclude that the high prevalence of small dense LDL in SLE may contribute to the high incidence of coronary heart disease seen in this disorder.
low-density lipoprotein; particle size; atherosclerosis; systemic lupus erythematosus
Primordial prevention of chronic disease is of clinical and public health importance. Considering the fetal onset of atherosclerosis, we aimed to determine the cord blood level of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins as well as their correlation with birth weight and gestational age.
This cross-sectional study comprised 100 healthy Indian newborns. Ten ml. of cord blood was collected from placental end of umbilical vein. Serum was separated by centrifugation and analyzed on the same day for lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoproteincholesterol (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoproteins A-I and B (ApoA-I, ApoB). Atherogenic index (AI) was calculated as the ratio of ApoB to ApoA-I.
Cord blood of female newborns had higher TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, Apo A-I, Apo B and AI as compared to male newborns, whereas TG and VLDL-C were higher in male than in female newborns. Significant positive correlation was observed between cord blood Apo A-I and HDL-C (r= 0.45, p<0.01), and between cord blood Apo-B and LDL-C (r= 0.44, p<0.01). Non-significant inverse correlation was observed between Apo A-I and ApoB with gestational age. There was a significant inverse correlation between TG and gestational age (r= –0.197, p <0.05). Positive non-significant correlation was observed between AI and birth weight (r=0.046, p>0.05).
These findings are another confirmatory evidence for the association of prenatal factors with cord blood lipid profile, and can serve as starting point for studying lipid transport system changes during early life.
Cord blood; Fetal period; Lipoprotein; Apolipoprotein; Primordial prevention
Changes in lipid profile have long been associated with malignancies as lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. This study evaluated the alterations in extended lipid profile in untreated patients of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and studied the correlation between lipid levels with tobacco consumption.
Materials and methods
In this hospital-based study, 65 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically proven patients of OSMF and 42 age and sex matched controls were studied. In these samples serum lipids including: (i) Total cholesterol, (ii) LDL cholesterol (LDLC), (iii) HDL cholesterol (HDLC) (iv) VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC) (v) triglycerides (vi) Apo-A1 (viii) Apo-B and (viii) LPa were analyzed.
A significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, HDLC and Apo-A1 was observed in patients with OSMF as compared to the controls. Thus an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and patients was found in OSMF.
The lower levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients might be due to their increased utilization. The findings strongly warrant an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in patients with oral precancerous conditions.
To determine plasma apolipoprotein M (apoM) levels and other lipid profiles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients compared to other chronic liver diseases and normal subjects.
Materials and methods
36 HCC, 68 chronic hepatitis, 29 liver cirrhosis patients and 64 normal controls were subjected in the present study. Serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) and apoB were determined by the conventional methods. Plasma apoM levels were semi-quantitatively determined by both dot-blotting and western blotting analysis.
Serum levels of triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol, apoAI and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were significantly lower in the HCC patients than in the normal subjects, whereas there were no obvious differences on serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB between HCC patients and normal subjects. However, plasma apoM levels in HCC patients were significantly increased than those in the normal subjects, but lower than those in the chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis patients.
It is concluded that serum TG, apoAI, HDL-C and Lp(a) were significantly decreased in HCC patients than in controls, whereas plasma apoM levels were significantly increased in the HCC patients. Decreased serum TG, apoAI, HDL-C and Lp(a) may reflect the liver damage in HCC patients, whereas the clinical significance of increased plasma apoM levels in relation to HCC is not clear.
Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats.
We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks.
LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS.
We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC.
Objective: Disturbances in lipid and lipoprotein profiles in patients after kidney transplantation (Tx) are still not understood. Methods: Serum levels of lipids, lipoprotein, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were determined, lipid and lipoprotein ratios were calculated, and their relationships in Tx patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and lower apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) concentration were examined. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured in 109 Tx patients and 89 healthy subjects. HDL particle levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Tx patients had disturbed concentration, composition, and metabolism of TRLs and HDL particles. Multivariance analysis showed significant and positive correlation between HDL cholesterol/apoAI (HDL-C/apoAI) and HDL-C/HDL ratios, which indicates that both ratios could sensitively reflect changes in the HDL subclasses and their distribution into smaller size particles. In Tx patients, the decreased HDL-C/apoAI ratio indicates that, along with the decreased apoAI concentration, the HDL-C level is decreased. However, a low HDL-C/HDL ratio indicates that HDL particles in Tx patients transport lesser content of HDL-C but more triglyceride (TG) (high TG/HDL ratio), and thus are hypercatabolized and removed; therefore, concentration of HDL particles in serum was decreased. Conclusion: The decrease of HDL-C/apoAI ratio seems to be a good marker of HDL subclass distribution into smaller size particles.
Lipid; Lipoprotein; High-density lipoprotein particle; Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein; Renal transplantation
This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as antioxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation.
Antherogenic diet; protein carbonyl; TBARS; FRAP; cranberry powder
While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects.
In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO) (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA) (n = 16) or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (n = 17) for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS), where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR) analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significantly decreased (FDR<0.05) in the FO group after three weeks compared with the HOSO group, whereas fifty-one were increased including selected phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. After seven weeks of intervention the two intervention groups showed similar grouping.
In healthy subjects, fish oil supplementation alters lipid metabolism and increases the proportion of phospholipids and triglycerides containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Whether the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation may be explained by a remodeling of the plasma lipids into phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids needs to be further investigated.
In this report we compare the cord blood lipoproteins of a newborn boy homozygote who has low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-defective familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) with the lipoproteins from cord blood of normal newborns. Plasma LDL-cholesterol and apoprotein (Apo)B were 612 and 233 mg/dl (vs. 31±16 and 24±12 mg/dl, respectively, for normals, n = 21). LDL-cholesterol/ApoB ratio was 2.6 vs. 1.4±0.5. Levels of ApoA-I, ApoA-II, and HDL-cholesterol were similar to normal cord plasma. Thus, the lipoprotein abnormality is apparent at birth and is definitely present in LDL. Abnormalities in other lipoprotein, lipid, and in plasma apoprotein levels were not detected. On zonal ultracentrifugation, FH LDL was comprised of two populations (LDLa and LDLb), both faster floating than normal cord LDL (LDLc). This difference was due to the larger diameters of the particles on electron microscopy (LDLa = 276Å±32 and LDLb = 260Å±38 vs. LDLc = 237Å±26, n = 200 each, mean±1 SD), and their higher contents of lipids relative to protein (86 and 82% vs. 74%, LDLa, LDLb, and LDLc, respectively). More than 94% of the protein in both the FH and the normal preparations consisted of ApoB. FH LDL were more effective than control LDL in competing with 125I-LDL (adult) for limiting amounts of anti-LDL antibodies in radioimmunoassay. FH LDL also competed more effectively for binding to LDL receptors on cultured fibroblasts at 4°C, and FH LDL also delivered more cholesterol into the cells. Cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient serum contained 44±2 μg cholesterol/mg cell protein, incubation of cells for 18 h at 37°C in 5 μg/ml FH LDL (protein) or in normal LDL raised cellular cholesterol levels to 75±2 and 60±2 μg/mg, respectively.
LDL isolated from the FH patient's plasma at 6 mo of age and from his brother's plasma (a 5-yr-old boy FH homozygote) were similar to LDL isolated from normolipemic subjects in flotation properties, chemical composition, and immunochemical and cell reactivity. The fact that differences between normal cord LDL and FH cord LDL were present at birth, but that the differences between control and FH LDL were no longer present postnatally suggests that the altered immunologic and cell interactive properties of FH cord LDL were probably related to its unusually high contents of core lipids.
The present study was carried out to explore the altered lipid, lipoprotein and apoprotein abnormalities along with lipoprotein (a) in chronic kidney disease patients with stage I to V which were further divided into group 1 (stage I and II), group 2 (stage III and IV) and group 3 (stage V). 50 chronic kidney disease patients with stage I to V and 20 healthy normal subjects as controls were recruited for this study. Among the various parameters tested triglyceride levels were high in group 1 and 2, whereas VLDL cholesterol, Lp (a) and apo B levels were significantly high in all the groups when compared to controls (P<0.05). However, LDL cholesterol level was significantly low in group 3 only as compared to control group (P<0.05). Apoprotein AI values also showed significant decrease in all groups as compared to controls (P<0.05). Though total cholesterol levels in group 1 and LDL levels in group 1 and 2 were higher than controls, but the values attained not statistically significant (P>0.05). In conclusion high levels of VLDL cholesterol, Lp (a), apo B and low levels of apoprotein AI as reported in this study are the major lipid disorders in the development of cardiovascular complications at all the stages in these patients.
Chronic Kidney Disease; End stage renal disease; Lipid Profile; Lp(a); Lipoprotein Metabolism
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colon cancer incidence are known to be closely related to dietary factors. This article evaluated effects of krill oil (KO) on serum lipids of hyperlipidemia rats and human colon cancer cells (SW480). Serum lipids of rats fed with high fat diet (HFD) and different doses of KO were measured by automatic analyzer. Effect of KO on viability of cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay.
Except for higher dose group, body weights decreased significantly. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) of all dose groups, Triglycerides (TG) of low and mid dose groups descended significantly, while there were no significant differences of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), compared with control group. Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth.
Our findings indicated that the consumption of KO may provide benefits to control serum lipid levels in certain diseases and inhibit growth of colon cancer cells. Therefore, KO may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P < 0.05), whilst concentrations of TG, apoA, apoB, insulin and glucose remained unaltered compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.
Pathological levels of blood lipids could be one of the causes of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). The objective of this manuscript is therefore to evaluate the relationship between blood lipid content and sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL).
The correlation between serum lipid parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apo AI), apolipoprotein B (apo B), and lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), and the onset of SSNHL was analyzed from a data set of 250 patients and an age, gender and weight matched control group of 250 subjects.
The result of single factor logistic regression shows that TC (p<0.01), LDL-C (p<0.01), and apo B (p=0.03) of SSNHL group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The odds ratio of TC, LDL, and apo B are higher than 1, while the confidence intervals of the odds rations do not include 1. No significant difference was found with the prevalence of hypertension (P=0.818), diabetes (P=0.869) and smoking habits (P=0.653) between SSNHL group and control group.
Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations may be important factors in the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and should be assessed during the investigation of patients with this condition.
Sudden Hearing Loss; Cholesterol; Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; Triglycerides
Background and Purpose
We compared the levels of serum lipid, protein, and glucose between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls.
The serum levels of lipids [including triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)], protein, and glucose of 95 patients with ALS (60 men) were compared with those of 99 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (64 men). Both groups had normal dietary intakes.
Total cholesterol (p=0.004), LDL (p=0.040), triglyceride (p=0.025), and protein (p=0.010) levels, and LDL/HDL ratios (p<0.001) in men with ALS were significantly lower than those in their control counterparts. There were no such significant differences in these parameters between female patients with ALS and female controls.
The serum levels of lipid and protein were significantly lower in male patients with ALS than in the male controls. Since we controlled for the confounding effects of dietary intake, hypolipidemia in ALS might be associated with the pathophysiology of the disease rather than being the result of the decreased dietary intake in ALS patients. Metabolic demand might increase in ALS, and it may be affected by gender.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; dyslipidemia; gender differences
Traditional lipid indices have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but it remains uncertain which lipid index is the best discriminator for diabetes. In this study, we aimed to assess lipoproteins, traditional lipid variables, and other variables to discover their association with diabetes in the Taiwanese population.
Data from a nationwide cross-sectional population-based survey of 3087 men and 3373 women in 2002 were analyzed in this study. All participants were assessed for anthropometry, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting sugar and lipid profiles with triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and B (ApoB). The ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoB/ApoA1, ApoB/LDL-C and ApoA1/HDL-C and other variables were analyzed to determine their potential roles in type 2 diabetes in the Taiwanese population. The Odds ratios (ORs) of the risk variables for diabetes were estimated using logistic regression and were adjusted for confounding factors.
The increased ratio of ApoA1/HDL-C was significantly associated with diabetes in men (top tertile vs. lowest: OR 2.98; 95% CI: 1.12 - 7.92; P-trend = 0.030) and women (top tertile vs. lowest: OR 2.15; 95% CI: 1.00 - 4.59; P-trend = 0.047). A modest increased diabetic risk was evident with ApoB/LDL-C in women (top tertile vs. lowest: OR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.07- 3.85; P-trend = 0.028), but not in men (top tertile v. lowest: OR 1.69; 95% CI: 0.79- 3.62; P-trend = 0.198).
ApoA1/HDL-C had a significant linear association with diabetes in both sexes and was superior to other lipid and lipoprotein variables among the general Taiwanese population.
Apolipoprotein A1; Apolipoprotein B; High density lipoprotein-cholesterol; Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; Diabetes
Background and Aims
An impaired lipid metabolism is often observed in patients with chronic liver diseases. To determine lipid profile in patients with cirrhosis and to asses if it relates to the severity of the cirrhosis.
Materials and Methods
In an analytical cross-sectional study, 50 patients with cirrhosis (case) and 50 age- and sex matched healthy normolipidemic patients (comparison) were studied. A questionnaire including personal characteristics,etiology of cirrhosis, pathologic criteria of CHILD and MELD and lipid profile (total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride) was completed for each patient.
In patients with cirrhosis, there was a significant decrease in serum triglyceride, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels compared to the comparison group (mean of 82 vs 187, 138 vs 184, 80 vs 137, and 40 vs 44 mg/dL, respectively; all p<0.05). Comparison of lipid profile with pathologic progression of cirrhosis revealed that except for serum triglyceride level, serum lipid levels diminishe linearly with progression of liver damage.
Serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol level in patients with cirrhosis is inversely correlate with severity of cirrhosis.
Cirrhosis; Lipid profile; MELD score
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group.
An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood) were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation.
The daily macronutrients intake (g/day) have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene), vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10) in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P < 0.05). Lower levels of MDA were associated with MDS > 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern.
Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better cardiovascular risk profile, reduced oxidative stress and modulation of inflammation.
overall diet quality; oxidative stress; markers of inflammation; Mediterranean dietary pattern
Guangxi Zhuang, the largest ethnic minority in China, is located in the southern part of the country, and well-known to the world as the longevity village. Studies of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism in adults suggest the lower frequencies of E4 allele and E4/E4 genotype may account, in part, for the favorable lipid profiles of Guangxi Zhuang. However, the effect of APOE polymorphism on serum lipids in the Guangxi Zhuang children is yet unknown to date. In the present study, genomic DNA was extracted from 278 Guangxi Zhuang and 200 Guangxi Han children. APOE genotypes were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The fasting serum lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and apoB were measured. Our results demonstrated that no significant differences in serum lipids were observed between the Guangxi Zhuang and Han children. The E4/E4 and E4/E3 genotypic frequencies were significantly lower in the Guangxi Zhuang children compared with the Guangxi Han children, whereas for E2/E2, E3/E2 and E4/E2 genotypic frequencies the opposite was presented. Though no significant differences in serum lipid concentrations were found for variant alleles both in the Guangxi Zhuang and Han children, the trend was observed in the association of higher levels of Lp(a), TC, TG and LDL-C with E4 allele in the Guangxi Zhuang children. In conclusion, a significant heterogeneity in APOE genetic variation indeed exists between the Guangxi Zhuang and Han ethnic group. The E4 allele may serve as a genetic marker for susceptibility to higher lipid profiles in the Guangxi Zhuang children. Lifestyle should be modified, according to APOE polymorphism even in the young children.
apolipoprtein; ethnic group; genotype; total cholesterol; child