A method was developed using sucrose gradients containing acrylamide which greatly simplifies the measurement of the polysomal distribution of messages. After centrifugation, the acrylamide was polymerized, forming a "polysome gel". RNA gel blots of polysome gels were used to determine the polysomal distributions of alpha-tubulin and total polyadenylated mRNA in growing, starved (nongrowing) and starved-deciliated Tetrahymena and the number of messages loaded onto polysomes was calculated. These measurements indicated that the translational efficiencies of alpha-tubulin mRNA and total polyadenylated mRNA are largely unaffected when the rates of tubulin and total protein synthesis vary dramatically. Thus, differential regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA translation initiation does not contribute to the greater than 100-fold induction of tubulin synthesis observed during cilia regeneration and in growing cells. The major translation-level process regulating tubulin synthesis in Tetrahymena appears to be a change in message loading mediated by a non-specific message recruitment or unmasking factor.
The time course of polysome formation was studied in a long-term wheat germ cell-free translation system using sedimentation and electron microscopy techniques. The polysomes were formed on uncapped luciferase mRNA with translation-enhancing 5′ and 3′ UTRs. The formation of fully loaded polysomes was found to be a long process that required many rounds of translation and proceeded via several phases. First, short linear polysomes containing no more than six ribosomes were formed. Next, folding of these polysomes into short double-row clusters occurred. Subsequent gradual elongation of the clusters gave rise to heavy-loaded double-row strings containing up to 30–40 ribosomes. The formation of the double-row polysomes was considered to be equivalent to circularization of polysomes, with antiparallel halves of the circle being laterally stuck together by ribosome interactions. A slow exchange with free ribosomes and free mRNA observed in the double-row type polysomes, as well as the resistance of translation in them to AMP-PNP, provided evidence that most polysomal ribosomes reinitiate translation within the circularized polysomes without scanning of 5′ UTR, while de novo initiation including 5′ UTR scanning proceeds at a much slower rate. Removal or replacements of 5′ and 3′ UTRs affected the initial phase of translation, but did not prevent the formation of the double-row polysomes during translation.
Based on evidence that the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein is associated with polysomes and interacts with translation regulatory factors, we set out to investigate the potential influence of pVHL on protein translation. To this end, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells that either lacked pVHL or expressed pVHL through stable transfection were used to prepare RNA from cytosolic (unbound) and polysome-bound fractions. Hybridization of cDNA arrays using RNA from each fraction revealed a subset of transcripts whose abundance in polysomes decreased when pVHL function was restored. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA was identified as one of the transcripts that preferentially associated with polysomes in pVHL-deficient cells. Additional evidence that the TNF-α mRNA was a target of translational repression by pVHL was obtained from reporter gene assays, which further revealed that pVHL's inhibitory influence on protein synthesis occurred through the TNF-α 3′-untranslated region. Our findings uncover a novel function for the pVHL tumor suppressor protein as regulator of protein translation.
Translation of an mRNA is generally divided into three stages: initiation, elongation and termination. The relative rates of these steps determine both the number and position of ribosomes along the mRNA, but traditional velocity sedimentation assays for the translational status of mRNA determine only the number of bound ribosomes. We developed a procedure, termed Ribosome Density Mapping (RDM), that uses site-specific cleavage of polysomal mRNA followed by separation on a sucrose gradient and northern analysis, to determine the number of ribosomes associated with specified portions of a particular mRNA. This procedure allows us to test models for translation and its control, and to examine properties of individual steps of translation in vivo. We tested specific predictions from the current model for translational control of GCN4 expression in yeast and found that ribosomes were differentially associated with the uORFs elements and coding region under different growth conditions, consistent with this model. We also mapped ribosome density along the ORF of several mRNAs, to probe basic kinetic properties of translational steps in yeast. We found no detectable decline in ribosome density between the 5′ and 3′ ends of the ORFs, suggesting that the average processivity of elongation is very high. Conversely, there was no queue of ribosomes at the termination site, suggesting that termination is not very slow relative to elongation and initiation. Finally, the RDM results suggest that less frequent initiation of translation on mRNAs with longer ORFs is responsible for the inverse correlation between ORF length and ribosomal density that we observed in a global analysis of translation. These results provide new insights into eukaryotic translation in vivo.
The fraction of ribosomes loaded on polysomes is about 95% in logarithmically growing Tetrahymena thermophila, and about 4% in starved cells. Cytoplasmic extracts from cells in these two physiological states were used to develop column chromatographic methods for the purification of polysomes. Bio-Gel A 1.5 m was found to separate total cytoplasmic ribosomes from many soluble proteins, including RNAse, with no detectable change in the polysome size distribution. Polysomes can be separated from monosomes and non-polysomal mRNA by chromatography on Bio-Gel A 15 m without size selection. These methods can easily be adapted to large scale preparations of polysomes, even from cells where a small fraction of the ribosomes is on polysomes. A method is described for reversible precipitation of polysomes and monosomes from dilute solutions at pH 5.3 which greatly facilitates polysome isolation. Hybridization of 3H-labeled polyU to RNA isolated from column fractions has been used to demonstrate that purification of EDTA released polysomal mRNA can be performed using the column chromatography procedures described here. These methods have been employed to demonstrate that most of the cytoplasmic mRNA in log-phase Tetrahymena is loaded onto polysomes while most of the mRNA is starved cells exists in a non-polysomal form.
In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, global studies of translational regulation have been hampered by the inability to isolate malaria polysomes. We describe here a novel method for polysome profiling in Plasmodium falciparum, a powerful approach which allows both a global view of translation and the measurement of ribosomal loading and density for specific mRNAs. Simultaneous lysis of infected erythrocytes and parasites releases stable, intact malaria polysomes, which are then purified by centrifugation through a sucrose cushion. The polysomes are resuspended, separated by velocity sedimentation and then fractionated, yielding a characteristic polysome profile reflecting the global level of translational activity in the parasite. RNA isolated from specific fractions can be used to determine the density of ribosomes loaded onto a particular transcript of interest, and is free of host ribosome contamination. Thus, our approach opens translational regulation in malaria to genome-wide analysis.
malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; polysome; translation; post-transcriptional regulation; global
In the global osmoshock translational response in yeast, some gene products were translationally mobilized without transcriptional up-regulation. Conversely, other transcriptionally up-regulated mRNAs were translationally inhibited. Analogous changes occurred on the protein level. These translational responses were strongly dependent on Hog1 and Rck2.
Cellular responses to environmental changes occur on different levels. We investigated the translational response of yeast cells after mild hyperosmotic shock by isolating mRNA associated with multiple ribosomes (polysomes) followed by array analysis. Globally, recruitment of preexisting mRNAs to ribosomes (translational response) is faster than the transcriptional response. Specific functional groups of mRNAs are recruited to ribosomes without any corresponding increase in total mRNA. Among mRNAs under strong translational up-regulation upon shock, transcripts encoding membrane-bound proteins including hexose transporters were enriched. Similarly, numerous mRNAs encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins run counter to the overall trend of down-regulation and are instead translationally mobilized late in the response. Surprisingly, certain transcriptionally induced mRNAs were excluded from ribosomal association after shock. Importantly, we verify, using constructs with intact 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions, that the observed changes in polysomal mRNA are reflected in protein levels, including cases with only translational up-regulation. Interestingly, the translational regulation of the most highly osmostress-regulated mRNAs was more strongly dependent on the stress-activated protein kinases Hog1 and Rck2 than the transcriptional regulation. Our results show the importance of translational control for fine tuning of the adaptive responses.
Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs typically occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning mechanism. However, certain mRNAs are translated by ribosome assembly at internal ribosome entry sites (IRES). Whether IRES-mediated translation occurs in stressed primary human endothelial cells (EC) is unknown.
Methods and Results
We performed microarray analysis of polyribosomal mRNA from EC to identify IRES-containing mRNAs. Cap-dependent translation was disabled by poliovirus (PV) infection and confirmed by loss of polysome peaks, detection of eIF4G cleavage, and decreased protein synthesis. 87.4% of mRNAs were dissociated from polysomes in virus-infected EC. 12% of mRNAs remained associated with polysomes and 0.6% were enriched ≥2-fold in polysome fractions from infected EC. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the microarray findings for 31 selected mRNAs. We found that enriched polysome associations of PDCD8 and JunB mRNA resulted in increased protein expression in PV-infected EC. The presence of IRES in the 5’UTR of PDCD8 mRNA, but not of JunB mRNA, was confirmed by dicistronic analysis.
We show that microarray profiling of polyribosomal mRNA transcripts from PV-infected EC successfully identifies mRNAs whose translation is preserved in the face of stress-induced, near complete cessation of cap-dependent initiation. Nevertheless, internal ribosome entry is not the only mechanism responsible for this privileged translation.
IRES; microarray; poliovirus; PDCD8; JunB
We have investigated the mechanisms whereby glucocorticoids control the expression of specific genes in the livers of adult male rats. Construction and differential screening of a cDNA library representing normal rat liver polysomal poly(A)+ RNAs allowed selection of probes for hormonally regulated genes. The mechanism of this regulation was analysed by studying the changes in relative abundance of the RNA sequences homologous to four selected recombinants in RNA from subcellular fractions of liver, and comparing them with that of albumin mRNA. The relative abundance of these four RNA sequences increased to varying degrees in the nucleus, whilst that of three of them was concomitantly depleted in polysomal RNA when circulating levels of glucocorticoids were negligible, i.e. 14 days after adrenalectomy. One of the sequences was identified as alpha 2U-globulin mRNA. Within 2 hours of injecting Dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) into rats that had been adrenalectomised 14 days previously, the relative abundances of alpha 2U-globulin RNA in nuclear and polysomal RNA returned to those found in normal rat liver. The data indicate that reduced glucocorticoid levels lead to sequence specific retention of RNA in the nucleus and that the RNA retained is released to the cytoplasm following glucocorticoid injection. Our results provide an example, for the first time, of glucocorticoid regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport.
Polysomal messenger RNA (mRNA) populations change rapidly in response to alterations in the physiological status of the cell. For this reason, translational regulation, mediated principally at the level of initiation, plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In an earlier translational profiling study, we followed the impact of rapamycin on polysome re-seeding. Despite the overall negative effect on transcript recruitment, we nonetheless observed that some mRNAs were significantly less affected. Consequently, their relative polysomal occupancy increased in the rapamycin-treated cells. The behaviour of one of these genes, mdm2, has been further analysed. Despite the absence of internal ribosome entry site activity we demonstrate, using a dual reporter assay, that both the reported mdm2 5′-UTRs confer resistance to rapamycin relative to the 5′-UTR of β-actin. This relative resistance is responsive to the downstream targets mTORC1 but did not respond to changes in the La protein, a reported factor acting positively on MDM2 translational expression. Furthermore, extended exposure to rapamycin in the presence of serum increased the steady-state level of the endogenous MDM2 protein. However, this response was effectively reversed when serum levels were reduced. Taken globally, these studies suggest that experimental conditions can dramatically modulate the expressional output during rapamycin exposure.
When Friend erythroleukemia cells were allowed to grow to stationary phase (2 X 10(6) to 3 X 10(6) cells per ml), approximately 60% of the mRNA for eucaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) sedimented at less than or equal to 80S, and most of the remaining factor mRNA was associated with small polysomes. Under the same growth conditions, greater than 90% of the mRNA for eucaryotic initiation factor 4A remained associated with polysomes. The association of eEF-Tu mRNA with polysomes changed dramatically when stationary-phase cells were treated with fresh medium. After 1 h in fresh medium, approximately 90% of eEF-Tu mRNA in Friend cells was found in heavy polysomes. Associated with the shift of eEF-Tu mRNA into heavy polysomes, we found at least a 2.6-fold increase in the synthesis of eEF-Tu in vivo as well as a remarkable 40% decrease in the total amount of eEF-Tu mRNA per cell. Our data raise the possibility that eEF-Tu mRNA that has accumulated in ribonucleoprotein particles in stationary-phase cells is degraded rather than reutilized for eEF-Tu synthesis.
Fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) levels increase in most patients with sickle cell disease following intermittent butyrate therapy. Although the full effects of butyrate on Hb F levels usually require multiple treatment cycles, in some patients a peak level is achieved after a few days of butyrate therapy. Our investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for this rapid induction of Hb F by butyrate showed that reticulocyte γ-globin chain synthesis markedly increased within 24 hours of butyrate exposure, without concomitant changes in reticulocyte γ-globin mRNA levels. This suggests that butyrate might induce Hb F by increasing the efficiency of translation of γ-globin mRNA. This hypothesis was confirmed by ribosome loading studies that demonstrated enrichment of the polysomal fraction of reticulocytes with γ-globin mRNA following butyrate exposure. Thus, the induction of Hb F by butyrate may be mediated by translational effects in addition to its well-known effects on transcription of the γ-globin genes.
Isolated rat liver nuclei were washed with Triton-X-100 in the presence of liver cell sap. This treatment liberated a fraction of polysomes which were isolated by differential centrifugation and were designated "outer membrane polysomes." The outer membrane polysomes synthesized protein in vivo. Shortly after injection of orotic acid-14C, the RNA of outer membrane polysomes had a higher specific activity than that of cytoplasmic polysomes. It was postulated that outer membrane polysomes may be an intermediate in the transfer of newly synthesized RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In other experiments, Triton-washed rat liver nuclei were lysed in the presence of deoxycholate and deoxyribonuclease. A ribonucleoprotein fraction was isolated from the lysate by differential centrifugation. This fraction contained "intranuclear ribosomes," which sedimented like partially degraded polysomes in sucrose gradients. This degradation could be partially prevented if intranuclear ribosomes were purified by sedimentation through heavy sucrose. The resulting pellets were termed "intranuclear polysomes" because they contained some undergraded polysomes. Intranuclear polysomes were highly radioactive after a brief pulse with orotic acid-14C, but did not appear to synthesize protein rapidly in vivo. Intranuclear polysomes may represent the initial stage of assembly of polyribosomes in the nucleus.
Rck2 is a mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase in yeast implicated in translational regulation. rck2Δ mutants are mildly sensitive to oxidative stress, a condition that causes dissociation of actively translating ribosomes (polysomes). In rck2Δ cells, polysomes are lost to an even higher degree than in the wild-type upon stress. Cells overexpressing the catalytically inactive rck2-kd allele are highly sensitive to oxidative stress. In such cells, dissociation of polysomes upon stress was instead greatly delayed. The protein synthesis rate decreased to a similar degree as in wild-type cells, however, indicating that in rck2-kd cells, the polysome complexes were inactive. Array analyses of total and polysome-associated mRNAs revealed major deregulation of the translational machinery in rck2 mutant cells. This involves transcripts for cytosolic ribosomal proteins and for processing and assembly of ribosomes. In rck2Δ cells, weakly transcribed mRNAs associate more avidly with polysomes than in wild-type cells, whereas the opposite holds true for rck2-kd cells. This is consistent with perturbed regulation of translation elongation, which is predicted to alter the ratio between mRNAs with and without strong entry sites at ribosomes. We infer that imbalances in the translational apparatus are a major reason for the inability of these cells to respond to stress.
After infection of mouse L cells with mengovirus, there is a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis, a concurrent disaggregation of polysomes, and an accumulation of 80S ribosomes. These 80S ribosomes could not be chased back into polysomes under an elongation block. The infected-cell 80S-ribosome fraction contained twice as much initiator methionyl-tRNA and mRNA as the analogous fraction from uninfected cells. Since the proportion of 80S ribosomes that were resistant to pronase digestion also increased after infection, these data suggest that the accumulated 80S ribosomes may be in the form of initiation complexes. The specific protein synthetic activity of polysomal ribosomes also decreased with time of infection. However, the transit times in mock-infected and infected cells remained the same. Cell-free translation systems from infected cells reflected the decreased protein synthetic activity of intact cells. The addition of reticulocyte initiation factors to such systems failed to relieve the inhibition. Fractionation of the infected-cell lysate revealed that the ribosomes were the predominant target affected. Washing the infected-cell ribosomes with 0.5 M KCI restored their translational activity. In turn, the salt wash from infected-cell ribosomes inhibited translation in lysates from mock-infected cells. The inhibitor in the ribosomal salt wash was temperature sensitive and micrococcal nuclease resistant. A model is proposed wherein virus infection activates (or induces the synthesis of) an inhibitor that binds to ribosomes and stops translation after the formation of the 80S-ribosome initiation complex but before elongation. The presence of such an inhibitor on ribosomes could prevent them from being remobilized into polysomes in the presence of an inhibitor of polypeptide elongation.
Vanillin, generated by acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose, acts as a potent inhibitor of the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the cellular processes affected by vanillin using high-content, image-based profiling. Among 4,718 non-essential yeast deletion mutants, the morphology of those defective in the large ribosomal subunit showed significant similarity to that of vanillin-treated cells. The defects in these mutants were clustered in three domains of the ribosome: the mRNA tunnel entrance, exit and backbone required for small subunit attachment. To confirm that vanillin inhibited ribosomal function, we assessed polysome and messenger ribonucleoprotein granule formation after treatment with vanillin. Analysis of polysome profiles showed disassembly of the polysomes in the presence of vanillin. Processing bodies and stress granules, which are composed of non-translating mRNAs and various proteins, were formed after treatment with vanillin. These results suggest that vanillin represses translation in yeast cells.
RNA abundance measured either by microarrays or high-throughput sequencing reflects protein levels for transcripts that are not subjected to translation control. Isolation of translating ribosomes (polysomes and monosomes) and analysis of the associated mRNAs provide a better measure of translation rates to estimate the copies of the synthesized protein. Current methods to isolate polysomes and monosomes rely on ultracentrifugation, using either a sucrose gradient or a cushion. While the sucrose cushion avoids the need for a more specialized gradient fractionation step, it still requires access to an ultracentrifuge and several hours of centrifugation. We have investigated size-exclusion chromatography as an alternative to ultracentrifugation for isolating polysomes. As reported in the literature, we found polysomes in the void volume of commonly used size-exclusion resins. The size-exclusion method is simpler, rapid, and does not require any special equipment. We describe the use of size-excluded polysomes for ribosome profiling using the method of Ingolia et al. (Science 324, 218-223 ) to monitor protein production in cells and define the proteome.
DNA microarrays were used to evaluate the regulation of the proportion of individual mRNA species in polysomal complexes in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under control growth conditions and following a mild dehydration stress (DS). The analysis determined that the percentage of an individual gene transcript in polysomes (ribosome loading) ranged from over 95 to <5%. DS caused a decrease in ribosome loading from 82 to 72%, with maintained polysome association for over 60% of the mRNAs with an increased abundance. To identify sequence features responsible for translational regulation, ribosome loading values and features of full-length mRNA sequences were compared. mRNAs with extreme length or high GU content in the 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs) were generally poorly translated. Under DS, mRNAs with both a high GC content in the 5′-UTR and long open reading frame showed a significant impairment in ribosome loading. Evaluation of initiation A+1UG codon context revealed distinctions in the frequency of adenine in nucleotides −10 to −1 (especially at −4 and −3) in mRNAs with different ribosome loading values. Notably, the mRNA features that contribute to translational regulation could not fully explain the variation in ribosome loading, indicating that additional factors contribute to translational regulation in Arabidopsis.
Generally, most miRNAs that were up-regulated during differentiation promoted adipogenesis, but our research indicated that up-regulation of miR-145 in porcine preadipocytes did not promote but inhibit adipogenesis. In this study, miR-145 was significantly up-regulated during porcine dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells differentiation. In miR-145 overexpressed DFAT cells, adipogenesis was inhibited and triglycerides accumulation was decreased after hormone stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-145 expression repressed induction of mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). These effects caused by miR-145 overexpression were mediated by Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) as a mechanism. These data suggested that induced miR-145 expression during differentiation could inhibit adipogenesis by targeting IRS1, and miR-145 may be novel agent for adipose tissue engineering.
miR-145; IRS1; inhibit; dedifferentiated fat cells; adipogenesis.
The regulation of the synthesis of elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) in Xenopus laevis has been analyzed from the point of view of translational control. The 5' end of EF-1 alpha mRNA, examined by primer extension, revealed the presence of a terminal pyrimidine tract that is characteristic of ribosomal protein mRNAs (rp-mRNAs). We have then compared the translation pattern of EF-1 alpha and rp-mRNAs during Xenopus embryogenesis and in Xenopus cultured cells during growth rate changes. In Xenopus embryos EF-1 alpha transcripts, that appear after midblastula transition, are initially mostly localized on mRNP and translationally inactive. Only later in embryogenesis, together with rp-mRNAs, they are gradually recruited on polysomes. Also in Xenopus cells B 3.2, EF-1 alpha mRNA shows a distribution change similar to an rp-mRNA: part of it moves from polysomes to mRNP during serum deprivation and goes back on polysomes after restitution of serum to the culture. Moreover EF-1 alpha mRNA, similarly to rp-mRNAs, is always localized on mRNP or fully loaded on polysomes but never on small polysomes. Therefore EF-1 alpha mRNA for structural features and translation behavior can be included in the 'regulatory' group of rp-mRNAs.
Estrogen induces a global change in the translation profile of Xenopus hepatocytes, replacing serum protein synthesis
with production of the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin. This
is accomplished by the coordinate destabilization of serum protein
mRNAs and the transcriptional induction and subsequent stabilization
of vitellogenin mRNA. Previous work identified an endonuclease activity
whose appearance on polysomes correlated with the disappearance
of serum protein mRNAs. This enzyme, polysomal ribonuclease 1 (PMR1),
is a novel member of the peroxidase gene family. The current study
examined the association of PMR1 with its mRNA targets on polysomes
and mRNPs. The highest amount of polysome-bound PMR1 was observed
prior to estrogen induction of mRNA decay. Its distribution on sucrose density
gradients matched the absorbance profile of polysome-bound mRNA,
suggesting that PMR1 forms a latent complex with mRNA. Following
dissociation with EDTA the 62 kDa PMR1 sedimented with a
larger complex of >670 kDa. Estrogen induces a 22-fold
increase in unit enzymatic activity of polysome-bound PMR1, and
a time-dependent loss of PMR1 from polysomes in a manner that mirrors
the disappearance of albumin mRNA. These data suggest that the key
step in the extensive estrogen-induced change in mRNA decay in Xenopus liver is activation of a latent mRNA endonuclease
associated with its target mRNA.
mTOR pathway inhibitors, specifically rapamycin and its derivatives, are promising therapeutics that targets downstream pathways including protein translation. We examined the effects of a series of inhibitors targeting various pathways on ribosomal polysome distribution, overall translation rates, and translation of specific mRNAs in the bone derived prostate cancer cell line, C4-2B. Treatment with either rapamycin, PD98059 or LY294002 failed to change the distribution of polysomes in sucrose gradients. Although no change in the accumulation of heavy polysomes was observed, there was an overall decrease in the rate of translation caused by treatment with rapamycin or LY294002. Inhibiting the MAPK pathway with PD98059 decreased overall translation by 20%, but had no effect on mRNAs containing a 5′ terminal oligopyrimidine tract (TOP) sequences or those with complex 5′ UTRs. In contrast, treatment with rapamycin for 24 h reduced overall translation by approximately 45% and affected the translation of mRNAs with complex 5′ UTRs, specifically VEGF and HIF1α. After 24 h, LY294002 treatment alone decreased overall translation by 60%, more than was observed with rapamycin. Although LY294002 and similar inhibitors are effective at blocking prostate cancer cell growth, they act upstream of AKT and PTEN and cancer cells can find a way to bypass this inhibition. Thus, we propose that inhibiting downstream targets such as mTOR or targets of mTOR will provide rational approaches to developing new combination therapies focused on reducing growth of prostate cancer after arrival in the bone environment.
RAPAMYCIN; TRANSLATION; RIBOSOME; PROSTATE CANCER
Glycoprotein mRNA (G mRNA) of vesicular stomatitis virus is synthesized in the cytosol fraction of infected HeLa cells. Shortly after synthesis, this mRNA associates with 40S ribosomal subunits and subsequently forms 80S monosomes in the cytosol fraction. The bulk of labeled G mRNA is then found in polysomes associated with the membrane, without first appearing in the subunit or monomer pool of the membrane-bound fraction. Inhibition of the initiation of protein synthesis by pactamycin or muconomycin A blocks entry of newly synthesized G m RNA into membrane-bound polysomes. Under these circumstances, labeled G mRNA accumulates into the cytosol. Inhibition of the elongation of protein synthesis by cucloheximide, however, allows entry of 60 percent of newly synthesized G mRNA into membrane-bound polysomes. Furthermore, prelabeled G mRNA associated with membrane-bound polysomes is released from the membrane fraction in vivo by pactamycin or mucomycon A and in vitro by 1mM puromycin - 0.5 M KCI. This release is not due to nonspecific effects of the drugs. These results demonstrate that association of G mRNA with membrane-bound polysomes is dependent upon polysome formation and initiation of protein synthesis. Therefore, direct association of the 3' end of G mRNA with the membrane does not appear to be the initial event in the formation of membrane-bound polysomes.
Host translation shutoff induced in picornavirus-infected cells is a well-known phenomenon. The mechanisms by which separate genera of the picornavirus family achieve this shutoff differ. This study examined alterations in the cellular translational components in HeLa cells infected with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a cardiovirus. In agreement with previous reports, EMCV induced a marked decrease in host mRNA translation. The inhibition correlated with the appearance of a significantly enhanced 80S peak in cells and a concomitant decrease in polysome abundance. Characterization of the 80S material revealed that these ribosomes were virtually devoid of mRNA. Viral protein 2A was tightly associated with some of the free 40S ribosome subunits, but it was not present in the 80S pool which accumulated after infection. Expression of 2A protein in cells in the absence infection was able to modulate the cellular translational environment to increase the ratio of internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation to cap-dependent translation of a reporter construct. The results provide further evidence for a role of 2A protein in the mechanism of cardiovirus-induced host translational shutoff.
Throughout the developmental program of Dictyostelium discoideum there are substantial changes in the rates of both ribosome utilization and rRNA transcription and processing. We examined the regulation of ribosomal protein (r-protein) gene expression and found that, at the start of development, expression of these genes was drastically and specifically reduced by a block to translational initiation. An apparently separate event signals a sudden decrease in the relative amount of r-protein mRNA at about 10 h of development, a time when aggregated amoebae are forming tight cell-cell contacts. For the first 9 h of development, the relative amount of r-protein mRNA remained essentially unchanged and comparable to levels detected in growing cells. While the r-protein mRNAs were almost fully loaded on polysomes during vegetative growth, they were specifically excluded from polysomes at the start of development. The translational block was not the result of irreversible structural changes which inactivate the r-protein mRNAs since they remained translatable both in vitro, in wheat germ extracts, and in vivo, where they were recruited onto polysomes in the presence of the elongation inhibitor cycloheximide. In addition, precise measurements of poly(A) tail lengths on individual hybrid-selected mRNA species showed that there is no difference in the poly(A) tail length of r-protein mRNA isolated from growing cells and 1-h developing cells. Therefore, changes in translational efficiency cannot be attributed to cleavage of poly(A) tails.