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1.  Early AD pathology in a [C-11]PiB-negative case: a PiB-amyloid imaging, biochemical, and immunohistochemical study 
Acta Neuropathologica  2012;123(3):433-447.
Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are detectable in the brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [C-11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB); however, the sensitivity of this technique is not well understood. In this study, we examined Aβ pathology in an individual who had clinical diagnoses of probable dementia with Lewy bodies and possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but with no detectable [C-11]PiB PET retention ([C-11]PiB(−)) when imaged 17 months prior to death. Brain samples were processed in parallel with region-matched samples from an individual with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD and a positive [C-11]PiB PET scan ([C-11]PiB(+)) when imaged 10 months prior to death. In the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ plaques were sparse, occupying less than 2% cortical area, and were weakly labeled with 6-CN-PiB, a highly fluorescent derivative of PiB. In contrast, Aβ plaques occupied up to 12% cortical area in the [C-11]PiB(+) case, and were intensely labeled with 6-CN-PIB. The [C-11]PiB(−) case had low levels of [H-3]PiB binding (<100 pmol/g) and Aβ1–42 (<500 pmol/g) concentration except in the frontal cortex where Aβ1–42 values (788 pmol/g) approached cortical values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case (800–1,700 pmol/g). In several cortical regions of the [C-11]PiB(−) case, Aβ1–40 levels were within the range of cortical Aβ1–40 values in the [C-11]PiB(+) case. Antemortem [C-11]PiB DVR values correlated well with region-matched postmortem measures of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the [C-11]PiB(+), and with Aβ1–42 only in the [C-11]PiB(−) case. The low ratios of [H-3]PiB binding levels to Aβ concentrations and 6-CN-PiB to Aβ plaque loads in the [C-11]PiB(−) case indicate that Aβ pathology in the brain may be associated with low or undetectable levels of [C-11]PiB retention. Studies in greater numbers of [C-11]PiB PET autopsy cases are needed to define the Aβ concentration and [H-3]PiB binding levels required to produce a positive [C-11]PiB PET signal.
doi:10.1007/s00401-012-0943-2
PMCID: PMC3383058  PMID: 22271153
Alzheimer’s disease; Brain amyloidosis; Pittsburgh Compound B; Plaques; Imaging
2.  Early 11C-PIB Frames and 18F-FDG PET Measures Are Comparable; A Study validated in a Cohort of AD and FTLD 
The availability of new PET ligands offers the potential to measure fibrillar β-amyloid in the brain. Nevertheless, physiological information in the form of perfusion or metabolism may still be useful in differentiating causes of dementia during life. In this study we investigated whether early 11C-PIB PET frames (perfusion, pPIB) can provide information equivalent to blood flow and metabolism by assessing the similarity of pPIB and 18F-FDG PET images first in a test cohort with various clinical diagnoses (N=10) and then validating the results on a cohort of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, N=42, age 66.6±10.6, MMSE 22.2±6.0) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD, N=31, age 63.9±7.1, MMSE 23.8±6.7) patients.
METHODS
To identify the 11C-PIB frames best representing perfusion, an iterative algorithm was run on the test cohort. This included: (1) generating normalized (cerebellar reference) perfusion pPIB images across variable frame ranges, and (2) calculating Pearson’s R values of the sum of these pPIB frames with the sum of all 18F-FDG frames (cerebellar normalized) for all brain tissue voxels. Once this perfusion frame range was determined on the test cohort, it was then validated on an extended cohort and the power of pPIB in differential diagnosis was compared to 18F-FDG by performing a logistic regression of ROI tracer measure (pPIB or 18F-FDG) versus diagnosis.
RESULTS
A seven-minute window, corresponding to minutes 1–8 (frame 5–15) produced the highest voxel-wise correlation between 18F-FDG and pPIB (R=0.78±0.05). This pPIB frame range was further validated on the extended AD and FTLD cohort across 12 ROIs (R=0.91±0.09). A logistic model using pPIB was able to classify 90.5% of the AD and 83.9% of the FTLD patients correctly. Using 18F-FDG, 88.1% of AD and 83.9% of FTLD patients were classified correctly. The temporal pole and the temporal neocortex were significant discriminators (p<0.05) in both models, whereas in the model with pPIB the frontal region was also significant.
CONCLUSIONS
The high correlation between pPIB and 18F-FDG measures and their comparable performance in differential diagnosis is promising in providing functional information using 11C-PIB PET data. This could be a useful approach, obviating the need for 18F-FDG scans when longer-lived amyloid imaging agents become available
doi:10.2967/jnumed.110.082057
PMCID: PMC3166243  PMID: 21233181
Pittsburgh compound-B (11C-PIB); perfusion; 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG); Aβ-amyloid plaques; cerebral glucose metabolism
3.  AMYLOID IMAGING IN AGING AND DEMENTIA: TESTING THE AMYLOID HYPOTHESIS IN VIVO 
Behavioural neurology  2009;21(1):117-128.
Amyloid imaging represents a major advance in neuroscience, enabling the detection and quantification of pathologic protein aggregations in the brain. In this review we survey current amyloid imaging techniques, focusing on positron emission tomography (PET) with 11carbon-labelled Pittsburgh Compound-B (11C-PIB), the most extensively studied and best validated tracer. PIB binds specifically to fibrillar beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposits, and is a sensitive marker for Aβ pathology in cognitively normal older individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). PIB-PET provides us with a powerful tool to examine in vivo the relationship between amyloid deposition, clinical symptoms, and structural and functional brain changes in the continuum between normal aging and AD. Amyloid imaging studies support a model in which amyloid deposition is an early event on the path to dementia, beginning insidiously in cognitively normal individuals, and accompanied by subtle cognitive decline and functional and structural brain changes suggestive of incipient AD. As patients progress to dementia, clinical decline and neurodegeneration accelerate and proceed independently of amyloid accumulation. In the future, amyloid imaging is likely to supplement clinical evaluation in selecting patients for anti-amyloid therapies, while MRI and FDG-PET may be more appropriate markers of clinical progression.
doi:10.3233/BEN-2009-0232
PMCID: PMC2804478  PMID: 19847050
Amyloid imaging; PET; PIB; beta-amyloid; brain aging; MCI; Alzheimer's disease
4.  Amyloid Imaging in Dementias With Atypical Presentation 
We explored the potential value of amyloid imaging in patients with atypical presentations of dementia. Twenty-eight patients with atypical dementia underwent PET imaging with the amyloid imaging tracer Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB). Twenty-six had [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET scans. After extensive clinical evaluation, this group of patients generated considerable diagnostic uncertainty and received working diagnoses that included possible AD (pAD), focal dementias [e.g. posterior cortical atrophy (PCA)], or cases in which no clear diagnostic category could be determined (dementia of uncertain etiology; DUE). Patients were classified as PiB-positive, -negative, or -intermediate based on objective criteria. Anterior-posterior (A-P) and left-right (L-R) indices of PiB and FDG uptake were calculated to examine differences in distribution of amyloid pathology and metabolic changes associated with clinical phenotype. Eleven patients (39%) were PiB-positive, 16 were PiB-negative (57%) and one (4%) was intermediate. By diagnostic category, 3/10 patients (30%) with DUE, 1/5 (20%) with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), 3/5 (60%) with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), and 4/7 (57%) with pAD were PiB-positive. Brain metabolism of both PiB-positive and -negative patients were generally similar by phenotype, but differed from typical AD. PCA patients also appeared to differ in their relative distribution of PiB compared to typical AD, consistent with their atypical phenotype. AD pathology is frequently present in atypical presentations of dementia and can be identified by amyloid imaging. Clinical phenotype is more related to the pattern of cerebral hypometabolism than the presence/absence of amyloid pathology. These findings have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.07.003
PMCID: PMC3517915  PMID: 22285638
Amyloid imaging; PiB; PET; Alzheimer’s Disease; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; dementia; focal dementia
5.  In vivo amyloid imaging in autopsy-confirmed Parkinson disease with dementia 
Neurology  2010;74(1):77-84.
Objective:
To investigate the specificity of in vivo amyloid imaging with [11C]–Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) in Parkinson disease dementia (PDD).
Methods:
We performed detailed neuropathologic examination for 3 individuals with PDD who had PIB PET imaging within 15 months of death.
Results:
We observed elevated cortical uptake of [11C]-PIB on in vivo PET imaging in 2 of the 3 cases. At autopsy, all 3 individuals had abundant cortical Lewy bodies (Braak PD stage 6), and were classified as low-probability Alzheimer disease (AD) based on NIA-Reagan criteria. The 2 PIB-positive individuals had abundant diffuse Aβ plaques but only sparse neuritic plaques and intermediate neurofibrillary tangle pathology. The PIB-negative individual had rare diffuse plaques, no neuritic plaques, and low neurofibrillary tangle burden.
Conclusions:
[11C]–Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) PET is specific for fibrillar Aβ molecular pathology but not for pathologic diagnosis of comorbid Alzheimer disease in individuals with Parkinson disease dementia. The ability to specifically identify fibrillar Aβ amyloid in the setting of α-synucleinopathy makes [11C]-PIB PET a valuable tool for prospectively evaluating how the presence of Aβ amyloid influences the clinical course of dementia in patients with Lewy body disorders.
GLOSSARY
= Alzheimer disease;
= binding potentials;
= Clinical Dementia Rating;
= dementia of the Alzheimer type;
= dementia with Lewy bodies;
= distribution volume;
= Mental State Examination;
= Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire;
= Parkinson disease dementia;
= Pittsburgh Compound B;
= Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181c7da8e
PMCID: PMC2809026  PMID: 20038776
6.  Resorufin analogs preferentially bind cerebrovascular amyloid: potential use as imaging ligands for cerebral amyloid angiopathy 
Background
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by deposition of fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ) within cerebral vessels. It is commonly seen in the elderly and almost universally present in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In both patient populations, CAA is an independent risk factor for lobar hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, and dementia. To date, definitive diagnosis of CAA requires obtaining pathological tissues via brain biopsy (which is rarely clinically indicated) or at autopsy. Though amyloid tracers labeled with positron-emitting radioligands such as [11C]PIB have shown promise for non-invasive amyloid imaging in AD patients, to date they have been unable to clarify whether the observed amyloid load represents neuritic plaques versus CAA due in large part to the low resolution of PET imaging and the almost equal affinity of these tracers for both vascular and parenchymal amyloid. Therefore, the development of a precise and specific non-invasive technique for diagnosing CAA in live patients is desired.
Results
We found that the phenoxazine derivative resorufin preferentially bound cerebrovascular amyloid deposits over neuritic plaques in the aged Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of AD/CAA, whereas the congophilic amyloid dye methoxy-X34 bound both cerebrovascular amyloid deposits and neuritic plaques. Similarly, resorufin-positive staining was predominantly noted in fibrillar Aβ-laden vessels in postmortem AD brain tissues. Fluorescent labeling and multi-photon microscopy further revealed that both resorufin- and methoxy-X34-positive staining is colocalized to the vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) layer of vessel segments that have severe disruption of VSMC arrangement, a characteristic feature of CAA. Resorufin also selectively visualized vascular amyloid deposits in live Tg2576 mice when administered topically, though not systemically. Resorufin derivatives with chemical modification at the 7-OH position of resorufin also displayed a marked preferential binding affinity for CAA, but with enhanced lipid solubility that indicates their use as a non-invasive imaging tracer for CAA is feasible.
Conclusions
To our knowledge, resorufin analogs are the fist class of amyloid dye that can discriminate between cerebrovascular and neuritic forms of amyloid. This unique binding selectivity suggests that this class of dye has great potential as a CAA-specific amyloid tracer that will permit non-invasive detection and quantification of CAA in live patients.
doi:10.1186/1750-1326-6-86
PMCID: PMC3259047  PMID: 22192811
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy; Alzheimer's disease; dementia; diagnosis; amyloid beta; positron emission tomography; amyloid imaging; tracer; resorufin; phenoxazines
7.  Beta Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease: Increased Deposition in Brain Is Reflected in Reduced Concentration in Cerebrospinal Fluid 
Biological psychiatry  2009;65(11):927-934.
Background
A decreased concentration of beta amyloid (1–42) (Aβ42) has consistently been found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and is considered a diagnostic biomarker. However, it is not clear to which extent CSF Aβ42 levels are reflective of cerebral pathology in AD. The aim of the study was to determine the association between cerebral amyloid plaque load, as measured by means of the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer carbon-11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB) and CSF Aβ42 in AD.
Methods
A group of 30 patients with probable AD, as defined by established clinical criteria and by an AD-typical pattern of tracer uptake in fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET, were included. In all patients, [11C]PiB PET and CSF analysis were performed. The association between amyloid load and CSF Aβ42 levels was examined in three different ways: by linear regression analysis using an overall [11C]PiB value for the entire cerebrum, by correlation analyses using [11C]PiB measurements in anatomically defined regions of interest, and by voxel-based regression analyses.
Results
All patients showed a positive [11C]PiB scan demonstrating amyloid deposition. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation between the overall [11C]PiB uptake and CSF Aβ42 levels. Voxel-based regression and regional correlation analyses did not attain statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Numerically, correlation coefficients were higher in brain regions adjacent to CSF spaces.
Conclusions
The study demonstrates a moderate linear negative association between cerebral amyloid plaque load and CSF Aβ42 levels in AD patients in vivo and suggests possible regional differences of the association.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.01.027
PMCID: PMC2700302  PMID: 19268916
Alzheimer’s disease; Aβ42; [11C]PiB; CSF; [18F]FDG; positron emission tomography; Pittsburgh Compound B
8.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background:
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives:
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods:
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results:
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions:
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
GLOSSARY
= Automated Anatomic Labeling;
= Alzheimer disease;
= Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center;
= American version of the National Adult Reading Test;
= analysis of covariance;
= Blessed Dementia Scale;
= cerebral amyloid angiopathy;
= Clinical Dementia Rating;
= Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes;
= dementia with Lewy bodies;
= distribution volume ratio;
= Cued Selective Reminding Test;
= Free Selective Reminding Test;
= Hoehn and Yahr;
= Massachusetts General Hospital;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= normal control;
= neurofibrillary tangle;
= Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire;
= not significant;
= Parkinson disease;
= Parkinson disease dementia;
= Pittsburgh Compound B;
= region of interest;
= Statistical Parametric Mapping;
= UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank Research Center;
= United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale;
= Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
9.  Update on Amyloid Imaging: From Healthy Aging to Alzheimer's Disease 
We report on the current state of in vivo amyloid imaging. While this technique is less than a decade old, a wealth of information is emerging as the initial clinical studies are reported. Imaging of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have allowed for quantitative exploration of the natural history of amyloid deposition and it's relationship to neurodegeneration. Amyloid imaging also shows significant promise in differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or atypical dementias. However, amyloid detection may be of greatest utility in healthy elderly in whom amyloid imaging has confirmed prior autopsy reports of a significant percentage of asymptomatic adults with Alzheimer's pathology. Understanding the relationship between this pathology and future cognitive status has significant implications for the application of disease modifying medications in the ‘pre-clinical’ phase of disease. Given the considerable clinical experience compared to other tracers, the current review focuses on the literature involving Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) PET.
PMCID: PMC2825106  PMID: 19664363
10.  Amyloid Imaging With Carbon 11–Labeled Pittsburgh Compound B for Traumatic Brain Injury 
JAMA neurology  2014;71(1):23-31.
OBJECTIVES
To image amyloid deposition in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) using carbon 11–labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) and to validate these findings using tritium-labeled PiB ([3H]PiB) autoradiography and immunocytochemistry in autopsy-acquired tissue.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
In vivo PET at tertiary neuroscience referral center and ex vivo immunocytochemistry of autopsy-acquired brain tissue from a neuropathology archive. [11C]PiB PET was used to image amyloid deposition in 11 controls (median [range] age, 35 [24–60] years) and in 15 patients (median [range] age, 33 [21–50] years) between 1 and 361 days after a TBI. [3H]PiB autoradiography and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid (Aβ) and β-amyloid precursor protein in brain tissue were obtained from separate cohorts of 16 patients (median [range] age, 46 [21–70] years) who died between 3 hours and 56 days after a TBI and 7 controls (median [range] age, 61 [29–71] years) who died of other causes.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
We quantified the [11C]PiB distribution volume ratio and standardized uptake value ratio in PET images. The distribution volume ratio and the standardized uptake value ratio were measured in cortical gray matter, white matter, and multiple cortical and white matter regions of interest, as well as in striatal and thalamic regions of interest. We examined [3H]PiB binding and Aβ and β-amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemistry in autopsy-acquired brain tissue.
RESULTS
Compared with the controls, the patients with TBI showed significantly increased [11C]PiB distribution volume ratios in cortical gray matter and the striatum (corrected P < .05 for both), but not in the thalamus or white matter. Increases in [11C]PiB distribution volume ratios in patients with TBI were seen across most cortical subregions, were replicated using comparisons of standardized uptake value ratios, and could not be accounted for by methodological confounders. Autoradiography revealed [3H]PiB binding in neocortical gray matter, in regions where amyloid deposition was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry; white matter showed Aβ and β-amyloid precursor protein by immunocytochemistry, but no [3H]PiB binding. No plaque-associated amyloid immunoreactivity or [3H]PiB binding was seen in cerebellar gray matter in autopsy-acquired tissue from either controls or patients with TBI, although 1 sample of cerebellar tissue from a patient with TBI showed amyloid angiopathy in meningeal vessels.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
[11C]PiB shows increased binding following TBI. The specificity of this binding is supported by neocortical [3H]PiB binding in regions of amyloid deposition in the postmortem tissue of patients with TBI. [11C]PiB PET could be valuable in imaging amyloid deposition following TBI.
doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.4847
PMCID: PMC4084932  PMID: 24217171
11.  Post-mortem correlates of in vivo PiB-PET amyloid imaging in a typical case of Alzheimer's disease 
Brain  2008;131(6):1630-1645.
The positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) binds with high affinity to β-pleated sheet aggregates of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in vitro. The in vivo retention of PiB in brains of people with Alzheimer's disease shows a regional distribution that is very similar to distribution of Aβ deposits observed post-mortem. However, the basis for regional variations in PiB binding in vivo, and the extent to which it binds to different types of Aβ-containing plaques and tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study examined 28 clinically diagnosed and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease subjects, including one Alzheimer's disease subject who had undergone PiB-PET imaging 10 months prior to death, to evaluate region- and substrate-specific binding of the highly fluorescent PiB derivative 6-CN-PiB. These data were then correlated with region-matched Aβ plaque load and peptide levels, [3H]PiB binding in vitro, and in vivo PET retention levels. We found that in Alzheimer's disease brain tissue sections, the preponderance of 6-CN-PiB binding is in plaques immunoreactive to either Aβ42 or Aβ40, and to vascular Aβ deposits. 6-CN-PiB labelling was most robust in compact/cored plaques in the prefrontal and temporal cortices. While diffuse plaques, including those in caudate nucleus and presubiculum, were less prominently labelled, amorphous Aβ plaques in the cerebellum were not detectable with 6-CN-PiB. Only a small subset of NFT were 6-CN-PiB positive; these resembled extracellular ‘ghost’ NFT. In Alzheimer's disease brain tissue homogenates, there was a direct correlation between [3H]PiB binding and insoluble Aβ peptide levels. In the Alzheimer's disease subject who underwent PiB-PET prior to death, in vivo PiB retention levels correlated directly with region-matched post-mortem measures of [3H]PiB binding, insoluble Aβ peptide levels, 6-CN-PiB- and Aβ plaque load, but not with measures of NFT. These results demonstrate, in a typical Alzheimer's disease brain, that PiB binding is highly selective for insoluble (fibrillar) Aβ deposits, and not for neurofibrillary pathology. The strong direct correlation of in vivo PiB retention with region-matched quantitative analyses of Aβ plaques in the same subject supports the validity of PiB-PET imaging as a method for in vivo evaluation of Aβ plaque burden.
doi:10.1093/brain/awn016
PMCID: PMC2408940  PMID: 18339640
Pittsburgh Compound-B; PiB; amyloid imaging; plaques; PET imaging
12.  Antemortem amyloid imaging and β-amyloid pathology in a case with dementia with Lewy Bodies 
Neurobiology of Aging  2010;33(5):878-885.
The association between antemortem [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) retention and β-amyloid (Aβ) load, Lewy body (LB) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) densities were investigated in a pathologically confirmed case of dementia with LB (DLB). 76-year-old man presenting with a clinical diagnosis of DLB had undergone PiB–positron emission tomography (PET), 18F FDG-PET and MRI 18 months before death. The pathologic diagnosis was DLB neocortical-type with low-likelihood of Alzheimer's disease by NIA-Reagan criteria. Sections from regions of interest (ROI) on post-mortem examination were studied. A significant correlation was found between cortical Aβ density and PiB retention in the 17 corresponding ROIs (r=0.899; p<0.0001). Bielschowsky silver stain revealed mostly sparse neocortical neuritic plaques; whereas diffuse plaques were frequent. There was no correlation between LB density and PiB retention (r=0.13; p=0.66); nor between NFT density and PiB retention (r=−0.36; p=0.17). The ROI-based analysis of imaging and histopathological data confirms that PiB uptake on PET is a specific marker for Aβ density, but cannot differentiate neuritic from diffuse amyloid plaques in this case with DLB.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.08.007
PMCID: PMC3026854  PMID: 20961664
Dementia with Lewy bodies; amyloid imaging; PET; pathology; amyloid
13.  Development of Positron Emission Tomography β-Amyloid Plaque Imaging Agents 
Seminars in nuclear medicine  2012;42(6):423-432.
For 100 years, β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been recognized as the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and their presence or absence could only be assessed postmortem using stains and dyes that identified these microscopic structures. Approximately 10 years ago, the first successful Aβ plaque–specific positron emission tomography (PET) imaging study was conducted in a living human subject clinically diagnosed with probable AD using the 11C-labeled radiopharmaceutical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB). Laboratory studies and preclinical evaluations to design PiB began a decade earlier than the first human PiB PET study and involved chemical modifications of different well-known dyes that bound specifically to the extended β-pleated sheets that comprise the fibrils of amyloid proteins such as Aβ plaques, NFTs, β-synuclein deposits, and prions. These preclinical studies were conducted in our laboratories at the University of Pittsburgh, starting with Congo red derivatives, followed by Chrysamine G derivatives, followed by X-series compounds, and finally with neutral derivatives of thioflavin-T. The in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the different derivatives as candidate PET radioligands for imaging Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in human brain are described in this review, along with the specific evaluation criteria by which the candidate radioligands were judged. Out of these studies came PiB, a PET radioligand that binds selectively and with high affinity to only fibrillar forms of Aβ. PiB has been used in many different human research protocols throughout the world and has demonstrated the usefulness of assessing the Aβ plaque status of subjects many years before the clinical diagnosis of probable AD. Recently, longer-lived 18F-radiolabeled Aβ-selective radiopharmaceuticals have been developed. It is likely that the full clinical impact of these imaging agents will be realized by identifying presymptomatic subjects who would benefit from early drug treatments with future disease-modifying AD therapeutics.
doi:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2012.07.001
PMCID: PMC3520098  PMID: 23026364
14.  Amyloid vs FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of AD and FTLD 
Neurology  2011;77(23):2034-2042.
Objective:
To compare the diagnostic performance of PET with the amyloid ligand Pittsburgh compound B (PiB-PET) to fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in discriminating between Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).
Methods:
Patients meeting clinical criteria for AD (n = 62) and FTLD (n = 45) underwent PiB and FDG-PET. PiB scans were classified as positive or negative by 2 visual raters blinded to clinical diagnosis, and using a quantitative threshold derived from controls (n = 25). FDG scans were visually rated as consistent with AD or FTLD, and quantitatively classified based on the region of lowest metabolism relative to controls.
Results:
PiB visual reads had a higher sensitivity for AD (89.5% average between raters) than FDG visual reads (77.5%) with similar specificity (PiB 83%, FDG 84%). When scans were classified quantitatively, PiB had higher sensitivity (89% vs 73%) while FDG had higher specificity (83% vs 98%). On receiver operating characteristic analysis, areas under the curve for PiB (0.888) and FDG (0.910) were similar. Interrater agreement was higher for PiB (κ = 0.96) than FDG (κ = 0.72), as was agreement between visual and quantitative classification (PiB κ = 0.88–0.92; FDG κ = 0.64–0.68). In patients with known histopathology, overall classification accuracy (2 visual and 1 quantitative classification per patient) was 97% for PiB (n = 12 patients) and 87% for FDG (n = 10).
Conclusions:
PiB and FDG showed similar accuracy in discriminating AD and FTLD. PiB was more sensitive when interpreted qualitatively or quantitatively. FDG was more specific, but only when scans were classified quantitatively. PiB slightly outperformed FDG in patients with known histopathology.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e31823b9c5e
PMCID: PMC3236517  PMID: 22131541
15.  Carbon 11–Labeled Pittsburgh Compound B and Carbon 11–Labeled (R)-PK11195 Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging in Alzheimer Disease 
Archives of neurology  2009;66(1):60-67.
Background
Alzheimer disease (AD) is defined neuropathologically by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques associated with tau and β-amyloid protein deposition. The colocalization of microglia and β-amyloid plaques has been widely reported in pathological examination of AD and suggests that neuroinflammation may play a role in pathogenesis and/or progression. Because postmortem histopathological analyses are limited to single end-stage assessment, the time course and nature of this relationship are not well understood.
Objective
To image microglial activation and β-amyloid deposition in the brains of subjects with and without AD.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Using two carbon 11 ([11C])–labeled positron emission tomographic imaging agents, Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) and (R)-PK11195, we examined the relationship between amyloid deposition and microglial activation in different stages of AD using 5 control subjects, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment, and 6 patients with mild to moderate AD.
Results
Consistent with prior reports, subjects with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD showed significantly greater levels of [11C]PiB retention than control subjects, whereas patients with mild cognitive impairment spanned a range from control-like to AD-like levels of [11C]PiB retention. Additionally, 2 asymptomatic control subjects also exhibited evidence of elevated PiB retention in regions associated with the early emergence of plaques in AD and may represent prodromal cases of AD. We observed no differences in brain [11C](R)-PK11195 retention when subjects were grouped by clinical diagnosis or the presence or absence of β-amyloid pathological findings as indicated by analyses of [11C]PiB retention.
Conclusions
These findings suggest that either microglial activation is limited to later stages of severe AD or [11C](R)-PK11195 is too insensitive to detect the level of microglial activation associated with mild to moderate AD.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2008.511
PMCID: PMC2666881  PMID: 19139300
16.  Relationships between biomarkers in aging and dementia 
Neurology  2009;73(15):1193-1199.
Background:
PET imaging using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD), as have CSF measures of the 42 amino acid β-amyloid protein (Aβ1-42) and total and phosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau). Relationships between biomarkers and with disease severity are incompletely understood.
Methods:
Ten subjects with AD, 11 control subjects, and 34 subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative underwent clinical evaluation; CSF measurement of Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau; and PIB-PET and FDG-PET scanning. Data were analyzed using continuous regression and dichotomous outcomes with subjects classified as “positive” or “negative” for AD based on cutoffs established in patients with AD and controls from other cohorts.
Results:
Dichotomous categorization showed substantial agreement between PIB-PET and CSF Aβ1-42 measures (91% agreement, κ = 0.74), modest agreement between PIB-PET and p-tau (76% agreement, κ = 0.50), and minimal agreement for other comparisons (κ <0.3). Mini-Mental State Examination score was significantly correlated with FDG-PET but not with PIB-PET or CSF Aβ1-42. Regression models adjusted for diagnosis showed that PIB-PET was significantly correlated with Aβ1-42, t-tau, and p-tau181p, whereas FDG-PET was correlated only with Aβ1-42.
Conclusions:
PET and CSF biomarkers of Aβ agree with one another but are not related to cognitive impairment. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is modestly related to other biomarkers but is better related to cognition. Different biomarkers for Alzheimer disease provide different information from one another that is likely to be complementary.
GLOSSARY
β1-42 = 42 amino acid β-amyloid protein;
= Alzheimer disease;
= Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative;
= Clinical Dementia Rating;
= confidence interval;
= [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose;
= mild cognitive impairment;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= magnetic resonance;
= [11C]Pittsburgh compound B;
= phosphorylated tau;
= receiver operating characteristic;
= region of interest;
= standardized uptake value ratio;
= total tau;
= Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181bc010c
PMCID: PMC2764726  PMID: 19822868
17.  Longitudinal patterns of β-amyloid deposition in nondemented older adults 
Archives of neurology  2011;68(5):644-649.
Background
High levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) characterize Alzheimer’s disease.
Objective
To investigate whether longitudinal changes in Aβ deposition can be detected in vivo in older adults without dementia (hereafter referred to as nondemented).
Design
Prospective study.
Setting
Community-dwelling older adults.
Participants
Twenty-four nondemented participants (4 with a baseline Clinical Dementia Rating Scale score of 0.5; mean [SD] age 79.2 [8.1] years) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent serial carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B- positron emission tomography ([11C]PiB-PET) (follow-up at a mean [SD] of 1.5 [0.5] years), with 5 participants undergoing a third [11C]PiB-PET examination.
Main Outcome Measures
Annual changes in distribution volume ratio (DVR) were evaluated using a global index of cortical DVR (cDVR) and region-of-interest analyses. Given the variability of cDVR at initial PiB-PET, annual changes in cDVR in those with minimal vs those with elevated initial cDVR were compared.
Results
In nondemented older adults, annual increase in [11C]PiB retention is 0.011 DVR per year (0.9%; P=0.01) which localizes to prefrontal, parietal, lateral temporal, and occipital cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. Annual change in cDVR is greater in older adults with elevated cDVR than in those with minimal initial cDVR (p=0.006).
Conclusions
Fibrillar Aβ detected by [11C]PiB-PET increases over time even in nondemented older adults. Individuals with higher initial [11C]PiB retention have greater rates of Aβ deposition, providing evidence for differential rates of Aβ deposition. Moreover, regional vulnerabilities to Aβ deposition allow for more targeted investigation of early Aβ changes.
doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.77
PMCID: PMC3136195  PMID: 21555640
18.  Alzheimer disease identification using amyloid imaging and reserve variables 
Neurology  2010;75(1):42-48.
Objective:
Several factors may influence the relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD) lesions and the expression of dementia, including those related to brain and cognitive reserve. Other factors may confound the association between AD pathology and dementia. We tested whether factors thought to influence the association of AD pathology and dementia help to accurately identify dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) when considered together with amyloid imaging.
Methods:
Participants with normal cognition (n = 180) and with DAT (n = 25), aged 50 years or older, took part in clinical, neurologic, and psychometric assessments. PET with the Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) tracer was used to measure brain amyloid, yielding a mean cortical binding potential (MCBP) reflecting PiB uptake. Logistic regression was used to generate receiver operating characteristic curves, and the areas under those curves (AUC), to compare the predictive accuracy of using MCBP alone vs MCBP together with other variables selected using a stepwise selection procedure to identify participants with DAT vs normal cognition.
Results:
The AUC resulting from MCBP alone was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73–0.94; cross-validated AUC = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68–0.92). The AUC for the predictive equation generated by a stepwise model including education, normalized whole brain volume, physical health rating, gender, and use of medications that may interfere with cognition was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.90–0.98; cross-validated AUC = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85–0.96), an improvement (p = 0.025) over that yielded using MCBP alone.
Conclusion:
Results suggest that factors reported to influence associations between AD pathology and dementia can improve the predictive accuracy of amyloid imaging for the identification of symptomatic AD.
GLOSSARY
β = amyloid-β;
= Alzheimer disease;
= area under receiver operating characteristic curve;
= binding potential;
= Clinical Dementia Rating;
= confidence interval;
= dementia of the Alzheimer type;
= distribution volume;
= mean cortical binding potential;
= normalized whole brain volume;
= odds ratio;
= Pittsburgh compound B;
= receiver operating characteristic curve;
= region of interest.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181e620f4
PMCID: PMC2906402  PMID: 20603484
19.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
20.  The Aging Brain and Cognition 
JAMA neurology  2013;70(4):488-495.
Importance
β-Amyloid (Aβ) deposition and vascular brain injury (VBI) frequently co-occur and are both associated with cognitive decline in aging. Determining whether a direct relationship exists between them has been challenging. We sought to understand VBI’s influence on cognition and clinical impairment, separate from and in conjunction with pathologic changes associated with Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objective
To examine the relationship between neuroimaging measures of VBI and brain Aβ deposition and their associations with cognition.
Design and Setting
A cross-sectional study in a community- and clinic-based sample recruited for elevated vascular disease risk factors.
Participants
Clinically normal (mean age, 77.1 years [N=30]), cognitively impaired (mean age, 78.0 years [N=24]), and mildly demented (mean age, 79.8 years [N=7]) participants.
Interventions
Magnetic resonance imaging, Aβ (Pitts-burgh Compound B–positron emission tomographic [PiB-PET]) imaging, and cognitive testing.
Main Outcome Measures
Magnetic resonance images were rated for the presence and location of infarct (34 infarct-positive participants, 27 infarct-negative participants) and were used to quantify white matter lesion volume. The PiB-PET uptake ratios were used to create a PiB index by averaging uptake across regions vulnerable to early Aβ deposition; PiB positivity (29 PiB-positive participants, 32 PiB-negative participants) was determined from a data-derived threshold. Standardized composite cognitive measures included executive function and verbal and nonverbal memory.
Results
Vascular brain injury and Aβ were independent in both cognitively normal and impaired participants. Infarction, particularly in cortical and subcortical gray matter, was associated with lower cognitive performance in all domains (P<.05 for all comparisons). Pittsburgh Compound B positivity was neither a significant predictor of cognition nor interacted with VBI.
Conclusions and Relevance
In this elderly sample with normal cognition to mild dementia, enriched for vascular disease, VBI was more influential than Aβ in contemporaneous cognitive function and remained predictive after including the possible influence of Aβ. There was no evidence that VBI increases the likelihood of Aβ deposition. This finding highlights the importance of VBI in mild cognitive impairment and suggests that the impact of cerebrovascular disease should be considered with respect to defining the etiology of mild cognitive impairment.
doi:10.1001/2013.jamaneurol.405
PMCID: PMC3771392  PMID: 23400560
21.  Imaging Alzheimer Pathology in Late-Life Depression With PET and Pittsburgh Compound-B 
There is increasing evidence for an empiric link between late-life depression and Alzheimer disease (AD). The neuropathology of AD, previously only confirmed at autopsy, may now be detectable in vivo using selective imaging ligands for β-amyloid. Positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C] 6-OH-BTA-1 [Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)] has shown high tracer retention in cortical areas in patients with clinical diagnoses of probable AD and low retention in age-matched controls. We also previously reported variable PiB retention in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we used PiB-PET to evaluate whether amyloid is present in elders with treated major depression, many of whom have persistent cognitive impairment. We evaluated 9 subjects with remitted major depression [3M: 6F, mean (SD) age=71.8(5.7) y]. Seven of the 9 depressed subjects also met criteria for the diagnosis of MCI. PiB-PET data from healthy elders [n=8; mean (SD) age=71.5(3.0) y] were used for comparison. PET was acquired with arterial sampling and PiB retention was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging-guided cortical regions and graphical analysis of time-activity data; arterial line failure led to exclusion of 1 depressed subject. The data demonstrated variably elevated PiB retention. PiB retention in the 2 depressed subjects with normal cognitive ability was in the range of nondepressed cognitively normal subjects. PiB retention in 3 of the 6 depressed subjects with MCI fell in the range of subjects with AD. PiB retention in the remaining 3 depressed subjects with cooccurring MCI was variable and generally was intermediate to the other subjects. Our findings are consistent with and supportive of the hypothesis that depression may herald the development of AD in some individuals.
doi:10.1097/WAD.0b013e31816c92bf
PMCID: PMC2636843  PMID: 18580591
depression; Alzheimer disease; amyloid; brain; emission tomography
22.  Re-Evaluation of Clinical Dementia Diagnoses with Pittsburgh Compound B Positron Emission Tomography 
Objectives
There is an overlap regarding Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) retention in patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are any differences between PIB-positive and PIB-negative patients in a mixed cohort of patients with neurodegenerative dementia of mild severity regarding neuropsychological test performance and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).
Methods
Eighteen patients clinically diagnosed as probable AD or frontotemporal dementia were examined with PIB PET, FDG PET and neuropsychological tests and followed for 5-9 years in a clinical setting.
Results
The PIB-positive patients (7 out of 18) had slower psychomotor speed and more impaired visual episodic memory than the PIB-negative patients; otherwise performance did not differ between the groups. The initial clinical diagnoses were changed in one third of the patients (6 out of 18) during follow-up.
Conclusions
The subtle differences in neuropsychological performance, the overlap of hypometabolic patterns and clinical features between AD and non-AD dementia highlight the need for amyloid biomarkers and a readiness to re-evaluate the initial diagnosis.
doi:10.1159/000356273
PMCID: PMC3919484  PMID: 24516415
Alzheimer's disease; Dementia with Lewy bodies; Frontotemporal dementia; β-Amyloid; Amyloid biomarker; Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography; [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography; Neuropsychological tests; Trail Making Test, part A; Episodic memory

23.  Cardiovascular risk factors, cortisol, and amyloid-β deposition in Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 
Background
There is epidemiological evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) also are risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease, but there is limited information on this from neuro-pathological studies, and even less from in vivo studies. Therefore, we examined the relationship between CVRF and amyloid-β (Aβ) brain burden measured by Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (PiB-PET) studies in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
Methods
Ninety-nine subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort who had a PiB-PET study measure, apolipoprotein E genotyping data, and information available on CVRF (body mass index [BMI], systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure [DBP1 and cholesterol and fasting glucose test results) were included. Eighty-one subjects also had plasma cortisol C-reactive protein, and superoxide dismutase 1 measurements. Stepwise regression models were used to assess the relation between the CVRF and the composite PiB-PET score.
Results
The first model included the following as baseline variables: age, clinical diagnosis, number of apolipoprotein ε4 alleles, BMI (P = .023), and DBP (P = .012). BMI showed an inverse relation with PiB-PET score, and DBP had a positive relation with PiB-PET score. In the second adjusted model, cortisol plasma levels were also associated with PiB-PET score (P = .004). Systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, or impaired fasting glucose were not found to be associated with PiB-PET values.
Conclusion
In this cross-sectional study, we found an association between Aβ brain burden measured in vivo and DBP and cortisol, indicating a possible link between these CVRF and Aβ burden measured by PiB-PET. These findings highlight the utility of biomarkers to explore potential pathways linking diverse Alzheimer’s disease risk factors.
doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.08.008
PMCID: PMC3668456  PMID: 23102118
Alzheimer disease; Vascular risk factors; PiB; Amyloid-β; Cortisol; Blood pressure; Body mass index
24.  Practical utility of amyloid and FDG-PET in an academic dementia center 
Neurology  2014;82(3):230-238.
Objective:
To evaluate the effect of amyloid imaging on clinical decision making.
Methods:
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 140 cognitively impaired patients (mean age 65.0 years, 46% primary β-amyloid (Aβ) diagnosis, mean Mini-Mental State Examination 22.3) who underwent amyloid (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB]) PET as part of observational research studies and were evaluated clinically before and after the scan. One hundred thirty-four concurrently underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. We assessed for changes between the pre- and post-PET clinical diagnosis (from Aβ to non-Aβ diagnosis or vice versa) and Alzheimer disease treatment plan. The association between PiB/FDG results and changes in management was evaluated using χ2 and multivariate logistic regression. Postmortem diagnosis was available for 24 patients (17%).
Results:
Concordance between scan results and baseline diagnosis was high (PiB 84%, FDG 82%). The primary diagnosis changed after PET in 13/140 patients (9%) overall but in 5/13 (38%) patients considered pre-PET diagnostic dilemmas. When examined independently, discordant PiB and discordant FDG were both associated with diagnostic change (unadjusted p < 0.0001). However, when examined together in a multivariate logistic regression, only discordant PiB remained significant (adjusted p = 0.00013). Changes in treatment were associated with discordant PiB in patients with non-Aβ diagnoses (adjusted p = 0.028), while FDG had no effect on therapy. Both PiB (96%) and FDG (91%) showed high agreement with autopsy diagnosis.
Conclusions:
PET had a moderate effect on clinical outcomes. Discordant PiB had a greater effect than discordant FDG, and influence on diagnosis was greater than on treatment. Prospective studies are needed to better characterize the clinical role of amyloid PET.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000032
PMCID: PMC3902757  PMID: 24353340
25.  Multimodality Imaging Characteristics of Dementia with Lewy Bodies 
Neurobiology of Aging  2011;33(9):2091-2105.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our objective was to determine whether the 11C–Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB) retention and regional hypometabolism on PET and regional cortical atrophy on MRI are complementary in characterizing patients with DLB and differentiating them from AD. We studied age, gender and education matched patients with a clinical diagnosis of DLB (n=21), AD (n=21), and cognitively normal subjects (n=42). Hippocampal atrophy, global cortical PiB retention and occipital lobe metabolism in combination distinguished DLB from AD better than any of the measurements alone (area under the receiver operating characteristic=0.98).Five of the DLB and AD patients who underwent autopsy were distinguished through multimodality imaging. These data demonstrate that MRI and PiB PET contribute to characterizing the distinct pathological mechanisms in patients with AD compared to DLB. Occipital and posterior parietotemporal lobe hypometabolism is a distinguishing feature of DLB and this regional hypometabolic pattern is independent of the amyloid pathology.
doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.09.024
PMCID: PMC3288845  PMID: 22018896
Dementia with Lewy bodies; MRI; PET; FDG; PiB; Alzheimer's disease

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