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1.  Operative management of biliary peritonitis complicating blunt hepatic trauma using partial hepatectomy and trans-hepatic biliary stenting 
Biliary peritonitis complicating blunt hepatic trauma is a rare but potentially lethal condition.
A 17-year old male patient who sustained a complex grade IV blunt hepatic trauma presented with severe haemorrhagic shock after an initial laparotomy in another hospital. An urgent exploratory laparotomy revealed a shattered posterior section of the right liver and suture haemostasis of the lacerated liver surface was performed. Postoperatively, the patient developed generalized biliary peritonitis and another laparotomy with peritoneal lavage and drainage was performed on postoperative day 12. However, ongoing manifestations of peritonitis and sepsis necessitated a third laparotomy 6 days later. This revealed ongoing biliary peritonitis due to major intra-hepatic bile duct injury. A partial hepatectomy with intra-operative trans-hepatic biliary stenting was undertaken. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the biliary fistula healed completely by the end of the second postoperative week.
Major intra-hepatic bile duct injury following blunt hepatic trauma is an extremely rare cause of biliary peritonitis.
The combination of partial hepatectomy with intra-operative trans-hepatic biliary stenting proved to be a safe and effective method for treatment of biliary peritonitis due to major intra-hepatic bile duct injury following blunt hepatic trauma when non-operative management fails.
PMCID: PMC4008861  PMID: 24717813
Biliary peritonitis; Hepatic trauma; Hepatectomy; Trans-hepatic biliary stenting
2.  Massive intestinal ischemia, a rare complication of oral contraceptive-induced mesenteric venous thrombosis: a case report and review of literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:7416.
Intestinal necrosis and perforation is a clinical and pathological presentation of the infrequently seen mesenteric venous thrombosis in women using oral contraceptives.
We report a case of a previously healthy 31-year-old female patient, who presented with a 3-day history of abdominal pain.
Although chest and abdomen radiographs showed small bowel obstruction, conservative treatment failed and the patient developed peritonism. Contrast-enhanced Tomography of the abdomen revealed free air associated with dilated and thickened small bowel. A laparotomy was performed and segmental resection of both small and large bowel was required. The pathological examination showed intestinal ischemia and mesenteric venous thrombosis. There were no further predisposing factors and mesenteric venous thrombosis was ascribed to oral contraceptives.
PMCID: PMC2740067  PMID: 19829957
3.  Ileal Intussusception Caused by Vanek's Tumor: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2011;5(1):110-116.
Inflammatory fibroid polyps (Vanek's tumor) are rare benign localized lesions originating in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusceptions due to inflammatory fibroid polyps are uncommon; moreover, ileo-ileal intussusception with small bowel necrosis and perforation has rarely been reported. We report a 56-year-old woman who was admitted two days after complaints of nausea and vomiting. Abdominal examination revealed distension, signs of gastrointestinal perforation and clanging intestinal sounds. The patient underwent a emergency laparotomy which found a 17-cm invaginated mid-ileal segment with necrosis, perforation and fecal peritonitis. The ileal segment was resected and single-layer end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathological analysis showed an ulcerative lesion with variable cellularity, formed by spindle cells with small number of mitosis and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate comprising mainly eosinophils. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of ileal Vanek's tumor. Although inflammatory fibroid polyps are seen very rarely in adults, they are among the probable diagnoses that should be considered in obstructive tumors of the small bowel causing intussusception with intestinal necrosis and perforation.
PMCID: PMC3078240  PMID: 21503167
Intestinal polyps; Polyps; Ileal neoplasm; Intussusception; Intestinal obstruction; Intestinal perforation; Immunohistochemistry
4.  Thrombosis of celiacomesenteric trunk: Report of a case 
Here we present the case of a 79-year-old woman who complained of acute abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Laboratory exams demonstrated a severe metabolic imbalance. Abdominal X-rays showed bowel overdistension and pneumatosis of the stomach wall. Abdominal tomography revealed infarction of the stomach, duodenum and small bowel due to thrombosis of the celiacomesenteric trunk. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemia of the liver, spleen infarction and necrosis of the gastro-intestinal tube (from the stomach up to the first third of the transverse colon). No further surgical procedures were performed. The patient died the following day. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case about severe gastro-intestinal ischemia due to thrombosis of the celiacomesenteric trunk, a rare anatomic variation of the gastrointestinal vascularisation.
PMCID: PMC3413066  PMID: 22876046
Celiacomesenteric trunk; Celiac trunk; Thr-ombosis; Anomalies; Gastrointestinal vascularisation
5.  Duodenum Clamping Trauma Induces Significant Postoperative Intraperitoneal Adhesions on a Rat Model 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e49673.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological and morphological changes in the first two postoperative weeks on a rat intraperitoneal adhesion model induced by duodenum clamping trauma.
The rat model of postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions was established in 48 male Wistar rats by laparotomy, followed by the duodenum clamping trauma. Rats were sacrificed respectively on 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th day after the operation. The control rats were sacrificed immediately after the operation (0 day). Then the intraperitoneal adhesions were assessed macroscopically. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the fibrosis, inflammatory responses, neovascularization, and cells infiltration in adhesion tissues. In addition, the changes of the mesothelium covering the surgical sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy.
Our study revealed that duodenum clamping trauma induced by mosquito hemostat can result in significant postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions formation. The extent and tenacity of intraperitoneal adhesions reached their peaks on 3rd and 5th days, respectively. Histopathological examination showed that all rats developed inflammatory responses at the clamped sites of duodenum, which was most prominent on 1st day; the scores of fibrosis and vascular proliferation increased slowly from 3rd to 5th day. Myofibroblasts proliferated significantly in the adhesion tissues from 3rd day, which were examined by immunohistochemical method. And the mesothelium covering the surgical sites and the adhesion tissues healed on 7th day.
This study suggests that clamping trauma to the duodenum can result in significant postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions formation, which represents an ideal rat model for intraperitoneal adhesions research and prevention. And myofibroblasts may play an important role in the forming process of intraperitoneal adhesions.
PMCID: PMC3502250  PMID: 23185403
6.  Isolated double gastric rupture caused by blunt abdominal trauma in an eighteen months old child: A case report 
Hippokratia  2008;12(1):50-52.
We report a case of an isolated double gastric rupture, resulted from blunt abdominal trauma, that we successfully repaired by primary closure. A 18-month-old girl injured in a motorvehicle accident was admitted to our hospital where the plain X-ray and the CT findings revealed the presence of free abdominal air. An immediate performed exploratory laparotomy disclosed two full-thickness ruptures of the stomach (on the greater curvature and the posterior wall). The ruptures were closed primarily by a two-layer closure. Twenty-four hours post-operatively the patient developed delayed shock as a result of chemical peritonitis. On the 8th postoperative day the girl developed septic shock and gastrorrhagia. She underwent a gastroscopy which revealed stress-ulcer, and was treated conservatively in the children intesive care unit of our hospital. She was discharged home on 20th postoperative day. At 3-month follow up, she was doing well with normal growth and eating a regular regimen about her age. Gastric rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.02-1.7%. The morbidity and mortality are directly related to the number of associated injuries, the delay in diagnosis and the development of intraabdominal sepsis. In this paper we emphasise the need for early diagnosis and the aggressive surgical treatment as a key to decreasing the mortality and morbidity from this relatively rare injury, especially in this age group of children.
PMCID: PMC2532966  PMID: 18923758
blunt abdominal trauma; gastric rupture; children
7.  Spontaneous rupture of a giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the jejunum: a case report and literature review 
A few cases of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the small intestine presenting as rupture have been reported in the medical literature. We report an unusual case of a large GIST of the jejunum that presented as a spontaneous rupture. A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of fever and abdominal pain. An abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan detected a 10-cm tumor with heterogeneous staining, suggesting necrosis or abscess inside the tumor. The patient was treated with antibiotics but inflammation persisted and an operation was performed. Intraoperative findings showed an outgrowing 10-cm mass in the jejunum near Treitz's ligament. The tumor had ruptured with peritoneal metastasis. The solid parenchyma contained a focal area of necrosis within and the small ulcer located in the wall of the jejunum presented a communication with the large tumor cavity. H&E staining showed spindle-shaped cell proliferation, and immunohistochemical staining showed results positive for c-kit and CD34. The patient received a diagnosis of a GIST (high-risk group) of the jejunum and was treated with imatinib mesylate. The patient has remained in good health without recurrence or metastasis one year after the surgical procedure.
PMCID: PMC4032489  PMID: 24885725
8.  Axial Torsion of Gangrenous Meckel's Diverticulum Causing Small Bowel Obstruction 
Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is a commonly encountered congenital anomaly of the small intestine. We report an extremely unusual case of an axially torted, gangrenous MD presenting as acute intestinal obstruction. A 26-year-old male patient presented to our emergency department with 3 days history of abdominal pain, distention and bilious vomiting. On laparotomy, there was minimal hemorrhagic fluid localized in right iliac fossa and small bowel loops were dilated. A MD was seen attached to the mesentery of nonadjacent small bowel by a peritoneal band. The diverticulum was axially torted and gangrenous. In addition, there was compression of ileum by the peritoneal band resulting in intestinal obstruction, which was relieved on dividing the band. Resection and anastomosis of the small bowel including the MD was performed. We hereby report a rare and unusual complication of a MD. Although treatment outcome is generally good, pre-operative diagnosis is often difficult.
PMCID: PMC3977322  PMID: 24741431
Axial torsion; Meckel's diverticulum; small bowel obstruction
9.  Small intestine bleeding due to multifocal angiosarcoma 
We report a case of an 84-year-old male patient with primary small intestinal angiosarcoma. The patient initially presented with anemia and melena. Consecutive endoscopy revealed no signs of upper or lower active gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had been diagnosed 3 years previously with an aortic dilation, which was treated with a stent. Computed tomography suggested an aorto-intestinal fistula as the cause of the intestinal bleeding, leading to operative stent explantation and aortic replacement. However, an aorto-intestinal fistula was not found, and the intestinal bleeding did not arrest postoperatively. The constant need for blood transfusions made an exploratory laparotomy imperative, which showed multiple bleeding sites, predominately in the jejunal wall. A distal loop jejunostomy was conducted to contain the small intestinal bleeding and a segmental resection for histological evaluation was performed. The histological analysis revealed a less-differentiated tumor with characteristic CD31, cytokeratin, and vimentin expression, which led to the diagnosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma. Consequently, the infiltrated part of the jejunum was successfully resected in a subsequent operation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel was planned. Angiosarcoma of the small intestine is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that presents with bleeding and high mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcome. A small intestinal angiosarcoma is a challenging diagnosis to make because of its rarity, nonspecific symptoms of altered intestinal function, nonspecific abdominal pain, severe melena, and acute abdominal signs. Therefore, a quick clinical and histological diagnosis and decisive measures including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy should be the aim.
PMCID: PMC3508646  PMID: 23197897
Gastrointestinal bleeding; Small intestine; Angiosarcoma; Small intestinal neoplasm
10.  Application of acellular dermal matrix for intestinal elongation in animal models 
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for intestinal elongation in animal models.
METHODS: Japanese white big-ear rabbits (n = 9) and Wuzhishan miniature pigs (n = 5) were used in the study. Home-made and commercial ADM materials were used as grafts, respectively. A 3-cm long graft was interposed in continuity with the small bowel and a side-to-side anastomosis, distal to the graft about 3-4 cm, was performed. The animals were sacrificed at 2 wk, 4 wk, 8 wk and 3 mo after surgery and the histological changes were evaluated under light microscope and electron microscope.
RESULTS: The animals survived after the operation with no evidence of peritonitis and sepsis. Severe adhesions were found between the graft and surrounding intestine. The grafts were completely absorbed within postoperative two or three months except one. Histological observation showed inflammation in the grafts with fibrinoid necroses, infiltration of a large amount of neutrophils and leukomonocytes, and the degree varied in different stages. The neointestine with well-formed structures was not observed in the study.
CONCLUSION: It is not suitable to use acellular dermal matrix alone as a scaffold for the intestinal elongation in animal models.
PMCID: PMC2860081  PMID: 20419841
Acellular dermal matrix; Intestine; Elongation
11.  Adult idiopathic jejuno-ileal intussusception 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr0520103050.
This 67-year-old woman, with numerous previous abdominal operations, presented to her general practitioner 3 years ago with generalised abdominal pain and diarrhoea. With unremarkable haematology tests and a CT scan at that time she was given the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. During the next 3 years her symptoms continued intermittently and now associated with vomiting and weight loss. This time both a barium follow-through followed by a CT scan demonstrated a small bowel intussusception. A laparotomy was done but surprisingly no intussusception was found, only a single adhesional band which was divided. She was discharged 5-days postoperative but re-admitted 3 days later with abdominal discomfort, bloating and vomiting. A repeat CT scan again showed the presence of a small bowel intussusception and a second laparotomy was performed, this time demonstrating a jejuno-ileal intussusception which was reduced and resected with primary anastomosis. Her postoperative course was without incidents.
PMCID: PMC3028064  PMID: 22798512
12.  Pneumoperitoneum associated with artificial ventilation. 
British Medical Journal  1979;1(6177):1528-1530.
Four adults injured in serious road-traffic accidents developed pneumoperitoneum after artificial ventilation. No case could be attributed to injury or to perforation of a hollow viscus in the belly, but doubt about this in one patient resulted in exploratory laparotomy. In three patients the origin of intraperitoneal air was considered to be leakage through minute ruptures in alveoli subjected to the stress of artificial ventilation, with air tracking to the mediastinum, pleural space, subcutaneous tissues of the neck and chest, and peritoneal cavity. The fourth patient later developed herniation of the stomach through a rupture in the diaphragm, the presence of a pneumothorax on the same side suggesting direct passage of air through the diaphragm. Pneumoperitoneum induced by artificial ventilation is probably more common than reports suggest and should be distinguished clinically and radiologically from that caused by rupture or perforation of a hollow viscus. This will reduce the number of needles laparotomies performed on patients who are already seriously ill.
PMCID: PMC1599686  PMID: 466102
13.  Diospyrobezoar as a Cause of Small Bowel Obstruction 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(3):596-603.
Phytobezoar, a concretion of indigestible fibers derived from ingested vegetables and fruits, is the most common type of bezoar. Diospyrobezoar is a subtype of phytobezoar formed after excessive intake of persimmons (Diospyros kaki). We report the case of a diabetic man with a 5-day history of abdominal pain after massive ingestion of persimmons who developed signs of complicated small bowel obstruction. The patient had a previous history of Billroth II hemigastrectomy associated with truncal vagotomy to treat a chronic duodenal ulcer 14 years earlier. Since intestinal obstruction was suspected, he underwent emergency laparotomy that revealed an ileal obstruction with small bowel perforation and local peritonitis due to a phytobezoar that was impacted 15 cm above the ileocecal valve. After segmental intestinal resection, the patient had a good recovery and was discharged on the 6th postoperative day. This report provides evidence that diospyrobezoar should be considered as a possible cause of small bowel obstruction in patients who have previously undergone gastric surgery.
PMCID: PMC3529578  PMID: 23271989
Bezoars; Diospyros kaki; Persimmon; Intestinal obstruction; Operative surgical procedure
14.  Gas in the Portal Vein: A Report of Two Cases 
Gas in the portal venous system was detected on plain roentgenograms of the abdomen in two women aged 61 and 72 years, respectively. Both patients had intestinal necrosis, due in one instance to a small bowel volvulus around a mesenteric band, and in the second instance to occlusion of the celiac axis, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. In the first patient, the portal venous gas was detected before surgery, and in the second case the gas was observed at laparotomy and was visualized on radiographs of the abdomen taken shortly after death. Both patients died. Portal venous gas can be distinguished radiologically from air in the bile ducts by its characteristic slender branching gas pattern in the periphery of the liver substance. The presence of portal gas in the adult indicates intestinal necrosis in the majority of cases and should lead to early operative intervention.
PMCID: PMC1935667  PMID: 5912180
15.  Ischemic Necrosis of Small Bowel Following Laparoscopic Surgery 
Background and Objective:
Small bowel ischemia following laparoscopy was described recently as a rare fatal complication of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Of the 8 cases reported in the surgical literature, 7 were fatal, 1 was not. In this report, we describe the first gynecological case.
A 34-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopy with extensive adhesiolysis and myolysis was re-admitted with an acute abdomen on postoperative day 4. Immediate laparotomy revealed acute peritonitis, extensive adhesions, and a 3-cm defect in the small bowel. Tissue examination showed ischemic necrosis of edematous, but essentially normal, bowel mucosa. The postoperative course was extremely complicated. She was discharged after a 2-month hospital stay in the intensive care unit for rehabilitation.
Data are available on 7 patients (including ours). All procedures were described as uneventful. The intraabdominal pressure was set at 15 mm Hg when specified. Some abdominal pain occurred in all, nausea and vomiting in 4, diarrhea in 2, abdominal distention in 1, fever in none. Quick reintervention laparotomy was performed in 2 and delayed in 5 (up to 4 days).
The CO2 pneumoperitoneum is a predisposing factor for intestinal ischemia as it reduces cardiac output and splanchnic blood flow. However, critical ischemia relies on underlying vasculopathy or an inciting event.
Patient selection, maintaining intraabdominal pressure at 15 mm Hg or less, and intermittent decompression of the gas represent the best options for preventing this complication.
PMCID: PMC3015534  PMID: 15119662
Small bowel ischemia; Pneumoperitoneum
16.  Intestinal Injury from Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Study of 47 Cases 
Oman Medical Journal  2009;24(4):256-259.
To determine the cause, presentation, anatomical distribution, diagnostic method, management and outcome of intestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma.
The study included 47 patients who underwent laparotomy for intestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma over a period of 4 years. A retrospective study was conducted and the patients were analyzed with respect to the cause, presentation, anatomical distribution, diagnostic methods, associated injuries, treatment and mortality.
47 patients with 62 major injuries to the bowel and mesentery due to blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed. The male to female ratio was 8.4: 1 and the average age was 34.98 years. There were 44 injuries to the small intestine including 1 duodenal injury, 11 colonic injuries and 7 injuries to the mesentry. 26 patients were injured in road traffic accidents. Out of 29 patients with intestinal perforation, free peritoneal air was present on plain abdominal and chest radiography in 23 patients. 18 patients underwent laparotomy on the basis of clinical findings alone. The commonest injury was a perforation at the antimesentric border of the small bowel. Treatment consisted of simple closure of the perforation, resection and anastomosis and repair followed by protective colostomy for colonic perforations. 3 (6.38%) deaths were recorded, while 8 (17.02%) patients developed major complications.
Although early recognition of intestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma is difficult, it is very important due to its tremendous infectious potential. Intestinal perforations are often associated with severe injuries which are probably be the determining factors in survival.
PMCID: PMC3243872  PMID: 22216378
17.  Experiences with High Doses of Furosemide in Renal Disease and Resistant Edematous States 
Six cases of edema, three due to the nephrotic syndrome, one to congestive heart failure and two to chronic renal failure, are reported in which furosemide was administered in oral doses higher than those usually prescribed (up to 720 mg. a day), in order to obtain a satisfactory diuresis. In one case of severe prerenal failure secondary to cardiogenic shock and in one case of acute tubular necrosis secondary to hypotension at the time of operation, intravenous doses up to 990 and 1400 mg. per day respectively were able to reverse the oliguria. In eight additional patients who were on chronic hemodialysis, furosemide was administered to the amount of 1000 mg. per day orally in divided doses for two weeks, and produced a moderate diuretic response.
The use of high doses of furosemide in edema and renal failure resistant to the usual therapeutic measures appears to be safe and effective.
PMCID: PMC1930416  PMID: 5430050
18.  A case of extraperitoneal stoma-associated internal hernia after abdominoperineal resection 
Published reports concerning internal hernias after extraperitoneal stoma construction are scarce. In our present report, we describe the case of a 56-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for the treatment of rectal cancer. He underwent abdominoperineal resection of the rectum with sigmoidostomy using an extraperitoneal route. On the ninth postoperative day, the patient experienced sudden and intense abdominal pain and was diagnosed with strangulation of the small intestine due to a stoma-associated internal hernia. Therefore, an emergency laparotomy was performed. The surgical findings showed that the small intestine protruded through the space between the sigmoid colon loop and the abdominal wall in a cranial-to-caudal direction. The strangulated portion of the small intestine was recovered, and the orifice of herniation was closed. No recurrence of internal herniation was observed during the follow-up period.
PMCID: PMC4029971  PMID: 24886644
Abdominoperineal resection; Extraperitoneal stoma; Internal hernia; Rectum
19.  Management of pancreatic trauma. 
Twenty patients who sustained pancreatic trauma are reviewed. Eighteen of the patients underwent emergency laparotomy and there were 53 major associated injuries. Three patients died, giving an operative mortality of 17%. All deaths could be directly attributed to the severity and extent of the associated injuries. Eleven of the 15 survivors following emergency operation developed serious postoperative complications which, in 6 instances, were directly related to the pancreatic injury. Two patients were initially treated conservatively because the isolated pancreatic injuries were missed. Both developed complications requiring operation.
PMCID: PMC2494363  PMID: 6614763
20.  Adhesions and Adhesiolysis: The Role of Laparoscopy 
Adhesions commonly result from abdominal and pelvic surgical procedures and may result in intestinal obstruction, infertility, chronic pain, or complicate subsequent operations. Laparoscopy produces less peritoneal trauma than does conventional laparotomy and may result in decreased adhesion formation. We present a review of the available data on laparoscopy and adhesion formation, as well as laparoscopic adhesiolysis. We also review current adjuvant techniques that may be used by practicing laparoscopists to prevent adhesion formation.
A Medline search using “adhesions,” “adhesiolysis,” and “laparoscopy” as key words was performed for English-language articles. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work.
The majority of studies indicate that laparoscopy may reduce postoperative adhesion formation relative to laparotomy. However, laparoscopy by itself does not appear to eliminate adhesions completely. A variety of adjuvant materials are available to surgeons, and the most recent investigation has demonstrated significant potential for intraperitoneal barriers. Newer technologies continue to evolve and should result in clinically relevant reductions in adhesion formation.
PMCID: PMC3043408  PMID: 12113430
Adhesions; Adhesiolysis; Laparoscopy
21.  Esophageal stent migration can lead to intestinal obstruction 
Self-expanding metallic stents are the devices of choice in the treatment of malign or benign strictures of the esophagus. Stent migration is a well-known complication of this procedure.
We report a case of intestinal obstruction caused by esophageal stent migration, in which surgical intervention was used.
A 65-year-old woman, who had a medical history of gastric cancer operations and esophageal stent applications, was admitted to our emergency department with a 48-hour history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. An emergency laparotomy was performed and the migrated stent causing intestinal obstruction was removed.
The patient recovered without incident and was discharged on postoperative day 3.
This case illustrates that esophageal stent migration has to be considered as a potential life-threatening complication.
PMCID: PMC3364652  PMID: 22666672
Esophageal stricture; self-expanding stent; stent complications; stent migration; intestinal obstruction
22.  Success of microvascular surgery; repair mesenteric injury and prevent short bowel syndrome: a case report 
Superior mesenteric injury is a rare entity but when it occurs, short bowel syndrome is one of the uninvited results of the emergency surgical procedures.
Case presentation
We present a 19-year-old boy with blunt abdominal trauma which caused serious mesenteric injury. Because ultrasound revealed free intraabdominal fluid, he underwent emergency laparotomy. Adequate vascularization of approximately 20 cm of proximal jejunal segment and approximately 20 cm of terminal ileum was observed. Nevertheless, the mesentery of the rest of the small intestine segments was ruptured completely. We performed an end-to-end anastomosis between a distal branch of the superior mesenteric artery in the mesentery of the ileal segment and a branch of the superior mesenteric artery using separate sutures of 7.0 monofilament polypropylene. The patient's gastrointestinal passage returned to normal on the postoperative day 2. He recovered without any complication and was discharged from hospital on the postoperative day seven.
In this case report, we emphasize the importance of preservation of injured mesenteric artery due to abdominal trauma which could have resulted in short bowel syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2000873  PMID: 17697360
23.  A causal relationship between right paraduodenal hernia and superior mesenteric artery syndrome: a case report 
Cases of right paraduodenal hernia and superior mesenteric artery syndrome have been reported separately, but their occurrence in combination has not been reported.
Case presentation
A 46-year-old Japanese man who had never undergone laparotomy was admitted to our hospital due to an acute abdomen. An enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography scan of our patient showed a cluster of small intestines with ischemic change in his right lateral abdominal cavity. Emergency surgery was subsequently performed, and strangulation of the distal jejunum along with incidental right paraduodenal hernia was found. His necrotic ileum was resected, and the jejunum encapsulated by the sac was repaired manually without reduction.
Three days after the operation, however, our patient developed vomiting. An upper gastrointestinal series revealed a straight line cut-off sign on the third portion of his duodenum. A second enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography scan showed that he had a lower aortomesenteric angle and a shorter aortomesenteric distance compared to his condition before his right paraduodenal hernia was surgically repaired. We strongly suspected that the right paraduodenal hernia repair may have induced superior mesenteric artery syndrome. On the 21st post-operative day, duodenojejunostomy was performed because conservative management had failed.
In this case, enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography, which permits reconstructed multiplanar imaging, helped us to visually identify these diseases easily. It is important to recognize that surgical repair of a right paraduodenal hernia may cause superior mesenteric artery syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2896375  PMID: 20507590
24.  Adrenal gunshot wound: Laparoscopic approach. Report of a case☆ 
Although there is no debate that patients with peritonitis or hemodynamic instability should undergo urgent laparotomy after penetrating abdominal injury, it is also clear that certain stable patients may be managed without operation. Controversy persists regarding use of laparoscopy.
We report a case of gunshot wounds with bullet in left adrenal gland and perirenal subcapsular hematoma. The patients had no signs of peritonitis but in the observation period we noted a significative blood loss, so we performed an exploratory laparoscopy.
We found the bullet in adrenal parenchyma. The postoperative period was regular and the patient was discharged without any local or general complication.
Although the data are still controversial, the importance of the laparoscopic approach is rapidly increasing also in case of penetrating trauma of the abdomen. This technique assumes both a diagnostic and therapeutic role by reducing the number of negative laparotomies.
PMCID: PMC3921651  PMID: 24441440
Laparoscopy; Gunshot wounds; Penetrating abdominal trauma
25.  Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea 
Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease.
PMCID: PMC1920943  PMID: 13998948

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