Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancers. On the other hand, gastric cancers are known to arise from gastric mucosal atrophy. We here report a case of signet ring cell gastric cancer that developed after radiation therapy for MALT lymphoma in H. pylori-uninfected patient whose stomach did not show gastric mucosal atrophy. A 58-year-old female was referred to our hospital for treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma. This patient was not infected with H. pylori, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed that she did not have gastric mucosal atrophy but had submucosal tumor-like MALT lymphoma lesion in the anterior wall of the upper gastric body. Since conventional eradication therapy was ineffective, her whole stomach was irradiated as a second-line therapy. The MALT lymphoma lesion turned into complete remission state after the therapy. The patient was followed every 6 months by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for 4 years as complete remission until a newly developed decolorized depressed lesion was detected in the greater curvature of the proximal antrum, a completely different location from the MALT lymphoma lesion. A biopsy specimen from the lesion contained signet ring cell carcinoma, and she was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. No signs of recurrence have been detected so far. The radiation therapy for MALT lymphoma might be associated with the occurrence of this signet ring cell gastric cancer, and since MALT lymphoma is indolent in nature, this case suggests that careful consideration is required when choosing the second-line therapy for MALT lymphoma patients.
Helicobacter pylori; Signet ring cell carcinoma; Stomach neoplasms; B-cell lymphoma; Radiotherapy
BACKGROUND—While a close association between gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori infection has been established, there are still cases which do not respond to H pylori eradication.
AIMS—To investigate the clinicopathological factors which may help predict the therapeutic efficacy of H pylori eradication in gastric MALT lymphoma.
PATIENTS—Forty one patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, including low and high grade lesions.
METHODS—After endosonographic staging was determined, H pylori was eradicated in all patients, and the subsequent gastric pathological course was then investigated.
RESULTS—Complete regression of MALT lymphoma was observed in 29(71%) patients, partial regression in five (12%), and no regression in seven (17%). Twenty six (93%) of 28 MALT lymphomas restricted to the mucosa but only three (23%) of 13 lymphomas which invaded the deep portion of the submucosa or beyond completely regressed. Kaplan-Meier analysis for the probability of complete regression of MALT lymphoma revealed a significant difference between tumours restricted to the mucosa and those invading the submucosa deeply or beyond (p<0.05). Neither the presence of a high grade component, perigastric lymphadenopathy, nor clinical staging prior to eradication correlated with the probability of lymphoma regression.
CONCLUSIONS—Assessment of deep submucosal invasion by endosonography is valuable for predicting the efficacy of H pylori eradication in gastric MALT lymphoma.
Keywords: gastric lymphoma; mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; Helicobacter pylori; endoscopic ultrasonography
BACKGROUND—Most low grade gastric lymphomas arising from the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are related to Helicobacter pylori colonisation. Cases with disease limited to the stomach can be cured after H pylori eradication and remain in remission for years. In contrast, high grade lymphomas of the stomach, although also related to H pylori, do not usually respond to eradication treatment.
CASE REPORT—A 36 year old patient was referred from another hospital with a diagnosis of a low grade gastric MALT lymphoma associated with H pylori. The patient was in stage I and while waiting for the biopsies to be reviewed H pylori eradication therapy was given as the first step of treatment. Review of the biopsies showed a high grade immunoblastic lymphoma with areas of low grade gastric MALT lymphoma (high grade gastric MALT lymphoma or diffuse large B cell lymphoma with areas of MALT type lymphoma of the WHO classification). The patient received no further treatment but has been closely followed up for 32 months with sequential endoscopies to obtain biopsies for histological studies, H pylori cultures, and polymerase chain reaction analysis of the IgH gene.
RESULTS—After H pylori eradication the patient had a complete histological response that has been maintained for 32 months. Monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement persisted for 32 months.
CONCLUSION—The response of this patient indicates the possibility that some cases of high grade gastric MALT lymphoma (possibly patients in stage I with a superficial or limited disease) may still be responsive to H pylori antigenic drive and may be cured with eradication therapy. Prospective studies should be performed to identify patients with high grade gastric MALT lymphomas that may respond to eradication therapy and be spared of other more aggressive treatments.
Keywords: mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; lymphoma; gastric lymphoma; immunoblastic lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori
BACKGROUND: Although Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and MALT lymphoma, it is not known how it may trigger these lesions and whether there is an identifiable pre-neoplastic stage. AIMS: To investigate the relation between MALT, H pylori infection, and B-cell clonality (a potential marker of pre-neoplastic lesions). PATIENTS: 141 subjects with simple dyspepsia. METHODS: Gastric biopsy specimens from all patients were examined for MALT and H pylori. Of these, 25 consecutive MALT positive specimens were scored for features of MALT lymphoma and VDJ clonality studied by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Overall, prevalence was 62% for H pylori and 46% for MALT. VDJ clonality was frequent in the sub-group studied (nine of 25), mostly associated with lymphoid follicles (eight of nine or 89%), and with a high scoring for MALT lymphoma. VDJ clonality was equally frequent in patients with and without H pylori (seven of 20 and two of five or 35% and 40% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: B-cell clonality is unexpectedly common in subjects with simple dyspepsia and MALT raising clinical management questions. These findings also suggest that the cascade MALT formation--B-cell clonality--MALT lymphoma may not be uniquely associated with H pylori infection.
Primary duodenal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is very rare, and little is known about its clinical course or effective treatment. We describe a case of primary duodenal MALT lymphoma that was resistant to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication and regressed after chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (CVP). A 71-year-old woman was referred to our department because of epigastric pain and dyspepsia. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed an irregular mucosal nodular lesion with ulceration extending from the bulb to the second portion of the duodenum. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen disclosed low-grade MALT lymphoma composed of atypical lymphoid cells with lymphoepithelial lesion. Abdominal CT scans revealed 0.5 to 1.5 cm lymph nodes in the peritoneal cavity, suggestive of lymph node metastasis. We successfully eradicated H. pylori but did not see signs of remission. We administered systemic CVP chemotherapy every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of CVP, the patient achieved complete remission and was followed up without recurrence for about a year.
MALT lymphoma; Duodenum; Helicobacter pylori; Chemotherapy
AIM: To assess the significance of chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL-10) protein and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in Colombia.
METHODS: Fifty cases of gastric MALT lymphoma and their respective post-treatment follow-up biopsies were examined to assess the presence of the translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) as identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization; to detect protein expression patterns of BCL10 using immunohistochemistry; and for evaluation of tumor histology to determine the correlation of these factors and resistance to H. pylori eradication.
RESULTS: Infection with H. pylori was confirmed in all cases of gastric MALT lymphoma in association with chronic gastritis. Bacterial eradication led to tumor regression in 66% of cases. The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was not present in any of these cases, nor was there evidence of tumor transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Thirty-four percent of the patients showed resistance to tumor regression, and within this group, 7 cases, representing 14% of all those analyzed, were considered to be t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive gastric MALT lymphomas. Protein expression of BCL10 in the nucleus was associated with the presence of translocation and treatment resistance. Cases that were considered unresponsive to therapy were histologically characterized by the presence of homogeneous tumor cells and a lack of plasmacytic differentiation. Responder cases exhibited higher cellular heterogeneity and a greater frequency of plasma cells.
CONCLUSION: Both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphoma cases and those with nuclear BCL10 expression are considered resistant to H. pylori eradication. It is suggested that chronic antigenic stimulation is not a dominant event in resistant cases.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori; Treatment; t(11; 18)(q21; q21); B-cell lymphoma 10
Gastric B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is one of the most common forms of extranodal lymphoma. In addition to infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the presence of an underlying autoimmune disease has also been associated with MALT lymphoma development. To date, no familial predisposition for MALT lymphomas has been reported as opposed to other types of lymphoma. A 65-year-old woman was admitted at our institution in 1998 with a diagnosis of H. pylori positive gastric MALT lymphoma and the presence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was established on further work-up. H. pylori eradication did not result in regression of the lymphoma and RT-PCR showed the presence of the t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation. About 1.5 years after H. pylori eradication, chemotherapy with cladribine resulted in complete remission. Due to lymphoma recurrence 13 mo later, radiotherapy to the stomach (46 Gy) resulted in minimal residual disease without further progression. The patient developed a second malignancy (Epstein-Bar virus-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma in the mediastinum) in 2004 which initially responded to two courses of chemotherapy, but she refused further therapy and died of progressive lymphoma in 2006. In 2008, her 55 years old daughter with a long standing Sjögren’s syndrome was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma of the right parotid, but no evidence of gastric involvement or H. pylori infection was found. Currently, she is alive without therapy and undergoing regular check-ups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MALT lymphoma in a first-degree relative of a patient with gastric MALT lymphoma in the context of two autoimmune diseases without a clearly established familial background.
Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori; Autoimmunity; Familial lymphoma
BACKGROUND—Lymphoma of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arising in the stomach has been shown to be related to Helicobacter pylori infection, and total regression of gastric lymphoma after successful eradication of H pylori has consistently been reported. MALT-type lymphoma at other localisations, however, has to our knowledge not been linked to H pylori, and eradication of the bacteria has not been studied for management of such lymphomas.
PATIENT/METHOD—A 67 year old man was diagnosed with MALT-type lymphoma simultaneously involving the stomach and the colon descendens. In addition to the presence of MALT-type lymphoma, H pylori associated chronic gastritis was diagnosed, and treatment with clarithromycin, metronidazole, and omeprazole was initiated, resulting in its successful eradication.
RESULTS—Follow up performed four months later showed regression of the colonic manifestation, whereas the gastric lymphoma did not respond to antibiotic treatment, as assessed by regular follow up for 14 months, in spite of its restriction to mucosa and submucosa. The patient was therefore treated with oral cyclophosphamide (100 mg a day) resulting in partial remission after seven months of continuous treatment. Because of the presence of residual lymphoma, additional irradiation was performed, which led to complete remission of the gastric lymphoma. The patient remains in complete remission 40 months after diagnosis and 26 months after initiation of treatment.
CONCLUSION—In the case of concurrent gastric and intestinal low grade MALT-type lymphoma, H pylori eradication may cause regression of the intestinal lesion.
Keywords: mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; colon; Helicobacter pylori eradication; lymphoma
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach is the most common extranodal lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually accompanied by Helicobacter pylori infection, and eradication of H. pylori remains the mainstay of treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma. However, there is no consensus on the second-line treatment for patients with gastric MALT lymphoma who do not improve after successful H. pylori eradication. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with a polypoid type of gastric MALT lymphoma on the greater curvature side of the upper body. Despite successful H. pylori eradication, the tumor did not regress after 6 months. Because the tumor had a semipedunculated polypoid morphology, gastric polypectomy was implemented as a second-line treatment. No recurrence occurred during the 3-year follow-up period. We suggest that gastric polypectomy be considered an alternative treatment modality for polypoid gastric MALT lymphoma that is unresponsive to H. pylori eradication.
Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Polypectomy; Helicobacter
Recent reports have suggested an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and both gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and thrombocytopenic purpura. Although treatments eradicating H pylori lead to regression of these diseases in some cases, the exact mechanisms are still controversial. This case report describes a patient with thrombocytopenic purpura accompanied by an early stage gastric MALT lymphoma. Endoscopic mucosal resection of the lesion in this patient led to dramatic regression of thrombocytopenic purpura, and t(11;18)(q21;q21), which means resistance more likely to H pylori eradication therapy, was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. There is no evidence of recurrence and his platelet count is within normal limits after 24 months of follow up. This is the first case report describing regression of thrombocytopenic purpura after mucosal resection of a gastric MALT lymphoma. We suggest that while some cases of thrombocytopenic purpura may be induced by H pylori, others may be due to an autoreactive antibody produced by MALT lymphoma B cells.
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; endoscopic mucosal resection; mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; lymphoma
Recently, we reported a case of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma presenting with unique vascular features. In the report, we defined the tree-like appearance (TLA) on the images of abnormal blood vessels which resembled branches from the trunk of a tree in the shiny mucosa, in which the glandular structure was lost. The 67-year-old female was diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma. The patient received eradication therapy for H. pylori. Conventional endoscopy revealed multiple ill-delineated brownish depressions in the stomach and cobblestone-like mucosa was observed at the greater curvature to the posterior wall of the upper gastric body 7 mo after successful eradication. Unsuccessful treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma was suspected on conventional endoscopy. Conventional endoscopic observations found focal depressions and cobblestone-like appearance, and these lesions were subsequently observed using magnified endoscopy combined with narrow band imaging to identify abnormal vessels presenting with a TLA within the lesions. Ten biopsies were taken from the area where abnormal vessels were present within these lesions. Ten biopsies were also taken from the lesions without abnormal vessels as a control. A total of 20 biopsy samples were evaluated to determine whether the diagnosis of MALT lymphoma could be obtained histologically from each sample. A positive diagnosis was obtained in 8/10 TLA (+) sites and in 2/10 TLA(-) sites. Target biopsies of the site with abnormal blood vessels can potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of gastric MALT lymphoma.
Mucosa associated-lymphoid tissue; Magnified endoscopy; Narrow band imaging; Tree-like appearance
BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Discrepant remission rates (41-100%) have been reported for patients with localised low grade gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma after eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of this study was to explain these discrepancies and to determine the predictive factors of gastric lymphoma regression after anti- H pylori treatment.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—Forty six consecutive patients with localised gastric MALT lymphoma (Ann Arbor stages IE and IIE) were prospectively enrolled. All had gastric endoscopic ultrasonography and H pylori status assessment (histology, culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology). After anti-H pylori treatment, patients were re-examined every four months.
RESULTS—Histological regression of the lymphoma was complete in 19/44 patients (43%) (two lost to follow up). Median follow up time for these 19 responders was 35 months (range 10-47). No regression was noted in the 10 H pylori negative patients. Among the 34 H pylori positive patients, the H pylori eradication rate was 100%; complete regression rate of the lymphoma increased from 56% (19/34) to 79% (19/24) when there was no nodal involvement at endoscopic ultrasonography. There was a significant difference between the response of the lymphoma restricted to the mucosa and other more deep seated lesions (p<0.006). However, using multivariate analysis, the only predictive factor of regression was the absence of nodal involvement (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSION—In H pylori positive patients with localised gastric MALT lymphoma, carefully evaluated and treated without any lymph node involvement assessed by endoscopic ultrasonography, complete remission of lymphoma was reached in 79% of cases.
Keywords: mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; gastric lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori
AIM: To investigate treatment outcome of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcome and clinicopathologic factors of stage IE H. pylori-negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma cases from August 1998 to June 2009.
RESULTS: A total of eleven patients with H. pylori-negative low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma were enrolled in the study and received anti-H. pylori eradication treatment and/or radiotherapy or excisional therapy. Complete remission (CR) of gastric MALT lymphoma was achieved in all patients. The time to CR was 1-66 mo (median, 1 mo).
CONCLUSION: Eradication therapy may be offered as an initial treatment option even in cases of localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma.
Anti-bacterial agents; Helicobacter pylori; Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Stomach
Gastric low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (low-grade MALT) lymphomas has been associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Although infiltrating T cells with specificity for H. pylori are known to stimulate the development of MALT lymphomas, the effect of H. pylori eradication on rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes of low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas is unclear. Gastric biopsies from five cases were investigated by cloning and sequence analysis of rearranged IgH genes before and after the treatment for H. pylori. In all cases, IgH genes were mutated from their germline counterpart. The frequency of intraclonal sequence heterogeneity before the eradication of H. pylori varied from 0.25 to 0.49%. Clones obtained from the tumours before the eradication of H. pylori in cases 1 and 2 showed a tendency to display a mutation pattern by positive antigen selection and their monoclonarity disappeared after the eradication. The frequency of intraclonal sequence heterogeneity of the clones obtained from cases 3, 4 and 5 (0.12% in case 3, 0.10% in 4 and 0.18% in 5) after the eradication of H. pylori was lower than that in tumours before the eradication (0.30% in case 3, 0.49% in 4 and not determined in 5). These findings suggest that low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas expand due to the persistent presence of H. pylori in vivo. The characteristic feature of tumour clones obtained from the tumours after the eradication of H. pylori is a very low intraclonal heterogeneity, which may potentially be independent of H. pylori.
gastric MALT lymphoma; immunoglobulin heavy chain gene; ongoing mutation; Helicobacter pylori eradication
The stomach is the most frequently involved site for extranodal lymphomas, accounting for nearly two-thirds of all gastrointestinal cases. It is widely accepted that gastric B-cell, low-grade mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-lymphoma is caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. MALT-lymphomas may engender different clinical and endoscopic patterns. Often, diagnosis is confirmed in patients with only vague dyspeptic symptoms and without macroscopic lesions on gastric mucosa. H. pylori eradication leads to lymphoma remission in a large number of patients when treatment occurs at an early stage (I-II1). Neoplasia confined to the submucosa, localized in the antral region of the stomach, and without API2-MALT1 translocation, shows a high probability of remission following H. pylori eradication. When both bacterial infection and lymphoma recur, further eradication therapy is generally effective. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery are the available therapeutic options with a high success rate for those patients who fail to achieve remission, while data on immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (rituximab) are still scarce. The 5-year survival rate is higher than 90%, but careful, long-term follow-up is required in these patients since lymphoma recurrence has been reported in some cases.
Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue; Therapy; Helicobacter pylori; Gastric lymphoma; Predictive factors; Endoscopy; Clinical presentation
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori is widely accepted as initial therapy for low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, approximately 20% of patients with this disease are not responsive to H. pylori eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to assess remission and relapse rates of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma after H. pylori eradication and identify the clinical factors that affect remission.
Thirty-nine patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma (May 2003 to May 2010) were retrospectively analyzed.
Of the 39 patients, 30 (77%) had a H. pylori infection. There were 35/39 (90%) patients with stage I. Among stage I, 25 patients with the infection underwent eradication therapy and 22/25 (88%) achieved remission. The total regression rate with eradication only in stage I was 24/28 (86%). The median time to remission was 98 days (range, 22 to 397 days). Age, tumor location, invasion depth, H. pylori burden, and severity of mononuclear leukocyte and neutrophil infiltration were not related to remission. However, patients with less neutrophil infiltration were more likely to achieve a successful first H. pylori eradication (p=0.049).
The results show that the rate of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma regression (86%) with H. pylori eradication alone was higher than that in Western studies (77.8%) and that neutrophil infiltration was inversely related to success of the first H. pylori eradication procedure.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue; Lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori; Eradication; Remission
BACKGROUND: Blood group Lewis(b) antigens mediate Helicobacter pylori attachment to gastric mucosa with attachment being particularly strong in subjects with ABH blood group O. AIMS: To determine whether H pylori colonisation or the occurrence of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas might be related to gastric Lewis(b) expression or occurrence of particular ABH blood groups on gastric mucosa. PATIENTS: Gastric resection specimens from 89 cases with gastric MALT lymphoma and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens from 95 patients undergoing upper endoscopy due to upper gastrointestinal complaints, including five cases with gastric MALT lymphoma, were studied. METHODS: H pylori was visualised with the Warthin-Starry stain. Immunostaining (Lewis(b), Lewis(a), A, B) was performed by applying a three step immunoperoxidase technique and indirect immunofluorescence staining on formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded tissue. In 40 patients red blood cell Lewis phenotype and ABH blood groups were additionally determined by haemagglutination assay. RESULTS: Gastric surface epithelial cells showed an immunoreactivity to blood groups A, B, and AB in 80 (43.5%), 22 (12%), and 11 (6%) cases respectively and no immunoreactivity to any of these blood group substances (blood group O) in 71 (38.5%) patients. Lewis(b) expression of all gastric surface epithelial cells (secretor status) was found in 130 (70.7%) cases. Lewis(a) expression of all gastric surface epithelial cells (non-secretor status) was found in 36 (19.6%) cases, secretor status remained unclassified in 18 (9.8%) patients. Colonisation with H pylori was found in 134 (72.8%) cases. The occurrence of H pylori was neither significantly associated with secretor status nor with certain ABH blood groups. The infiltration of gastric mucosa with MALT lymphoma was highly significantly associated with H pylori colonisation (p < 0.0003) but neither with secretor status nor with certain ABH blood groups. There was no inter-relation between secretor status or ABH blood groups and type, stage, grade of, and survival after MALT lymphoma. CONCLUSION: This study failed to show an inter-relation between secretor status or particular ABH blood groups and either H pylori infection or the occurrence of gastric MALT lymphomas.
In most H. pylori-positive patients, gastric low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas regress both endoscopically and histopathologically after H. pylori eradication, but no factors that can be predictive of the response to the eradication have been definitively identified, and there is little information on how to determine the optimal observation period before additional treatment can be started. Here, clinical studies dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of gastric MALT lymphomas and H. pylori published during the last 5 years were systematically reviewed, and studies identifying the molecular approaches involved in the pathogenesis were summarized. Most of the clinical studies indicate a favorable effect of H. pylori eradication on the clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphomas. Some studies suggest the necessity of additional treatment in nonresponders to H. pylori eradication, while others suggest the adoption of a watch-and-wait strategy. The molecular characteristics of MALT lymphomas could play an important role in prognostic prediction and the selection of further therapeutic intervention after the eradication. This updated review of gastric MALT lymphomas illustrates the potential efficacy of H. pylori eradication in tumor remission, but further molecular characterization is necessary to establish the most suitable therapeutic strategy for patients who do not respond to eradication.
Helicobacter pylori; Eradication; API2-MALT1 fusion; BCL10; CD20
Background and aims
The role of antibiotic treatment in early stage gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma not associated with Helicobacter pylori infection has not been investigated.
Patients and methods
Six patients with localised gastric MALT lymphoma underwent antibiotic treatment with clarithromycin, metronidazole, and pantoprazole. Staging, including endosonography plus gastroscopy, computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen, colonoscopy, magnetic resonance imaging of the salivary glands, and bone marrow biopsy were performed to rule out distant spread of the disease. In addition, MALT specific genetic changes, including reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction for t(11;18)(q21;q21), were tested in all patients. H pylori infection was ruled out by histology, urease breath test, serology, and stool antigen testing.
All six patients had MALT lymphoma restricted to the stomach, and no evidence of infection with H pylori was found. Only one patient tested positive for t(11;18)(q21;q21) while the remaining five displayed no genetic aberrations. Following antibiotic treatment, endoscopic controls were performed every three months. Five patients responded with lymphoma regression between three and nine months following antibiotic treatment (one partial remission and four complete responses). One patient had stable disease for 12 months and was then referred for chemotherapy.
Patients with early stage gastric MALT lymphoma negative for H pylori might still benefit from antibiotic treatment as the sole treatment modality.
Helicobacter pylori; mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; antibiotic treatment
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can function as endogenous silencers of target genes and play critical roles in human malignancies. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, the miRNA expression profile was analyzed. miRNA microarray analysis with tissue specimens from gastric MALT lymphomas and surrounding non-tumor mucosae revealed that a hematopoietic-specific miRNA miR-142 and an oncogenic miRNA miR-155 were overexpressed in MALT lymphoma lesions. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were significantly increased in MALT lymphomas which do not respond to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were associated with the clinical courses of gastric MALT lymphoma cases. Overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 was also observed in Helicobacter heilmannii-infected C57BL/6 mice, an animal model of gastric MALT lymphoma. In addition, miR-142-5p and miR-155 suppress the proapoptotic gene TP53INP1 as their target. The results of this study indicate that overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. These miRNAs might have potential application as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers for gastric MALT lymphoma.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with prolonged sustained remission after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. He sustains in remission of lacrimal MALT lymphoma for four years without chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Low grade B cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach is usually an indolent tumour that remains localised for a long time before dissemination occurs. MALT appears in the stomach in response to infection by Helicobacter pylori, which is present in 80–90% of cases. The pathogenesis of the evolution from chronic gastritis to malignant lymphoma has not yet been fully explained and the exact role of H pylori in the pathogenesis and progression of gastric lymphoma remains unclear. This report describes the case of a 72 year old woman with a low grade B cell MALT lymphoma localised in the gastric fundus, who refused to be treated for eradication of H pylori. The histological diagnosis of B cell MALT lymphoma was supported by both immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis. After 11 years of follow up, this MALT lymphoma remained indolent, without local progression or blastic transformation, and the H pylori infection was still persistent, even though the density of bacteria had decreased drastically. Interestingly, two different clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements were found in two series of biopsies performed with an interval of 11 years. This case report supports the following notions: (1) H pylori associated gastritis is a risk factor for gastric MALT lymphoma, but might not be sufficient by itself for the progression of the disease, and (2) in the evolution of MALT lymphomas, different cell clones characterised by different Ig rearrangements may emerge.
gastric lymphoma; lymphoepithelial lesion; Helicobacter pylori infection
A series of studies has shown that Helicobacter pylori eradication induces remission in most patients with low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, there have been few reports about the effect of bacterial treatment on the gastric MALT lymphoma in Korea, a well-known H. pylori endemic area. A total of 111 H. pylori-infected patients were prospectively enrolled in Seoul National University Hospital and 99 among them were completely followed up according to our protocol. After H. pylori eradication, tumoural response was evaluated by endoscopy and histopathology every 2–3 months till complete remission (CR) and every 6 months after achieving CR. Median follow-up period was 41 months (range, 11–125 months). Helicobacter pylori was successfully eradicated in all 99 patients and CR was obtained in 84 (84.8%) of 99 patients. The median time to reach CR was 3 months and 94% of CR is in continuous complete remission. Five patients with CR relapsed after 10–22 months without the evidence of H. pylori reinfection. Cumulative recurrence rate was 2.3, 7.7 and 9.3% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. Tumours were mainly located in distal stomach (67.7%) and tumours in distal stomach were associated with more favourable response than those in proximal stomach (P=0.001). Majority of patients with low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma treated by exclusive H. pylori eradication have a favourable long-term outcome, offering a real chance of cure. Tumour location could be a predictive factor for remission following H. pylori eradication.
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori; long-term outcome; tumour location
A 75-year-old female, who had an abnormal stomach x-ray finding, was admitted to the hospital for further examination and therapy. Upper GI endoscopy showed reddish and swollen folds on the greater curvature of the gastric body and a biopsy was of this lesion revealed malignant lymphoma (small cell type or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma suspected). The patient was infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), however, in response to the patient's wishes, a total gastrectomy, omentectomy and splenectomy were performed and the histological diagnosis was gastric MALT lymphoma. Two courses of CHOP therapy (cyclophosphamide (CPM) 750 mg/m2/day, day 1, adriamycin (ADM) 50 mg/m2/day, day 1, vincristine sulfate (VCR) 1.4 mg/m2/day, day 1, prednisolone 100 mg/body, day 1–5) were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. A colonoscopic examination performed about 4.5 yr after the operation revealed rectal submucosal tumors and the biopsied specimens were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. A transanal focal resection was performed and the histological diagnosis was metachronous and ectopic development of MALT lymphoma. The histological finding was similar to the gastric lesion. About 4 and 7 yr after the first development of rectal MALT lymphoma, MALT lymphomas developed repeatedly in the rectal lesion, however, these were resected repeatedly and no developmenthas occurred during the past two years. This report presents a very rare case of metachronous and ectopic MALT lymphoma development in the gastric and rectal lesions.
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; metachronous development; ectopic development; CHOP therapy; eradication of H. pylori.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays a crucial role in the assessment and treatment of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; however, interobserver variation, inadequate accuracy in judging the depth of tumor invasion, and histological heterogeneity of the tumor can limit its role. Thus, we have assessed the role of 18F-FDG PET scans in the management of Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric MALT lymphoma.
Eighteen patients with H. pylori-infected low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma underwent an 18F-FDG PET scan prior to receiving H. pylori eradication therapy. We analyzed these patients' clinicopathologic data and measured the baseline and change in the metabolic activity of the tumor using standardized uptake values (SUVs).
Two patients failed to achieve complete remission of the low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma after successful H. pylori eradication. The baseline SUVs were significantly higher in these patients compared to successfully treated patients, 13.35±0.07 vs 2.98±0.93, respectively (n=2 vs n=16, p<0.001). The reduction in the SUV was significantly greater in the complete remission patients compared to treatment failure patients (p=0.018).
A high SUV at baseline 18F-FDG PET and a lower reduction in the SUV within 3 months after eradication therapy are associated with treatment failure in H. pylori-positive low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma patients undergoing eradication treatment.
MALT lymphoma; Helicobacter pylori; Treatment failure; Positron emission tomography