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1.  Comparison of effects of soft margarine, blended, ghee, and unhydrogenated oil with hydrogenated oil on serum lipids: A randomized clinical trail 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(6):363-371.
BACKGROUND
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are known as the most harmful type of dietary fats. Therefore, this study was done to compare the effects of some different oils including unhydrogenated, blended, ghee, and soft magazine with hydrogenated oil on serum lipid profile of healthy adults.
METHODS
This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 206 healthy participants of 20 to 60 years of age. Subjects were randomly divided into 5 groups and each of them was treated with a diet containing unhydrogenated oil, ghee, blended oil, soft margarine, or hydrogenated oil for 40 days. Fasting serum lipids were measured before and after the study.
RESULTS
Compared to hydrogenated oil, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) had a significant reduction in all groups, LDL-C declined in unhydrogenated oil and soft margarine groups, and apolipoprotein (Apo) B only in unhydrogenated oil group (all P < 0.05). However, there was a significant enhancement in ApoA of ghee oil (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION
Consuming unhydrogenated oil, ghee, soft margarine, and blended oil had some beneficial effects on serum lipids.
PMCID: PMC3933054  PMID: 24575140
Clinical Trial; Dietary Fat; Commercial Oil; Lipid
2.  The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation 
Ayu  2010;31(2):134-140.
Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of medicated ghee decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in psoriasis patients. A study on a rural population in India revealed a significantly lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in men who consumed higher amounts of ghee. Research on Maharishi Amrit Kalash-4 (MAK-4), an Ayurvedic herbal mixture containing ghee, showed no effect on levels of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL, or triglycerides in hyperlipidemic patients who ingested MAK-4 for 18 weeks. MAK-4 inhibited the oxidation of LDL in these patients. The data available in the literature do not support a conclusion of harmful effects of the moderate consumption of ghee in the general population. Factors that may be involved in the rise of CAD in Asian Indians include the increased use of vanaspati (vegetable ghee) which contains 40% trans fatty acids, psychosocial stress, insulin resistance, and altered dietary patterns. Research findings in the literature support the beneficial effects of ghee outlined in the ancient Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic use of ghee for thousands of years in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.72361
PMCID: PMC3215354  PMID: 22131700
Anhydrous milk fat; cholesterol; clarified butter; coronary artery disease; ghee; lipid peroxidation; vanaspati; vegetable ghee.
3.  Effects of dietary supplementation with ghee, hydrogenated oil, or olive oil on lipid profile and fatty streak formation in rabbits 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(3):119-124.
BACKGROUND
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. A high-fat diet, rich in saturated fatty acids and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, is said to be an important cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
METHODS
In this experimental study, 40 male rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups of five to receive normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet, normal diet plus ghee, normal diet plus olive oil, normal diet plus hydrogenated oil, hypercholesterolemic diet plus ghee, hypercholesterolemic diet plus olive oil, and hypercholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil. They received rabbit chow for a period of 12 weeks. At the start and end of the study, fasting blood samples were taken from all animals to measure biochemical factors including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, aorta, left and right coronary arteries were dissected at the end of the study to investigate fatty streak formation (FSF). Data was analyzed in SPSS at a significance level of 0.05.
RESULTS
In rabbits under normal diet, ghee significantly increased TC, LDL, and HDL compared to the beginning (P < 0.01) and also to the other two types of fat (P < 0.05). Moreover, normal diet plus olive oil significantly enhanced FSF in left coronary arteries and aorta compared to normal diet plus ghee. In groups receiving hypercholesterolemic diets, ghee significantly increased HDL and CRP (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased FBS (P < 0.01). The hypecholesterolemic diet plus olive oil significantly increased HDL (P < 0.01). Supplementation of hypecholesterolemic diet with ghee significantly increased HDL and FBS in comparison with hydrogenated oil. Significant increase of FBS was also detected with the use of ghee compared to olive oil. Ghee also significantly reduced FSF in left and right coronary arteries compared to olive oil. FSF in left coronary arteries was significantly lower in the hypecholesterolemic diet plus ghee group compared to the hypecholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil group.
CONCLUSION
According to the achieved results, future clinical trial studies and investigation of other risk factors such as inflammatory factors are required.
PMCID: PMC3557004  PMID: 23358722
Fatty Streak; Ghee; Hypercholesterolemic; Olive Oil
4.  Olive and Sesame Oil Effect on Lipid Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Patients, Which Better? 
Background:
The study on natural substances especially, dietary components such as liquid oils affecting cholesterol can be important for therapeutic propose. Sesame seeds with various biomedical actions can be control the hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand, olive oil has a wide range of therapeutic effect on lipid profile in human. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare lipid profile changes after olive and sesame oils consumption in hypercholesterolemia.
Methods:
This study was a clinical randomized trial that was performed via parallel design on 48 patients. The patients were randomly allocated in to two groups: A: olive oil and B: sesame oil. After 1 month prescription of Step I National Cholesterol Education Program diet, patients consumed 4 table spoons aprox. 60 g) of refined olive or sesame oil daily as an exchange of other oils, for 1 month. Lipid profiles The P < 0.05 was considered as significant difference.
Results:
Out of 48 patients, 24 (50%) were men. The mean age was 41.7 ± 8.3 years. The mean of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, before oil consumption was 224.5 ± 22, 256 ± 132, 132.6 ± 9, and 44.5 ± 11 mg/dl. After olive oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, weight, waist and BMI were decreased and HDL-C was increased. After sesame oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C were significantly decreased. Weight, waist were decreased and HDL-C was increased (P > 0.05).
Conclusions:
Sesame oil had equivalent effect on lipid profile in comparison olive oil and lipid profile improvement was better in sesame oil in LDL-C and TG.
PMCID: PMC3793488  PMID: 24130948
Hypercholesterolemia; olive oil; sesame oil
5.  Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids on apolipoproteins and lipoprotein (a) 
Objectives: To investigate the effects of two different regimens of androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) administration on serum lipid and lipoproteins, and recovery of these variables after drug cessation, as indicators of the risk for cardiovascular disease in healthy male strength athletes.
Methods: In a non-blinded study (study 1) serum lipoproteins and lipids were assessed in 19 subjects who self administered AASs for eight or 14 weeks, and in 16 non-using volunteers. In a randomised double blind, placebo controlled design, the effects of intramuscular administration of nandrolone decanoate (200 mg/week) for eight weeks on the same variables in 16 bodybuilders were studied (study 2). Fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-cholesterol (HDL2-C), HDL3-cholesterol (HDL3-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were determined.
Results: In study 1 AAS administration led to decreases in serum concentrations of HDL-C (from 1.08 (0.30) to 0.43 (0.22) mmol/l), HDL2-C (from 0.21 (0.18) to 0.05 (0.03) mmol/l), HDL3-C (from 0.87 (0.24) to 0.40 (0.20) mmol/l, and Apo-A1 (from 1.41 (0.27) to 0.71 (0.34) g/l), whereas Apo-B increased from 0.96 (0.13) to 1.32 (0.28) g/l. Serum Lp(a) declined from 189 (315) to 32 (63) U/l. Total cholesterol and triglycerides did not change significantly. Alterations after eight and 14 weeks of AAS administration were comparable. No changes occurred in the controls. Six weeks after AAS cessation, serum HDL-C, HDL2-C, Apo-A1, Apo-B, and Lp(a) had still not returned to baseline concentrations. Administration of AAS for 14 weeks was associated with slower recovery to pretreatment concentrations than administration for eight weeks. In study 2, nandrolone decanoate did not influence serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C, Apo-A1, and Apo-B concentrations after four and eight weeks of intervention, nor six weeks after withdrawal. However, Lp(a) concentrations decreased significantly from 103 (68) to 65 (44) U/l in the nandrolone decanoate group, and in the placebo group a smaller reduction from 245 (245) to 201 (194) U/l was observed. Six weeks after the intervention period, Lp(a) concentrations had returned to baseline values in both groups.
Conclusions: Self administration of several AASs simultaneously for eight or 14 weeks produces comparable profound unfavourable effects on lipids and lipoproteins, leading to an increased atherogenic lipid profile, despite a beneficial effect on Lp(a) concentration. The changes persist after AAS withdrawal, and normalisation depends on the duration of the drug abuse. Eight weeks of administration of nandrolone decanoate does not affect lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, although it may selectively reduce Lp(a) concentrations. The effect of this on atherogenesis remains to be established.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2003.000199
PMCID: PMC1724824  PMID: 15155420
6.  Fish Oil Supplementation Alters the Plasma Lipidomic Profile and Increases Long-Chain PUFAs of Phospholipids and Triglycerides in Healthy Subjects 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e42550.
Background
While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO) (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA) (n = 16) or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) (n = 17) for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS), where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR) analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significantly decreased (FDR<0.05) in the FO group after three weeks compared with the HOSO group, whereas fifty-one were increased including selected phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. After seven weeks of intervention the two intervention groups showed similar grouping.
Conclusions/Significance
In healthy subjects, fish oil supplementation alters lipid metabolism and increases the proportion of phospholipids and triglycerides containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Whether the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation may be explained by a remodeling of the plasma lipids into phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids needs to be further investigated.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034423
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042550
PMCID: PMC3429454  PMID: 22952598
7.  Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:365892.
The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P < 0.05), whilst concentrations of TG, apoA, apoB, insulin and glucose remained unaltered compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.
doi:10.1155/2013/365892
PMCID: PMC3777125  PMID: 24082850
8.  High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee (clarified butter) increases the antioxidant and antiatherogenic potency in female Wistar rats 
Background
Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress are the main stimulating factors responsible for coronary artery disease and progression of atherosclerosis. Dairy food products are rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which is considered as an important component due to its potential health benefits such as anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and antiadipogenic properties. In the present study, the effect of CLA enriched ghee on the antioxidant enzyme system and antiatherogenic properties in Wistar rats has been studied.
Methods
Female Wistar rats of 21 days were taken for the study and fed with soybean diet (Control diet), low CLA diet and high CLA ghee diet (treatments) for thirty five days for studying antioxidative enzymes and sixteen weeks in case of antiatherogenic studies.
Results
Feeding of high CLA enhanced ghee during pubescent period in rats lead to an increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in blood and increased CAT, SOD and glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes activities in liver by 27, 130 and 168 percent, respectively. Plasma nitrate concentration and Haemoglobin levels remained the same in all the treatments. Feeding of high CLA ghee resulted in lower (P < 0.01) plasma cholesterol & triglyceride level (52.17 and 30.27%), and higher high density lipoproteins (33.26%) than feeding of soybean oil (control group) and thus manifested in decreased (P < 0.05) atherogenic index (from 0.472 to 0.244). Lesser cholesterol and triglyceride levels were observed in the liver and aorta of high CLA fed rats than in those of the other groups. Histopathological studies of liver showed normal hepatic cords with portal triad in the high CLA ghee fed rats whereas fatty degeneration of hepatocytes containing fat vacuoles was observed in the liver of the other groups.
Conclusion
This paper is the first report of the antioxidant and antiatherogenic properties of the high CLA enriched ghee suggesting that high CLA ghee can be used as a potential food for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, particularly in India, where, ghee is widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-121
PMCID: PMC3766171  PMID: 23923985
High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee; Antiatherogenic; Antioxidant; Catalase; Superoxide dismutase; Cholesterol
9.  Several genetic polymorphisms interact with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels 
Background
Information about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on serum lipid profiles is still scarce. The present study was undertaken to detect ten SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on serum lipid levels.
Methods
A total of 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects of Bai Ku Yao were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) < 24, 24–28, and > 28 kg/m2; respectively. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and ApoB levels were measured. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions were detected by factorial design covariance analysis.
Results
The genotypic and allelic frequencies of LIPC and PCSK9 were different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects, the genotypic frequency of LIPG and allelic frequency of MYLIP were also different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of TC, ApoA1 (ABCA-1); TC, LDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TG, HDL-C, and ApoA1 (LIPG); TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); HDL-C and ApoA1 (MYLIP) in normal weight subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of LDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (ABCA-1); HDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TC, HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (LIPG); TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); TC, TG and ApoB (MYLIP); TG (PCSK9); TG, ApoA1 and ApoB (PPARD); and TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (SCARB1) in overweight/obese subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1 (LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB); LIPC (TC, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB); LIPG (ApoB); MTHFR (TC, TG and LDL-C); MYLIP (TC and TG); PCSK9 (TG, HDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB); PPARD (TG and ApoA1/ApoB); and SCARB1 (TG, ApoA1 and ApoB) interacted with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels (P < 0.05-0.001).
Conclusions
The differences in serum lipid levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different genetic polymorphisms and the interactions between several SNPs and overweight/obesity.
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-123
PMCID: PMC3508802  PMID: 23039238
Lipid; Apolipoprotein; Genetic polymorphism; Overweight; Obesity; Interaction
10.  Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits 
The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO) on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids). The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP) or kernel oil (NK) of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC). Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG) levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise), thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs), and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels) with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil.
doi:10.1155/2012/840973
PMCID: PMC3366250  PMID: 22685623
11.  ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G5 and G8 Polymorphisms and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37972.
Background
The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C (rs6720173) and ApoA1 (rs3806471) in Mulao were also different among their genotypes (P<0.05 for each). The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C and ApoB (rs6720173); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han males; and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han females were different between the genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Mulao females were also different between GG and GC/CC genotypes of rs6720173 (P<0.05). The correlation between serum lipid parameters and genotypes of four SNPs was observed in Han, especially in Han males. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors.
Conclusions
The associations of four ABCG5/G8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between ABCG5/G8 SNPs and some serum lipid parameters.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037972
PMCID: PMC3360029  PMID: 22655090
12.  Increased Production Rates of LDL Are Common in Individuals With Low Plasma Levels of HDL Cholesterol, Independent of Plasma Triglyceride Concentrations 
Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis  1993;13(6):842-851.
Reduced plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease. Although plasma HDL levels are, in general, inversely related to plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations, a small proportion of individuals with low HDL cholesterol concentrations have normal plasma TG levels. We wished to determine whether subjects with low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol could be characterized by common abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism independent of plasma TGs. Therefore, we studied the metabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) apolipoprotein B (apo B) and HDL apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) in subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations with or without hypertriglyceridemia. Nine subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels and normal levels of plasma TGs and LDL cholesterol were studied. Autologous 131I-LDL and 125I-HDL were injected intravenously, and blood samples were collected for 2 weeks. LDL apo B and HDL apo A-I levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. Fractional catabolic rates (FCRs, pools per day) and production rates (PRs, milligrams/kilogram · day) for each apolipoprotein were determined. The results were compared with those obtained previously in nine subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels and hypertriglyceridemia and in seven normal subjects. The normal subjects had an HDL apo A-I FCR (mean±SD) of 0.21±0.04. Despite large differences in plasma TG levels, the HDL apo A-I FCRs were similar in the low-HDL, normal-TG group (0.30±0.09) and the low-HDL, high-TG group (0.033±0.10), although only the latter value was significantly increased versus control subjects (p<0.03). Increased apo A-I FCRs were associated with reduced HDL apo A-I levels in both groups of patients. Apo A-I PRs were similar in all groups. In contrast, LDL apo B PR was increased approximately 50% in the low-HDL, normal-TG group (19.3±6.6; p<0.01) compared with normal subjects (12.5±2.6). There was a strong trend toward a greater LDL apo B PR in the low-HDL, high-TG group (17.6±4.5;p=0.06 versus normal subjects) as well. LDL apo B FCRs were similar in all three groups. LDL apo B concentrations were also increased in the group with low HDL cholesterol and normal TG levels. Both groups with low HDL cholesterol levels had cholesterol-depleted LDL and HDL particles. In summary, reduced levels of plasma HDL cholesterol were generally associated with accelerated fractional removal of HDL apo A-I from plasma, increased production of plasma LDL apo B, and evidence of increased cholesteryl ester transfer out of LDL and HDL. The presence of these similar metabolic abnormalities whether or not plasma TG levels were increased suggests that increased apo B production may be a central defect in these patients and that low plasma HDL levels may be closely linked to increased plasma levels of apo B–containing lipoproteins independent of circulating levels of plasma TG.
PMCID: PMC3277740  PMID: 8499404
coronary heart disease; HDL; LDL; apolipoprotein B; apolipoprotein A-I; cholesteryl ester transfer protein; reverse cholesterol transport
13.  Lipoproteins in pregnant women before and during delivery: influence on neonatal haemorheology. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1996;49(2):120-123.
AIMS: To investigate whether the lipid profile of pregnant women during parturition differs from the profile at previous stages of pregnancy and to determine the effects of maternal lipid changes on fetal or neonatal haemorheology. METHODS: Sixty pregnant women were studied, divided into two groups. Group 1 contained 30 women of mean age of 27 (SD 3) years and gestational age > 38 weeks in whom delivery had not yet begun; all these pregnancies followed an uncomplicated course and there was no evidence of any fetal pathology from previous obstetric examinations. All the women reached term and birth weight was 3340 (350) g. Group 2 contained women of mean age 26 (4) years, in whom delivery was ongoing, all of whose pregnancies reached term. The following variables were determined in all cases: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), free fatty acids and phospholipids, and apoprotein A (apo-A) and apoprotein B (apo-B). Serum and plasma viscosity was measured with a capillary viscosimeter. RESULTS: The apo-B/apo-A and HDL/apo-A ratios increased during delivery, indicating that in pregnant women these atherogenic indices are raised during delivery compared with previous gestational stages. Significant correlation coefficients were obtained between maternal lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, total cholesterol/HDL, and LDL/HDL) and plasma viscosity in the neonate. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma atherogenic indices increase progressively until birth. These changes have implications for neonatal haemorheology because they cause an increase in plasma viscosity.
PMCID: PMC500343  PMID: 8655676
14.  Comparative antilipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil administration in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice 
Background
There is an increasing number of novel antilipidemic therapies under consideration. The putative hypolipidemic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sesame oil was studied in a mouse model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia.
Methods
Male C57bl/6 mice were assigned to the following groups: (NC) control group, (HC) group receiving test diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 8 weeks, (HCN) group receiving the test diet with NAC supplementation (230 mg/kg p.o.) and (HCS) group fed the test diet enriched with 10% sesame oil. Total serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Total peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in the serum at the end of the experiment. Hepatic and aortic lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin-eosin staining.
Results
Higher serum levels of total and LDL-cholesterol were recorded in all groups fed the high cholesterol diet. The HCN group presented reduced lipid levels compared to HC and HCS groups. No differences were observed between HCS and HC groups. Peroxide content in serum was markedly increased in mice consuming high cholesterol diet. NAC and sesame oil administration led to a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation in the levels of control group, whereas only NAC restored NO bioavailability. In terms of liver histology, the lesions observed in HCN group were less severe than those seen in the other high cholesterol groups.
Conclusion
Co-administration of NAC, but not sesame oil, restored the disturbed lipid profile and improved hepatic steatosis in the studied diet-induced hypercholesterolemic mice. Both agents appear to ameliorate serum antioxidant defense.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-23
PMCID: PMC2848040  PMID: 20205925
15.  Effect of Dietary Substitution of Groundnut Oil on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Redox Status in Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats 
The effect of groundnut oil on blood glucose, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-diabetic rats was investigated and compared with diabetic and drug-treated rats. Diabetes was induced in adult female Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg b-wt). Normal and diabetic rats were fed an oil-free diet containing 2 percent oil supplemented with groundnut oil (6g per 94g diet), to give 8 percent oil content, for 42 days. Diabetic rats had elevated levels of glucose (322.61 ± 9.49), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and lipid hydroperoxides (HP) and decreased levels of hemoglobin (Hb), vitamin C, and reduced glutathione (GSH). An increase in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a decrease in hexokinase activity also were observed in the liver and kidney. When diabetic rats were fed groundnut oil, a significant reduction in glucose (244.04 ± 11.66), HbA1c, TBARS, HP levels, and glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities and an elevation in Hb, vitamin E, GSH levels, and hexokinase activity were observed. Diabetic rats had elevated total cholesterol (TC), VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) and decreased HDL-cholesterol. Diabetic rats fed groundnut oil showed a small but significant reduction in TC, VLDL-C, LDL-C, and TG and an elevation in HDL-C. Groundnut oil consumption slightly but significantly decreases the blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile and increases antioxidant levels in diabetic rats.
PMCID: PMC1942175  PMID: 17876371
16.  Effects of atorvastatin 10 mg and fenofibrate 200 mg on the low-density lipoprotein profile in dyslipidemic patients: A 12-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study 
Background: Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations are highly atherogenic, especially the small, dense LDL (sdLDL) species. Fenofibrate has been reported to shift the LDL profile by decreasing the sdLDL subfraction and increasing larger LDL subclasses. Atorvastatin, anantihyperlipidemic agent, has been reported to reduce plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations and thus could modify the LDL profile.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fenofi brate and atorvastatin on standard lipid concentrations and the LDL profile.
Methods: In this randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, men and women aged 18 to 79 years with type II primary dyslipidemia, defined as LDL-C ≥160 and TG 150 to 400 mg/dL, after a 4- to 6-week washout period while eating an appropriate diet, were randomized to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg once daily or fenofi-brate 200 mg once daily. Plasma lipid concentrations and cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B (reflecting the LDL particle number) in each LDL subfraction prepared by ultracentrifiigation were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Tolerability was assessed using adverse events (AEs) obtained on laboratory analysis and vital sign measurement. Adherence was assessed by counting unused drug supplies.
Results: A total of 165 patients (117 men, 48 women; mean [SD] age, 50.1 [10.7] years; mean TC concentration, 289 mg/dL) were randomized to receive atorvastatin (n = 81) or fenofibrate (n = 84). Compared with fenofibrate, atorvastatin was associated with a significantly greater mean (SD) percentage decrease in TC (27.0% [12.3%] vs 16.5% [12.9%]; P < 0.001), calculated LDL-C (35.4% [15.8%] vs 17.3% [17.2%]; P < 0.001), TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (29.1% [16.3%] vs 22.9% [15.9%]; P = 0.001), and apoB (30.3% [12.7%] vs 19.6% [15.5%]; P < 0.001). Compared with atorvastatin, fenofibrate was associated with a significantly greater decrease in TG (37.2% [25.9%] vs 20.2% [27.3%]; P < 0.001) and a significantly greater increase in HDL-C concentration (10.4% [15.7%] vs 4.6% [12.1%]; P = 0.017). Fibrinogen concentration was significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.002); it was decreased with fenofibrate use (4.6% [23.7%]) and was increased with atorvastatin use (5.7% [23.5%]). Atorvastatin did not markedly affect the LDL distribution; it was associated with a homogeneous decrease in cholesterol and apoB concentrations in all subfractions, whereas fenofibrate was associated with a marked movement toward a normalized LDL profile, shifting the sdLDL subfractions toward larger and less atherogenic particles, particularly in those patients with baseline TG ≥200 mg/dL. No serious AEs related to the study treatments were reported. A total of 5 AEs were observed in 8 patients, including: abdominal pain, 3 patients (2 in the atorvastatin group and 1 in the fenofibrate group); abnormal liver function test results, 1 (fenofibrate); increased creatine Phosphokinase activity, 2 (atorvastatin); gastrointestinal disorders, 1 (fenofibrate); and vertigo, 1 (fenofibrate).
Conclusion: In these dyslipidemic patients, fenofibrate treatment was associated with an improved LDL subfraction profile beyond reduction in LDL-C, particularly in patients with elevated TG concentration, whereas atorvastatin was associated with equally reduced concentrations of cholesterol and apoB in all LDL subfractions independent of TG concentrations.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2009.03.002
PMCID: PMC3967351  PMID: 24683220
LDL profile; small dense LDL particles; fenofibrate; atorvastatin
17.  A Study of Serum Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B and Lipid Profile in Stroke 
Background: Role of Serum Lipids, Lipoproteins and Lipoprotein related variables in the prediction of Stroke is less clear. Abnormalities in plasma Lipoproteins are the most firmly established and best understood risk factors for Atherosclerosis and they are probable risk factors for Ischaemic stroke, largely by their link to Atherosclerosis. Apo B reflects the concentration of potentially atherogenic particles (LDL), and Apo A1 reflects the corresponding concentration of anti- atherogenic particles (HDL), represent additional lipoprotein related variables that may indicate the vascular risk.
Aim: To study serum concentration of Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B, Apo B/Apo A1 ratio and Lipid profile in Stroke Cases and to compare with healthy controls.
Design: A total number of 100 subjects within 30 – 70 years were considered for the study. 50 subjects with Stroke (both clinically as well as Computed tomographically proven cases) and 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken for the study.
Material and Methods: Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are estimated by Enzymatic method using Semiautoanalyser. LDL cholesterol is estimated by Friedewald formula. Apo B and Apo A1 are estimated by Immunoturbidimetric method using Semiautoanalyser.
Statistical Analysis: Student ‘t’ test was used to compare the data between cases and controls. Diagnostic validity tests were conducted to assess the Diagnostic efficiency of Apo A1, Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio.
Results: Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are significantly increased in Cases compared to Controls. HDL – cholesterol is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio are significantly increased and Apo A1 is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed that, Apo B , Apo A1 and Apo B /Apo A1 ratio have highest Sensitivity, Specificity and Diagnostic efficiency.
Conclusion: Apo B , Apo A1 and Apo B / Apo A1 ratio can be used as predictors of stroke along with traditional lipid profile components.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5269.3123
PMCID: PMC3749621  PMID: 23998051
Apolipoprotein A1; Apolipoprotein B; Lipid profile; Stroke
18.  Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver disease in rats: the potential effect of supplement oils with vitamins E and C on the nutritional status 
The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of olive oil (OO), corn oil (CO), and flaxseed oil (FO), with or without supplementation of vitamins E and C, on food intake, body weight gain %, liver weight to body weight %, total lipids, liver functions, and liver histology in male rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
Forty-two rats were divided into two main groups. The first main group was fed on basal diet (BD) as a negative control group (NC). The second main group received subcutaneous injections of CCl4 in paraffin oil (50% v/v 2ml/kg) twice a week to induce chronic damage in the liver. The group was then divided into six subgroups, three of which were fed on 4% unsupplemented oils (CO, FO, and OO) as positive control for the three oils used. The rest of the groups were fed on 4% of the same oils supplemented with vitamins E and C.
The results of the flaxseed oil rat group indicate that supplementing vitamin E and C led to a significant reduction in the mean values of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and liver alanine amino transferase enzyme (ALT). Moreover, it caused an increase of the mean value of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as compared to the negative control group (NC). The olive oil group supplemented with the same vitamins showed a significant decrease in the mean value of serum TC and significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean value of serum HDL-C as compared to NC. The results of the corn oil group supplemented with vitamins showed a significant increase in the mean value of serum HDL-C as compared to the negative control group. The histology results confirmed that the group hepatically injured with CCl4 treatment and fed on supplemented FO or OO showed apparently normal hepatocytes.
Conclusion: The most effective treatment was observed with oils supplemented with vitamins E and C. Hierarchically FO achieved the best results compared to other additives, followed by OO and finally CO showing the least effective treatment among the observed groups.
doi:10.3205/000064
PMCID: PMC2716554  PMID: 19675745
chronic liver disease; rats; vitamin E; vitamin C; lipid profile; liver functions
19.  Influence of vanadium on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles: a population-based study among vanadium exposed workers 
Background
Some experimental animal studies reported that vanadium had beneficial effects on blood total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). However, the relationship between vanadium exposure and lipid, lipoprotein profiles in human subjects remains uncertain. This study aimed to compare the serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles of occupational vanadium exposed and non-exposed workers, and to provide human evidence on serum lipid, lipoprotein profiles and atherogenic indexes changes in relation to vanadium exposure.
Methods
This cross-sectional study recruited 533 vanadium exposed workers and 241 non-exposed workers from a Steel and Iron Group in Sichuan, China. Demographic characteristics and occupational information were collected through questionnaires. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured for all participants. The ratios of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to HDL-C and apoB to apoA-I were used as atherogenic indexes. A general linear model was applied to compare outcomes of the two groups while controlling possible confounders and multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and vanadium exposure.
Results
Higher levels of HDL-C and apoA-I could be observed in the vanadium exposed group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, atherogenic indexes (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and apoB/apoA-I ratios) were found statistically lower in the vanadium exposed workers (P < 0.05). Changes in HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were more pronounced in male workers than that in female workers. In male workers, after adjusting for potential confounding variables as age, habits of smoking and drinking, occupational vanadium exposure was still associated with lower HDL-C (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.62) and abnormal atherogenic index (OR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.70).
Conclusion
Occupational vanadium exposure appears to be associated with increased HDL-C and apoA-I levels and decreased atherogenic indexes. Among male workers, a significantly negative association existed between low HDL-C level, abnormal atherogenic index and occupational vanadium exposure. This suggests vanadium has beneficial effects on blood levels of HDL-C and apoA-I.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-13-39
PMCID: PMC3945940  PMID: 24558984
Vanadium; Lipid; Lipoprotein; Atherogenic index; Occupational exposure
20.  Association between moderately oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle subclass distribution in hemodialyzed and post-renal transplant patients*  
Disturbances in the metabolism of lipoprotein profiles and oxidative stress in hemodialyzed (HD) and post-renal transplant (Tx) patients are proatherogenic, but elevated concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the concentrations of lipid, lipoprotein, HDL particle, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and anti-ox-LDL, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in HD (n=33) and Tx (n=71) patients who were non-smokers without active inflammatory disease, liver disease, diabetes, or malignancy. HD patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia, normocholesterolemia, low HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particle concentrations as well as PON-1 activity, and increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels. Tx patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, moderately decreased HDL-C and HDL particle concentrations and PON-1 activity, and moderately increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels as compared to the reference, but ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels and PON-1 activity were more disturbed in HD patients. However, in both patient groups, lipid and lipoprotein ratios (total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, HDL-C/non-HDL-C, apoA-I/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-I, TG/HDL) were atherogenic. The Spearman’s rank coefficient test showed that the concentration of ox-LDL correlated positively with HDL particle level (R=0.363, P=0.004), and negatively with TC (R=−0.306, P=0.012), LDL-C (R=−0.283, P=0.020), and non-HDL-C (R=−0.263, P=0.030) levels in Tx patients. Multiple stepwise forward regression analysis in Tx patients demonstrated that ox-LDL concentration, as an independent variable, was associated significantly positively with HDL particle level. The results indicated that ox-LDL and decreased PON-1 activity in Tx patients may give rise to more mildly-oxidized HDLs, which are less stable, easily undergo metabolic remodeling, generate a greater number of smaller pre-β-HDL particles, and thus accelerate reverse cholesterol transport, which may be beneficial for Tx patients. Further studies are necessary to confirm this.
doi:10.1631/jzus.B1000348
PMCID: PMC3087092  PMID: 21528490
Lipids; Lipoproteins; Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity; Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL); High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles; Post-renal transplant; Hemodialysis
21.  Study on cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene induced mammary carcinogenesis & expression of cyclooxygenase-2 & peroxisome proliferators activated receptor- γ in rats 
Background & objectives
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women; dietary fat is the one of the factors that influences its incidence. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding cow ghee versus soybean oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary cancer in rat and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor- γ (PPAR-γ) in mammary gland.
Methods
Two groups of 21 day old female rats (30 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). The animals were given DMBA (30mg/kg body weight) through oral intubation after 5 wk feeding. Another two groups (8 each) fed similarly but not given DMBA served as control for the gene expression study.
Results
In DMBA treated groups, the animal fed soybean oil had higher tumour incidence (65.4%), tumour weight (6.18 g) and tumour volume (6285 mm3) compared to those fed cow ghee (26.6%, 1.67 g, 1925 mm3, respectively). Tumour latency period was 23 wk on soybean oil compared to 27 wk on cow ghee. Histological analysis of tumours showed that the progression of carcinogenesis was more rapid on soybean oil than on cow ghee. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was observed only in DMBA treated rats and it was significantly less on cow ghee than on soybean oil. The expression of PPAR-γ was significantly more on cow ghee than on soybean oil.
Interpretation & conclusions
Our results show that dietary cow ghee opposed to soybean oil attenuates mammary carcinogenesis induced by DMBA; and the effect is mediated by decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased expression of PPAR-γ in the former group.
PMCID: PMC3121280  PMID: 21623034
Cow ghee; cyclooxygenase 2; DMBA; mammary carcinogenesis; PPAR-γ; soybean oil
22.  Characterization of high density lipoprotein binding to human adipocyte plasma membranes. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1985;75(6):1804-1812.
Freshly isolated human adipocytes showed specific uptake of 125I-labeled human high density lipoprotein (HDL2 and HDL3), a portion of which could be released by subsequent incubation with excess unlabeled ligand. To study the mechanism of HDL binding, sucrose gradient-purified adipocyte plasma membranes were incubated with radioiodinated lipoprotein particles under equilibrium conditions in the absence (total binding) or presence (nonspecific binding) of 100-fold excess unlabeled ligand. Specific binding of HDL2 and HDL3, calculated by subtracting nonspecific from total binding, was Ca++ independent, unaffected by EDTA, and not abolished by pronase treatment of the membranes. Modification of HDL3 by reductive methylation or cyclohexanedione treatment also failed to affect its binding to adipocyte plasma membranes. High salt concentration (200 mM NaCl) inhibited specific binding of HDL2 and HDL3 but had no effect on LDL binding. A significant portion of 125I-HDL2 or 125I-HDL3 binding was consistently inhibited by adding excess unlabeled LDL, but this inhibition was incomplete as compared with a similar molar excess of unlabeled HDL2 or HDL3. The role of apoproteins (apo) in HDL binding to adipocyte membranes was examined by comparing binding of HDL2 and HDL3 isolated from normal, abetalipoproteinemic (abeta) and apo E-deficient (apo E0) plasma. Specific binding was observed with all normal and mutant HDL particles. Furthermore, a significant portion (61-78%) of abeta-HDL2, apo E0-HDL2, and apo E0-HDL3 binding was inhibited by adding 100-fold excess of unlabeled low density lipoproteins (LDL). The cross-competition of LDL and HDL binding was confirmed by the ability of normal, abeta, and apo E0-HDL2 to completely inhibit 125I-LDL binding. These data suggest that HDL binding is independent of apo E and that the responsible apoprotein(s) of HDL complete with LDL-apo B for binding to the same or closely related site in the adipocyte plasma membrane. Normal and apo E0-HDL3 binding was also completely inhibited by normal HDL2, which suggested that HDL2 and HDL3 probably bind to the same site. Scatchard analysis of normal HDL2, normal HDL3, and apo E0-HDL3 binding data best fitted a one-component binding profile with similar equilibrium dissociation constants (40-96 nM). HDL3 binding was found to be effectively inhibited by anti-human apo AI or anti-human apo AII, but not by anti-human apo B antisera. This binding was also unaffected by monoclonal anti-human apo B or E antibodies known to inhibit binding of apo B or apo E containing lipoprotein to the LDL receptor of cultured fibroblasts. These findings, taken together, suggest that human fat cells possess HDL binding sites with apo AI and /or apo AII specificity. The significant but partial inhibition of HDL2 and HDL3 binding by LDL along with the complete inhibition of LDL binding by HDL2 and HDL3 tends to exclude a single binding site that interacts both lipoproteins and favors the interpretation that LDL and HDL particles bind to multiple recognition sites or to different conformation of the same lipoprotein binding domain on the human fat cell.
Images
PMCID: PMC425535  PMID: 2989332
23.  Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease 
Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items.
Literature sources: Google and US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health were the sources of papers cited in this review article.
doi:10.12669/pjms.301.4525
PMCID: PMC3955571  PMID: 24639860
Cardiovascular disease; Coronary heart disease; Dietary fats; Trans fatty acid; South Asia
24.  Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet 
Nutrition Research and Practice  2008;2(3):158-164.
This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% corn oil (control), atherogenic diet group with 5% corn oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate (HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group (HFC + C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC + C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as antioxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2008.2.3.158
PMCID: PMC2814191  PMID: 20126601
Antherogenic diet; protein carbonyl; TBARS; FRAP; cranberry powder
25.  Relationship between ApoE gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease in Gaza Strip 
Background:
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in humans. ApoE, a 229-amino-acid polypeptide, is classified into three major isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) according to the differences in amino acids at positions 112 and 158. In the normal population, ApoE3 isoform is the most prevalent, and ApoE2 or E4 is frequently associated with hyperlipoproteinemia. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between ApoE gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Gaza Strip and investigate the association between serum lipid levels and CHD.
Material and Methods:
The study population consisted of 137 subjects including 69 CHD cases (45 male, 24 female) and 68 healthy subjects (33 male and 35 female).
Results:
The ApoE3/E3 genotype was the most common in the control and the CHD groups. ApoE2/E3 and ApoE3/E4 were the next most common genotypes. The frequencies of ApoE alleles in the CHD subjects were 0.826 for E3, 0.137 for E4, and 0.0362 for E2. These frequencies are comparable to those found in the control group which were 0.875 for the E3, 0.073 for E4, and 0.0515 for E2. No statistically significant differences in ApoE genotypes were found between the patients and the control groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the mean of triglyceride (TG) and HDL levels among different ApoE genotypes. However, there was a significant difference in the mean of LDL and ApoE genotypes where the mean of LDL was 218.17 mg/dl in ApoE4, 149.67 mg/dl in ApoE2, and 184.52 mg/dl in ApoE3. A significant difference was also evident between the mean of LDL levels in the CHD and the control group where the mean of LDL was 126 mg/dl in CHD and 111.47 mg/dl in the control group. Our study indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean of cholesterol and TG levels of the CHD and the control groups.
Conclusions:
To our knowledge, this is the first study in Gaza Strip investigating the relation between ApoE genotypes and CHD. Further investigations are needed to link other genetic factors to CHD.
doi:10.4103/0975-3583.78584
PMCID: PMC3120269  PMID: 21716749
Apolipoprotien E; Polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism; coronary heart disease; gene polymorphism

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