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1.  Iatrogenic Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm (REVIEW OF TREATMENT OPTIONS) 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2010;6(2):74-77.
BACKGROUND
Atherosclerosis, which is a result of gradual deposition of lipids in the lower part of blood vessel endothelium, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. It has been proved that some inflammatory blood markers such as fibrinogen can predict the risk for cardiovascular disease conditions, not only in cardiovascular patients, but also in those who do not have any manifestations of the atherosclerotic development. In this study, the effect of cornus mas l. was evaluated on fibrinogen of hypercholesterolemic rabbits and it was also compared with lovastatin drug.
METHODS
In this study, 25 New Zealand adult male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five. They were treated for 60 days by 5 different diets, namely basic, high cholesterol, regular plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, high cholesterol plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, and high cholesterol plus 10 mg/kgBW lovastatin. At the beginning and at the end of this period, blood samples were collected from the rabbits and their serum fibrinogen levels were measured.
RESULTS
Cornus mas L. powder and lovastatin significantly decreased fibrinogen levels in comparison with high cholesterol group (P < 0.05). Furthermore cornus mas L. powder could reduce the fibrinogen level more than lovastatin (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION
The results indicated that consumption of cornus mas L. might be beneficial in atherosclerotic patients due to its reducing effects on fibrinogen.
PMCID: PMC3347815  PMID: 22577418
Atherosclerosis; Fibrinogen; Lovastatin; Rabbits
2.  Effects of dietary supplementation with ghee, hydrogenated oil, or olive oil on lipid profile and fatty streak formation in rabbits 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;8(3):119-124.
BACKGROUND
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. A high-fat diet, rich in saturated fatty acids and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids, is said to be an important cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
METHODS
In this experimental study, 40 male rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups of five to receive normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet, normal diet plus ghee, normal diet plus olive oil, normal diet plus hydrogenated oil, hypercholesterolemic diet plus ghee, hypercholesterolemic diet plus olive oil, and hypercholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil. They received rabbit chow for a period of 12 weeks. At the start and end of the study, fasting blood samples were taken from all animals to measure biochemical factors including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, aorta, left and right coronary arteries were dissected at the end of the study to investigate fatty streak formation (FSF). Data was analyzed in SPSS at a significance level of 0.05.
RESULTS
In rabbits under normal diet, ghee significantly increased TC, LDL, and HDL compared to the beginning (P < 0.01) and also to the other two types of fat (P < 0.05). Moreover, normal diet plus olive oil significantly enhanced FSF in left coronary arteries and aorta compared to normal diet plus ghee. In groups receiving hypercholesterolemic diets, ghee significantly increased HDL and CRP (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased FBS (P < 0.01). The hypecholesterolemic diet plus olive oil significantly increased HDL (P < 0.01). Supplementation of hypecholesterolemic diet with ghee significantly increased HDL and FBS in comparison with hydrogenated oil. Significant increase of FBS was also detected with the use of ghee compared to olive oil. Ghee also significantly reduced FSF in left and right coronary arteries compared to olive oil. FSF in left coronary arteries was significantly lower in the hypecholesterolemic diet plus ghee group compared to the hypecholesterolemic diet plus hydrogenated oil group.
CONCLUSION
According to the achieved results, future clinical trial studies and investigation of other risk factors such as inflammatory factors are required.
PMCID: PMC3557004  PMID: 23358722
Fatty Streak; Ghee; Hypercholesterolemic; Olive Oil
3.  Suppressive Impact of Anethum Graveolens Consumption on Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits 
Background:
We aimed to determine the effects of Anethum graveolens (Dill) powder on postprandial lipid profile, markers of oxidation and endothelial activation when added to a fatty meal.
Methods:
In an experimental study, 32 rabbits were randomly designated into four diet groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (1%), high cholesterol diet plus 5% (w/w) dill powder and high cholesterol diet plus lovastatin (10 mg/kg, bw). The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (alt), aspartate aminotransferase (ast), fibrinogen, factor VII, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), nitrite and nitrate were measured in blood samples following 15 h of fasting and 3 h after feeding.
Results:
Concurrent use of A. graveolens powder or lovastatin significantly decreased ALT, TC, glucose, fibrinogen and LDL-C values in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Consumption of A. graveolens or lovastatin did not change factor VII, ApoB, nitrite and nitrate levels significantly in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet group. Intake of A. graveolens significantly decreased serum AST compared to hypercholesterolemic diet.
Conclusions:
A. graveolens might have some protective values against atherosclerosis and that it significantly affects some biochemical risk factors of this disease. Our findings also confirm the potential harmful effects of oxidized fats and the importance of dietary polyphenols in the meal.
PMCID: PMC3775165  PMID: 24049614
Anethum graveolens; atherosclerosis; hypercholesterolemia; rabbits
4.  Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum on selected traditional and novel biochemical factors of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: A comparison between the extract and lovastatin 
Context:
Evidence suggests that diets with high contents of cholesterol will increase serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, thereby increase risk of atherosclerosis. According to literature, some plants show hypolipidemic, hypocholestrolemic, and antiatherosclerotic activities.
Aims:
In this study, antiatherosclerotic effect of Hypericum perforatum hydroalcoholic extract on hypercholesterolemic rabbits was compared with that of lovastatin.
Materials and Methods:
Twenty five mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five and were fed for 60 days as follows: Standard diet (GroupI), standard diet and hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/kg daily)(GroupII), standard diet, hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/ kg daily) and cholesterol (1% of food content) (Group III), standard diet and cholesterol (1% of food content)(GroupIV), and finally standard diet, lovastatin (10 mg/kg), and cholesterol (1% of foodcontent) (GroupV).
Results:
Hypericum perforatum extract significantly decreased the levels of apolipoprotein B(apoB), apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A (apoB/apoA), triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as atherosclerosis index, and increased high density lipoprotein and apoA in rabbits of Group III compared to the rabbits of Group IV. The effect of Hypericum perforatum extract in decreasing the level of some biochemical factors like apoB, apoB/apoA, and CRP was meaningfully more than that of lovastatin. Histopathological findings confirmed that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum restricted the atherosclerotic lesions.
Conclusions:
This study indicates that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum possesses hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects and could be beneficial in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.99044
PMCID: PMC3425170  PMID: 22923963
Apolipoprotein; atherosclerosis; Hypericum perforatum; lovastatin
5.  Anti-hypercholesterolemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects of polarized-light therapy in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet 
Laboratory Animal Research  2012;28(1):39-46.
The effects of polarized-light therapy (PLT) on high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were investigated in comparison with that of lovastatin in rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male New Zealand white rabbits with 1% cholesterol in diet for 2 weeks and maintained with 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks, followed by normal diet for 2 weeks for recovery. Lovastatin (0.002% in diet) or daily 5-min or 20-min PLT on the outside surface of ears was started 2 weeks after induction of hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited great increases in serum cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, and finally severe atheromatous plaques formation covering 57.5% of the arterial walls. Lovastatin markedly reduced both the cholesterol and LDL, but the reducing effect (47.5%) on atheroma formation was relatively low. By comparison, 5-min PLT preferentially decreased LDL, rather than cholesterol, and thereby potentially reduced the atheroma area to 42.2%. Notably, 20-min PLT was superior to lovastatin in reducing both the cholesterol and LDL levels as well as the atheromatous plaque formation (26.4%). In contrast to the increases in blood alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase following lovastatin treatment, PLT did not cause hepatotoxicity. In addition, PLT decreased platelets and hematocrit level. The results indicate that PLT attenuates atherosclerosis not only by lowering blood cholesterol and LDL levels, but also by improving blood flow without adverse effects. Therefore, it is suggested that PLT could be a safe alternative therapy for the improvement of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
doi:10.5625/lar.2012.28.1.39
PMCID: PMC3315201  PMID: 22474473
Hypercholesterolemia; atherosclerosis; polarized-light therapy (PLT); lovastatin
6.  Protective Effect of Cornus mas Fruits Extract on Serum Biomarkers in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats 
Hepatitis Monthly  2014;14(4):e10330.
Background:
Nowadays attention to use herbs such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is increasing, which contains high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. Cornus mas fruits have been used for gastrointestinal and excretory disorders for many years in traditional medicine, also may improve liver and kidney functions, and have protective effects such as anti-allergic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihistamine and antimalarial properties.
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of Cornus mas fruits extract on serum biomarkers in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats.
Materials and Methods:
Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (1 mL/kg i.p.) in 1:1 dilution with olive oil. To evaluate the effect of Cornus mas fruits extract on disease progression, serum marker enzymes, serum total protein and albumin and liver lipid peroxidation were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.
Results:
Oral administration of Cornus mas fruits extract to rats for 14 days provided a significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotection by decreasing elevated serum level of enzymes, total serum protein, albumin and liver lipid peroxidation content.
Conclusions:
Cornus mas fruit extract effect may be due to including some antioxidant components, which caused membrane stabilizing and normalization of fluctuated biochemical profiles induced by CCl4 exposure. Our results validated the traditional use of Cornus mas in the treatment of liver disorders.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.10330
PMCID: PMC4006099  PMID: 24829584
Carbon Tetrachloride; Cornus mas; Hepatotoxicity; Lipid Peroxidation; Serum Biomarkers
7.  Microbial Production and Biomedical Applications of Lovastatin 
Lovastatin is a potent hypercholesterolemic drug used for lowering blood cholesterol. Lovastatin acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Commercially lovastatin is produced by a variety of filamentous fungi including Penicillium species, Monascus ruber and Aspergillus terreus as a secondary metabolite. Production of lovastatin by fermentation decreases the production cost compared to costs of chemical synthesis. In recent years, lovastatin has also been reported as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various types of tumors and also play a tremendous role in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response, coagulation process, bone turnover, neovascularization, vascular tone, and arterial pressure. This review deals with the structure, biosynthesis, various modes of fermentation and applications of lovastatin.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.49087
PMCID: PMC3040861  PMID: 21369428
Lovastatin; HMG-CoA reductase; low density lipoprotein (LDL); high density lipoprotein (HDL); fermentation; biomedical applications
8.  Effects of probiotic bacteria, isoflavones and simvastatin on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits: a randomized double-blind study 
Background
Much attention has been drawn to different alternative strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention. Objective: The aim of the present study was to observe and compare the effects of Enterococcus faecium CRL183 (probiotic microorganism), an isoflavones mixture and simvastatin (drug used to treat hypercholesterolemia) on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia.
Methods
The animals were randomly allocated to 5 experimental groups (n = 6) for 60 days: control (C) that did not consume cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic (H) that consumed an atherogenic diet (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt), hypercholesterolemic plus E. faecium (HE), hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone (HI) and hypercholesterolemic plus simvastatin (HS). Total and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were determined by enzymatic methods; non-HDL-C was calculated by subtracting HDL-C from total cholesterol; and atherosclerosis was presented as the percentage of lesion area, relative to the total area from the aorta segment analyzed.
Results
Simvastatin significantly reduced the tot cholesterol (16%) and non-HDL-C level (17%) and increased the HDL-C (98%), compared to group H. E. faecium raised the HDL-C level by 43.3% (P < 0.05). Isoflavone decreased the total cholesterol and non-HDL-C concentrations (9%), but this effect was not statistically significant. At the end of the treatments, groups HE and HS had significantly lower levels of triglycerides in relation to H and HI. The atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was not different between groups. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aorta was reduced in the groups HI and HS by 22.7% and 26.7% respectively, but this effect was not significant (P > 0.05).
Conclusion
The results indicated that probiotic microorganism E. faecium CRL 183 could be used to improve the lipid profile as an alternative or an adjuvant for drug therapy. The effectiveness of simvastatin in the management of blood lipid was confirmed. There were no effects of soy isoflavones, E. faecium and simvastatin on atherosclerosis development.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-1
PMCID: PMC2628912  PMID: 19128464
9.  Diet-induced atherosclerosis increases the release of nitrogen oxides from rabbit aorta. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1990;86(6):2109-2116.
We examined the hypothesis that impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in atherosclerosis is associated with decreased synthesis of nitrogen oxides by the vascular endothelium. The descending thoracic aortae of rabbits fed either normal diet, a high cholesterol diet for 2-5 wk (hypercholesterolemic, HC), or a high cholesterol diet for 6 mo (atherosclerotic, AS) were perfused in a bioassay organ chamber with physiologic buffer containing indomethacin. Despite a dramatic impairment in the vasodilator activity of endothelium-dependent relaxing factor (EDRF) released from both HC and AS aortae (assessed by bioassay), the release of nitrogen oxides (measured by chemiluminescence) from these vessels was not reduced, but markedly increased compared to NL. Thus, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in atherosclerosis is neither due to decreased activity of the enzyme responsible for the production of nitrogen oxides from arginine nor to arginine deficiency. Because the production of nitrogen oxides increased in response to acetylcholine in both hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerotic vessels, impairments in signal transduction are not responsible for abnormal endothelium-dependent relaxations. Impaired vasodilator activity of EDRF by cholesterol feeding may result from loss of incorporation of nitric oxide into a more potent parent compound, or accelerated degradation of EDRF.
Images
PMCID: PMC329851  PMID: 2254462
10.  Effect of experimentally induced metabolic acidosis on aortic endothelial permeability and serum nitric oxide concentration in normal and high-cholesterol fed rabbits 
Introduction
Metabolic acidosis is present in end stage renal disease. There is a link between enhanced endothelial permeability and accelerated atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of experimentally induced metabolic acidosis on aortic endothelial permeability and serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration in normal and high-cholesterol fed rabbits.
Material and methods
Twenty-four male rabbits were divided into four groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic, acidemic, and hypercholesterolemic plus acidemic. Acidosis and hypercholesterolemia were induced by drinking water containing ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), and cholesterol-rich animal chow (1%), respectively. After 6 weeks, blood samples were taken and endothelial permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye injection method.
Results
Hypercholesterolemic animals had higher aortic endothelial permeability compared with normal groups (16.18 ±0.91 µg EB/g tissue vs. 12.89 ±0.66 µg EB/g tissue, p < 0.05). Acidosis significantly increased endothelial permeability in the normal group (17.10 ±0.56 µg/g tissue vs. 12.89 ± 0.66 µg/g tissue; p < 0.05) but did not further increase endothelial permeability in hypercholesterolemic animals (16.18 ±0.91 µg EB/g tissue vs. 17.29 ±0.46 µg EB/g tissue; p > 0.05). Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and NO concentrations in hypercholesterolemic animals were significantly higher than the normal group and acidosis could not change them either in the normal or in the high-cholesterol diet group.
Conclusions
Alterations of serum lipids and NO are not the main mechanism for accelerated atherosclerosis during metabolic acidosis. Acidosis increases aortic endothelial permeability at least in a normal diet which may be a possible mechanism for progression of atherosclerosis processes in end-stage renal disease.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2012.30296
PMCID: PMC3460509  PMID: 23056086
acidosis; endothelium; permeability; nitric oxide
11.  Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2013;9(6):357-362.
BACKGROUND
The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet.
METHODS
Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups) received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control). Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits’ aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied.
RESULTS
Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0), only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7) and peel (8.6 ± 7.1) (P = 0.008). The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01); peel (0.0 ± 0.00)] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4) (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION
Based on our findings, Citrus aurantifolia peel and juice increase plasma antioxidant capacity in rabbits, and can thus prevent or decelerate the process of atherogenesis. However, lime peel is more effective than lime juice.
PMCID: PMC3933061  PMID: 24575139
Animal; Atherosclerosis; Atherogenic Diet; Fatty Streak; Intervention; Lime
12.  Structural and biomechanical alterations in rabbit thoracic aortas are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis 
Background
Atherosclerosis is a diffuse and highly variable disease of arteries that alters the mechanical properties of the vessel wall through highly variable changes in its cellular composition and histological structure. We have analyzed the effects of acute atherosclerotic changes on the mechanical properties of the descending thoracic aorta of rabbits fed a 4% cholesterol diet.
Methods
Two groups of eight male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly selected and fed for 8 weeks either an atherogenic diet (4% cholesterol plus regular rabbit chow), or regular chow. Animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks, and the descending thoracic aortas were excised for pressure-diameter tests and histological evaluation to examine the relationship between aortic elastic properties and atherosclerotic lesions.
Results
All rabbits fed the high-cholesterol diet developed either intermediate or advanced atherosclerotic lesions, particularly American Heart Association-type III and IV, which were fatty and contained abundant lipid-filled foam cells (RAM 11-positive cells) and fewer SMCs with solid-like actin staining (HHF-35-positive cells). In contrast, rabbits fed a normal diet had no visible atherosclerotic changes. The atherosclerotic lesions correlated with a statistically significant decrease in mean vessel wall stiffness in the cholesterol-fed rabbits (51.52 ± 8.76 kPa) compared to the control animals (68.98 ± 11.98 kPa), especially in rabbits with more progressive disease.
Conclusions
Notably, stiffness appears to decrease with the progression of atherosclerosis after the 8-week period.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-125
PMCID: PMC3160371  PMID: 21791107
13.  Lipid lowering by hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus Caudatus L. induces regression of rabbits atherosclerotic lesions 
Background
The antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus caudatus L(A. caudatus). on regression of atherosclerosis in experimental rabbits maintained on a high cholesterol diet.
Methods
Twenty five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five each and treated 75 days as follows: Group I: normal diet(ND), Group II: Hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 45 days; Group III: Hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 75 days, Group IV and V: HCD for 45 days and then normal diet and normal diet + A. caudatus(150 mg·kg day) respectively for an additional 30 days(regression period). Blood samples were collected before (0 time) and after 45 days and 75 days of experimental diets for measurement of biochemical factors. The aortas were removed at the end of the study for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques.
Results
In regression period dietary use of A. caudatus in group V significantly decreased total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, malondialdehyde, C-reactive protein while apolipoproteinA and HDL- cholesterol was significantly increased compared to group IV. The atherosclerotic area was significantly decreased in group V. Whereas, the animals that in regression period received only normal diet showed no regression but rather progression of atherosclerosis.
Conclusion
These results thus suggest that hydroalcoholic extracts of A. caudatus can reduce risk factors and cause regression of fatty lesons in aorta.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-89
PMCID: PMC3123227  PMID: 21619685
14.  Effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: a randomized double-blind study 
Background
There is increasing interest in natural treatments to control dyslipidemia and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of soy yogurt fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and of dietary isoflavones on the lipid profile. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt, fermented with E. faecium CRL183, on lipid parameters and atherosclerosis development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia.
Methods
Forty-eight rabbits were randomly assigned to eight groups fed on the following diets for 60 days: C - control; IY - isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; H - hypercholesterolemic (1.0% cholesterol wt/wt diet); HY - hypercholesterolemic plus soy yogurt; HIY - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented soy yogurt; HP - hypercholesterolemic plus placebo; HI - hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone and HE - hypercholesterolemic plus pure culture of E. faecium CRL 183. Serum lipids and autoantibodies against oxLDL (oxLDL Ab) were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment.
Results
Soy yogurt, soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones and placebo promoted significant reductions in total cholesterol level (38.1%, 27.0% and 26.6%, respectively). Significant increases in serum HDL-C concentration relative to group H were detected in animals that ingested soy yogurt, with or without the isoflavone supplement (55.2%), E. faecium culture (43.3%) or placebo (35.8%). Intake of soy yogurt and soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones prevented the rise of oxLDL Ab during the study period. The extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas was reduced in the HIY, HY and HP groups. However, when the whole aorta was analyzed, animals treated with soy yogurt supplemented with isoflavones exhibited the greatest reduction (51.4%, P < 0.05) in atherosclerotic lesion area, compared to group H.
Conclusion
Soy yogurt could be consumed as an alternative means of reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease by improving the lipid profile and inhibiting oxLDL Ab formation. Our findings also suggest that isoflavone supplementation may enhance the antiatherosclerotic effect of soy yogurt.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-40
PMCID: PMC2765949  PMID: 19814806
15.  Efficiency of black cumin seeds on hematological factors in normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits 
ARYA Atherosclerosis  2012;7(4):146-150.
BACKGROUND:
Hypercholesterolemia is among the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies. Nigella sativa (NS) is an effective plant for treating hypercholesterolemia. However, the effects of this herb on hematologic factors and hemostasis system have not been elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on these factors in both normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
METHODS:
In this research, twenty rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups of five. The groups received four different diets, namely normal, normal + NS (5%), hypercholesterolemic (1% cholesterol), and hypercholesterolemic (1% cholesterol) + NS (5%), for 8 weeks. After this period, WBC (white blood cell), RBC (red blood cell), HTC (hematocrit), HGB (hemoglobin content), PLT (platelet), fibrinogen (FIB) and factors VII (F VII) were measured.
RESULTS:
Using NS significantly increased PLT count in the normal group. In addition, it significantly decreased WBC counts in the hypercholesterolemic group (P < 0.05). However, dietary use of NS did not have any effects on other hematologic factors including RBC, HTC, HGB, FIB, and F VII (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Increased PLT numbers might cause enhanced coagulation. The achieved results call for more research on the effects of various diets (hypercholesterolemic and normal diet) supplemented with NS on different coagulation factors and hemostasis system.
PMCID: PMC3413082  PMID: 23205047
Hematological Factors; Hypercholesterolemia; Nigella Sativa L.; Rabbit
16.  Influence of a probiotic soy product on fecal microbiota and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in an animal model 
Background
Previous work showed that daily ingestion of an aqueous soy extract fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416, supplemented or not with isoflavones, reduced the total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels, increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration and inhibited the raising of autoantibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL Ab) and the development of atherosclerotic lesions.
Objective
The aim of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota in order to investigate the possible correlation between fecal microbiota, serum lipid parameters and atherosclerotic lesion development in rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia, that ingested the aqueous soy extract fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416.
Methods
The rabbits were randomly allocated to five experimental groups (n = 6): control (C), hypercholesterolemic (H), hypercholesterolemic plus unfermented soy product (HUF), hypercholesterolemic plus fermented soy product (HF) and hypercholesterolemic plus isoflavone-supplemented fermented soy product (HIF). Lipid parameters and microbiota composition were analyzed on days 0 and 60 of the treatment and the atherosclerotic lesions were quantified at the end of the experiment. The fecal microbiota was characterized by enumerating the Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteria and Clostridium spp. populations.
Results
After 60 days of the experiment, intake of the probiotic soy product was correlated with significant increases (P < 0.05) on Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Enterococcus spp. and a decrease in the Enterobacteria population. A strong correlation was observed between microbiota composition and lipid profile. Populations of Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were negatively correlated with total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, autoantibodies against oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab) and lesion size. HDL-C levels were positively correlated with Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Enterococcus spp. populations.
Conclusion
In conclusion, daily ingestion of the probiotic soy product, supplemented or not with isoflavones, may contribute to a beneficial balance of the fecal microbiota and this modulation is associated with an improved cholesterol profile and inhibition of atherosclerotic lesion development.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-10-126
PMCID: PMC3168412  PMID: 21801422
probiotics; Enterococcus faecium CRL 183; fecal microbiota; lipid parameters
17.  Temporal and Quantitative Analysis of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits 
The diet-induced atherosclerotic rabbit is an ideal model for atherosclerosis study, but temporal changes in atherosclerotic development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits are poorly understood. Japanese white rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet to induce sustained hypercholesterolemia, and each group of 10–12 animals was then sacrificed at 6, 12, 16, or 28 weeks. The rabbit aortas were harvested, and the sizes of the gross and intima atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. The cellular component of macrophages (Mφs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in aortic intimal lesions was also quantified by immunohistochemical staining, and the correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and the progress of atherosclerotic lesions was studied. The ultrastructure of the atherosclerotic lesions was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Widely variable atherosclerotic plaques were found from 6 weeks to 28 weeks, and the lesional progress was closely correlated with cholesterol exposure. Interestingly, a relatively reduced accumulation of Mφ, an increased numbers of SMCs, and a damaged endothelial layer were presented in advanced lesions. Moreover, SMCs were closely correlated with cholesterol exposure and lesional progress for the whole period. Cholesterol exposure directly determines atherosclerotic progress in a rabbit model, and the changes in the cellular component of advanced lesions may affect plaque stability in an atherosclerotic rabbit model.
doi:10.1155/2012/506159
PMCID: PMC3312324  PMID: 22505812
18.  L-arginine normalizes endothelial function in cerebral vessels from hypercholesterolemic rabbits. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;87(4):1295-1299.
We hypothesized that normal vascular reactivity could be restored in vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals by exposing them to L-arginine, the precursor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Basilar arteries were harvested from New Zealand white rabbits fed normal chow or that supplemented with 2% cholesterol for 10 wk. Vessels were cannulated for perfusion at physiologic pressure. Changes in vessel diameter were monitored by videomicroscopy. In comparison to normal vessels, those from hypercholesterolemic animals vasoconstricted more to KCl, endothelin (E), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Conversely, vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) (but not that to verapamil) was significantly impaired in the hypercholesterolemic animals. In vitro administration of L-arginine (3 mM) for 45 min normalized vasodilation to ACh and vasoconstriction to E, 5-HT, and KCl in the isolated vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals. This effect was stereospecific, since D-arginine had no effect. To conclude, these data confirm that hypercholesterolemia attenuates endothelium-derived relaxation, and enhances the sensitivity of these vessels to vasoconstrictors. In vitro administration of L-arginine normalized vascular reactivity of isolated vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals. Thus, hypercholesterolemia induces a reversible endothelial dysfunction that may be corrected by supplying the precursor of EDRF, L-arginine.
PMCID: PMC295158  PMID: 2010542
19.  Serum biochemical changes in rabbits on a regular diet with and without flax lignan complex following a high-cholesterol diet 
BACKGROUND:
Flax lignan complex (FLC) isolated from flaxseed suppresses development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. It does not produce regression of atherosclerosis, but prevents its regular diet-induced acceleration following a high-cholesterol diet. It is not known if replacement of a high-cholesterol diet with a regular diet has deleterious effects on body organs.
OBJECTIVES:
To determine if short-term use of a high-cholesterol diet, and a regular diet with or without FLC following the high-cholesterol diet, have any adverse effects on serum electrolytes, glucose and enzymes related to the liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle and intestines.
METHODS:
Blood samples were collected from the rabbits before and at various intervals during the high-cholesterol diet, and while on the regular diet with or without FLC, following the high-cholesterol diet. Measurements of serum total cholesterol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), albumin, creatinine, electrolytes (sodium [Na], potassium [K], chloride [Cl]) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken.
RESULTS:
The high-cholesterol diet produced hypercholesterolemia, which was associated with reductions in serum glucose and no significant changes in serum Na, K, Cl, CO2, ALT, ALP, AST, GGT, albumin or creatinine. Regular diet with or without FLC, following the high-cholesterol diet, reduced serum total cholesterol and glucose, increased serum Na, Cl and creatinine, but produced no significant alterations in serum K, CO2, ALT, AST, GGT or albumin. FLC reduced serum ALP, but regular diet produced no significant change.
CONCLUSION:
Short-term use of a high-cholesterol diet, or a regular diet with or without FLC following the high-cholesterol diet, does not produce deleterious effects in the liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle, intestine or bone, as shown by changes in serum electrolytes, glucose and enzymes.
PMCID: PMC2728377  PMID: 22477368
Alanine aminotransferase; Albumin; Alkaline phosphatase; Aspartate aminotransferase; Cholesterol; Creatinine; Flax lignan complex; Gamma-glutamyltransferase; Glucose; Serum electrolytes
20.  Antiatherogenic effects of L-arginine in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1992;90(3):1168-1172.
The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic administration of L-arginine, the precursor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), normalizes endothelium-dependent relaxation and decreases atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic animals. Male rabbits were fed (a) normal rabbit chow; (b) 1% cholesterol diet; or (c) 1% cholesterol diet supplemented by 2.25% L-arginine HCl in drinking water. Arginine supplementation doubled plasma arginine levels without affecting serum cholesterol values. After 10 wk, the thoracic aorta was harvested for studies of vascular reactivity and histomorphometry. Endothelium-dependent relaxations (to acetylcholine and calcium ionophore A23187) were significantly impaired in thoracic aortae from animals fed a 1% cholesterol diet. By contrast, vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals receiving L-arginine supplementation exhibited significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxations. Responses to norepinephrine or nitroglycerin were not affected by either dietary intervention. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a reduction in lesion surface area and intimal thickness in thoracic aortae from arginine-supplemented animals compared to those from untreated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This is the first study to demonstrate that supplementation of dietary L-arginine, the EDRF precursor, improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. More importantly, we have shown that this improvement in EDRF activity is associated with a reduction in atherogenesis.
PMCID: PMC329981  PMID: 1522225
21.  Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats 
Hypercholesterolemia is a dominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the putative antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were evaluated in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg b.wt) in Wistar rats. Saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats revealed significantly higher mean blood/serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and of serum hepatic marker enzymes; in addition, significantly lower mean serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly lower mean activities of enzymatic antioxidants and nonenzymatic antioxidants were noted in hepatic tissue samples from saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats, compared to controls. However, in hypercholesterolemic rats receiving the Piper betle extract (500 mg/kg b.wt) or eugenol (5 mg/kg b.wt) for seven days orally, all these parameters were significantly better than those in saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. The hypercholesterolemia-ameliorating effect was better defined in eugenol-treated than in Piper betle extract-treated rats, being as effective as that of the standard lipid-lowering drug, lovastatin (10 mg/kg b.wt). These results suggest that eugenol, an active constituent of the Piper betle extract, possesses antihypercholesterolemic and other activities in experimental hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats.
doi:10.1155/2014/478973
PMCID: PMC3913032  PMID: 24523820
22.  Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(10):e13457.
Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013457
PMCID: PMC2956674  PMID: 20976152
23.  Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits 
Background
Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of apple juice on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.
Methods
Thirty two male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1 cholesterol), 1% cholesterol supplemented with 5 ml apple juice (low dose) and 1% cholesterol supplemented with 10 ml apple juice (high dose) for 2 month. The C-reactive protein (CRP), nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, total cholesterol(TC) and factor VII were measured before the experiment and by the end of period. At the end of study, fatty streak formation in right and left coronary arteries were determined using Chekanov method in all groups.
Results
Both doses of apple juice significantly were decreased TC, TG, CRP, fibrinogen, factor VII levels, atherosclerotic lesion in right and left coronary arteries and increased nitrite and nitrate compared to cholesterolemic diet. Also using 10 ml apple juice caused significant reduce in LDL-C and increase HDL-C, but 5 ml apple juice did not change these factors. Significant differences were observed between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups by LDL-C. No significant difference was found between 5 and 10 ml apple juice groups with regard to CRP, nitrite, nitrate, fibrinogen, factor VII, TG, HDL-C and TC concentrations.
Conclusion
Apple juice can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of apple juice.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-8-39
PMCID: PMC2761910  PMID: 19804641
24.  Oral L-arginine improves endothelium-dependent dilation in hypercholesterolemic young adults. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;97(8):1989-1994.
In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, oral L-arginine (the substrate for endothelium derived nitric oxide) attenuates endothelial dysfunction and atheroma formation, but the effect in hypercholesterolemic humans is unknown. Using high resolution external ultrasound, we studied arterial physiology in 27 hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 29+/-5 (19-40) years, with known endothelial dysfunction and LDL-cholesterol levels of 238+/-43 mg/dl. Each subject was studied before and after 4 wk of L-arginine (7 grams x 3/day) or placebo powder, with 4 wk washout, in a randomized double-blind crossover study. Brachial artery diameter was measured at rest, during increased flow (causing endothelium-dependent dilation, EDD) and after sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (causing endothelium-independent dilation). After oral L-arginine, plasma L-arginine levels rose from 115+/-103 to 231+/-125 micromol/liter (P<0.001), and EDD improved from 1.7+/-1.3 to 5.6+/-3.0% (P<0.001). In contrast there was no significant change in response to glyceryl trinitrate. After placebo there were no changes in endothelium-dependent or independent vascular responses. Lipid levels were unchanged after L-arginine and placebo. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine significantly improves EDD in hypercholesterolemic young adults, and this may impact favorably on the atherogenic process.
PMCID: PMC507270  PMID: 8621785
25.  Vascular changes in rat hippocampus following a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet 
The long-term effects of a diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol on the hippocampus were evaluated in this study. It has previously been shown that this type of diet is detrimental to health, particularly affecting peripheral organs such as the heart and liver. However, effects on the brain have not been fully evaluated. This study focused on the hippocampus, a brain region instrumental for learning and memory and vulnerable to ischemic damage. Reduced blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity and increased microgliosis were observed in the hippocampus of rats fed a high-saturated-fat and cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 6 months. Interestingly, an increase in hippocampal protein levels of occludin, a tight junction protein, was found in HFHC-treated rats as well. Further investigation revealed decreased expression of the occludin protein in blood vessels and increased expression in the dentate gyrus hilar neurons and mossy fibers of the hippocampal cornus ammonis 3 in HFHC-treated rats. Our results show alterations in BBB integrity and expression of tight junction proteins after long-term exposure to HFHC diet in rats. These findings may suggest a biologic mechanism for previously observed behavioral deficits occurring in rats fed this diet.
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2011.168
PMCID: PMC3318144  PMID: 22108721
blood–brain barrier; diet; hippocampus; inflammation; neurodegeneration

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