Human transcription factor Sp1 contains three contiguous repeats of the C2H2-type zinc finger motif and binds to the decanucleotide sequence 5′-(G/T)GGGCGG(G/A)(G/A)(C/T)-3′ (GC box). In order to determine whether the three-zinc finger peptide Sp1(530–623) has selectivity for sequence outside the GC box, we used a selection and amplification of binding experiment. The high affinity sequence generated from this selection is 5′-GGGTGGGCGTGGC-3′ (s-GC box), which is flanked by a novel conserved guanine triplet on the 5′-side of the core decanucleotide. Gel mobility shift assays reveal that Sp1(530–623) binds to the s-GC box with 2.3-fold higher affinity than to the wild-type GC box, 5′-GGGGCGGGGC-3′ (c-GC box). DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting analyses show that the area of the s-GC box protected by binding of Sp1(530–623) is wider by 1 nt than that of the c-GC box. On the other hand, alkylation interference analyses demonstrate that Sp1(530–623) forms only one special base contact at the guanine triplet. With respect to cleavage of the c-GC and s-GC boxes by the 1,10-phenanthroline–copper complex (OP-Cu), binding of Sp1(530–623) has no effect on the cleavage pattern of the s-GC box, whereas OP-Cu actually enhances cleavage of the c-GC box. Additionally, the extent of cleavage of the s-GC box by DNase I and OP-Cu is clearly different from that of the c-GC box under peptide-free conditions. The results strongly indicate that: (i) the conformation of the s-GC box is evidently distinct from that of the c-GC box; (ii) Sp1(530–623) binds to the s-GC box without induction of a conformational change in DNA detectable by cleavage with OP-Cu. The present study provides useful information for the design of multi-zinc finger proteins with various sequence specificities.
Although transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family have been shown to regulate enhancers of lymphomagenic gammaretroviruses through E-box motifs, the overlap of an E-box motif (Egre) with the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) has obscured their function in vivo. We report here that Egre, but not the GRE, affects disease induction by the murine T-lymphomagenic SL3-3 virus. Mutating all three copies of Egre prolonged the tumor latency period from 60 to 109 days. Further mutating an E-box motif (Ea/s) outside the enhancer prolonged the latency period to 180 days, suggesting that Ea/s works as a backup site for Egre. While wild-type SL3-3 and GRE and Ea/s mutants exclusively induced T-cell lymphomas with wild-type latencies mainly of the CD4+ CD8− phenotype, Egre as well as the Egre and Ea/s mutants induced B-cell lymphomas and myeloid leukemia in addition to T-cell lymphomas. T-cell lymphomas induced by the two Egre mutants had the same phenotype as those induced by wild-type SL3-3, indicating the incomplete disruption of T-cell lymphomagenesis, which is in contrast to previous findings for a Runx site mutant of SL3-3. Mutating the Egre site or Egre and Ea/s triggered several tumor phenotype-associated secondary enhancer changes encompassing neighboring sites, none of which led to the regeneration of an E-box motif. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for the E-box but not the GRE in T lymphomagenesis by SL3-3, unveil an inherent broader disease specificity of the virus, and strengthen the notion of selection for more potent enhancer variants of mutated viruses during tumor development.
The general aim of this work is to measure brain potassium (K) levels as a marker of intracellular water content and to test the hypothesis of whether edema in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased intracellular brain water. For that purpose, a system to measure K in brain is being developed. Our specific aim is to assess the potential contribution to the K photopeak from cranial K located outside the brain. For this, a simplified spherical phantom to represent the brain, a square box to represent the cranium, and a K point source to assess the contributions due to K outside the brain were used. It is estimated that only about 1–2% of the K photopeak might be attributable to K outside the brain.
Potassium; Brain; In vivo; Multiple sclerosis; Edema
DEAD box helicases are involved in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. They share a common helicase core, and may comprise additional domains that contribute to RNA binding. The Thermus thermophilus helicase Hera is the first dimeric DEAD box helicase. Crystal structures of Hera fragments reveal a bipartite C-terminal domain with a novel dimerization motif and an RNA-binding module. We provide a first glimpse on the additional RNA-binding module outside the Hera helicase core. The dimerization and RNA-binding domains are connected to the C-terminal RecA domain by a hinge region that confers exceptional flexibility onto the helicase, allowing for different juxtapositions of the RecA-domains in the dimer. Combination of the previously determined N-terminal Hera structure with the C-terminal Hera structures allows generation of a model for the entire Hera dimer, where two helicase cores can work in conjunction on large RNA substrates.
WRKY transcription factors have been shown to play a major role in regulating, both positively and negatively, the plant defense transcriptome. Nearly all studied WRKY factors appear to have a stereotypic binding preference to one DNA element termed the W-box. How specificity for certain promoters is accomplished therefore remains completely unknown. In this study, we tested five distinct Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factor subfamily members for their DNA binding selectivity towards variants of the W-box embedded in neighboring DNA sequences. These studies revealed for the first time differences in their binding site preferences, which are partly dependent on additional adjacent DNA sequences outside of the TTGACY-core motif. A consensus WRKY binding site derived from these studies was used for in silico analysis to identify potential target genes within the Arabidopsis genome. Furthermore, we show that even subtle amino acid substitutions within the DNA binding region of AtWRKY11 strongly impinge on its binding activity. Additionally, all five factors were found localized exclusively to the plant cell nucleus and to be capable of trans-activating expression of a reporter gene construct in vivo.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11103-008-9353-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Arabidopsis promoters; Nuclear localization; Transactivation; W-box element
An inert gas, Freon, can be added to the atmosphere of an anaerobic glove box without deleterious effect to cultures of anaerobic microorganisms. The sensitive probe of a Halogen Leak Detector passing over the outside surface of the box will pinpoint any escaping Freon and therefore locate the leak.
SRY-related cDNA encoding a protein with a high-mobility-group (HMG) box and a leucine zipper motif, which was designated SOX-LZ, was isolated from a rainbow trout testis cDNA library. Comparison of this cDNA with the mouse homologous cDNA isolated from a testis cDNA library exhibits an overall amino acid sequence identity of 77%, which is in striking contrast to the abrupt loss of amino acid sequence homology outside the HMG box found among mammalian SRY genes. In both rainbow trout and mice, Northern (RNA) blot analyses have revealed the presence of a testis-specific 3-kb-long SOX-LZ mRNA, and this transcript appeared coincidentally with the protamine mRNA, suggesting its expression in the germ line. A recombinant HMG box region protein encoded by SOX-LZ could bind strongly with an oligonucleotide containing an AACAAT sequence, which is also recognized by mouse Sry and Sox-5. Upon cotransfection into CHO cells, SOX-LZ transactivated transcription through its binding motif when the region including the leucine zipper motif was deleted [SOX-LZ (D105-356)]; however, the intact SOX-LZ failed to transactivate. The intact SOX-LZ could form homodimers through the leucine zipper, which resulted in inhibition of DNA binding by the HMG box, while SOX-LZ (D105-356), which was incapable of dimerization, showed specific binding with the AACAAT sequence. Thus, the repressed transactivation of the intact SOX-LZ in CHO cells was primarily attributable to the low level of DNA binding of SOX-LZ homodimers.
When targeted to sequences adjacent to a TATA element, pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides inhibit the DNA binding activity of TATA box binding protein (TBP) and basal transcription by RNA polymerase II. In the present study, we scanned the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter for polyamide inhibition of TBP binding and transcription using a series of DNA constructs in which a polyamide binding site was placed at various distances from the TATA box. Polyamide interference with either TBP-DNA or TFIID-TFIIA-DNA contacts both upstream and downstream of the TATA element resulted in inhibition of transcription. Our results define important protein-DNA interactions outside of the TATA element and suggest that transcription inhibition of selected gene promoters can be achieved with polyamides that target unique sequences within these promoters at a distance from the TATA element. Our studies also demonstrate the utility of the Py-Im polyamides for discovery of functionally important protein-DNA contacts involved in transcription.
Mutations in dnaA, an essential gene in Escherichia coli, decrease the frequency of transposition of Tn5. An insertion mutation in the dnaA gene does not affect Tn5 gene expression. Therefore, the DnaA protein plays a role either in the transposition reaction itself or in some type of cellular regulation of transposition. Analysis of a mutation in the DnaA box, found at the outside end of IS50, is consistent with a direct interaction of the protein through these bases. IS50 transposition, which utilizes only one end containing a DnaA box, is not affected by dnaA mutations. Overproduction of the DnaA protein does not increase transposition frequencies in wild-type cells, even when the transposase is also overproduced.
The complete nucleotide sequence of the rat alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gene has been determined from an isolated lambda recombinant bacteriophage. Southern blot analysis and DNA sequencing indicate that there is only one gene per genome; it contains six exons and is located within a 3,200-base-pair fragment starting from a TATA box and extending to the polyadenylation signal AATAAA. Transcription starts 37 base pairs upstream from the beginning of the translation codon ATG. The TATA box (TATAAA) lies 26 base pairs upstream from this site. The gene contains several potential glucocorticoid receptor-binding sites, both inside and outside the structural gene.
A region in the adenovirus major late promoter (MLP) containing a CCAAT consensus sequence can direct transcription termination of RNA polymerase II, a mechanism that possibly prevents transcriptional interference from upstream genes. Using a chimeric plasmid template that contains the MLP directing expression of the simian virus 40 early region, we showed that an inserted oligonucleotide containing only 13 base pairs of MLP sequences, including the CCAAT box, is capable of inducing transcription termination in an orientation-dependent, position-independent manner. Point mutations within the CCAAT-specific protein-binding site abolished this effect, while a base substitution outside of this region did not affect termination. These data suggest that termination is mediated by a CCAAT box-binding protein. Several other transcription factor-binding sites do not, however, cause termination, suggesting that this may be a relatively specific property of a CCAAT-binding protein.
In mitosis, the spindle checkpoint detects a single unattached kinetochore, inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), and prevents premature sister-chromatid separation. The checkpoint kinase Bub1 contributes to checkpoint sensitivity through phosphorylating the APC/C activator, Cdc20, and inhibiting APC/C catalytically. We report here the crystal structure of the kinase domain of Bub1, revealing the requirement of an N-terminal extension for its kinase activity. Though the activation segment of Bub1 is ordered and has structural features indicative of active kinases, the C-terminal portion of this segment sterically restricts substrate access to the active site. Bub1 uses docking motifs, so-called KEN boxes, outside its kinase domain to recruit Cdc20, one of two known KEN-box receptors. The KEN boxes of Bub1 are required for the spindle checkpoint in human cells. Therefore, its unusual active-site conformation and mode of substrate recruitment suggest that Bub1 has an exquisitely tuned specificity for Cdc20.
The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 2'C and 55 ± 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 ± 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 ± 2.69, 63.88 ± 6.6 and 118.3 ± 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 ± 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 ± 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine.
The mosquito Aedes aegypti can spread the dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Thus, the search for key molecules involved in the mosquito survival represents today a promising vector control strategy. High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins are essential nuclear factors that maintain the high-order structure of chromatin, keeping eukaryotic cells viable. Outside the nucleus, secreted HMGB proteins could alert the innate immune system to foreign antigens and trigger the initiation of host defenses. In this work, we cloned and functionally characterized the HMGB1 protein from Aedes aegypti (AaHMGB1). The AaHMGB1 protein typically consists of two HMG-box DNA binding domains and an acidic C-terminus. Interestingly, AaHMGB1 contains a unique alanine/glutamine-rich (AQ-rich) C-terminal region that seems to be exclusive of dipteran HMGB proteins. AaHMGB1 is localized to the cell nucleus, mainly associated with heterochromatin. Circular dichroism analyses of AaHMGB1 or the C-terminal truncated proteins revealed α-helical structures. We showed that AaHMGB1 can effectively bind and change the topology of DNA, and that the AQ-rich and the C-terminal acidic regions can modulate its ability to promote DNA supercoiling, as well as its preference to bind supercoiled DNA. AaHMGB1 is phosphorylated by PKA and PKC, but not by CK2. Importantly, phosphorylation of AaHMGB1 by PKA or PKC completely abolishes its DNA bending activity. Thus, our study shows that a functional HMGB1 protein occurs in Aedes aegypt and we provide the first description of a HMGB1 protein containing an AQ-rich regulatory C-terminus.
Attempts to estimate and identify factors influencing first-year survival in passerines, survival between fledging and the first reproductive attempt (i.e. juvenile survival), have largely been confounded by natal dispersal, particularly in long-distance migratory passerines. We studied Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) breeding in nest boxes to estimate first-year survival while accounting for biases related to dispersal that are common in mark-recapture studies. The natal dispersal distribution (median = 1420 m; n = 429) and a distance-dependent recruitment rate, which controls for effects of study site configuration, both indicated a pattern of short-distance natal dispersal. This pattern was consistent with results of a systematic survey for birds returning outside the nest box study sites (up to 30 km in all directions) within a majority (81%) of total available bottomland forest habitat, further suggesting that permanent emigration outside of the study system was rare. We used multistate mark-recapture modeling to estimate first-year survival and incorporated factors thought to influence survival while accounting for the potential confounding effects of dispersal on recapture probabilities for warblers that fledged during 2004–2009 (n = 6093). Overall, the average first-year survival for warblers reared without cowbird nestmates was 0.11 (95% CI = 0.09–0.13), decreased with fledging date (0.22 early to 0.03 late) and averaged 40% lower for warblers reared with a brood parasite nestmate. First-year survival was less than half of the rate thought to represent population replacement in migratory passerines (∼0.30). This very low rate suggests that surviving the first year of life for many Neotropical migratory species is even more difficult than previously thought, forcing us to rethink estimates used in population models.
Sub-families of related zinc finger protein genes have been defined on the basis of evolutionarily conserved structural features found outside the C2-H2 finger repeats. Such elements include the FAX domain found in a large number of Xenopus ZFPs, the evolutionarily conserved KRAB (Krüppel-associated box) and the ZiN (zinc finger N-terminal) domains. Here we describe a new evolutionarily conserved motif within zinc finger proteins which we have named the leucine rich region (LeR). Since conserved modules in regulatory proteins may specify properties relevant to their action we have determined the functional capabilities of LeR and the KRAB domains in the regulation of gene transcription by fusing relevant regions to a heterologous DNA-binding domain (GAL4 DNA-binding domain). We found that the KRAB-A domain tethered to RNA polymerase II promoters by a GAL4 DNA-binding domain actively represses transcription in a distance-independent manner. KRAB-mediated repression is dependent on the dose of the GAL4-KRAB-A fusion protein and on the presence of GAL4 binding sites on the DNA. Conversely, the LeR domain did not modulate significantly the transcription. Our results indicate that the KRAB domain present in the non-finger region of many ZFP genes quenches transcription possibly due to specific protein-protein interactions between the KRAB-A domain and components of the proximal transcriptional apparatus.
The entire nucleotide sequence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) M7 was determined, which consisted of 554 base pairs (bp). At both ends of the LTR, 13 bp sequences, AAATGAAAAGTAA and TGATTCTAACATC, were detected to be inverted repeats. The structure with these inverted repeats resembles those of other retroviruses and transposable elements. a Hogness box, TATAAAA, and a putative poly(A)-addition signal, AGTAAA, were present within the right-hand half of the LTR, where the initiation and termination of the viral RNA synthesis seems to occur in the integrated BaEV genome. The primer-binding site of at least 14 bp long was found just outside of the LTR where the strong stop DNA started, and the primer for reverse transcription in BaEV seemed to be tRNAPro. Several structural features are commonly detected in the LTRs of BaEV and other retroviruses. Our studies suggest that BaEV has evolved from a common ancestor with other mammalian type C viruses. Close relationships between BaEV and a feline endogenous virus, RD114, are demonstrated.
With the initial issue of this journal, a new challenge has been offered tothe world of sports nutrition: initiate "team oriented" research and clinical trials in order to make dynamic progress in terms of understandingand applying nutrition principals to the field of competitive sports. It is our further challenge that these teams think "outside the box" in terms of their approach to elucidating new concepts through which nutritional interventions might play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and repair, athletic performance and endurance, and mental acuity. What was once thought of as extraordinary might now be approached as ordinary, if the correct composition of "teams" were formed.
sport nutrition; research; new regulatory mechanisms
One needs to think outside of the box, as one of us (Ronald B Luftig) learned from many years as a mathematician, and a biophysicist.
In this short Review, the need to focus on producing high levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to incoming and conformationally altered virus after it has bound to CD4+ cells is essential.
Increasing the number of gp120 molecules on the surface of L-2 particles, could allow for an enhanced number of NAbs.
The attempt at increasing CD8+ T cell responses in recent vaccine trials has not worked perhaps because it may have allowed HIV to enter into remote sanctuaries. Our approach focuses on increasing NAbs, before high levels of CD8+ T cells are produced.
High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a non-histone nuclear protein that has a dual function. Inside the cell, HMGB1 binds DNA, regulating transcription and determining chromosomal architecture. Outside the cell, HMGB1 can serve as an alarmin to activate the innate system and mediate a wide range of physiological and pathological responses. To function as an alarmin, HMGB1 translocates from the nucleus of the cell to the extra-cellular milieu, a process that can take place with cell activation as well as cell death. HMGB1 can interact with receptors that include RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) as well as Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) and TLR-4 and function in a synergistic fashion with other proinflammatory mediators to induce responses. As shown in studies on patients as well as animal models, HMGB1 can play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and polymyositis among others. New approaches to therapy for these diseases may involve strategies to inhibit HMGB1 release from cells, its interaction with receptors, and downstream signaling.
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is the functional target of the mitogen EGF and the cellular homolog of the avian erythroblastosis virus erbB oncogene product. Regulation of expression of the proto-oncogene encoding the EGF receptor can be elucidated by studying the structure and function of the gene promoter outside the confines of the cell. Previously, we reported the isolation of the human EGF receptor gene promoter. The promoter is highly GC rich, contains no TATA or CAAT box, and has multiple transcription start sites. An S1 nuclease-sensitive site has now been found 80 to 110 base pairs (bp) upstream from the major in vivo transcription initiation site. Two sets of direct repeat sequences were found in this area; both conform to the motif TCCTCCTCC. When deletion mutations were made in this region of the promoter by using either Bal 31 exonuclease or S1 nuclease, we found that in vivo activity dropped three- to fivefold, on the basis of transient-transfection analysis. Examination of nuclear protein binding to normal and mutated promoter DNAs by gel retardation analysis and DNase I footprinting revealed that two specific factors bind to the direct repeat region but cannot bind to the S1 nuclease-mutated promoter. One of the specific factors is the transcription factor Sp1. The results suggest that these nuclear trans-acting factors interact with the S1 nuclease-sensitive region of the EGF receptor gene promoter and either directly or indirectly stimulate transcription.
The adaptation of a high-resolution phase-contrast microscope for glove box use, which allows the stage and focusing knobs in the glovebox, although oculars and camera remain outside, is described.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen that often initiates infections from a reservoir in the intestinal tract, may donate or acquire antibiotic resistance in an anaerobic environment. Only by including nitrate and nitrite in media could antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains of P. aeruginosa be cultured in a glove box isolator. These anaerobically grown cells remained sensitive to lytic phage isolated from sewage. After incubation with a phage lysate derived from P. aeruginosa 1822, anaerobic transfer of antibiotic resistance to recipients P. aeruginosa PS8EtBr and PS8EtBrR occurred at frequencies of 6.2 × 10−9 and 5.0 × 10−8 cells per plaque-forming unit, respectively. In experiments performed outside the isolator, transfer frequencies to PS8EtBr and PS8EtBrR were higher, 1.3 × 10−7 and 6.5 × 10−8 cells per plaque-forming unit, respectively. When P. aeruginosa 1822 was incubated aerobically with Escherichia coli B in medium containing nitrate and nitrite, the maximum concentration of carbenicillin-resistant E. coli B reached 25% of the total E. coli B population. This percentage declined to 0.01% of the total E. coli B population when anaerobically grown P. aeruginosa 1822 and E. coli B were combined and incubated in the glove box isolator. The highest concentration of the recipient population converted to antibiotic resistance occurred after 24 h of aerobic incubation, when an initially high donor/recipient ratio (>15) of cells was mixed. These data indicate that transfer of antibiotic resistance either by transduction between Pseudomonas spp. or by conjugation between Pseudomonas sp. and E. coli occurs under strict anaerobic conditions, although at lower frequencies than under aerobic conditions.
A novel 761-amino-acid transcription factor, DMP1, contains a central DNA binding domain that includes three imperfect myb repeats flanked by acidic transactivating domains at the amino and carboxyl termini. D-type cyclins associate with a region of the DMP1 DNA binding domain immediately adjacent to the myb repeats to form heteromeric complexes which detectably interact neither with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) nor with DNA. The segment of D-type cyclins required for its interaction with DMP1 falls outside the “cyclin box,” which contains the residues predicted to contact CDK4. Hence, D-type cyclin point mutants that do not interact with CDK4 can still bind to DMP1. Enforced coexpression of either of three D-type cyclins (D1, D2, or D3) with DMP1 in mammalian cells canceled its ability to activate gene expression. This property was not shared by cyclins A, B, C, or H; did not depend upon CDK4 or CDK2 coexpression; was not subverted by a mutation in cyclin D1 that prevents its interaction with CDK4; and was unaffected by inhibitors of CDK4 catalytic activity. Introduction of DMP1 into mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts inhibited entry into S phase. Cell cycle arrest depended upon the ability of DMP1 to bind to DNA and to transactivate gene expression and was specifically antagonized by coexpression of D-type cyclins, including a D1 point mutant that does not bind to CDK4. Taken together, these findings suggest that DMP1 induces genes that inhibit S phase entry and that D-type cyclins can override DMP1-mediated growth arrest in a CDK-independent manner.
Activin A increases production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by inducing transcription of its beta subunit (FSHB). This induction has been studied here in LbetaT2 gonadotropes using transient expression of ovine FSHBLuc (-4741 bp of ovine FSHB promoter plus exon/intron 1 linked to Luc). Several sequences between -169/-58 bp of the ovine FSHB proximal promoter are necessary for induction by activin A in LbetaT2 cells, but deletions between -4741/-752 bp decrease induction > 70% suggesting the existence of other important 5' sequences. Induction disappears if a minimal T81 thymidine kinase promoter replaces the ovine FSHB TATA box and 3' exon/intron. The study reported here was designed to determine if sequences outside -169/-58 bp are important for induction of ovine FSHB by activin A.
Progressively longer deletions of ovine FSHBLuc were created between -4741/-195 bp. Deletions internal to this region were created also, but replaced with substitute DNA. The ovine FSHB TATA box region (-40/+3 bp) was replaced by thymidine kinase and rat prolactin minimal promoters, and substitutions were made in 3' intron/exon sequences. All constructs were tested for basal and activin A-induced expression in LbetaT2 cells.
Successive 5' deletions progressively lowered fold-induction by activin A from 9.5 to zero, but progressively increased basal expression. Replacing deletions with substitute DNA showed no changes in basal expression or fold-induction. Induction by activin A was supported by the minimal rat prolactin promoter (TATA box) but not the thymidine kinase promoter (no TATA box). Replacement mutations in the 3' region did not decrease induction by activin A.
The data show that specific ovine FSHB sequences 5' to -175 bp or 3' of the transcription start site are not required for induction by activin A. A minimal TATA box promoter supports induction by activin A, but the sequence between the TATA box and transcription start site seems unimportant.