Human transcription factor Sp1 contains three contiguous repeats of the C2H2-type zinc finger motif and binds to the decanucleotide sequence 5′-(G/T)GGGCGG(G/A)(G/A)(C/T)-3′ (GC box). In order to determine whether the three-zinc finger peptide Sp1(530–623) has selectivity for sequence outside the GC box, we used a selection and amplification of binding experiment. The high affinity sequence generated from this selection is 5′-GGGTGGGCGTGGC-3′ (s-GC box), which is flanked by a novel conserved guanine triplet on the 5′-side of the core decanucleotide. Gel mobility shift assays reveal that Sp1(530–623) binds to the s-GC box with 2.3-fold higher affinity than to the wild-type GC box, 5′-GGGGCGGGGC-3′ (c-GC box). DNase I and hydroxyl radical footprinting analyses show that the area of the s-GC box protected by binding of Sp1(530–623) is wider by 1 nt than that of the c-GC box. On the other hand, alkylation interference analyses demonstrate that Sp1(530–623) forms only one special base contact at the guanine triplet. With respect to cleavage of the c-GC and s-GC boxes by the 1,10-phenanthroline–copper complex (OP-Cu), binding of Sp1(530–623) has no effect on the cleavage pattern of the s-GC box, whereas OP-Cu actually enhances cleavage of the c-GC box. Additionally, the extent of cleavage of the s-GC box by DNase I and OP-Cu is clearly different from that of the c-GC box under peptide-free conditions. The results strongly indicate that: (i) the conformation of the s-GC box is evidently distinct from that of the c-GC box; (ii) Sp1(530–623) binds to the s-GC box without induction of a conformational change in DNA detectable by cleavage with OP-Cu. The present study provides useful information for the design of multi-zinc finger proteins with various sequence specificities.
Although transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family have been shown to regulate enhancers of lymphomagenic gammaretroviruses through E-box motifs, the overlap of an E-box motif (Egre) with the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) has obscured their function in vivo. We report here that Egre, but not the GRE, affects disease induction by the murine T-lymphomagenic SL3-3 virus. Mutating all three copies of Egre prolonged the tumor latency period from 60 to 109 days. Further mutating an E-box motif (Ea/s) outside the enhancer prolonged the latency period to 180 days, suggesting that Ea/s works as a backup site for Egre. While wild-type SL3-3 and GRE and Ea/s mutants exclusively induced T-cell lymphomas with wild-type latencies mainly of the CD4+ CD8− phenotype, Egre as well as the Egre and Ea/s mutants induced B-cell lymphomas and myeloid leukemia in addition to T-cell lymphomas. T-cell lymphomas induced by the two Egre mutants had the same phenotype as those induced by wild-type SL3-3, indicating the incomplete disruption of T-cell lymphomagenesis, which is in contrast to previous findings for a Runx site mutant of SL3-3. Mutating the Egre site or Egre and Ea/s triggered several tumor phenotype-associated secondary enhancer changes encompassing neighboring sites, none of which led to the regeneration of an E-box motif. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for the E-box but not the GRE in T lymphomagenesis by SL3-3, unveil an inherent broader disease specificity of the virus, and strengthen the notion of selection for more potent enhancer variants of mutated viruses during tumor development.
We investigated the impact of light exposure history on light sensitivity in humans, as assessed by the magnitude of the suppression of melatonin secretion by nocturnal light. The hypothesis was that following a week of increased daytime bright-light exposure, subjects would become less sensitive to light, and that after a week of restriction to dimmer light they would become more sensitive. During the bright week, subjects (n = 12) obtained 4.3 ± 0.4 hr of bright light per day (by going outside and using light boxes indoors). During the dim week, they wore dark goggles (about 2% light transmission) when outside during daylight and spent 1.4 ± 0.9 hr per day outside. Saliva samples were obtained every 30 min for 7 hr in dim light (<15 lux) on two consecutive nights (baseline and test night) at the end of each week. On the test night, 500 lux was presented for 3 hr in the middle of the collection period to suppress melatonin. There was significantly more suppression after the dim week compared with after the bright week (to 53 versus 41% of the baseline night values, P < 0.05). However, there were large individual differences, and the difference between the bright and dim weeks was most pronounced in seven of the 12 subjects. Possible reasons for these individual differences are discussed, including the possibility that 1 wk was not long enough to change light sensitivity in some subjects. In conclusion, this study suggests that the circadian system’s sensitivity to light can be affected by a recent change in light history.
circadian rhythms; human; light; light sensitivity; melatonin; melatonin suppression
The general aim of this work is to measure brain potassium (K) levels as a marker of intracellular water content and to test the hypothesis of whether edema in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased intracellular brain water. For that purpose, a system to measure K in brain is being developed. Our specific aim is to assess the potential contribution to the K photopeak from cranial K located outside the brain. For this, a simplified spherical phantom to represent the brain, a square box to represent the cranium, and a K point source to assess the contributions due to K outside the brain were used. It is estimated that only about 1–2% of the K photopeak might be attributable to K outside the brain.
Potassium; Brain; In vivo; Multiple sclerosis; Edema
Attempts to estimate and identify factors influencing first-year survival in passerines, survival between fledging and the first reproductive attempt (i.e. juvenile survival), have largely been confounded by natal dispersal, particularly in long-distance migratory passerines. We studied Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) breeding in nest boxes to estimate first-year survival while accounting for biases related to dispersal that are common in mark-recapture studies. The natal dispersal distribution (median = 1420 m; n = 429) and a distance-dependent recruitment rate, which controls for effects of study site configuration, both indicated a pattern of short-distance natal dispersal. This pattern was consistent with results of a systematic survey for birds returning outside the nest box study sites (up to 30 km in all directions) within a majority (81%) of total available bottomland forest habitat, further suggesting that permanent emigration outside of the study system was rare. We used multistate mark-recapture modeling to estimate first-year survival and incorporated factors thought to influence survival while accounting for the potential confounding effects of dispersal on recapture probabilities for warblers that fledged during 2004–2009 (n = 6093). Overall, the average first-year survival for warblers reared without cowbird nestmates was 0.11 (95% CI = 0.09–0.13), decreased with fledging date (0.22 early to 0.03 late) and averaged 40% lower for warblers reared with a brood parasite nestmate. First-year survival was less than half of the rate thought to represent population replacement in migratory passerines (∼0.30). This very low rate suggests that surviving the first year of life for many Neotropical migratory species is even more difficult than previously thought, forcing us to rethink estimates used in population models.
DEAD box helicases are involved in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. They share a common helicase core, and may comprise additional domains that contribute to RNA binding. The Thermus thermophilus helicase Hera is the first dimeric DEAD box helicase. Crystal structures of Hera fragments reveal a bipartite C-terminal domain with a novel dimerization motif and an RNA-binding module. We provide a first glimpse on the additional RNA-binding module outside the Hera helicase core. The dimerization and RNA-binding domains are connected to the C-terminal RecA domain by a hinge region that confers exceptional flexibility onto the helicase, allowing for different juxtapositions of the RecA-domains in the dimer. Combination of the previously determined N-terminal Hera structure with the C-terminal Hera structures allows generation of a model for the entire Hera dimer, where two helicase cores can work in conjunction on large RNA substrates.
WRKY transcription factors have been shown to play a major role in regulating, both positively and negatively, the plant defense transcriptome. Nearly all studied WRKY factors appear to have a stereotypic binding preference to one DNA element termed the W-box. How specificity for certain promoters is accomplished therefore remains completely unknown. In this study, we tested five distinct Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factor subfamily members for their DNA binding selectivity towards variants of the W-box embedded in neighboring DNA sequences. These studies revealed for the first time differences in their binding site preferences, which are partly dependent on additional adjacent DNA sequences outside of the TTGACY-core motif. A consensus WRKY binding site derived from these studies was used for in silico analysis to identify potential target genes within the Arabidopsis genome. Furthermore, we show that even subtle amino acid substitutions within the DNA binding region of AtWRKY11 strongly impinge on its binding activity. Additionally, all five factors were found localized exclusively to the plant cell nucleus and to be capable of trans-activating expression of a reporter gene construct in vivo.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11103-008-9353-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Arabidopsis promoters; Nuclear localization; Transactivation; W-box element
An inert gas, Freon, can be added to the atmosphere of an anaerobic glove box without deleterious effect to cultures of anaerobic microorganisms. The sensitive probe of a Halogen Leak Detector passing over the outside surface of the box will pinpoint any escaping Freon and therefore locate the leak.
SRY-related cDNA encoding a protein with a high-mobility-group (HMG) box and a leucine zipper motif, which was designated SOX-LZ, was isolated from a rainbow trout testis cDNA library. Comparison of this cDNA with the mouse homologous cDNA isolated from a testis cDNA library exhibits an overall amino acid sequence identity of 77%, which is in striking contrast to the abrupt loss of amino acid sequence homology outside the HMG box found among mammalian SRY genes. In both rainbow trout and mice, Northern (RNA) blot analyses have revealed the presence of a testis-specific 3-kb-long SOX-LZ mRNA, and this transcript appeared coincidentally with the protamine mRNA, suggesting its expression in the germ line. A recombinant HMG box region protein encoded by SOX-LZ could bind strongly with an oligonucleotide containing an AACAAT sequence, which is also recognized by mouse Sry and Sox-5. Upon cotransfection into CHO cells, SOX-LZ transactivated transcription through its binding motif when the region including the leucine zipper motif was deleted [SOX-LZ (D105-356)]; however, the intact SOX-LZ failed to transactivate. The intact SOX-LZ could form homodimers through the leucine zipper, which resulted in inhibition of DNA binding by the HMG box, while SOX-LZ (D105-356), which was incapable of dimerization, showed specific binding with the AACAAT sequence. Thus, the repressed transactivation of the intact SOX-LZ in CHO cells was primarily attributable to the low level of DNA binding of SOX-LZ homodimers.
When targeted to sequences adjacent to a TATA element, pyrrole-imidazole (Py-Im) polyamides inhibit the DNA binding activity of TATA box binding protein (TBP) and basal transcription by RNA polymerase II. In the present study, we scanned the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter for polyamide inhibition of TBP binding and transcription using a series of DNA constructs in which a polyamide binding site was placed at various distances from the TATA box. Polyamide interference with either TBP-DNA or TFIID-TFIIA-DNA contacts both upstream and downstream of the TATA element resulted in inhibition of transcription. Our results define important protein-DNA interactions outside of the TATA element and suggest that transcription inhibition of selected gene promoters can be achieved with polyamides that target unique sequences within these promoters at a distance from the TATA element. Our studies also demonstrate the utility of the Py-Im polyamides for discovery of functionally important protein-DNA contacts involved in transcription.
Mutations in dnaA, an essential gene in Escherichia coli, decrease the frequency of transposition of Tn5. An insertion mutation in the dnaA gene does not affect Tn5 gene expression. Therefore, the DnaA protein plays a role either in the transposition reaction itself or in some type of cellular regulation of transposition. Analysis of a mutation in the DnaA box, found at the outside end of IS50, is consistent with a direct interaction of the protein through these bases. IS50 transposition, which utilizes only one end containing a DnaA box, is not affected by dnaA mutations. Overproduction of the DnaA protein does not increase transposition frequencies in wild-type cells, even when the transposase is also overproduced.
The complete nucleotide sequence of the rat alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gene has been determined from an isolated lambda recombinant bacteriophage. Southern blot analysis and DNA sequencing indicate that there is only one gene per genome; it contains six exons and is located within a 3,200-base-pair fragment starting from a TATA box and extending to the polyadenylation signal AATAAA. Transcription starts 37 base pairs upstream from the beginning of the translation codon ATG. The TATA box (TATAAA) lies 26 base pairs upstream from this site. The gene contains several potential glucocorticoid receptor-binding sites, both inside and outside the structural gene.
A region in the adenovirus major late promoter (MLP) containing a CCAAT consensus sequence can direct transcription termination of RNA polymerase II, a mechanism that possibly prevents transcriptional interference from upstream genes. Using a chimeric plasmid template that contains the MLP directing expression of the simian virus 40 early region, we showed that an inserted oligonucleotide containing only 13 base pairs of MLP sequences, including the CCAAT box, is capable of inducing transcription termination in an orientation-dependent, position-independent manner. Point mutations within the CCAAT-specific protein-binding site abolished this effect, while a base substitution outside of this region did not affect termination. These data suggest that termination is mediated by a CCAAT box-binding protein. Several other transcription factor-binding sites do not, however, cause termination, suggesting that this may be a relatively specific property of a CCAAT-binding protein.
In mitosis, the spindle checkpoint detects a single unattached kinetochore, inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), and prevents premature sister-chromatid separation. The checkpoint kinase Bub1 contributes to checkpoint sensitivity through phosphorylating the APC/C activator, Cdc20, and inhibiting APC/C catalytically. We report here the crystal structure of the kinase domain of Bub1, revealing the requirement of an N-terminal extension for its kinase activity. Though the activation segment of Bub1 is ordered and has structural features indicative of active kinases, the C-terminal portion of this segment sterically restricts substrate access to the active site. Bub1 uses docking motifs, so-called KEN boxes, outside its kinase domain to recruit Cdc20, one of two known KEN-box receptors. The KEN boxes of Bub1 are required for the spindle checkpoint in human cells. Therefore, its unusual active-site conformation and mode of substrate recruitment suggest that Bub1 has an exquisitely tuned specificity for Cdc20.
The root borer, Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), has become a serious pest of date palm trees in southwest Tunisia. Under natural conditions, mated females lay eggs in different parts of palm tree: between the hairy roots, all along the stem at the leaf axils and at the base of cut branches. Larvae bore into targeted places of the plant and were never seen outside. Pupation takes place in the plant and emergence of the adults begins in June. Larval feeding causes extensive damage to the respiratory roots. To examine the life cycle more closely, the O. agamemnon life cycle was studied under laboratory conditions. Different larval stages were collected from infested oases in Tozeur and placed in plastic boxes with natural food that was collected from the oases. After emergence, adults were paired in opaque plastic boxes for mating with the same food substrate which also served as an oviposition site. Eggs were collected daily and isolated in new boxes. Hatched eggs were recorded. The number of larval instars was determined by measuring the width of cephalic capsules. Under laboratory conditions (23 ± 2'C and 55 ± 6% RH)embryogenesis took 14.3 ± 1.42 days and the first, second and third larval instars were 33.1 ± 2.69, 63.88 ± 6.6 and 118.3 ± 13.38 days respectively. The pupal period lasted 24.1 ± 3.02 days and the adult 65.27 ± 9.48 days. These facts indicated that O. agamemnon is univoltine.
The mosquito Aedes aegypti can spread the dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Thus, the search for key molecules involved in the mosquito survival represents today a promising vector control strategy. High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins are essential nuclear factors that maintain the high-order structure of chromatin, keeping eukaryotic cells viable. Outside the nucleus, secreted HMGB proteins could alert the innate immune system to foreign antigens and trigger the initiation of host defenses. In this work, we cloned and functionally characterized the HMGB1 protein from Aedes aegypti (AaHMGB1). The AaHMGB1 protein typically consists of two HMG-box DNA binding domains and an acidic C-terminus. Interestingly, AaHMGB1 contains a unique alanine/glutamine-rich (AQ-rich) C-terminal region that seems to be exclusive of dipteran HMGB proteins. AaHMGB1 is localized to the cell nucleus, mainly associated with heterochromatin. Circular dichroism analyses of AaHMGB1 or the C-terminal truncated proteins revealed α-helical structures. We showed that AaHMGB1 can effectively bind and change the topology of DNA, and that the AQ-rich and the C-terminal acidic regions can modulate its ability to promote DNA supercoiling, as well as its preference to bind supercoiled DNA. AaHMGB1 is phosphorylated by PKA and PKC, but not by CK2. Importantly, phosphorylation of AaHMGB1 by PKA or PKC completely abolishes its DNA bending activity. Thus, our study shows that a functional HMGB1 protein occurs in Aedes aegypt and we provide the first description of a HMGB1 protein containing an AQ-rich regulatory C-terminus.
Cell biologists love to think outside the box, pursuing many surprising twists and unexpected turns in their quest to unravel the mysteries of how cells work. But can cell biologists think outside the bench? We are certain that they can, and clearly some already do. To encourage more cell biologists to venture into the realm of translational research on a regular basis, we would like to share a handful of the many lessons that we have learned in our effort to develop experimental treatments for Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), an endeavor that many view as a “poster child” for how basic cell biology can be translated to the clinic.
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1, encoded by the multidrug resistance gene MDR1, is expressed on brain microvascular endothelium and several types of epithelium, but not on endothelia outside the CNS. It is an essential component of the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study was to identify cell-specific controls on the transcription of MDR1 in human brain endothelium. Reporter assays identified a region of 500 bp around the transcription start site that was optimally active in brain endothelium. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified Sp3 and TFIID associated with this region and EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assays) confirmed that Sp3 binds preferentially to an Sp-target site (GC-box) on the MDR1 promoter in brain endothelium. This result contrasts with findings in other cell types and with the colon carcinoma line Caco-2, in which Sp1 preferentially associates with the MDR1 promoter. Differences in MDR1 transcriptional control between brain endothelium and Caco-2 could not be explained by the relative abundance of Sp1:Sp3 nor by the ratio of Sp3 variants, because activating variants of Sp3 were present in both cell types. However differential binding of other transcription factors was also detected in two additional upstream regions of the MDR1 promoter. Identification of cell-specific controls on the transcription of MDR1 indicates that it may be possible to modulate multi-drug resistance on tumours, while leaving the blood brain barrier intact.
This second report in the series on coronary artery bypass presents the authors experience and personal views on the internal thoracic artery (ITA) which date to 1966. There has been a very gradual evolution in the acceptance of this conduit which was initially compared with the saphenous vein and viewed as an improbable alternative to it. As is common with concepts and techniques which are 'outside the box' there was skepticism and criticism of this new conduit which was more difficult and time consuming to harvest for the surgeon who had to do it all. It was viewed as small, fragile, spastic and its flow capacity was questioned. Only a few surgeons employed it because of these issues and some of them would frequently graft it to the diagonal artery as it was thought not to supply adequate flow for the left anterior descending unless it was small. After a decade, angiographic data revealed superior patency to vein grafts. Even this evidence and survival benefit reported a few years later did not convince many surgeons that their concerns about limitations justified its use. Thus widespread adaption of the ITA as the conduit of choice for the anterior descending required another decade and bilateral use is only now expanding to more than 5% of patients in the US and somewhat faster in other countries.
Coronary artery disease; Coronary grafting; Mammary arteries
The authors suggest that these video games may be an inexpensive alternative to laparoscopic training simulators.
Background and Objective:
The increase in laparoscopic surgery has led to a growing need to train residents in this skill. Virtual reality simulators and box trainers have been used as educational tools outside of the operating room, but both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. Video games have been an area of interest in the search for other modalities to train residents. Experience with the traditional single controller unit video games have been correlated with better surgical skill acquisition. In 2006, Nintendo introduced the Wii, a novel gaming modality that mimics movements in laparoscopy better than traditional games do. Our objective was to compare the Nintendo Wii and PlayStation2 for enhancing laparoscopy skills.
The study included stratified randomization of 23 less experienced (<12 laparoscopy cases per year) and 19 more experienced (>12 per year) physicians, residents, and medical students to 30 min of Wii versus PlayStation2 in a university-affiliated hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Pre- and posttest bead transfer and suturing scores were obtained.
Baseline characteristics were similar for both video game groups. Participants assigned to Wii and PlayStation2 both demonstrated significant improvement in bead transfer. Neither Wii nor PlayStation2 participants improved in suturing scores. The Wii group improved more in bead transfer scores when compared to the PlayStation2 group (60 points vs. 40 points, respectively), but this difference was not statistically significant.
Both Wii and PlayStation2 significantly improved laparoscopic skills in bead transfer. These video games may be inexpensive alternatives to laparoscopy training simulators.
Laparoscopy; Video games; Surgical; Education
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a leaderless cytokine, like the IL-1 and FGF family members, that has primary roles within the nucleus and the cytosol. Within the nucleus, it serves as another guardian of the genome, protecting it from oxidant injury and promoting access to transcriptional complexes such as nuclear hormone/nuclear hormone receptors and p53/p73 complexes. Within the cytosol it promotes autophagy and recruitment of the myddosome to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 vesicular compartments. Outside of the cell, it can either bind to specific receptors itself, or with high affinity to DNA, nucleosomes, IL-1β, lipopolysaccharide, and lipoteichoic acid to mediate responses in specific physiological or pathological conditions. Currently identified receptors include TLR2, TLR4, the receptor for advanced glycation end products, CD24-Siglec G/10, chemokine CXC receptor 4, and TIM-3. In terms of its effects or functions within lymphoid cells, HMGB1 is principally secreted from mature dendritic cells (DCs) to promote T-cell and B-cell reactivity and expansion and from activated natural killer cells to promote DC maturation during the afferent immune response. Some studies suggest that its primary role in the setting of chronic inflammation is to promote immunosuppression. As such, HMGB1 is a central cytokine for all lymphoid cells playing a role complementary to its better studied role in myeloid cells.
lymphocytes; HMGB1; TLR2; TLR4; RAGE; NK cells; T cells; B cells
The mammalian RIG-I-like receptors, RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2, are a family of DExD/H box RNA helicases responsible for the cytoplasmic detection of viral RNA. These receptors detect a variety of RNA viruses, or DNA viruses that express unusual RNA species, many of which are responsible for a great number of severe and lethal diseases. Host innate sentinel proteins involved in pathogen recognition must rapidly evolve in a dynamic arms race with pathogens, and thus are subjected to long-term positive selection pressures to avoid potential infections. Using six codon-based Maximum Likelihood methods, we were able to identify specific codons under positive selection in each of these three genes. The highest number of positively selected codons was detected in MDA5, but a great percentage of these codons were located outside of the currently defined protein domains for MDA5, which likely reflects the imposition of both functional and structural constraints. Additionally, our results support LGP2 as being the least prone to evolutionary change, since the lowest number of codons under selection was observed for this gene. On the other hand, the preponderance of positively selected codons for RIG-I were detected in known protein functional domains, suggesting that pressure has been imposed by the vast number of viruses that are recognized by this RNA helicase. Furthermore, the RIG-I repressor domain, the region responsible for recognizing and binding to its RNA substrates, exhibited the strongest evidence of selective pressures. Branch-site analyses were performed and several species branches on the three receptor gene trees showed evidence of episodic positive selection. In conclusion, by looking for evidence of positive evolutionary selection on mammalian RIG-I-like receptor genes, we propose that a multitude of viruses have crafted the receptors biological function in host defense, specifically for the RIG-I gene, contributing to the innate species-specific resistance/susceptibility to diverse viral pathogens.
Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules are essential for the initiation of innate inflammatory responses to infection and injury. The prototypic DAMP molecule, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is an abundant architectural chromosomal protein that has location-specific biological functions: within the nucleus as a DNA chaperone, within the cytosol to sustain autophagy and outside the cell as a DAMP molecule. Recent research indicates that aberrant activation of HMGB1 signaling can promote the onset of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, raising interest in the development of therapeutic strategies to control their function. The importance of HMGB1 activation in various forms of liver disease in relation to liver damage, steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, tumorigenesis and regeneration is discussed in this review.
Sub-families of related zinc finger protein genes have been defined on the basis of evolutionarily conserved structural features found outside the C2-H2 finger repeats. Such elements include the FAX domain found in a large number of Xenopus ZFPs, the evolutionarily conserved KRAB (Krüppel-associated box) and the ZiN (zinc finger N-terminal) domains. Here we describe a new evolutionarily conserved motif within zinc finger proteins which we have named the leucine rich region (LeR). Since conserved modules in regulatory proteins may specify properties relevant to their action we have determined the functional capabilities of LeR and the KRAB domains in the regulation of gene transcription by fusing relevant regions to a heterologous DNA-binding domain (GAL4 DNA-binding domain). We found that the KRAB-A domain tethered to RNA polymerase II promoters by a GAL4 DNA-binding domain actively represses transcription in a distance-independent manner. KRAB-mediated repression is dependent on the dose of the GAL4-KRAB-A fusion protein and on the presence of GAL4 binding sites on the DNA. Conversely, the LeR domain did not modulate significantly the transcription. Our results indicate that the KRAB domain present in the non-finger region of many ZFP genes quenches transcription possibly due to specific protein-protein interactions between the KRAB-A domain and components of the proximal transcriptional apparatus.
The entire nucleotide sequence of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) M7 was determined, which consisted of 554 base pairs (bp). At both ends of the LTR, 13 bp sequences, AAATGAAAAGTAA and TGATTCTAACATC, were detected to be inverted repeats. The structure with these inverted repeats resembles those of other retroviruses and transposable elements. a Hogness box, TATAAAA, and a putative poly(A)-addition signal, AGTAAA, were present within the right-hand half of the LTR, where the initiation and termination of the viral RNA synthesis seems to occur in the integrated BaEV genome. The primer-binding site of at least 14 bp long was found just outside of the LTR where the strong stop DNA started, and the primer for reverse transcription in BaEV seemed to be tRNAPro. Several structural features are commonly detected in the LTRs of BaEV and other retroviruses. Our studies suggest that BaEV has evolved from a common ancestor with other mammalian type C viruses. Close relationships between BaEV and a feline endogenous virus, RD114, are demonstrated.