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1.  UMOD as a susceptibility gene for end-stage renal disease 
BMC Medical Genetics  2012;13:78.
Background
In recent genetic association studies, common variants including rs12917707 in the UMOD locus have shown strong evidence of association with eGFR, prevalent and incident chronic kidney disease and uromodulin urinary concentration in general population cohorts. The association of rs12917707 with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a recent case-control study was only nominally significant.
Methods
To investigate whether rs12917707 associates with ESRD, graft failure (GF) and urinary uromodulin levels in an independent cohort, we genotyped 1142 ESRD patients receiving a renal transplantation and 1184 kidney donors as controls. After transplantation, 1066 renal transplant recipients were followed up for GF. Urinary uromodulin concentration was measured at median [IQR] 4.2 [2.2-6.1] yrs after kidney transplantation.
Results
The rs12917707 minor allele showed association with lower risk of ESRD (OR 0.89 [0.76-1.03], p = 0.04) consistent in effect size and direction with the previous report (Böger et al, PLoS Genet 2011). Meta-analysis of these findings showed significant association of rs12917707 with ESRD (OR 0.91 [0.85-98], p = 0.008). In contrast, rs12917707 was not associated with incidence of GF. Urinary uromodulin concentration was lower in recipients-carriers of the donor rs12917707 minor allele as compared to non-carriers, again consistent with previous observations in general population cohorts.
Conclusions
Our study thus corroborates earlier evidence and independently confirms the association between UMOD and ESRD.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-13-78
PMCID: PMC3495046  PMID: 22947327
UMOD; Uromodulin; Polymorphisms; SNP; End-stage renal disease; Kidney transplantation
2.  Time to Renal Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease in PROFILE: A Multiethnic Lupus Cohort 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(10):e396.
Background
Renal involvement is a serious manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); it may portend a poor prognosis as it may lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of this study was to determine the factors predicting the development of renal involvement and its progression to ESRD in a multi-ethnic SLE cohort (PROFILE).
Methods and Findings
PROFILE includes SLE patients from five different United States institutions. We examined at baseline the socioeconomic–demographic, clinical, and genetic variables associated with the development of renal involvement and its progression to ESRD by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Analyses of onset of renal involvement included only patients with renal involvement after SLE diagnosis (n = 229). Analyses of ESRD included all patients, regardless of whether renal involvement occurred before, at, or after SLE diagnosis (34 of 438 patients). In addition, we performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis of the variables associated with the development of renal involvement at any time during the course of SLE.
In the time-dependent multivariable analysis, patients developing renal involvement were more likely to have more American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE, and to be younger, hypertensive, and of African-American or Hispanic (from Texas) ethnicity. Alternative regression models were consistent with these results. In addition to greater accrued disease damage (renal damage excluded), younger age, and Hispanic ethnicity (from Texas), homozygosity for the valine allele of FcγRIIIa (FCGR3A*GG) was a significant predictor of ESRD. Results from the multivariable logistic regression model that included all cases of renal involvement were consistent with those from the Cox model.
Conclusions
Fcγ receptor genotype is a risk factor for progression of renal disease to ESRD. Since the frequency distribution of FCGR3A alleles does not vary significantly among the ethnic groups studied, the additional factors underlying the ethnic disparities in renal disease progression remain to be elucidated.
Fcγ receptor genotype is a risk factor for progression of renal disease to ESRD but does not explain the ethnic disparities in renal disease progression.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE, commonly known as “lupus”) is an illness of many manifestations that appear to result from the immune system attacking components of the body's own cells. One of the unfortunate effects of SLE is kidney damage, which can, in a minority of patients, progress to kidney failure (formally called “end-stage renal disease,” or ESRD). Compared to White Americans, other ethnic groups tend to develop renal complications of lupus more often and with worse outcomes.
Why Was This Study Done?
It is unclear why some people with lupus develop kidney problems. The purpose of this US-based study was to confirm the factors that increase the risk of kidney damage and kidney failure, particularly in racial and ethnic minority patients, and to determine which of these factors accelerate the pace of kidney disease. Knowing these risk factors could allow the development and targeting of interventions, such as screening tests and preventive treatments, to prevent long-term loss of kidney function in patients with lupus.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers measured a number of factors in a multi-ethnic group of 1,008 patients with lupus, almost half of whom had some degree of kidney involvement. They found that those who developed kidney damage after being diagnosed with lupus tended to be younger, to have had lupus for a longer time, and to have experienced more effects of lupus in general than those who did not have kidney involvement. Those who developed kidney problems were also more likely to have been unemployed, to have had fewer years of formal education, and to have had high blood pressure before developing kidney involvement. African-American and Texan Hispanic individuals with lupus were more likely to develop kidney involvement, and tended to develop it more rapidly, than White Americans or Puerto Rican Hispanic ethnicity. Actual kidney failure (ESRD requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation) was more likely to occur among Texan Hispanics with kidney involvement than in the other ethnic groups. Diabetes and high blood pressure were not found to predict ESRD, but people with a particular variant of a protein that helps antibodies bind to cells (know as Fc-gamma receptor IIIa, or FcγRIIIa) were found to be more likely to develop ESRD, and to develop it more quickly.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These results suggest that the emergence and progression of kidney disease in patients with lupus depends on medical, genetic, and socioeconomic factors. Because no single test or intervention can be expected to address all of these factors, those treating patients with lupus must remain aware of the complexity of their patients lives at a variety of levels. In particular, ethnic disparities in the risk of serious kidney disease remain to be addressed.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030396.
MedlinePlus page on lupus
Lupus Foundation of America
American College of Rheumatology pages on lupus
Wikipedia entry on lupus (note: Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030396
PMCID: PMC1626549  PMID: 17076550
3.  Syndrome of rapid onset end stage renal disease in incident Mayo Clinic chronic hemodialysis patient 
Indian Journal of Nephrology  2014;24(2):75-81.
Despite decades of research, a full understanding of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-end stage renal disease (ESRD) progression remains elusive. The common consensus is a predictable, linear, progressive and time-dependent decline of CKD to ESRD. Acute kidney injury (AKI) on CKD is usually assumed to be transient, with recovery as the expected outcome. AKI-ESRD association in current nephrology literature is blamed on the so-called “residual confounding.” We had previously described a relationship between AKI events and rapid onset yet irreversible ESRD happening in a continuum in a high-risk CKD cohort. However, the contribution of the syndrome of rapid onset-ESRD (SORO-ESRD) to incident United States ESRD population remained conjectural. In this retrospective analysis, we analyzed serum creatinine trajectories of the last 100 consecutive ESRD patients in 4 Mayo Clinic chronic hemodialysis units to determine the incidence of SORO-ESRD. Excluding 9 patients, 31 (34%) patients, including two renal transplant recipients, had SORO-ESRD: 18 males and 13 females age 72 (range 50-92) years. Precipitating AKI followed pneumonia (8), acutely decompensated heart failure (7), pyelonephritis (4), post-operative (5), sepsis (3), contrast-induced nephropathy (2), and others (2). Time to dialysis was shortest following surgical procedures. Concurrent renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockade was higher with SORO-ESRD - 23% versus 5%, P = 0.0113. In conclusion, SORO-ESRD is not uncommon among the incident general US ESRD population. The implications for ESRD care planning, AV-fistula-first programs, general CKD care and any associations with renal ageing/senescence warrant further study.
doi:10.4103/0971-4065.127886
PMCID: PMC3968613  PMID: 24701038
Acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; end stage renal disease; renal replacement therapy
4.  Toll-Like Receptor Family Polymorphisms Are Associated with Primary Renal Diseases but Not with Renal Outcomes Following Kidney Transplantation 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(10):e0139769.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate- and adaptive immunity. The TLR pathways were shown to play key functional roles in experimental acute and chronic kidney injury, including the allo-immune response after experimental renal transplantation. Data about the precise impact of TLRs and their negative regulators on human renal transplant outcomes however are limited and contradictory. We studied twelve non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which eleven in TLR1-8 and one in SIGIRR in a final cohort comprising 1116 matching donors and recipients. TLR3 p.Leu412Phe and SIGIRR p.Gln312Arg significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were excluded. The frequency distribution of the minor alleles of the remaining 10 TLR variants were compared between patients with end-stage renal disease (recipients) and controls (kidney donors) in a case-control study. Secondly, the associations between the minor allele frequency of the TLR variants and delayed graft function, biopsy-proven acute rejection and death-censored graft failure after transplantation were investigated with Cox regression. Carrier frequencies of the minor alleles of TLR1 p.His305Leu (OR = 4.79, 95% CI = 2.35–9.75, P = 0.0002), TLR1 p.Asn248Ser (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.07–1.47, P = 0.04) and TLR8 p.Met1Val (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14–1.64, P = 0.008) were significantly higher in patients with ESRD, with little specificity for the underlying renal disease entity (adjusted for age, gender and donor-recipient relatedness). The minor allele frequency of none of the TLR variants significantly associated with the surrogate and definite outcomes, even when multivariable models were created that could account for TLR gene redundancy. In conclusion, genetic variants in TLR genes were associated with the prevalence of ESRD but not renal transplant outcomes. Therefore, our data suggests that specific TLR signaling routes might play a role in the final common pathway of primary renal injury. A role for TLR signaling in the context of renal transplantation is probably limited.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139769
PMCID: PMC4596574  PMID: 26445497
5.  Risk Factors for ESRD in HIV-Infected Individuals: Traditional and HIV-Related Factors 
Background
Despite improvements in survival with HIV infection, kidney disease remains an important complication. Few studies have evaluated risk factors associated with development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected individuals. We sought to identify traditional and HIV-related risk factors for ESRD in HIV-infected individuals, and to compare ESRD risk by eGFR and proteinuria levels.
Study design
Retrospective cohort study.
Setting and Participants
22,156 HIV-infected veterans without preexisting ESRD receiving healthcare in the Veterans’ Affairs medical system between 1996 and 2004.
Predictors
Hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin<3.5mg/dL), CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus coinfection, proteinuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were identified using the Veterans’ Affairs electronic record system.
Outcomes
ESRD was ascertained by the United States Renal Data System.
Results
366 cases of ESRD occurred, corresponding to 3 cases per 1,000 person-years. Hypertension (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5–2.4), diabetes (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3–2.2), and cardiovascular disease (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7–2.7) were independently associated with ESRD risk in multivariate-adjusted models, as were CD4 lymphocyte count <200 cells/mm3 (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2–2.0), HIV viral load ≥30,000 copies/mL (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5–2.8), hepatitis C virus coinfection (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5–2.4), and hypoalbuminemia (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8–2.5). Compared to persons without chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as eGFR>60mg/min/1.73m2 and no proteinuria, lower eGFR and higher proteinuria categories were jointly associated with exponentially higher ESRD rates, ranging from 6.6 per 1000 person-years for persons with proteinuria 30–100 mg/dL and eGFR>60ml/min/1.73m2, to 193 per 1000 person-years for persons with proteinuria ≥300mg/dL and eGFR<30ml/min/1.73m2.
Limitations
Results may not be generalizable to female and nonveteran populations.
Conclusions
In HIV-infected persons, ESRD risk appears attributable to a combination of traditional and HIV-related risk factors for kidney disease. Combining eGFR and proteinuria for CKD staging is most effective for stratifying risk for ESRD.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.10.050
PMCID: PMC3324595  PMID: 22206742
End-stage renal disease; HIV; chronic kidney disease; risk factors
6.  Comparison of quality-of-care measures in U.S. patients with end-stage renal disease secondary to lupus nephritis vs. other causes 
BMC Nephrology  2015;16:39.
Background
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to lupus nephritis (LN-ESRD) may be followed by multiple providers (nephrologists and rheumatologists) and have greater opportunities to receive recommended ESRD-related care. We aimed to examine whether LN-ESRD patients have better quality of ESRD care compared to other ESRD patients.
Methods
Among incident patients (7/05–9/11) with ESRD due to LN (n = 6,594) vs. other causes (n = 617,758), identified using a national surveillance cohort (United States Renal Data System), we determined the association between attributed cause of ESRD and quality-of-care measures (pre-ESRD nephrology care, placement on the deceased donor kidney transplant waitlist, and placement of permanent vascular access). Multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs).
Results
LN-ESRD patients were more likely than other ESRD patients to receive pre-ESRD care (71% vs. 66%; OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.57-1.78) and be placed on the transplant waitlist in the first year (206 vs. 86 per 1000 patient-years; HR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.34–1.52). However, only 24% had a permanent vascular access (fistula or graft) in place at dialysis start (vs. 36%; OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.59–0.67).
Conclusions
LN-ESRD patients are more likely to receive pre-ESRD care and have better access to transplant, but are less likely to have a permanent vascular access for dialysis, than other ESRD patients. Further studies are warranted to examine barriers to permanent vascular access placement, as well as morbidity and mortality associated with temporary access, in patients with LN-ESRD.
doi:10.1186/s12882-015-0037-1
PMCID: PMC4389993  PMID: 25884409
7.  Marked Variation of the Association of ESRD Duration Before and After Wait Listing on Kidney Transplant Outcomes 
Numerous studies report a strong association between pretransplant end-stage renal disease (ESRD) duration and diminished transplant outcomes. However, cumulative waiting time may reflect distinct phases and processes related to patients’ physiological condition as well as pre-existing morbidity and access to care. The relative impact of pre- and postlisting ESRD durations on transplant outcomes is unknown. We examined the impact of these intervals from a national cohort of kidney transplant recipients from 1999 to 2008 (n = 112 249). Primary factors explaining prelisting ESRD duration were insurance and race, while primary factors explaining postlisting ESRD duration were blood type, PRA% and variation between centers. Extended time from ESRD to waitlisting had significant dose–response association with overall graft loss (AHR = 1.26 for deceased donors [DD], AHR = 1.32 for living donors [LD], p values < 0.001). Contrarily, time from waitlisting (after ESRD) to transplantation had negligible effects (p = 0.10[DD], p = 0.57[LD]). There were significant associations between pre- and postlisting ESRD time with posttransplant patient survival, however prelisting time had over sixfold greater effect. Prelisting ESRD time predominately explains the association of waiting time with transplant outcomes suggesting that factors associated with this interval should be prioritized for interventions and allocation policy. The degree to which the effect of prelisting ESRD time is a proxy for comorbid conditions, socioeconomic status or access to care requires further study.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03213.x
PMCID: PMC3881969  PMID: 20645941
Access to care; African Americans; dialysis; ESRD; kidney transplantation; waiting list
8.  The FTO gene polymorphism is associated with end-stage renal disease: two large independent case–control studies in a general population 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2011;27(3):1030-1035.
Background.
Genome-wide association studies identified the FTO (fat mass and obesity gene) gene as an important determinant of body weight. More recently, the FTO gene was reported to be associated with other outcomes, including major risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the role of this gene in the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by CKD.
Methods.
We conducted two large population-based case–control studies of ESRD. Study 1 compared 984 haemodialysed patients with ESRD with 2501 participants in the Czech post-MONICA study; Study 2 compared 1188 patients included in a kidney transplantation programme for ESRD with 6681 participants in the Czech HAPIEE study. The frequencies of the FTO rs17817449 single nucleotide polymorphism genotype were compared between cases and controls.
Results.
The FTO rs17817449 genotype was significantly associated with CKD in both studies (P-values 0.00004 and 0.006, respectively). In the pooled data, the odds ratios of CKD for GG and GT, versus TT genotype, were 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20–1.56) and 1.17 (1.05–1.31), respectively (P for trend <0.0001). Among haemodialysed and kidney transplant patients, the onset of ESRD in GG homozygotes was 3.3 (P = 0.012) and 2.5 (P = 0.032) years, respectively, earlier than in TT homozygotes.
Conclusions.
These two large independent case–control studies in the general population found robust associations between the FTO rs17817449 polymorphism and the ESRD. The results suggest that the morbidities associated with the FTO gene include CKD.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr418
PMCID: PMC3289895  PMID: 21788373
chronic kidney disease; end-stage renal disease; FTO; genetic epidemiology
9.  Recurrence of crystalline nephropathy after kidney transplantation in APRT deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria 
Purpose of review
To provide transplant physicians with a summary of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria and, focussed on kidney transplantation, and to discuss interventions aimed at preventing and treating the recurrence of crystalline nephropathy in renal transplant recipients.
Source of information
Pubmed literature search.
Setting
Primary hyperoxaluria and APRT deficiency are rare inborn errors of human metabolism. The hallmark of these diseases is the overproduction and urinary excretion of compounds (2,8 dihydroxyadenine in APRT deficiency, oxalate in primary hyperoxaluria) that form urinary crystals. Although recurrent urolithiasis represents the main clinical feature of these diseases, kidney injury can occur as a result of crystal precipitation within the tubules and interstitium, a condition referred to as crystalline nephropathy. Some patients develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and may become candidates for kidney transplantation. Since kidney transplantation does not correct the underlying metabolic defect, transplant recipients have a high risk of recurrence of crystalline nephropathy, which can lead to graft loss. In some instances, the disease remains undiagnosed until after the occurrence of ESRD or even after kidney transplantation.
Key messages
Patients with APRT deficiency or primary hyperoxaluria may develop ESRD as a result of crystalline nephropathy. In the absence of diagnosis and adequate management, the disease is likely to recur after kidney transplantation, which often leads to rapid loss of renal allograft function. Primary hyperoxaluria, but not APRT deficiency, becomes a systemic disease at low GFR with oxalate deposition leading to malfunction in non-renal organs (systemic oxalosis). We suggest that these diagnoses should be considered in patients with low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and a history of kidney stones. In APRT deficiency, stones may be confused with uric acid stones, unless specialized techniques are used (infrared spectroscopy or X-ray crystallography for urinary crystals or stone analysis; Fourier transform infrared microscopy for crystals in kidney biopsy). Where these are unavailable, and for confirmation, the diagnosis can be made by measurement of enzyme activity in red blood cell lysates or by genetic testing. In patients with primary hyperoxaluria, levels of urinary and plasma oxalate; and the presence of nearly pure calcium oxalate monohydrate in stones, which often also have an unusually pale colour and unorganized structure, increase diagnostic suspicion. Molecular genetic testing is the criterion measure. Lifelong allopurinol therapy, with high fluid intake if appropriate, may stabilize kidney function in APRT deficiency; if ESRD has occurred or is near, results with kidney transplantation after initiation of allopurinol are excellent. In primary hyperoxaluria recognized before ESRD, pyridoxine treatment and high fluid intake may lead to a substantial decrease in urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation and prevent renal failure. In non-responsive patients or those recognized later in their disease, liver transplantation cures the underlying defect and should be considered when the GFR falls below 30 ml/min/1.73 m2; in those which or near ESRD, liver transplantation and intensive dialysis before kidney transplantation may be considered to reduce the total body oxalate burden before kidney transplantation.
Limitations
The availability of diagnostic tests varies between countries and centres. Data on long term outcomes after kidney transplantation are limited, especially for APRT deficiency patients.
Implications
Increasing transplant physicians knowledge of APRT deficiency and primary hyperoxaluria should enable them to implement adequate diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, thereby achieving good outcomes after kidney transplantation.
doi:10.1186/s40697-015-0069-2
PMCID: PMC4570695  PMID: 26380104
10.  Association of Family History of ESRD, Prevalent Albuminuria, and Reduced GFR With Incident ESRD 
Background
The contribution of albuminuria to the increased risk of incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with a family history of ESRD has not been well studied.
Study Design
Prospective cohort study.
Study Setting & Participants
We analyzed data for family history of ESRD collected from 19,409 participants of the Renal REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort study.
Predictor
Family history of ESRD was ascertained by asking “Has anyone in your immediate family ever been told that he or she had kidney failure? This would be someone who is on or had been on dialysis or someone who had a kidney transplant.”
Study Outcomes
Incidence rate for ESRD.
Measurements
Morning urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Incident cases of ESRD were identified through the US Renal Data System.
Results
A family history of ESRD was reported by 11.1% of participants. Mean eGFRs for those with and without a family history of ESRD were 87.5 ± 22.2 (SD) and 86.5 ± 19.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively (P = 0.05) and the respective geometric mean ACRs were 12.2 and 9.7 mg/g (P < 0.001). ESRD incidence rates for those with and without a family history of ESRD were 244.3 and 106.1/100,000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and race, the ESRD HR for those with versus those without a family history of ESRD was 2.13 (95% CI, 1.18-3.83). Adjustment for comorbid conditions and socioeconomic status attenuated this association (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.00-3.28), and further adjustment for baseline eGFR and ACR completely attenuated the association between family history of ESRD and incident ESRD (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.69-1.80).
Limitations
The report of a family history of ESRD was not validated.
Conclusion
Family history of ESRD is common in older Americans and the increased risk of ESRD associated with a family history reflects lower GFR, higher albuminuria, and comorbid conditions.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.09.018
PMCID: PMC3725825  PMID: 22078058
Race; albuminuria; end-stage renal disease; chronic kidney disease
11.  Selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption with proteinuria (Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome) in juvenile Beagles 
Background
Selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption with mild proteinuria (Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome; I-GS), is an autosomal recessive disorder of dogs caused by mutations in AMN or CUBN that disrupt cubam function and which can present as a medical emergency.
Objectives
To describe the clinical, metabolic, and genetic bases of I-GS in Beagles.
Animals
Four cobalamin-deficient and 43 clinically normal Beagles and 5 dogs of other breeds.
Methods
Clinical description and candidate gene genetic study. Urinary organic acid and protein excretion were determined by gas-chromatography and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Renal cubilin protein expression was assessed on immunoblots. Mutation discovery was by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of exons with flanking splice sites and cDNA of CUBN and AMN. Genotyping was by restriction enzyme digestion of PCR amplicons.
Results
Juvenile affected Beagles exhibited failure to thrive, dyshematopoiesis with neutropenia, serum cobalamin deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria, hyperammonemia, and proteinuria. Affected dog kidney lacked detectable cubilin protein. All affected dogs were homozygous for a single base deletion in CUBN exon 8 (CUBN c.786delC), predicting a translational frameshift, and the 2 parents tested were heterozygous.
Conclusions
The CUBN mutation in juvenile I-GS Beagles causes a more severe cobalamin malabsorption than in Border Collies with a different CUBN defect, but is similar to I-GS caused by AMN mutations in Giant Schnauzers and Australian Shepherds. Awareness of the disorder and breed predispositions to I-GS is crucial to precisely diagnose and promptly treat hereditary cobalamin malabsorption and to prevent disease in those dogs at risk in future generations.
doi:10.1111/jvim.12284
PMCID: PMC3959579  PMID: 24433284
vitamin B12; cytopenia; cubam; inborn error of metabolism; methylmalonic aciduria
12.  Association of eGFR-Related Loci Identified by GWAS with Incident CKD and ESRD 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(9):e1002292.
Family studies suggest a genetic component to the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Previously, we identified 16 loci for eGFR in genome-wide association studies, but the associations of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for incident CKD or ESRD are unknown. We thus investigated the association of these loci with incident CKD in 26,308 individuals of European ancestry free of CKD at baseline drawn from eight population-based cohorts followed for a median of 7.2 years (including 2,122 incident CKD cases defined as eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 at follow-up) and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls). SNPs at 11 of the 16 loci (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, SHROOM3, DACH1, STC1, SLC34A1, ALMS1/NAT8, UBE2Q2, and GCKR) were associated with incident CKD; p-values ranged from p = 4.1e-9 in UMOD to p = 0.03 in GCKR. After adjusting for baseline eGFR, six of these loci remained significantly associated with incident CKD (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, DACH1, and STC1). SNPs in UMOD (OR = 0.92, p = 0.04) and GCKR (OR = 0.93, p = 0.03) were nominally associated with ESRD. In summary, the majority of eGFR-related loci are either associated or show a strong trend towards association with incident CKD, but have modest associations with ESRD in individuals of European descent. Additional work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of CKD and ESRD at different stages of disease progression.
Author Summary
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects about 6%–11% of the general population, and progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) has a significant public health impact. Family studies suggest that the risk for CKD and ESRD is heritable. Unraveling the genetic underpinning of risk for these diseases may lead to the identification of novel mechanisms and thus diagnostic and therapeutic tools. We have previously identified 16 genetic markers in association with kidney function and prevalent CKD in general population studies. However, little is known about the relevance of these SNPs to the initial development of CKD or to ESRD risk. Therefore, we have now analyzed the association of these markers with the initiation of CKD in more than 26,000 individuals from the general population using serial estimations of kidney function, and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls). We show that many of the 16 markers are also associated or show a strong trend towards association with initiation of CKD, while only 2 markers are nominally associated with ESRD. Further work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of different stages of CKD progression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002292
PMCID: PMC3183079  PMID: 21980298
13.  Incident Atrial Fibrillation and Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease in Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease 
Circulation  2012;127(5):569-574.
Background
Atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the long-term impact of development of AF on the risk of adverse renal outcomes in patients with CKD is unknown. In this study, we determined the association between incident AF and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among adults with CKD.
Methods and Results
We studied adults with CKD (defined as persistent glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 by the CKD-EPI equation) enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California who were identified between 2002–2010 and who did not have prior ESRD or previously documented AF. Incident AF was identified using primary hospital discharge diagnoses and/or two or more outpatient visits for AF. Incident ESRD was ascertained from a comprehensive health plan registry for dialysis and renal transplant. Among 206,229 adults with CKD, 16,463 developed incident AF. During a mean follow-up of 5.1± 2.5 years, there were 345 cases of ESRD that occurred after development of incident AF (74 per 1000 person-years) compared with 6505 cases of ESRD during periods without AF (64 per 1000 person-years, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, incident AF was associated with a 67% increase in rate of ESRD (hazard ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.46–1.91).
Conclusions
Incident AF is independently associated with increased risk of developing ESRD in adults with CKD. Further study is needed to identify potentially modifiable pathways through which AF leads to a higher risk of progression to ESRD.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.123992
PMCID: PMC3676734  PMID: 23275377
arrhythmia; fibrillation; kidney
14.  The Renin-Aldosterone axis in kidney transplant recipients and its association with allograft function and structure 
Kidney international  2013;85(2):404-415.
The level of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity in kidney transplant recipients has not been extensively studied or serially profiled. To describe this axis and to determine its association with GFR change, interstitial expansion and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) we measured plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone levels annually for 5 years in 153 kidney transplant recipients randomly assigned to losartan or placebo. PRA and plasma aldosterone levels were in the normal range at all times and did not vary by immunosuppression regimen. Those on losartan exhibited higher PRA but similar plasma aldosterone levels. Neither baseline nor serial PRA or plasma aldosterone levels were associated with GFR decline, proteinuria or interstitial expansion. Losartan use, [HR 0.48 (95% CI 0.21–1.0), insignificant], and Caucasian donor, [HR 0.18 (95% CI 0.07–0.4), significant] were associated with less doubling of serum creatinine, death or ESRD. Hypertension, less than 3 HLA-matches, the combination of tacrolimus-rapamycin and acute rejection were associated with more events. Neither PRA nor plasma aldosterone levels were independently associated with this outcome. Higher serial plasma aldosterone levels were associated, however, with a significantly higher risk of ESRD, [HR 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02)]. Thus, systemic RAAS is not overly activated in kidney transplant recipients but this may not reflect the intrarenal system. Importantly, plasma aldosterone levels may be associated with more ESRD.
doi:10.1038/ki.2013.278
PMCID: PMC3946607  PMID: 23965522
15.  Association of RAC1 Gene Polymorphisms with Primary End-Stage Renal Disease in Chinese Renal Recipients 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(2):e0148270.
Background/Objective
RAC1 gene could influence susceptibility to renal failure by altering the activity and expression of Rac1, which is a member of the Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins. In clinical practice, renal transplantation provides the optimal treatment for people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of this present study was to determine whether the RAC1 gene polymorphisms were associated with primary ESRD susceptibility in Chinese renal recipients.
Methods
Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of RAC1 gene, including rs836488 T>C, rs702482 A>T, rs10951982 G>A, rs702483 A>G, rs6954996 G>A, and rs9374 G>A, were genotyped in 300 renal transplant recipients (cases) and 998 healthy Chinese subjects (controls) by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies of the six SNPs were compared between cases and controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in logistic regression models to evaluate the associations of the six SNPs with ESRD risk.
Results
The genotype distributions for the six SNPs in controls were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Association analysis revealed that three SNPs were significantly associated with ESRD risk. Positive associations with ESRD risk were found for the rs836488, rs702482, and rs702483 in the co-dominant model (minor allele homozygotes versus major allele homozygotes); specifically, the frequencies of the minor allele homozygotes and the minor allele for the three SNPs were higher in the cases than in the controls. In addition, these three SNPs also had associations with increased ESRD risk under the additive model (P < 0.05), and positive associations were also found for the rs836488 in the dominant model (P < 0.05) and for the rs702483 in the recessive model (P < 0.05). All these associations were independent of confounding factors. The other three SNPs (rs10951982, rs6954996, and rs9374), in all comparison models, were not associated with ESRD risk (P > 0.05). In haplotype analysis, carriers with "C-T-G-G-G-G" haplotype had a significantly higher risk of ESRD compared with the most common haplotype "T-A-G-A-G-G" (P = 0.011, OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.09–1.94).
Conclusion
This study suggested that polymorphisms of RAC1 gene might influence the susceptibility to ESRD in Chinese Han population. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148270
PMCID: PMC4739498  PMID: 26841219
16.  Pediatric Renal Transplantation 
Although the number of children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in need for renal transplantation is small compared with adults, the problem associated with renal transplant in children are numerous, varied, and often peculiar. Pre-emptive transplantation has recently been growing in popularity as it avoids many of the associated long-term complications of ESRD and dialysis. Changes in immunosuppression to more potent agents over the years will have affected transplant outcome; there is also evidence that tacrolimus is more effective than cyclosporine. This review will discuss the short- and long-term complications such as acute and chronic rejection, hypertension, infections, and malignancies as well as factors related to long-term graft function.
Chronic allograft nephropathy is the leading cause of renal allograft loss in pediatric renal transplant recipients. It is likely that it reflects a combination of both immune and nonimmune injury occurring cumulatively over time so that the ultimate solution will rely on several approaches. Transplant and patient survival have shown a steady increase over the years. The major causes of death after transplantation are cardiovascular disease, infection and malignancy. Transplantation in special circumstances such as children with abnormal urinary tracts and children with diseases that have the potential to recur after transplantation will also be discussed in this review. Non-compliance with therapeutic regimen is a difficult problem to deal with and affects patients and families at all ages, but particularly so at adolescence. Growth may be severely impaired in children with ESRD which may result in major consequences on quality of life and self-esteem; a better height attainment at transplantation is recognized as one of the most important factors in final height achievement.
Although pediatric kidney transplantation is active in some parts of many developing countries, it is still inactive in many others and mostly relying on living donors. The lacking deceased programs in most of these countries is one of the main issues to be addressed to adequately respond to organ shortage.
In conclusion, transplantation is currently the best option for children with ESRD. Although improvement in immunosuppression demonstrated excellent results and has led to greater 1-year graft survival rates, chronic graft loss remains relatively unchanged and opportunistic infectious complications remain a problem
PMCID: PMC4089282  PMID: 25013625
Transplantation; Kidney; End-stage renal disease; Pediatrics
17.  Impact of MELD-Based Allocation on End-Stage Renal Disease after Liver Transplantation 
The proportion of patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) with concomitant renal dysfunction markedly increased after allocation by the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was introduced. We examined the incidence of subsequent post-LT end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after the policy was implemented. Data on all adult deceased-donor LT recipients between 4/27/95 and 12/31/08 (n=59,242) from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients were linked with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services ESRD data. Cox regression was used to (i) compare pre-MELD and MELD eras with respect to post-LT ESRD incidence (ii) determine the risk factors for post-LT ESRD (iii) quantify the association between ESRD incidence and mortality. Crude rates of post-LT ESRD were 12.8 and 14.5 per 1,000 patient-years in the pre-MELD and MELD eras, respectively. Covariate-adjusted post-LT ESRD risk was higher in the MELD era (hazard ratio [HR] =1.15; p=0.0049). African-American race, hepatitis C, pre-LT diabetes, higher creatinine, lower albumin, lower bilirubin and sodium>141 mMol/L at LT were also significant predictors of post-LT ESRD. Post-LT ESRD was associated with higher post-LT mortality (HR=3.32; p<0.0001). The risk of post-LT ESRD, a strong predictor of post-LT mortality, is 15% higher in the MELD era. This study identified potentially modifiable risk factors of post-LT ESRD. Early intervention and modification of these risk factors may reduce the burden of post-LT ESRD.
doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03703.x
PMCID: PMC3203341  PMID: 21883908
End-stage renal disease; Liver transplant; Model for end-stage renal disease; Mortality; Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients
18.  Long-term mortality and risk factors for development of end-stage renal disease in critically ill patients with and without chronic kidney disease 
Critical Care  2015;19:383.
Introduction
Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) amongst intensive care unit (ICU) admissions is rising. How mortality and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) differs between those with and without CKD and with acute kidney injury (AKI) is unclear. Determining factors that increase the risk of ESRD is essential to optimise treatment, identify patients requiring nephrological surveillance and for quantification of dialysis provision.
Method
This cohort study used the Swedish intensive care register 2005–2011 consisting of 130,134 adult patients. Incomplete cases were excluded (26,771). Patients were classified (using diagnostic and intervention codes as well as admission creatinine values) into the following groups: ESRD, CKD, AKI, acute-on-chronic disease (AoC) or no renal dysfunction (control). Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome was ESRD incidence.
Results
Of 103,363 patients 4,192 had pre-existing CKD; 1389 had ESRD; 5273 developed AKI and 998 CKD patients developed AoC. One-year mortality was greatest in AoC patients (54 %) followed by AKI (48.7 %), CKD (47.6 %) and ESRD (40.3 %) (P < 0.001). Five-year mortality was highest for the CKD and AoC groups (71.3 % and 68.2 %, respectively) followed by AKI (61.8 %) and ESRD (62.9 %) (P < 0.001). ESRD incidence was greatest in the AoC and CKD groups (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 259 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 156.9–429.1) and 96.4, (95 % CI 59.7–155.6) respectively) and elevated in AKI patients compared with controls (adjusted IRR 24 (95 % CI 3.9–42.0); P < 0.001). Risk factors independently associated with ESRD in 1-year survivors were, according to relative risk ratio, AoC (356; 95 % CI 69.9–1811), CKD (267; 95 % CI 55.1–1280), AKI (30; 95 % CI 5.98–154) and presence of elevated admission serum potassium (4.6; 95 % CI 1.30–16.40) (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Pre-ICU renal disease significantly increases risk of death compared with controls. Subjects with AoC disease had extreme risk of developing ESRD. All patients with CKD who survive critical care should receive a nephrology referral.
Trial registration
Clinical trials registration number: NCT02424747 April 20th 2015.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13054-015-1101-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13054-015-1101-8
PMCID: PMC4630837  PMID: 26526622
19.  Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease Following Live Kidney Donation 
JAMA  2014;311(6):579-586.
Importance
Risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in kidney donors has been compared with risk faced by the general population, but the general population represents an unscreened, high-risk comparator. A comparison to similarly screened healthy nondonors would more properly estimate the sequelae of kidney donation.
Objectives
To compare the risk of ESRD in kidney donors with that of a healthy cohort of nondonors who are at equally low risk of renal disease and free of contraindications to live donation and to stratify these comparisons by patient demographics.
Design, Settings, and Participants
A cohort of 96 217 kidney donors in the United States between April 1994 and November 2011 and a cohort of 20 024 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were linked to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data to ascertain development of ESRD, which was defined as the initiation of maintenance dialysis, placement on the waiting list, or receipt of a living or deceased donor kidney transplant, whichever was identified first. Maximum follow-up was 15.0 years; median follow-up was 7.6 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3.9-11.5 years) for kidney donors and 15.0 years (IQR, 13.7-15.0 years) for matched healthy nondonors.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Cumulative incidence and lifetime risk of ESRD.
Results
Among live donors, with median follow-up of 7.6 years (maximum, 15.0), ESRD developed in 99 individuals in a mean (SD) of 8.6 (3.6) years after donation. Among matched healthy nondonors, with median follow-up of 15.0 years (maximum, 15.0), ESRD developed in 36 nondonors in 10.7 (3.2) years, drawn from 17 ESRD events in the unmatched healthy nondonor pool of 9364. Estimated risk of ESRD at 15 years after donation was 30.8 per 10 000 (95% CI, 24.3-38.5) in kidney donors and 3.9 per 10 000 (95% CI, 0.8-8.9) in their matched healthy nondonor counterparts (P < .001). This difference was observed in both black and white individuals, with an estimated risk of 74.7 per 10 000 black donors (95% CI, 47.8-105.8) vs 23.9 per 10 000 black nondonors (95% CI, 1.6-62.4; P < .001) and an estimated risk of 22.7 per 10 000 white donors (95% CI, 15.6-30.1) vs 0.0 white nondonors (P < .001). Estimated lifetime risk of ESRD was 90 per 10 000 donors, 326 per 10 000 unscreened nondonors (general population), and 14 per 10 000 healthy nondonors.
Conclusions and Relevance
Compared with matched healthy nondonors, kidney donors had an increased risk of ESRD over a median of 7.6 years; however, the magnitude of the absolute risk increase was small. These findings may help inform discussions with persons considering live kidney donation.
doi:10.1001/jama.2013.285141
PMCID: PMC4411956  PMID: 24519297
20.  Sickle cell trait is not independently associated with susceptibility to end-stage renal disease in African Americans 
Kidney International  2011;80(12):1339-1343.
Conflicting reports exist as to whether sickle cell trait is a risk factor for the progression of nephropathy. In order to determine whether African Americans with sickle cell trait are at increased risk for kidney disease, we assessed the genetic association between sickle cell trait and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemoglobin S, non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9), and apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants were genotyped in 3258 unrelated African Americans: 1085 with non-diabetic ESRD, 996 with type 2 diabetes-associated ESRD, and 1177 controls. Since APOL1 is strongly associated with ESRD in African Americans, interactions between APOL1 and MYH9 risk variants and hemoglobin S were assessed using case-only and case-control centered two-way logistic regression interaction analyses. The sickle cell trait genotype frequencies were 8.7% in non-diabetic ESRD, 7.1% in type 2 diabetes-ESRD, and 7.2% in controls. There was no age-, gender-, and admixture-adjusted significance for sickle cell trait association with non-diabetic ESRD (odds ratio 1.16); type 2 diabetes-ESRD (odds ratio 1.01); or all-cause ESRD (combined non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic-ESRD patients compared to the controls; odds ratio 1.05) in dominant models. In addition, no evidence of APOL1 or MYH9 interactions with sickle cell trait was detected. Hence, sickle cell trait is not associated with diabetic or non-diabetic ESRD in a large sample of African Americans.
doi:10.1038/ki.2011.286
PMCID: PMC3280424  PMID: 21849968
African American; APOL1; diabetes; end-stage kidney disease; hemoglobin S; hypertension
21.  AB063. 63 cases of DCD experience in renal transplant recipients 
Translational Andrology and Urology  2015;4(Suppl 1):AB063.
Objective
To retrospectively analyze the clinical data of patients with ESRD undergoing cardiac death organ donation free (DCD) renal transplant, summarize the recovery condition after renal transplantation and the influence of DCD donor to recipient and graft postoperative.
Methods
There were 32 donors in 63 cases of DCD renal transplantation, including 28 men and four women. Their ages ranged from 3-62 years old, and the average age was 33.5 years. The donors included 28 cases of traumatic brain injury, two cases of cerebral tumor, one case of cerebral vascular accident, five children donors, 16 with preoperative abnormal creatinine (sCr).The 63 recipients included 43 men and 20 women. Their ages ranged from 25-49 years old. The average age was 33.5 years. Recipients were 23 cases of chronic glomerulonephritis original disease, 18 cases of chronic renal insufficiency, and the nine cases of high blood pressure, six cases of nephrotic syndrome, seven other cases. The recipient’s blood type were 13 type A, 30 type B, 20 type O. HLA antigen matching included four cases of five antigen mismatches, 18 cases of four antigen mismatches, 31 cases of three antigen mismatches, two antigen mismatches 11 cases. Minimized or avoided the use of strong contraction of norepinephrine renal artery vasoactive drugs during donor maintenance. Indicators for kidney assessment: clinical data including age, blood pressure, heart rate, urine output, creatinine, primary disease, past history kidney disease, dying time, vasoactive drug use, B-renal morphology and blood flow in B-ultrasound; the warm ischemia time and cold ischemic time of donor renal; color, shape and texture of donor renal; the kidney quality by application life-port renal perfusion assessment instrument; donor kidney biopsy. ARI DCD donor kidney transplant acceptance criteria: no history of chronic kidney disease, negative biopsy, no chronic structural lesions (alternative), age <50 years, occurred during or after the trauma ICU to maintain, obvious inducement, abdominal ultrasound examination without morphological abnormalities, vascular tree clear, common causes: prehospital hypovolemic shock, boosting drugs during ICU, traumatic brain injury lead to lower blood pressure perfusion, rhabdomyolysis myoglobin casts. Caution or waive the standard for kidney: die because of drowning, suffocation longer time; active infection without treatment; ICU treatment time for more than one week; dying more than 1 hour, warm ischemia time over 30 min; appearance “gray”, and after heparin infusion cannot be restored; life-port continuous perfusion RI >0.6, continuous infusion flow rate <50 mL/min; renal transplant biopsy shows a wide range of micro-thrombosis. The adoption of immunosuppressive regimen was ATG + TAC + MMF + Pre.
Results
Forty-seven cases donors had normal sCr, 19 cases had delayed graft function (DGF) after transplantation, accounting for 40.4%. Ten cases dialyzed postoperative, accounting for 21.3%, who had an average of dialysis three times. The sCr recovery the normal time was 10.7 days. There were 16 donors had abnormal sCr (sCr at 184-504 umol/between L). All had DGF postoperative, accounting for 100%. And 11 cases dialyzed postoperative, accounting for 68.7%, an average of 6.7 times. The time of sCr returned to normal was 28.9 days after surgery. There were a total of 63 cases of DCD renal transplantation, including 35 cases of DGF, accounted for 55.6%. And 21 cases, accounting for 33.3%, should do hemodialysis postoperative. Seven cases suffered from acute rejection, 11 cases had different degree of the infection in different parts, one case died, and three cases had renal allograft loss.
Conclusions
Of the 63 cases of DCD renal transplantation in our hospital, through the follow up of 312 months, 94.7% of recipients transplanted kidney maintain good function in the short term. Living donor restrictions, death row organs have been banned, DCD is now an important part of the organ sources in China. Facing the organ shortage, DCD is a very potential solution of organ transplantation.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2015.s063
PMCID: PMC4708700
Organ donation free; renal transplant; creatinine
22.  Estimating the long term impact of kidney donation on life expectancy and end stage renal disease 
Background
Long term studies of live kidney donation do not show evidence of appreciable risks to the donor. However nephrectomy reduces total glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and is associated with increased rates of proteinuria and possibly hypertension. It is not clear to what extent these changes are associated with reduced life expectancy (LE) or increased risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) since follow up is incomplete in most reports.
Methods
In a computer simulation model based on a US population chronic kidney disease model, increased hazard rates for higher blood pressure, proteinuria and low GFR were applied to healthy individuals undergoing donor nephrectomy. Subsequent LE and cumulative risk of ESRD were calculated.
Results
Kidney donation is projected to reduce LE by 0.83 years and increase the absolute cumulative risk of ESRD by 0.89% for a 40-year-old white male. White females were predicted to have slightly greater loss of life and less added ESRD risk. Conversely, Blacks have greater risks of ESRD after donation. Older donors with hypertension were predicted to lose less life years and lower cumulative ESRD risks than young donors. Despite these increased risks most donors will have better life expectancy and lower ESRD rates than the general population since they are a highly selected cohort.
Conclusions
This study attempts to quantify increases in death and ESRD from donor nephrectomy assuming the risk factors of hypertension, low GFR and proteinuria have the same significance in this population as in the general population. Further study is required to better estimate the risks of donation and test whether these assumptions are valid.
doi:10.1186/2047-1440-2-2
PMCID: PMC3577426  PMID: 23414596
Quality of life; Nephrectomy; Live donation; End stage renal disease; Life expectancy
23.  Predictors of End-stage Renal Disease in the Urban Poor 
We sought to examine the influence of social and clinical factors on risk of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the urban poor. We studied 15,353 individuals with moderate-to-advanced CKD who received ambulatory care within a large public health system during 1996–2005. The primary outcome was progression to ESRD. Overall, 559 cases of ESRD occurred over a median follow-up of 2.8 years. Among traditional predictors of ESRD, younger age, male sex, non-White race/ ethnicity, public health insurance coverage, diabetes, lower kidney function, higher proteinuria, lower hemoglobin level, and lower serum albumin concentration were significantly associated with a higher adjusted ESRD risk (p < .001 for all). There was no significant association between HIV/AIDS (p=.07), viral hepatitis (p=.11), or non-English language (p=.27) and ESRD risk. Our results highlight the importance of addressing traditional risk factors for progressive CKD to reduce the disproportionate burden of ESRD among disadvantaged populations.
doi:10.1353/hpu.2013.0189
PMCID: PMC4504426  PMID: 24185164
End-stage renal disease; chronic kidney disease; urban poor; race or ethnicity; public health care; disparities
24.  Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate and subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality 
JAMA  2014;311(24):2518-2531.
Importance
The established chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression endpoint, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or doubling of serum creatinine (corresponding to a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of −57% or greater) is a late event, limiting feasibility of nephrology clinical trials.
Objective
To characterize the association of decline in eGFR with subsequent progression to ESRD, with implications for using lesser declines in eGFR as potential alternative endpoints for CKD progression. Since most people with CKD die before reaching ESRD, we also investigated mortality risk.
Data Sources
Individual meta-analysis of up to 1.7 million participants with 12,344 ESRD events and 223,944 deaths from 35 cohorts.
Study Selection
Cohorts in the CKD Prognosis Consortium with a repeated measure of serum creatinine over 1-3 years and outcome data.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
Transfer of individual participant data or standardized analysis of outputs for random effects meta-analysis took place between July 2012 and September 2013 with baseline eGFRs during 1975-2012.
Main Outcomes and Measures
ESRD (initiation of dialysis or transplantation) or all-cause mortality risk related to percent change in eGFR over 2 years adjusted for potential confounders and first eGFR.
Results
The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of ESRD and mortality were exponentially higher with larger eGFR decline. Among participants with baseline eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, the adjusted HRs for ESRD were 32.1 (95% CI 22.3-46.3) and 5.4 (4.5-6.4) for −57% and −30% eGFR changes, respectively. However, changes of −30% or greater were much more common than changes of −57% (6.9% (6.4-7.4%) vs. 0.79% (0.52-1.06%) in the whole consortium). This association was strong and consistent across length of baseline (1 or 3 years), baseline eGFR, age, diabetes status, or albuminuria. Average adjusted 10-year risk of ESRD for eGFR changes of −57%, −40%, −30% and 0% were 99% (95-100%), 83% (71-93%), 64% (52-77%), vs. 18% (15-22%) respectively at baseline eGFR of 35 ml/min/1.73m2. Corresponding mortality risks were 77% (71-82%), 60% (56-63%), 50% (47-52%), vs. 32% (31-33%), showing a similar but weaker pattern.
Conclusions and Relevance
Declines in eGFR smaller than doubling of serum creatinine occur more commonly and are strongly and consistently associated with the risk of ESRD and mortality, supporting consideration of lesser declines in eGFR, such as 30% reduction over 2 years, as an alternative endpoint for CKD progression.
doi:10.1001/jama.2014.6634
PMCID: PMC4172342  PMID: 24892770
25.  Kidney transplantation in HIV-positive patients: a report of 14 cases 
The HAART reduces the risk of HIV-related renal disease but the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, efficacy and safety of renal transplantation (Tx) is an important resource in the HIV-infected population. We reported the results of kidney Tx in HIV+patients from deceased donors from June 2007 to March 2012 at our institution. The patients had to have CD4+T-cell counts≥200/mm3 and undetectable plasma HIV-RNA if on HAART. The induction immunosuppressive therapy consisted of metilprednisolone and basilixmab; tacrolimus and/or mycofenolic acid were used for maintenance therapy. The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been performed for the adjusting of both their doses [1]. A total of 14 patients underwent kidney Tx. They were on dialysis (haemodialysis=13, 92.9%; peritoneal=1, 7.1%) for 5±3.1 years and they were included on the Tx waiting list for 10±8 months. The baseline characteristics are showed in Table 1. Donor at baseline Mean age38±12.5 yearsDeceased14/14 (100%)High/unclassified infectious risk9 (64.29%)RecipientsMean age44 yearsPatients with previous AIDS-defining events3 (21.4%)Median follow-up months (IQR range)42.75 (8.5–55.2)Patient survival at last follow-up14/14 (100%)Graft survival at last follow-up13/14 (92.9%)Mean time of acute rejection since Tx28±20 daysPatients not treated with steroid at last follow-up6 (43%)Plasma creatinine at last follow-up1.87±1.93 mg/dlSevere infectious complications (CMV pneumonia, malaria, Kaposi sarcoma)3 (21.4%)Diabetes3 (21.4%)CMV infection without localization3 (21.4%)Bacterial pneumonia4 (28.6%)Reactivation of HIV RNA3 (21.4%)
At the last available point of follow-up (median=42.8 months, IQR=8.5–55.2), 8 out of the 13 patients (61.6%) without steroid had at least one acute rejection episode, but only 1 patient lost the graft, after 43 months (7.1%) due to chronic rejection associated with infectious and vascular complications. After Tx the median CD4+T-cell count increased from 382.5 (IQR range=233–415) to 434 (IQR range=282–605) cells/mm3 (p=0.055). In Figure 1 are reported the CD4+trends of 9 patients with a follow-up of at least 6 months.
HIV infection was well controlled, with only 2 (14.3%) cases of virological failure which were promptly resolved after HAART regimen modification. Table 1 shows the observed infectious complications. The skin Kaposi sarcoma has been resolved by switching to immunosuppressive therapy with sirolimus [2]. Kidney Tx appears to be safe in HIV-positive patients undergoing HAART. The viro-immunological parameters remained well controlled with no increases in infectious complications or neoplasm and a satisfactory control of HIV infection. However, the high rejection rate is a serious concern and suggests to consider a steroid-containing immunosuppressive regimen also in these patients.
doi:10.7448/IAS.15.6.18111
PMCID: PMC3512470

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