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1.  Multidrug resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases genes among Escherichia coli from patients with urinary tract infections in Northwestern Libya 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2015;10:10.3402/ljm.v10.26412.
Introduction
Multidrug resistance (MDR) and emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) that mediate resistance to β-lactam drugs among Escherichia coli and other uropathogens have been reported worldwide. However, there is little information on the detection of ESBLs genes in E. coli from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Arab countries using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in Libya such information is lacking.
Methods
All patients attending Zawiya Teaching Hospital in Zawiya city between November 2012 and June 2013 suspected of having UTIs and from whom midstream urine samples were taken as part of the clinical workup were included in this prospective study. Samples were examined for uropathogens by standard bacteriological procedures. VITEK-2 automated microbiology system was used to identify the isolated uropathogens and determine the susceptibility of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates to antimicrobials. In addition, phenotypically ESBLs-positive E. coli isolates were tested for ESBLs genes by PCR.
Results
The present study enrolled 1,790 patients with UTIs. Uropathogens were found in 371 (20.7%) urine specimens examined. Mixed pathogens were detected in two specimens with 373 total pathogens isolated. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were the predominant uropathogens at 55.8% (208/373) and 18.5% (69/373), respectively. Other pathogens were detected in 25.7% (96/373) of urine samples. Of the E. coli and Klebsiella spp. tested, 69.2 and 100% were resistant to ampicillin, 6.7 and 33.3% to ceftriaxone, and 23.1 and 17.4% to ciprofloxacin, respectively. MDR (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial groups) was found in 69 (33.2%) of E. coli and in 29 (42%) of Klebsiella spp. isolates. ESBLs were detected phenotypically in 14 (6.7%) of E. coli and in 15 (21.7%) of Klebsiella spp. isolates. Thirteen out of the 14 phenotypically ESBL-positive E. coli were positive for ESBL genes by PCR. bla TEM gene was detected in seven isolates, bla OXA gene in 10 isolates and bla CTX-M gene in six isolates. bla SHV gene was not detected in the present study.
Conclusion
The isolation of MDR ESBL-producing uropathogens undoubtedly will limit the choices clinicians have to treat their patients with UTIs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveillance studies on antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of ESBLs among uropathogens to guide the clinical treatment of UTIs in Libya in the future.
doi:10.3402/ljm.v10.26412
PMCID: PMC4315781  PMID: 25651907
urinary tract infections; Escherichia coli; extended-spectrum β-lactamases; multidrug resistance; Libya
2.  Increasing prevalence and dissemination of NDM-1 metallo-β-lactamase in India: data from the SMART study (2009) 
Objectives
To investigate the β-lactamase background of ertapenem non-susceptible isolates for the presence of the most commonly detected carbapenemase genes, blaKPC, blaOXA-48 and blaVIM, and the newly described blaNDM-1.
Methods
Two hundred and thirty-five ertapenem-non-susceptible (MIC ≥0.5 mg/L) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the worldwide Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) 2009 programme were screened using a multiplex PCR for the presence of blaKPC, blaOXA-48, blaVIM and blaNDM-1 genes. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes (blaESBL and blaAmpC) were identified using the Check-MDR CT101 microarray. DNA sequencing was performed to identify the blaESBL, blaKPC and blaNDM-1 genes. Molecular typing was also performed to genetically characterize these isolates.
Results
Sixty-six isolates (28%) had a carbapenemase gene, with blaNDM-1 identified in 33 isolates including 2 isolates carrying both blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-48; other carbapenemase genes found included blaKPC (n = 23), blaVIM (n = 7) and blaOXA-48 (n = 3). All blaNDM-1-carrying isolates were from patients in India and comprised five different species. With the exception of one isolate carrying only blaNDM-1, all blaNDM-1 carbapenemase-possessing isolates carried additional β-lactamases in various combinations: blaESBL and blaAmpC (n = 18); blaESBL (n = 10); blaESBL, blaAmpC and blaOXA-48 (n = 2); and blaAmpC (n = 2). Except for blaOXA-48-carrying isolates, novel multilocus sequence types or enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR patterns were observed along with clonal dissemination within and among sites.
Conclusions
A range of carbapenemase genes, associated with diverse ESBLs and/or AmpC backgrounds, were found among Enterobacteriaceae isolated during the study. Many of these ertapenem non-susceptible strains were clonally related and carried various combinations of β-lactamases.
doi:10.1093/jac/dkr240
PMCID: PMC3153502  PMID: 21676902
carbapenemases; Enterobacteriaceae; microarray analysis
3.  Analysis of β-lactamase phenotypes and carriage of selected β-lactamase genes among Escherichia coli strains obtained from Kenyan patients during an 18-year period 
BMC Microbiology  2012;12:155.
Background
Although β-lactam antibiotics are heavily used in many developing countries, the diversity of β-lactamase genes (bla) is poorly understood. We screened for major β-lactamase phenotypes and diversity of bla genes among 912 E. coli strains isolated from clinical samples obtained between 1992 and 2010 from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients.
Results
None of the isolates was resistant to carbapenems but 30% of all isolates were susceptible to cefepime, cephamycins and piperacillin-tazobactam. Narrow spectrum β-lactamase (NSBL) phenotype was observed in 278 (30%) isolates that contained blaTEM-1 (54%) or blaSHV-1 (35%) or both (11%). Extended Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was detected in 247 (27%) isolates which carried blaCTX-M-14 (29%), blaCTX-M-15 (24%), blaCTX-M-9 (2%), blaCTX-M-8 (4%), blaCTX-M-3 (11%), blaCTX-M-1 (6%), blaSHV-5 (3%), blaSHV-12 (5%), and blaTEM-52 (16%). Complex Mutant TEM-like (CMT) phenotype was detected in 220 (24%) isolates which carried blaTEM-125 (29%), while blaTEM-50, blaTEM-78, blaTEM-109, blaTEM −152 and blaTEM-158 were detected in lower frequencies of between 7% and 11%. Majority of isolates producing a combination of CTX-M-15 + OXA-1 + TEM-1 exhibited resistance phenotypes barely indistinguishable from those of CMT-producers. Although 73 (8%) isolates exhibited Inhibitor Resistant TEM-like (IRT) phenotype, blaTEM-103 was the only true IRT-encoding gene identified in 18 (25%) of strains with this phenotype while the rest produced a combination of TEM-1 + OXA-1. The pAmpCs-like phenotype was observed in 94 (10%) isolates of which 77 (82%) carried blaCMY-2 while 18% contained blaCMY-1.
Isolates from urine accounted for 53%, 53%, 74% and 72% of strains exhibiting complex phenotypes such as IRT, ESBL, CMT or pAmpC respectively. On the contrary, 55% isolates from stool exhibited the relatively more susceptible NSBL-like phenotype. All the phenotypes, and majority of the bla genes, were detected both in isolates from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients but complex phenotypes were particularly common among strains obtained between 2000 and 2010 from urine of hospitalized patients.
Conclusions
The phenotypes and diversity of bla genes in E. coli strains implicated in clinical infections in non-hospitalized and hospitalized patients in Kenya is worryingly high. In order to preserve the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics, culture and susceptibility data should guide therapy and surveillance studies for β-lactamase-producers in developing countries should be launched.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-12-155
PMCID: PMC3464591  PMID: 22838634
4.  Emergence of Escherichia coli, Co-Producing NDM-1 and OXA-48 Carbapenemases, in Urinary Isolates, at a Tertiary Care Centre at Central India 
Objective: To detect genes encoding carbapenem resistance in urinary isolates of Escherichia coli recovered from hospitalized patients in tertiary care centre in Pune, India.
Methods: From Jan 2012 to Dec 2012, a total of 300 consecutive non-duplicate (one isolate per patient) clinical isolates of Escherichia coli were recovered from urine cultures of hospitalized patients including hospital acquired infection cases admitted to the medical and surgical intensive care units. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and sequencing was used to determine the presence of beta-lactamase encoding genes. Conjugation experiments were performed to determine the transferability of beta-lactamase.
Results: All the isolates were completely resistant to the second and third generation cephalosporins tested as well as carbapenems. All the isolates showed 100% susceptibility to tigecycline and colistin in vitro. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that blaNDM-1 was transferable via plasmid. All the isolates showed presence of blaNDM-1 and co-association of blaOXA-48 was 25/45(55%) of the isolates. Repetitive element based PCR (REP PCR), Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC PCR) and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed a diversity of six clonal types among E.coli isolates.
Conclusion: Co-production of NDM-1with OXA-48 in urinary isolates of E. coli was detected for the first time in India. Transmission of plasmid carrying these resistant genes to other members of Enterobacteriaceae will increase incidence of multidrug resistance. Early detection of these genes will help in prevention and adequate infection control by limiting the spread of these organisms.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7952.4413
PMCID: PMC4129265  PMID: 25120976
Multidrug resistant; Carbapenem resistance; Conjugation; Beta-lactamase; Uropathogenic E.coli
5.  Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Bangladesh 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e108735.
Background
Resistance to cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae is mainly due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Little is known about ESBL-producing bacteria in Bangladesh. Therefore, the study presents results of phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from hospitals in Bangladesh.
Methods
A total of 339 E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract and wound infections attending three different medical hospitals in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh between 2003–2007 were screened for ESBL-production by the double disk diffusion test. Isolates with ESBL-phenotype were further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing, PCR and sequencing of different β-lactamase and virulence genes, serotyping, and XbaI-macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results
We identified 40 E. coli with ESBL phenotype. These isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, cefepime, and nalidixic acid but remained susceptible to imipenem. All but one isolate were additionally resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 3 isolates were resistant to cefoxitin. ESBL genes of blaCTX-M-1-group were detected in all isolates; blaTEM-type and blaOXA-1-type genes were detected in 33 (82.5%) and 19 (47.5%) isolates, respectively. Virulence genes that are present in diarrhoeagenic E. coli were not found. Class-1 integron was present in 20 (50%) isolates. All the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates harbored plasmids ranging between 1.1 and 120 MDa. PFGE-typing revealed 26 different pulsotypes, but identical pulsotype showed 6 isolates of serotype O25:H4.
Conclusion
The prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli isolates appears to be high and the majority of the isolates were positive for blaCTX-M. Although there was genetic heterogeneity among isolates, presence of a cluster of isolates belonging to serotype O25:H4 indicates dissemination of the pandemic uropathogenic E. coli clone in Bangladesh.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108735
PMCID: PMC4193765  PMID: 25302491
6.  Multiresistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a Region in India Where Urinary Tract Infections Are Endemic: Genotypic and Phenotypic Characteristics of Sequence Type 131 Isolates of the CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Lineage 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(12):6358-6365.
Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (O25b:H4), associated with the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and linked predominantly to the community-onset antimicrobial-resistant infections, has globally emerged as a public health concern. However, scant attention is given to the understanding of the molecular epidemiology of these strains in high-burden countries such as India. Of the 100 clinical E. coli isolates obtained by us from a setting where urinary tract infections are endemic, 16 ST131 E. coli isolates were identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Further, genotyping and phenotyping methods were employed to characterize their virulence and drug resistance patterns. All the 16 ST131 isolates harbored the CTX-M-15 gene, and half of them also carried TEM-1; 11 of these were positive for blaOXA groups 1 and 12 for aac(6′)-Ib-cr. At least 12 isolates were refractory to four non-beta-lactam antibiotics: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Nine isolates carried the class 1 integron. Plasmid analysis indicated a large pool of up to six plasmids per strain with a mean of approximately three plasmids. Conjugation and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) revealed that the spread of resistance was associated with the FIA incompatibility group of plasmids. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and genotyping of the virulence genes showed a low level of diversity among these strains. The association of ESBL-encoding plasmid with virulence was demonstrated in transconjugants by serum assay. None of the 16 ST131 ESBL-producing E. coli strains were known to synthesize carbapenemase enzymes. In conclusion, our study reports a snapshot of the highly virulent/multiresistant clone ST131 of uropathogenic E. coli from India. This study suggests that the ST131 genotypes from this region are clonally evolved and are strongly associated with the CTX-M-15 enzyme, carry a high antibiotic resistance background, and have emerged as an important cause of community-acquired urinary tract infections.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01099-12
PMCID: PMC3497203  PMID: 23045357
7.  Dissemination and Characterization of Plasmids Carrying oqxAB-blaCTX-M Genes in Escherichia coli Isolates from Food-Producing Animals 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73947.
Background
The association of PMQR and ESBLs in negative-bacteria isolates has been of great concern. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence of co-transferability of oqxAB and blaCTX-M genes among the 696 Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from food-producing animals in South China, and to characterize these plasmids.
Methods
The ESBL-encoding genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV), and PMQR (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, aac(6’)-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB) of these 696 isolates were determined by PCR and sequenced directionally. Conjugation, S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blotting experiments were performed to investigate the co-transferability and location of oqxAB and blaCTX-M. The EcoRI digestion profiles of the plasmids with oqxAB-blaCTX-M were also analyzed. The clonal relatedness was investigated by PFGE.
Results
Of the 696 isolates, 429 harbored at least one PMQR gene, with oqxAB (328) being the most common type; 191 carried blaCTX-M, with blaCTX-M-14 the most common. We observed a significant higher prevalence of blaCTX-M among the oqxAB-positive isolates (38.7%) than that (17.4%) in the oqxAB-negative isolates. Co-transferability of oqxAB and blaCTX-M was found in 18 of the 127 isolates carrying oqxAB-blaCTX-M. These two genes were located on the same plasmid in all the 18 isolates, with floR being on these plasmids in 13 isolates. The co-dissemination of these genes was mainly mediated by F33:A-: B- and HI2 plasmids with highly similar EcoRI digestion profiles. Diverse PFGE patterns indicated the high prevalence of oqxAB was not caused by clonal dissemination.
Conclusion
blaCTX-M was highly prevalent among the oqxAB-positive isolates. The co-dissemination of oqxAB-blaCTX-M genes in E. coli isolates from food-producing animals is mediated mainly by similar F33:A-: B- and HI2 plasmids. This is the first report of the co-existence of oqxAB, blaCTX-M, and floR on the same plasmids in E. coli.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073947
PMCID: PMC3767592  PMID: 24040123
8.  Co-existence of beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from Kathmandu, Nepal 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:694.
Background
The trend of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasing in Nepal. Limited studies have been reported investigating ESBL types and carbapenemases in E. coli.
Methods
A cross sectional study was conducted between June 2012 to January 2013 in Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepal. Non-repetitive clinical samples from out-patient department (OPD) and Intensive Care Units (ICU) were processed for bacteriological culture and identification of E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility test, screening and phenotypic confirmation for ESBLs and carbapenemases and PCR (blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM-type ESBLs, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaNDM-1-type carbapenemases, and class 1 integron element integrase gene) were performed. Clones were resolved by PCR-Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA.
Results
Out of 332 non-repetitive clinical specimens processed for culture and identification 160 (48.2%) were culture positive. Of which, 93 (58.1%) were E. coli. Of these, 24 (25.8%) were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-EC and 3 (12.50%) of 24 ESBL-EC were carbapenemase producers. blaCTX-M-type ESBL was most common (23, 95.8%) followed by blaTEM (7, 29.2%) and blaSHV (3, 12.5%). blaVIM, blaIMP and blaNDM-1 were present in 3, 2 and 2 ESBL-EC, respectively. Class 1 integron element was present in 18 (75.0%) ESBL-EC. Nine isolates possessed more than one type of beta-lactamases. Interestingly, all carbapenemase producers were isolated form ICU and co-existence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaIMP, blaVIM and blaNDM-1 beta-lactamases was documented in one ESBL-EC (EC104). All most all isolates had different RAPD patterns.
Conclusions
For the first time in Nepal, high prevalence of blaCTX-M-type ESBL and co-existence of ESBLs and carbapenemases has been described. Continuous monitoring and surveillance and proper infection control and prevention practices will limit the further spread of these super-bugs within this hospital and beyond.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-694
PMCID: PMC4197279  PMID: 25287013
ESBL producing Escherichia coli; Carbapenemases; Clinical isolates; Integron element
9.  Molecular Characterization and Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum- β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Causing Health Care-Associated Infection in Thailand, Where the CTX-M Family Is Endemic▿ †  
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for health care-associated (HA) infection. We conducted molecular detection and characterization of ESBL-related bla genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaVEB, blaOXA, blaPER, and blaGES, among 362 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli (n = 235) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 127) collected from patients who met the definition of HA infection at two major university hospitals in Thailand from December 2004 to May 2005. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, patient demographics and the susceptibilities of these bacteria to various antimicrobial agents were described. A total of 87.3% of isolates carried several bla genes. The prevalence of blaCTX-M was strikingly high: 99.6% for ESBL-producing E. coli (CTX-M-14, -15, -27, -40, and -55) and 99.2% for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (CTX-M-3, -14, -15, -27, and -55). ISEcp1 was found in the upstream region of blaCTX-M in most isolates. Up to 77.0% and 71.7% of ESBL-producing E. coli and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, respectively, carried blaTEM; all of them encoded TEM-1. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae carried blaSHV at 87.4% (SHV-1, -2a, -11, -12, -27, -71, and -75) but only at 3.8% for ESBL-producing E. coli (SHV-11 and -12). bla genes encoding VEB-1 and OXA-10 were found in both ESBL-producing E. coli (8.5% and 8.1%, respectively) and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (10.2% and 11.8%, respectively). None of the isolates were positive for blaPER and blaGES. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there was no major clonal relationship among these ESBL producers. This is the first study to report CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-40, SHV-27, SHV-71, and SHV-75 in Thailand and to show that CTX-M ESBL is highly endemic in the country.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00171-08
PMCID: PMC2493136  PMID: 18505851
10.  Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Escherichia coli Sequence Type ST131 (O25:H4) and blaCTX-M-15 among Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli from the United States, 2000 to 2009 
Escherichia coli sequence type ST131 (from phylogenetic group B2), often carrying the extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) gene blaCTX-M-15, is an emerging globally disseminated pathogen that has received comparatively little attention in the United States. Accordingly, a convenience sample of 351 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from 15 U.S. centers (collected in 2000 to 2009) underwent PCR-based phylotyping and detection of ST131 and blaCTX-M-15. A total of 200 isolates, comprising 4 groups of 50 isolates each that were (i) blaCTX-M-15 negative non-ST131, (ii) blaCTX-M-15 positive non-ST131, (iii) blaCTX-M-15 negative ST131, or (iv) blaCTX-M-15 positive ST131, also underwent virulence genotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Overall, 201 (57%) isolates exhibited blaCTX-M-15, whereas 165 (47%) were ST131. ST131 accounted for 56% of blaCTX-M-15-positive- versus 35% of blaCTX-M-15-negative isolates (P < 0.001). Whereas ST131 accounted for 94% of the 175 total group B2 isolates, non-ST131 isolates were phylogenetically distributed by blaCTX-M-15 status, with groups A (blaCTX-M-15-positive isolates) and D (blaCTX-M-15-negative isolates) predominating. Both blaCTX-M-15 and ST131 occurred at all participating centers, were recovered from children and adults, increased significantly in prevalence post-2003, and were associated with molecularly inferred virulence. Compared with non-ST131 isolates, ST131 isolates had higher virulence scores, distinctive virulence profiles, and more-homogeneous PFGE profiles. blaCTX-M-15 was associated with extensive antimicrobial resistance and ST131 with fluoroquinolone resistance. Thus, E. coli ST131 and blaCTX-M-15 are emergent, widely distributed, and predominant among ESBL-positive E. coli strains in the United States, among children and adults alike. Enhanced virulence and antimicrobial resistance have likely promoted the epidemiological success of these emerging public health threats.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05824-11
PMCID: PMC3346636  PMID: 22354301
11.  β-Lactamases in Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Foods, Humans, and Healthy Animals 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2002;46(10):3156-3163.
TEM-, SHV-, and OXA-type β-lactamases were studied by PCR with 124 ampicillin-resistant (AMPr) Escherichia coli isolates recovered from foods of animal origin (n = 20) and feces of humans (n = 49) and healthy animals (n = 55). PCR showed that 103 isolates were positive for TEM and negative for SHV and OXA. Three E. coli isolates showed a positive reaction for OXA, and one showed a positive reaction for SHV. The remaining 17 E. coli isolates were negative for the three enzymes by PCR. Fifty-seven of the 103 blaTEM amplicons were sequenced. Different molecular variants of blaTEM-1 were found in 52 isolates: blaTEM-1a (n = 9), blaTEM-1b (n = 36), blaTEM-1c (n = 6), and blaTEM-1f (n = 1). Four inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) β-lactamase-encoding genes were also detected: blaTEM-30c (IRT-2), blaTEM-34b (IRT-6), blaTEM-40b (IRT-11), and blaTEM-51a (IRT-15). A new blaTEM gene, named blaTEM-95b, which showed a mutation in amino acid 145 (P→A) was detected. It was found in a food isolate of chicken origin (AMPr, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid susceptible). The promoter region in 24 blaTEM amplicons was analyzed, and the weak P3 promoter was found in 23 of them (blaTEM-1 in 20 amplicons and blaTEM-51a, blaTEM-30c, and blaTEM-95b in 1 amplicon each). The strong Pa/Pb promoter was found only in the blaTEM-34b gene. No extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected. Mutations at position −42 or −32 in the ampC gene promoter were demonstrated in 4 of 10 E. coli isolates for which the cefoxitin MIC was ≥16 μg/ml. Different variants of blaTEM-1 and IRT blaTEM genes were found among the AMPr E. coli isolates from foods and the feces of humans and healthy animals, and a new gene, blaTEM-95b (P3), was detected.
doi:10.1128/AAC.46.10.3156-3163.2002
PMCID: PMC128764  PMID: 12234838
12.  Dissemination of NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Mediated by the IncX3-Type Plasmid 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0129454.
The emergence and spread of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae have resulted in a worldwide public health risk that has affected some provinces of China. China is an exceptionally large country, and there is a crucial need to investigate the epidemic of blaNDM-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in our province. A total of 186 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (CRE) were collected in a grade-3 hospital in Zhejiang province. Carbapenem-resistant genes, including blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were screened and sequenced. Ninety isolates were identified as harboring the blaKPC-2 genes, and five blaNDM-1-positive isolates were uncovered. XbaI-PFGE revealed that three blaNDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to two different clones. S1-PFGE and southern blot suggested that the blaNDM-1 genes were located on IncX3-type plasmids with two different sizes ranging from 33.3 to 54.7 kb (n=4) and 104.5 to 138.9 kb (n=1), respectively, all of which could easily transfer to Escherichia coli by conjugation and electrotransformation. The high-throughput sequencing of two plasmids was performed leading to the identification of a smaller 54-kb plasmid, which had high sequence similarity with a previously reported pCFNDM-CN, and a larger plasmid in which only a 7.8-kb sequence of a common gene environment around blaNDM-1 (blaNDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL-ΔInsE,) was detected. PCR mapping and sequencing demonstrated that four smaller blaNDM-1 plasmids contained a common gene environment around blaNDM-1 (IS5-blaNDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL). We monitored the CRE epidemic in our hospital and determined that KPC-2 carbapenemase was a major risk to patient health and the IncX3-type plasmid played a vital role in the spread of the blaNDM-1 gene among the CRE.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129454
PMCID: PMC4457825  PMID: 26047502
13.  CTX-M-2 and a New CTX-M-39 Enzyme Are the Major Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Multiple Escherichia coli Clones Isolated in Tel Aviv, Israel 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2005;49(11):4745-4750.
The rate of occurrence of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing phenotype among Escherichia coli isolates in Tel Aviv is 12% (22). The aim of this study was to understand the molecular epidemiology of E. coli ESBL producers and to identify the ESBL genes carried by them. We studied 20 single-patient ESBL-producing E. coli clinical isolates. They comprised 11 distinct nonrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes: six isolates belonged to the same PFGE clone, four other clones included two isolates each, and six unrelated clones included only one isolate. All isolates produced various beta-lactamases with pIs ranging from 5.2 to 8.2, varying within similar PFGE clones. The most prevalent ESBL gene was blaCTX-M; 16 isolates carried blaCTX-M-2 and three carried a new ESBL gene designated blaCTX-M-39. Three strains carried blaSHV (two blaSHV-12 and one blaSHV-5), and two strains carried inhibitor-resistant ESBL genes, blaTEM-33 and blaTEM-30; 18 strains carried blaTEM-1 and eight strains carried blaOXA-2. Plasmid mapping and Southern blot analysis with a CTX-M-2 probe demonstrated that blaCTX-M-2 is plasmid borne. The wide dissemination of ESBLs among E. coli isolates in our institution is partly related to clonal spread, but more notably to various plasmid-associated ESBL genes, occurring in multiple clones, wherein the CTX-M gene family appears almost uniformly. We report here a new CTX-M gene, designated blaCTX-M-39, which revealed 99% homology with blaCTX-M-26, with a substitution of arginine for glutamine at position 225.
doi:10.1128/AAC.49.11.4745-4750.2005
PMCID: PMC1280129  PMID: 16251320
14.  Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Genes Found among Escherichia coli Isolates from Duck and Environmental Samples Obtained on a Duck Farm 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(10):3668-3673.
In this study, we focused on evaluating the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in fecal samples of healthy ducks and environmental samples from a duck farm in South China. Duck cloacal swabs and pond water samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar plates supplemented with ceftiofur. Individual colonies were examined for ESBL production. Bacteria identified as E. coli were screened for the presence of ESBL and plasmid-borne AmpC genes. The genetic relatedness, plasmid replicon type, and genetic background were determined. Of 245 samples analyzed, 123 had E. coli isolates with ceftiofur MICs higher than 8 μg/ml (116 [50.4%] from 230 duck samples and 7 [46.7%] from 15 water samples). blaCTX-M, blaSHV-12, blaCMY-2, and blaDHA-1 were identified in 108, 5, 9, and 1 isolates, respectively. The most common blaCTX-M genes were blaCTX-M-27 (n = 34), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 27), blaCTX-M-24e (n = 22), and blaCTX-M-105 (n = 20), followed by blaCTX-M-14a, blaCTX-M-14b, blaCTX-M-24a, and blaCTX-M-24b. Although most of the CTX-M producers had distinct pulsotypes, clonal transmission between duck and water isolates was observed. blaCTX-M genes were carried by transferable IncN, IncF, and untypeable plasmids. The novel CTX-M gene blaCTX-M-105 was flanked by two hypothetical protein sequences, partial ISEcp1 upstream and truncated IS903D, iroN, orf1, and a Tn1721-like element downstream. It is suggested that the horizontal transfer of blaCTX-M genes mediated by mobile elements and the clonal spread of CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates contributed to the dissemination of blaCTX-M in the duck farm. Our findings highlight the importance of ducks for the dissemination of transferable antibiotic resistance genes into the environment.
doi:10.1128/AEM.07507-11
PMCID: PMC3346353  PMID: 22407683
15.  Study of CTX-M Type of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase among Nosocomial Isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in South India 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2011;52(1):35-40.
Data on CTX-M type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) produced by Gram-negative bacteria by molecular methods are limited from India. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of CTX-M type ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from nosocomial isolates in a tertiary care hospital in southern India. A total of 179 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae (n = 72) and E. coli (n = 107) were obtained in a period of 3 months and assessed for ESBL production phenotypically. Associated resistance to a panel of antibiotics and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for 3rd generation cephalosporins was determined. Phenotypically ESBL positive isolates were subjected to PCR for blaCTX-M gene using two sets of primers for the simultaneous detection of all the five major groups of CTX-M types. All the positive isolates were then subjected to a group specific PCR to detect the prevalent group. Out of 179 isolates, 156 (87.1%) were positive for ESBL phenotypically, which includes 39.2% of K. pneumoniae and 60.8% of E. coli. All of them were examined by PCR using two primers for the presence of blaCTX-M genes. Among the 156 phenotypic positive isolates, 124 (79.4%) were positive for blaCTX-M genes, of which 45 (36.2%) were K. pneumoniae, 79 (63.7%) were E. coli. When the 124 positive clinical isolates were further tested with CTX-M group-specific primers, all were positive for the CTX-M-1 group. Our findings document evidence of the high prevalence of multidrug resistant CTX-M group 1 type ESBL among nosocomial isolates in this region. High co-resistance to other non-β-lactam antibiotics is a major challenge for management of ESBL infections. This is alarming and calls for the judicious use of carbapenems, especially in developing countries. This has significant implications for patient management, and indicates the need for increased surveillance and for further molecular characterization of these isolates.
doi:10.1007/s12088-011-0140-3
PMCID: PMC3298595  PMID: 23449681
Extended spectrum β-lactamase; CTX-M types; Antibiotic resistance; Nosocomial isolates; South India
16.  Extended spectrum betalactamase producing Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from young children in Iran 
Aim
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of betalactamase producing EAEC isolates among young children with diarrhea in Zanjan, Iran.
Background
Entero aggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging enteric pathogen associated with acute and persistent diarrhea and the evolution and spread of acquired extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs) among these strains has become a serious problem in the management of infectious diseases in developing countries.
Patients and methods
During the period from March 2011 to January 2012, 140 isolates of E. coli from diarrheal children aged 0–60 months and 90 isolates from age-matched controls without diarrhea were investigated for EAEC using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as CLSI guidelines and betalactamase genes, including bla TEM, bla CTX-M, bla IMP, bla VIM and bla NDM-1 investigated in EAEC isolates.
Results
In this study, EAEC was detected with slightly higher frequency in children with (8%) than in children without (4.6%) diarrhea (P > 0.05). Diarrheagenic E. coli exhibited high level resistance to aztreonam (80.7%), amoxicillin (74.4%) and tetracycline (69.3%). Also, 86.4% of E. coli isolates were resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobial agents and considered as multidrug resistance. Molecular characterization of betalactamase genes showed that bla TEM was the most frequently isolated betalactamase. It was detected in 78.9% of ESBL producing EAEC isolates. Also, the frequency of bla CTX-M was 63.1% (12/19) and 8 (42.1%) isolates carried the bla TEM and bla CTX-M, simultaneously. None MBL producing EAEC was detected in our study.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that ESBLs especially bla TEM and bla CTX-M are widespread among EAEC isolates and appropriate surveillance and control measures are essential to prevent further dissemination of betalactamases in our country.
PMCID: PMC4017568  PMID: 24834305
Antibiotic resistance; Diarrhea; EAEC; ESBL
17.  Neonatal septicaemia caused by diverse clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae & Escherichia coli harbouring blaCTX-M-15 
Background & objectives:
Information about the genetic diversity of the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and the clonal relationship of the organisms causing neonatal infections is limited, particularly from India where neonatal mortality is high. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular epidemiology and risk factors associated with neonatal septicaemia caused by ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.
Methods:
Bloodstream isolates (n=26) of K. pneumoniae (n=10) and E. coli (n=16) from the neonates admitted in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi during January to May 2008 were characterized. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out and ESBL production was assessed phenotypically. PCR was carried out for ESBL and ampC genes. Genotyping was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Conjugation experiments were done to determine the mobility of ESBL genes. Risk factors associated with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli infections were analysed.
Results:
Resistance rates to most of the antibiotics tested were high, except for imipenem. Among the isolates tested, 60 per cent of K. pneumoniae and 75 per cent of E. coli were ESBL producers. PFGE of the isolates demonstrated a vast diversity of genotypes with no epidemic clones. Despite the clonal diversity, blaCTX-M-15 was detected in 100 per cent of ESBL-positive isolates. The other genes present in ESBL-positive isolates were blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaSHV-28, blaSHV-11, and blaSHV-12. Class 1 integrons were detected in 7 of 18 ESBL-positive isolates. Moreover, the plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-15, in E. coli and K. pneumoniae were self transferable. Feeding through an enteral tube was identified as the only risk factor for sepsis by ESBL-producing organisms.
Interpretation & conclusions:
The study emphasises the presence of blaCTX-M-15 in clonally diverse isolates indicating probable horizontal transfer of this gene. The widespread dissemination of CTX-M-15 is of great concern as it further confines the limited therapeutic interventions available for neonates.
PMCID: PMC3724262  PMID: 23703349
CTX-M-15; diverse clones; ESBLs; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumoniae; neonatal sepsis; risk factor
18.  Three Cefotaximases, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, and CTX-M-14, among Enterobacteriaceae in the People's Republic of China 
Of 15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying blaCTX-M genes revealed that they harbored three different blaCTX-M genes, blaCTX-M-9 (5 isolates), blaCTX-M-13 (1 isolate), and blaCTX-M-14 (6 isolates). These genes have 98% nucleotide homology with blaToho-2. The blaCTX-M genes were carried on plasmids that ranged in size from 35 to 150 kb. Plasmid fingerprints and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the dissemination of the blaCTX-M genes through transfer of different antibiotic resistance plasmids to different bacteria, suggesting that these resistance determinants are highly mobile. Insertion sequence ISEcp1, found on the upstream region of these genes, may be involved in the translocation of the blaCTX-M genes. This is the first report of the occurrence of SHV-12 and CTX-M ESBLs in China. The presence of strains with these ESBLs shows both the evolution of blaCTX-M genes and their dissemination among at least three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae, isolated within a single hospital. The predominance of CTX-M type enzymes seen in this area of China appears to be similar to that seen in South America but is different from those seen in Europe and North America, suggesting different evolutionary routes and selective pressures. A more comprehensive survey of the ESBL types from China is urgently needed.
doi:10.1128/AAC.46.3.630-637.2002
PMCID: PMC127467  PMID: 11850241
19.  Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study 
The Lancet Infectious Diseases  2010;10(9):597-602.
Summary
Background
Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK.
Methods
Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied from two major centres in India—Chennai (south India), Haryana (north India)—and those referred to the UK's national reference laboratory. Antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed, and the presence of the carbapenem resistance gene blaNDM-1 was established by PCR. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-restricted genomic DNA. Plasmids were analysed by S1 nuclease digestion and PCR typing. Case data for UK patients were reviewed for evidence of travel and recent admission to hospitals in India or Pakistan.
Findings
We identified 44 isolates with NDM-1 in Chennai, 26 in Haryana, 37 in the UK, and 73 in other sites in India and Pakistan. NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli (36) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (111), which were highly resistant to all antibiotics except to tigecycline and colistin. K pneumoniae isolates from Haryana were clonal but NDM-1 producers from the UK and Chennai were clonally diverse. Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids: those from UK and Chennai were readily transferable whereas those from Haryana were not conjugative. Many of the UK NDM-1 positive patients had travelled to India or Pakistan within the past year, or had links with these countries.
Interpretation
The potential of NDM-1 to be a worldwide public health problem is great, and co-ordinated international surveillance is needed.
Funding
European Union, Wellcome Trust, and Wyeth.
doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70143-2
PMCID: PMC2933358  PMID: 20705517
20.  Simultaneous gut colonisation and infection by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in hospitalised patients 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2015;8(6):200-207.
Background
Extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) have been recovered from the hospital environment. These drug-resistant organisms have also been found to be present in humans as commensals. The present investigation intended to isolate ESBL-producing E. coli from the gut of already infected patients; to date, only a few studies have shown evidence of the gut microflora as a major source of infection.
Aims
This study aimed to detect the presence of ESBL genes in E.coli that are isolated from the gut of patients who have already been infected with the same organism.
Methods
A total of 70 non-repetitive faecal samples were collected from in-patients of our hospital. These in-patients were clinically diagnosed and were culture-positive for ESBL-producing E. coli either from blood, urine, or pus. Standard microbiological methods were used to detect ESBL from clinical and gut isolates. Genes coding for major betalactamase enzymes such as bla CTX-M , bla TEM, and bla SHV were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results
ESBL-producing E. coli was isolated from 15 (21 per cent) faecal samples of the 70 samples that were cultured. PCR revealed that out of these 15 isolates, the bla CTX-M gene was found in 13 (86.6 per cent) isolates, the bla TEM was present in 11 (73.3 per cent) isolates, and bla SHV only in eight (53.3 per cent) isolates. All 15 clinical and gut isolates had similar phenotypic characters and eight of the 15 patients had similar pattern of genes (bla TEM, bla CTX-M, and bla SHV) in their clinical and gut isolates.
Conclusion
Strains with multiple betalactamase genes that colonise the gut of hospitalised patients are a potential threat and it may be a potential source of infection.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2015.2358
PMCID: PMC4496720  PMID: 26213583
Stool; colonisation; ESBL E.coli
21.  Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria from Diabetic Foot Ulcers 
Severe diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) patients visiting Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, were selected for this study. Bacteria were isolated from swab and deep tissue of 42 patients, for examining their prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity. DFUs of majority of the patients were found infected with Enterococcus spp. (47.61%), Escherichia coli (35.71%), Staphylococcus spp. (33.33%), Alcaligenes spp. (30.95%), Pseudomonas spp. (30.95%), and Stenotrophomonas spp. (30.95%). Antibiotic susceptibility assay of 142 bacteria with 16 antibiotics belonging to eight classes showed the presence of 38 (26.76%) isolates with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes. MDR character appeared to be governed by integrons as class 1 integrons were detected in 26 (68.42%) isolates. Altogether six different arrays of genes (aadA1, aadB, aadAV, dhfrV, dhfrXII, and dhfrXVII) were found within class 1 integron. Gene cassette dhfrAXVII-aadAV (1.6 kb) was present in 12 (3 Gram positive and 9 Gram negative) isolates and was conserved across all the isolates as evident from RFLP analysis. In addition to the presence of class 1 integron, six β-lactamase resistance encoding genes namely blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA, blaCTX−M−gp1, blaCTX−M−gp2, and blaCTX−M−gp9 and two methicillin resistance genes namely mecA and femA and vancomycin resistance encoding genes (vanA and vanB) were identified in different isolates. Majority of the MDR isolates were positive for blaTEM (89.47%), blaOXA (52.63%), and blaCTX−M−gp1 (34.21%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from DFUs from North India. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that class-1 integrons and β-lactamase genes contributed to the MDR in above bacteria.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.01464
PMCID: PMC4700134  PMID: 26779134
diabetic foot ulcer; antibiotic resistance; PCR; class 1 integron; β-lactamase; multidrug resistance
22.  Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii carrying the ISAba1-blaOXA-23,51 and ISAba1-blaADC-7 genes in Monteria, Colombia 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2012;43(4):1274-1280.
The purpose of this study was to identify the genes coding for resistance to ceftazidime and imipenem and describe the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii strains isolated from a clinical center in Colombia. Twenty isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii from an equal number of patients with nosocomial infections were obtained. Primers were used to amplify genes blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaOXA-51 and blaADC-7. To detect insertion sequences ISAba1/blaOXA-23, ISAba1/blaOXA-51 and ISAba1/blaADC-7, mapping by PCR using combinations of reverse primers ISAba1 and reverse primers of blaOXA-23, blaOXA-51 and blaADC-7 were used. The amplification products were purified and cloned into PCR 2.1-TOPO vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli TOP10. These amplicons were then sequenced. PFGE was performed on DNA of A. baumannii isolates digested with ApaI. Results. The DNA profiles obtained included 9 clusters with, four 2–7 isolates per profile, and 5 single-isolate profiles. Of the 20 isolates resistant to imipenem, 15 carried blaOXA-23 gene, 4 contained ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 gene, and 6 contained ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-23 gene. Eighteen of these isolates carried the blaADC-7 gene, with 9 of the isolates having ISAba1 located upstream of this gene. This is the first report of the ISAba1/ADC-7 associated with OXAs genes in A. baumannii isolates from Colombia.
doi:10.1590/S1517-83822012000400006
PMCID: PMC3769044  PMID: 24031953
Nosocomial pathogens; Antimicrobial resistance; PFGE
23.  Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Plasmid-mediated Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Genes (balaTEM, blaCTX and blASHV) Among Urinary Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates in Mashhad, Iran 
Objective(s)
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria have an important role in nosocomial infections. Due to the limited availability of information about the molecular epidemiology of ESBL producing bacteria in Mashhad, we decided to investigate about TEM, CTX and SHV ESBLs among urinary Escherichia coli isolates in Mashhad, a city in northeast Iran.
Materials and Methods
One hundred and eleven clinical isolates of E. coli were diagnosed from hospitalized patients in 2009. After performing antibiogram and phenotypic confirmation test, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed by blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX primers and restriction digestion was carried out using PstI and TaqI (Fermentas-Lithuania) for confirmation.
Results
ESBL producers of E. coli isolates were 33.3%. Among 37 ESBL-producing isolates, 35 (94.6%), 21 (56.8%) and 5 (13.5%) were shown to have blaCTX, blaTEM and blaSHV, genes respectively. Co-resistance to non-beta lactam antibiotics was observed more with ESBL producers (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
The results showed that the studied ESBL genes are found with high prevalence and among them blaCTX is more widespread in urine E. coli isolates in Mashhad.
PMCID: PMC3586896  PMID: 23493415
Antibiotic resistance; Escherichia coli; Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; Urinary tract infection
24.  Rapid Identification of Carbapenemase Genes in Gram-Negative Bacteria with an Oligonucleotide Microarray-Based Assay 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(7):e102232.
Rapid molecular identification of carbapenemase genes in Gram-negative bacteria is crucial for infection control and prevention, surveillance and for epidemiological purposes. Furthermore, it may have a significant impact upon determining the appropriate initial treatment and greatly benefit for critically ill patients. A novel oligonucleotide microarray-based assay was developed to simultaneously detect genes encoding clinically important carbapenemases as well as selected extended (ESBL) and narrow spectrum (NSBL) beta-lactamases directly from clonal culture material within few hours. Additionally, a panel of species specific markers was included to identify Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii/braakii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. The assay was tested using a panel of 117 isolates collected from urinary, blood and stool samples. For these isolates, phenotypic identifications and susceptibility tests were available. An independent detection of carbapenemase, ESBL and NSBL genes was carried out by various external reference laboratories using PCR methods. In direct comparison, the microarray correctly identified 98.2% of the covered carbapenemase genes. This included blaVIM (13 out of 13), blaGIM (2/2), blaKPC (27/27), blaNDM (5/5), blaIMP-2/4/7/8/13/14/15/16/31 (10/10), blaOXA-23 (12/13), blaOXA-40-group (7/7), blaOXA-48-group (32/33), blaOXA-51 (1/1) and blaOXA-58 (1/1). Furthermore, the test correctly identified additional beta-lactamases [blaOXA-1 (16/16), blaOXA-2 (4/4), blaOXA-9 (33/33), OXA-10 (3/3), blaOXA-51 (25/25), blaOXA-58 (2/2), CTX-M1/M15 (17/17) and blaVIM (1/1)]. In direct comparison to phenotypical identification obtained by VITEK or MALDI-TOF systems, 114 of 117 (97.4%) isolates, including Acinetobacter baumannii (28/28), Enterobacter spec. (5/5), Escherichia coli (4/4), Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/63), Klebsiella oxytoca (0/2), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12/12), Citrobacter freundii (1/1) and Citrobacter braakii (2/2), were correctly identified by a panel of species specific probes. This assay might be easily extended, adapted and transferred to point of care platforms enabling fast surveillance, rapid detection and appropriate early treatment of infections caused by multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102232
PMCID: PMC4113224  PMID: 25068267
25.  Comparative Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infection Cases from Representative States of Northern and Southern India 
Context: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatient settings. Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of urinary tract pathogens is a matter of global public health concern. Treatment of UTI depends on both prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of causative bacteria at any specific geographical location.
Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of uropathogens and their AMR profile in two different geographical parts of India.
Materials and Methods: Clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from adult patients, bacterial flora isolated from human urine was evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility profile using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method among patients from Hyderabad (Southern India), Rajasthan and Punjab (Northern India). The data were analysed using Chi-square (χ2) test, confidence interval (CI), odds ratio (OR) analysis and p-value using SPSS 16 software.
Results: Escherichia coli (55.1%) were the most prevalent isolates followed by Enterococcus faecalis (15.8%). Amikacin was the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 14%. The present study revealed the geographical difference in prevalence of uropathogens with Klebsiella pneumoniae being the second most common uropathogen followed by E. faecalis in the states from northern India while no K. pneumoniae was seen in samples from southern India but E. faecalis was the second most prevalent organism.
Conclusion: Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is highly recommended for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines in Indian settings.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9349.4889
PMCID: PMC4225884  PMID: 25386432
Antimicrobial resistance; Bacteriuria and antibiotics; Community-acquired urinary yract infections; Uropathogens

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