Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis in seriously ill patients. Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) is increasing in frequency, and the management of it's infections is consequently difficult. Therefore, tigecycline is considered to be the drug of choice for MDRAB treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological eradication and clinical effectiveness of tigecycline against MDRAB in seriously ill patients, including patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective study including patients with A. baumannii infections who were treated with tigecycline between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2010. We treated 27 patients with tigecycline for MDRAB infections.
The mean age of patients was 66.2 years, and 20 (74.1%) patients were male. The median length of stay at hospital was 74.6 days. MDRAB was eradicated from the site of infection in 23 cases (85.2%), however, only 17 cases (63.0%) showed positive clinical responses. Overall, an in-hospital mortality rate of 51.9% was observed, and 4 cases of death were attributable to sepsis. The combination therapy showed better clinical and microbial success rates than the monotherapy without significant difference.
We observed the relatively low clinical success rate although the microbial eradication rate was high, probably due to superinfections in VAP and bacteremia. We suggest that clinicians should limit tigecycline monotherapy for MDRAB infection in critically ill patients, until large controlled clinical trials should be conducted.
Acinetobacter baumannii; bacteremia; multidrug resistance; tigecycline; ventilator-associated pneumonia
Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an important nosocomial pathogen usually susceptible to carbapenems; however, growing number of imipenem resistant MDRAB (IR-MDRAB) poses further clinical challenge. The study was designed to identify the risk factors for appearance of IR-MDRAB on patients formerly with imipenem susceptible MDRAB (IS-MDRAB) and the impact on clinical outcomes.
A retrospective case control study was carried out for 209 consecutive episodes of IS-MDRAB infection or colonization from August 2001 to March 2005. Forty-nine (23.4%) episodes with succeeding clinical isolates of IR-MDRAB were defined as the cases and 160 (76.6%) with all subsequent clinical isolates of IS-MDRAB were defined as the controls. Quantified antimicrobial selective pressure, “time at risk”, severity of illness, comorbidity, and demographic data were incorporated for multivariate analysis, which revealed imipenem or meropenem as the only significant independent risk factor for the appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.27). With selected cases and controls matched to exclude exogenous source of IR-MDRAB, multivariate analysis still identified carbapenem as the only independent risk factor (adjusted OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.92). Case patients had a higher crude mortality rate compared to control patients (57.1% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.001), and the mortality of case patients was associated with shorter duration of “time at risk”, i.e., faster appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.98).
Judicious use of carbapenem with deployment of antibiotics stewardship measures is critical for reducing IR-MDRAB and the associated unfavorable outcome.
Sequence analysis of an 850-bp fragment internal to the aspecific drug efflux gene adeB revealed 11 sequence types (STs) among a collection of 50 multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) strains, including members of pan-European clones I, II, and III. The delineation of STs conformed with the intraspecific grouping of these strains previously determined by different DNA fingerprinting methods. Larger strain collections need to be screened to further explore the potential of sequence-based adeB typing as a universal tool for the monitoring of MDRAB clones.
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major concern in hospitals. Current infection-control practices legitimately focus on hygiene and appropriate use of antibiotics. However, little is known about the intrinsic abilities of some bacterial strains to cause outbreaks. They can be measured at a population level by the pathogen’s transmission rate, i.e. the rate at which the pathogen is transmitted from colonized hosts to susceptible hosts, or its reproduction number, counting the number of secondary cases per infected/colonized host. We collected data covering a 20-month surveillance period for carriage of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in a surgery ward. All isolates were subjected to molecular fingerprinting, and a cluster analysis of profiles was performed to identify clonal groups. We then applied stochastic transmission models to infer transmission rates of MDRAB and each MDRAB clone. Molecular fingerprinting indicated that 3 clonal complexes spread in the ward. A first model, not accounting for different clones, quantified the level of in-ward cross-transmission, with an estimated transmission rate of 0.03/day (95% credible interval [0.012–0.049]) and a single-admission reproduction number of 0.61 [0.30–1.02]. The second model, accounting for different clones, suggested an enhanced transmissibility of clone 3 (transmission rate 0.047/day [0.018–0.091], with a single-admission reproduction number of 0.81 [0.30–1.56]). Clones 1 and 2 had comparable transmission rates (respectively, 0.016 [0.001–0.045], 0.014 [0.001–0.045]). The method used is broadly applicable to other nosocomial pathogens, as long as surveillance data and genotyping information are available. Building on these results, more epidemic clones could be identified, and could lead to follow-up studies dissecting the functional basis for variation in transmissibility of MDRAB lineages.
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) presents an increasing challenge to health care. Although colistin has been used as a treatment of last resort, there is concern regarding its potential for toxicity and the emergence of resistance. The mechanism of action of colistin, however, raises the possibility of synergy with compounds that are normally inactive against Gram-negative organisms by virtue of the impermeability of the bacterial outer membrane. This study evaluated the effect of colistin combined with vancomycin on 5 previously characterized epidemic strains and 34 MDRAB clinical isolates by using time-kill assay, microdilution, and Etest methods. For all the isolates, significant synergy was demonstrated by at least one method, with reductions in the MIC of vancomycin from >256 μg/ml to ≤48 μg/ml for all strains after exposure to 0.5 μg/ml colistin. This raises the possibility of the clinical use of this combination for infections due to MDRAB, with the potential for doses lower than those currently used.
To determine whether the variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene is associated with lung injury in children with community-acquired pneumonia.
A prospective cohort of children diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia.
Two pediatric hospitals.
Eight hundred fifty pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled.
Genotyping of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene was performed on DNA isolated from whole blood.
Measurements and Main Results
The requirement for positive pressure ventilation or the diagnosis of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome were the main outcomes of the study. Children (14 days–19 yrs) with community-acquired pneumonia (850) were enrolled; analysis was limited to African American (515) and Caucasian (232) patients. Of the 82 patients requiring positive pressure ventilation, 44 were diagnosed with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that children without a copy of the A1 allele of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene were more likely to need positive pressure ventilation compared to those with one or two copies of this allele (odds ratio = 2.65, confidence interval, 1.02– 6.90). In addition, the absence of the A1 allele also appeared to be associated with the development of community-acquired pneumonia–induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio = 3.1, confidence interval, 0.99 –9.67).
In children with community-acquired pneumonia, absence of the A1 allele at the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist intron 2 polymorphic site is associated with increased risk for more severe lung injury, as measured by the need for positive pressure ventilation or the development of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Conversely, presence of the A1 allele is associated with decreased risk for more severe lung injury in this patient population.
interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; genetic polymorphisms; pediatrics; lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome
Fast, reliable, and versatile typing tools are essential to differentiate among related bacterial strains for epidemiological investigation and surveillance of health care-associated infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The DiversiLab (DL) system is a semiautomated repetitive-sequence-based PCR system designed for rapid genotyping. The DL system performance was assessed by comparing its reproducibility, typeability, discriminatory power, and concordance with those of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and by assessing its epidemiological concordance on well-characterized MDR bacterial strains (n = 165). These included vanA Enterococcus faecium, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii, and ESBL- or metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The DL system showed very good performance for E. faecium and K. pneumoniae and good performance for other species, except for a discrimination index of <95% for A. baumannii and E. coli (93.9% and 93.5%, respectively) and incomplete concordance with MLST for P. aeruginosa (78.6%) and E. coli (97.0%). Occasional violations of MLST assignment by DL types were noted for E. coli. Complete epidemiological concordance was observed for all pathogens, as all outbreak-associated strains clustered in identical DL types that were distinct from those of unrelated strains. In conclusion, the DL system showed good to excellent performance, making it a reliable typing tool for investigation of outbreaks caused by study pathogens, even though it was generally less discriminating than PFGE analysis. For E. coli and P. aeruginosa, MLST cannot be reliably inferred from DL type due to phylogenetic group violation or discordance.
Resistance to carbapenems among Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. We describe the epidemiology and genetic basis of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae in a six-hospital healthcare system in Northeast Ohio.
Clinical isolates of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae distributed across the healthcare system were collected from April 2007 to April 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed followed by molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. Genetic relatedness of isolates was established with repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), multilocus PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and PFGE. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients were reviewed.
Among 39 isolates of A. baumannii, two predominant genotypes related to European clone II were found. Eighteen isolates contained blaOXA-23, and four isolates possessed blaOXA-24/40. Among 29 K. pneumoniae isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, two distinct genotypes containing blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 were found. Patients with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were elderly, possessed multiple co-morbidities, were frequently admitted from and discharged to post-acute care facilities, and experienced prolonged hospital stays (up to 25 days) with a high mortality rate (up to 35%).
In this outbreak of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae across a healthcare system, we illustrate the important role post-acute care facilities play in the dissemination of multidrug-resistant phenotypes.
LTCF; LTACH; molecular epidemiology; MLST; PFGE; rep-PCR; KPC
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen usually in the context of serious underlying disease. Multidrug resistance in these organisms is frequent. The β-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam have intrinsic activity against Acinetobacter strains. To evaluate their potential therapeutic usefulness, we determined the in vitro activity of ampicillin, sulbactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin, piperacillin-sulbactam, tazobactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. All isolates were epidemiologically characterized by RAPD [random(ly) amplified polymorphic DNA] analysis and/or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and represented different strain types, including sporadic strains, as well as outbreak-related strains. The MICs were determined by agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton agar (using fixed concentrations, as well as fixed ratios for β-lactamase inhibitors) and the E-test. The majority of E-test results were within two dilutions of those recorded by agar dilution, with the exception of piperacillin-tazobactam. Sulbactam was superior to clavulanic acid and tazobactam and may represent an alternative treatment option for infections due to multiresistant A. baumannii strains. β-Lactamase inhibitors have intrinsic activity but do not enhance activity of β-lactams against A. baumannii. Testing with the inhibitor added at a fixed concentration as recommended for piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards may falsely suggest high activity or gives uninterpretable results due to trailing. If combinations are used for testing, fixed ratios may give more useful results.
Military members, injured in Afghanistan or Iraq, have returned home with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The source of these infections is unknown.
Retrospective study of all Canadian soldiers who were injured in Afghanistan and who required mechanical ventilation from January 1 2006 to September 1 2006. Patients who developed A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) were identified. All A. baumannii isolates were retrieved for study patients and compared with A. baumannii isolates from environmental sources from the Kandahar military hospital using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
During the study period, six Canadian Forces (CF) soldiers were injured in Afghanistan, required mechanical ventilation and were repatriated to Canadian hospitals. Four of these patients developed A. baumannii VAP. A. baumannii was also isolated from one environmental source in Kandahar – a ventilator air intake filter. Patient isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other and from the isolates cultured from the ventilator filter. These isolates were resistant to numerous classes of antimicrobials including the carbapenems.
These results suggest that the source of A. baumannii infection for these four patients was an environmental source in the military field hospital in Kandahar. A causal linkage, however, was not established with the ventilator. This study suggests that infection control efforts and further research should be focused on the military field hospital environment to prevent further multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections in injured soldiers.
Isolating carriers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is the main measure to prevent its spread. Identification of carriers accompanied by contact precautions is essential. We aimed to determine the appropriate surveillance sampling sites and the duration of carriage of MDR A. baumannii. We studied prospectively two groups of patients from whom MDR A. baumannii was previously isolated: (i) those with recent clinical isolation (≤10 days) and (ii) those with remote clinical isolation (≥6 months). Screening for carriage was conducted from six sites: nostrils, pharynx, skin, rectum, wounds, and endotracheal aspirates. Strains recovered concurrently from different sites were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twelve of 22 with recent clinical isolation of MDR A. baumannii had ≥1 positive screening culture, resulting in a sensitivity of 55% when six body sites were sampled. Sensitivities of single sites ranged from 13.5% to 29%. Among 30 patients with remote clinical isolation, screening cultures were positive in 5 (17%), with a mean duration of 17.5 months from the last clinical culture. Remote carriers had positive screening cultures from the skin and pharynx but not from nose, rectum, wounds, or endotracheal aspirates. Eleven strains from five patients were genotyped. In all but one case, isolates from different sites in a given patient were clonal. Current methodology is suboptimal to detect MDR A. baumannii carriage. The sensitivity of surveillance cultures is low, even when six different body sites are sampled. The proportion of individuals with previous MDR A. baumannii isolation who remain carriers for prolonged periods is substantial. These data should be considered when designing measures to limit the spread of MDR A. baumannii.
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii are a challenging problem worldwide. Here, the molecular epidemiology and the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in 111 MDR A. baumannii strains isolated from June 2005 to March 2009 from infected patients in 10 intensive care units (ICUs) in central Italy were investigated.
Epidemiological typing was performed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA, PCR-based sequence grouping and macrorestriction analysis. MICs of antibiotics were determined by the broth microdilution method. Genes for OXA carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases and the CarO porin were searched for by PCR.
Molecular genotyping identified one predominant A. baumannii lineage, related to the international clonal lineage II, accounting for 95.6% of isolates. Isolates referable to this lineage were recovered from all ICUs surveyed and were resistant to nearly all classes of antimicrobials, with the exception of tigecycline and colistin. A high percentage (60.5%) of A. baumannii isolates showed elevated resistance to imipenem (MICs ≥ 128 mg/L), concomitant with resistance to meropenem. Carbapenem resistance was associated with the presence of either blaOXA-58-like (22.8%) or blaOXA-23-like (71.1%) carbapenemase genes. Molecular typing showed that the epidemic lineage encoding OXA-23 emerged in 2007 and displaced a genetically related clone encoding OXA-58 that had been responsible for previous ICU outbreaks in the same region.
Emergence of the OXA-23 epidemic lineage could result from selective advantage conferred by the blaOXA-23-like determinant, which provides increased resistance to carbapenems.
genotyping; intensive care units; OXA-23
The mechanism of stepwise acquired multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a hospitalized patient was investigated. Thirteen consecutive multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered from the same patient over a 2-month period. The Vitek 2 system identified the isolates as meropenem-sensitive Acinetobacter lwoffii; however, molecular identification showed that the isolates were A. baumannii. Etest revealed that the isolates were meropenem resistant. The presence of oxacillinase (OXA)-type enzymes were investigated by sequencing. The clonal relatedness of isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Expression of the genes encoding the efflux pumps AdeB and AdeJ was performed by semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The adeRS two-component system was sequenced. All isolates had identical PFGE fingerprints, suggesting clonal identity. The first six isolates were positive for the novel blaOXA-164 gene. The following seven isolates, recovered after treatment with a combination of meropenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and co-trimoxazole showed an increase of >7-fold in adeB mRNA transcripts and a missense mutation in blaOXA-164, converting it to blaOXA-58. Sequencing revealed a novel mutation in adeR. These data illustrate how A. baumannii can adapt during antimicrobial therapy, leading to increased antimicrobial resistance.
BACKGROUND: Recently, the association of a polymorphism in the gene coding for the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist with ulcerative colitis has been reported. This was interpreted as a possible genetic predisposition for severity of the inflammatory response. AIMS: To examine this polymorphism in a southern German population. SUBJECTS: The study included 234 healthy controls, 57 patients with ulcerative colitis, including 31 patients with pancolitis, 44 first degree healthy relatives of patients with ulcerative colitis, and 65 patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS: Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction amplification of the intron 2 fragment harbouring a variable number of tandem repeat nucleotide sequences. Amplification products were separated on a 2% agarose gel. RESULTS: The allele frequency for allele 2 was 27% in healthy controls, 28% in Crohn's disease, and 21% in patients with ulcerative colitis. The same allele frequency (21%) was found in a subgroup of patients with ulcerative colitis affecting the whole colon. Thus for allele 2 as well as for all other alleles, genotypes, or carriage rates no significant differences were found compared with controls. All allele frequencies in the control population were similar to those in earlier studies. CONCLUSIONS: No association of a polymorphism in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene with ulcerative colitis could be identified in this southern German population. The findings of an earlier study reporting an increased frequency of allele 2, particularly in patients with pancolitis, could not be confirmed.
Acinetobacter isolates from eight subjects with community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia (CAAP), a major cause of fatal community-acquired pneumonia in tropical Australia, were phenotypically and genotypically confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis to be broadly diverse Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Wet-season throat carriage of A. baumannii was found in 10% of community residents with excess levels of alcohol consumption, the major at-risk group for CAAP.
The molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was investigated in the medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital in Italy during two window periods in which two sequential A. baumannii epidemics occurred. Genotype analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of A. baumannii isolates from 131 patients identified nine distinct PFGE patterns. Of these, PFGE clones B and I predominated and occurred sequentially during the two epidemics. A. baumannii epidemic clones showed a multidrug-resistant antibiotype, being clone B resistant to all antimicrobials tested except the carbapenems and clone I resistant to all antimicrobials except ampicillin-sulbactam and gentamicin. Type 1 integrons of 2.5 and 2.2 kb were amplified from the chromosomal DNA of epidemic PFGE clones B and I, respectively, but not from the chromosomal DNA of the nonepidemic clones. Nucleotide analysis of clone B integron identified four gene cassettes: aacC1, which confers resistance to gentamicin; two open reading frames (ORFs) coding for unknown products; and aadA1a, which confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The integron of clone I contained three gene cassettes: aacA4, which confers resistance to amikacin, netilmicin, and tobramycin; an unknown ORF; and blaOXA-20, which codes for a class D β-lactamase that confers resistance to amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxacillin, and cloxacillin. Also, the blaIMP allele was amplified from chromosomal DNA of A. baumannii strains of PFGE type I. Class 1 integrons carrying antimicrobial resistance genes and blaIMP allele in A. baumannii epidemic strains correlated with the high use rates of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and aminoglycosides in the ICU during the study period.
This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with recurrent bacteremia caused by the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex at a medical center. All ACB complex isolates associated with recurrent bacteremia were identified to the genomic species level using a 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer sequence-based method. Genotypes were determined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns generated by arbitrarily primed PCR and by pulsotypes generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Relapse of infection was defined as when the genotype of the recurrent isolate was identical to that of the original infecting strain. Reinfection was defined as when the genospecies or genotype of the recurrent isolate differed from that of the original isolate. From 2006 to 2008, 446 patients had ACB complex bacteremia and 25 (5.6%) had recurrent bacteremia caused by the ACB complex. Among the 25 patients, 12 (48%) had relapse of bacteremia caused by A. nosocomialis (n = 7) or A. baumannii (n = 5). Among the 13 patients with reinfection, 5 (38.5%) had reinfection caused by different genospecies of the ACB complex. Most of the patients were immunocompromised, and most of the infection foci were catheter-related bloodstream infections. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 33.3%. A. baumannii isolates had lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates than A. nosocomialis and A. pittii isolates. In conclusion, relapse of ACB complex bacteremia can develop in immunocompromised patients, especially those with central venous catheters. Molecular methods to identify the ACB complex to the genospecies level are essential for differentiating between reinfection and relapse of bacteremia caused by the ACB complex.
Acinetobacter baumannii is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. Multidrug resistance, as well as ability to withstand environmental stresses, makes eradication of A. baumannii difficult, particularly from hospital settings.
Over a six-year period, 73 isolates of A. baumannii were collected from infected patients in two hospitals in Italy. While 69 out of the 73 isolates displayed identical multidrug antibiotic resistance pattern, they were susceptible to carbapenems. Genetic profiles of these 69 isolates, determined by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), indicated that they were genetically related and could be clustered in a specific clone, called SMAL. We tested the ability of the SMAL clone to form biofilm, an important determinant for bacterial colonization of the human host and for persistence in the hospital environment. Biofilm formation by A. baumannii SMAL, measured as surface adhesion to polystyrene, is strongly affected by growth conditions, being impaired in rich growth media such as LB, while being favoured in glucose-based medium. Surface adhesion in glucose-based media is inhibited by treatment with cellulase, suggesting that it depends on production of cellulose or of a chemically related extracellular polysaccharide. Exposure of A. baumannii SMAL to subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem resulted in biofilm stimulation and increased production of iron uptake proteins. Growth in iron-supplemented medium also stimulated surface adhesion, thus suggesting that increased intracellular iron concentrations might act as an environmental signal for biofilm formation in A. baumannii SMAL.
Our results indicate that exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem can stimulate biofilm formation and induce iron uptake in a pathogenic strain of A. baumannii, with potential implications on antibiotic susceptibility and ability to persist in the human host.
Multidrug resistance has emerged as a significant concern with infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Ample evidence supports the involvement of mobile genetic elements in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, but the extent of variability and the rate of genetic change associated with the acquisition of antibiotic resistance have not been studied in detail. Whole-genome sequence analysis of six closely related clinical isolates of A. baumannii, including four from the same hospital, revealed extensive divergence of the resistance genotype that correlated with observed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance genes associated with insertion sequences, plasmids, and a chromosomal resistance gene island all showed variability. The highly dynamic resistance gene repertoire suggests rapid evolution of drug resistance.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii are important nosocomial pathogens with wide intrinsic resistance. However, due to the dissemination of the acquired resistance mechanisms, such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL) production, multidrug resistant strains have been isolated more often.
We report a case of a Hungarian tourist, who was initially hospitalized in Egypt and later transferred to Hungary. On the day of admission PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa, PER-1 producing A. baumannii, SHV-5-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa isolates were subcultured from the patient's samples in Hungary. Comparing the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the P. aeruginosa strains from the patient to the P. aeruginosa strains occurring in this hospital, we can state that the PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa and VIM-2-producing P. aeruginosa had external origin.
This is the first report of PER-1-producing P. aeruginosa,and PER-1-producing A. baumanii strains in Hungary. This case highlights the importance of spreading of the beta-lactamase-mediated resistance mechanisms between countries and continents, showing the importance of careful screening and the isolation of patients arriving from a different country.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly multidrug-resistant (MDR) cause of hospital-acquired infections, often associated with limited therapeutic options. We investigated A. baumannii isolates at a New York hospital to characterize genetic relatedness.
Thirty A. baumannii isolates from geographically-dispersed nursing units within the hospital were studied. Isolate relatedness was assessed by repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The presence and characteristics of integrons were assessed by PCR. Metabolomic profiles of a subset of a prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were characterized and compared.
We detected a hospital-wide group of closely related carbapenem resistant MDR A. baumannii isolates. Compared with sporadic isolates, the prevalent strain isolates were more likely to be MDR (p = 0.001). Isolates from the prevalent strain carried a novel Class I integron sequence. Metabolomic profiles of selected prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were similar.
The A. baumannii population at our hospital represents a prevalent strain of related MDR isolates that contain a novel integron cassette. Prevalent strain and sporadic isolates did not segregate by metabolomic profiles. Further study of environmental, host, and bacterial factors associated with the persistence of prevalent endemic A. baumannii strains is needed to develop effective prevention strategies.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial outbreaks, mostly occurring in intensive care units. Due to the multiplicity of infection sources, reliable molecular fingerprinting techniques are needed to establish epidemiological correlations among A. baumannii isolates. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) has proven to be a fast, reliable, and cost-effective typing method for several bacterial species. In this study, an MLVA assay compatible with simple PCR- and agarose gel-based electrophoresis steps as well as with high-throughput automated methods was developed for A. baumannii typing. Preliminarily, 10 potential polymorphic variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) were identified upon bioinformatic screening of six annotated genome sequences of A. baumannii. A collection of 7 reference strains plus 18 well-characterized isolates, including unique types and representatives of the three international A. baumannii lineages, was then evaluated in a two-center study aimed at validating the MLVA assay and comparing it with other genotyping assays, namely, macrorestriction analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR-based sequence group (SG) profiling. The results showed that MLVA can discriminate between isolates with identical PFGE types and SG profiles. A panel of eight VNTR markers was selected, all showing the ability to be amplified and good amounts of polymorphism in the majority of strains. Independently generated MLVA profiles, composed of an ordered string of allele numbers corresponding to the number of repeats at each VNTR locus, were concordant between centers. Typeability, reproducibility, stability, discriminatory power, and epidemiological concordance were excellent. A database containing information and MLVA profiles for several A. baumannii strains is available from http://mlva.u-psud.fr/.
Acinetobacter spp. have emerged as important nosocomial and multidrug-resistant pathogens in the last decade. A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, Acinetobacter genospecies 3, and Acinetobacter genospecies 13TU are genetically closely related and are referred to as the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex (ACB complex). Distinct Acinetobacter spp. may be associated with differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, so it is important to identify Acinetobacter spp. at the species level. We developed a microsphere-based array that combines an allele-specific primer extension assay and microsphere hybridization for the identification of Acinetobacter spp. This assay can discriminate the 13 different Acinetobacter spp. in less than 8.5 h, and it has high specificity without causing cross-reactivity with 14 other common nosocomial bacterial species. The sensitivity of this assay was 100 A. baumannii cells per ml of blood, and it could discriminate multiple species in various mixture ratios. The developed assay could differentiate clinical Acinetobacter spp. isolates with a 90% identification rate. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that A. baumannii isolates were resistant to most antimicrobial agents other than imipenem, while the genospecies 3 and 13TU isolates were more susceptible to most antimicrobial agents, especially ciprofloxacin and ampicillin-sulbactam. These results supported the idea that this assay possibly could be applied to clinical samples and provide accurate species identification, which might be helpful for clinicians when they are treating infections caused by Acinetobacter spp.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an uncommon cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with a unique pathophysiology that differs from Shiga toxin-related HUS.
Case descriptions for each patient are provided. Each strain of S pneumoniae was subjected to a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, Shiga toxin assay and polymerase chain reaction to detect Shiga toxin genes. A review of the current literature was conducted.
Two patients with S pneumoniae-related HUS that presented to the Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, within four weeks of each other in 2001 are described. Both presented with pneumonia and empyema with associated HUS. Both patients required dialysis, one patient for 10 days and the other for 18 days. Neither patient demonstrated evidence of Shiga toxin-related disease. S pneumoniae isolated from blood or pleural fluid was penicillin susceptible. One isolate was serotype 3 and the other was serotype 14. The two strains had different PFGE patterns. Both patients recovered well with no persistent renal dysfunction.
S pneumoniaecontinues to be an uncommon but important cause of HUS. Most cases can be confirmed or at least considered probable without performing a renal biopsy.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome; Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of pneumococci was first evidenced by serotyping of their capsular polysaccharides, responsible of virulence, resolving into more than 93 serotypes. Molecular tools have been developed to track the emergence and the spread of resistant, hyper virulent or non-vaccine type clones, particularly DNA-based methods using genetic polymorphism. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis analysis (PFGE) and Multiple Loci Sequence Typing (MLST) are the most frequently used genotyping techniques for S. pneumoniae. MLST is based on sequence comparison of housekeeping genes clustering isolates within sequence types. The availability of genome sequence data from different S. pneumoniae strains facilitated the search for other class of genetic markers as polymorphic DNA sequences for a Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA). This study aims at confirming the relevance of MLVA of S. pneumoniae, comparing MLST and MLVA performances when discriminating subgroups of strains belonging to the same Sequence Type (ST), and defining a restricted but universal set of MLVA markers that has at least the same discriminatory power as MLST for S. pneumoniae by applying marker sets used by different authors on 331 isolates selected in UK.
A minimum spanning tree was built including the serotypes distribution and comparing MLVA and MLST results. 220 MLVA types were determined grouped in 10 Sequence Types (ST). MLVA differentiated ST162 in two clonal complexes. A minimal set was defined: ms 25 and ms37, ms17, ms19, ms33, ms39, and ms40 including two universal markers. The selection was based on MLVA markers with a Diversity Index >0.8 and a selection of others depending of the population tested and the aim of the study. This set of 7 MLVA markers yields strain clusters similar to those obtained by MLST.
MLVA can discriminate relevant subgroups among strains belonging to the same ST. MLVA offers the possibility to deduce the ST from the MLVA Type. It permits to investigate local outbreaks or to track the worldwide spread of clones and the emergence of variants.
S. pneumoniae; MLST; MLVA; Universal marker set; Population structure