Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis in seriously ill patients. Multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) is increasing in frequency, and the management of it's infections is consequently difficult. Therefore, tigecycline is considered to be the drug of choice for MDRAB treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological eradication and clinical effectiveness of tigecycline against MDRAB in seriously ill patients, including patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective study including patients with A. baumannii infections who were treated with tigecycline between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2010. We treated 27 patients with tigecycline for MDRAB infections.
The mean age of patients was 66.2 years, and 20 (74.1%) patients were male. The median length of stay at hospital was 74.6 days. MDRAB was eradicated from the site of infection in 23 cases (85.2%), however, only 17 cases (63.0%) showed positive clinical responses. Overall, an in-hospital mortality rate of 51.9% was observed, and 4 cases of death were attributable to sepsis. The combination therapy showed better clinical and microbial success rates than the monotherapy without significant difference.
We observed the relatively low clinical success rate although the microbial eradication rate was high, probably due to superinfections in VAP and bacteremia. We suggest that clinicians should limit tigecycline monotherapy for MDRAB infection in critically ill patients, until large controlled clinical trials should be conducted.
Acinetobacter baumannii; bacteremia; multidrug resistance; tigecycline; ventilator-associated pneumonia
Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an important nosocomial pathogen usually susceptible to carbapenems; however, growing number of imipenem resistant MDRAB (IR-MDRAB) poses further clinical challenge. The study was designed to identify the risk factors for appearance of IR-MDRAB on patients formerly with imipenem susceptible MDRAB (IS-MDRAB) and the impact on clinical outcomes.
A retrospective case control study was carried out for 209 consecutive episodes of IS-MDRAB infection or colonization from August 2001 to March 2005. Forty-nine (23.4%) episodes with succeeding clinical isolates of IR-MDRAB were defined as the cases and 160 (76.6%) with all subsequent clinical isolates of IS-MDRAB were defined as the controls. Quantified antimicrobial selective pressure, “time at risk”, severity of illness, comorbidity, and demographic data were incorporated for multivariate analysis, which revealed imipenem or meropenem as the only significant independent risk factor for the appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.27). With selected cases and controls matched to exclude exogenous source of IR-MDRAB, multivariate analysis still identified carbapenem as the only independent risk factor (adjusted OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.92). Case patients had a higher crude mortality rate compared to control patients (57.1% vs. 31.3%, p = 0.001), and the mortality of case patients was associated with shorter duration of “time at risk”, i.e., faster appearance of IR-MDRAB (adjusted OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.98).
Judicious use of carbapenem with deployment of antibiotics stewardship measures is critical for reducing IR-MDRAB and the associated unfavorable outcome.
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is associated with nosocomial infections worldwide. To date, the use of a phage to prevent infections caused by MDRAB has not been demonstrated.
The MDRAB-specific phage ϕAB2 was stable at 4°C and pH 7 in 0.5% chloroform solution, and showed a slight decrease in plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml of 0.3–0.9 log after 330 days of storage. The addition of ϕAB2 at a concentration of at least 105 PFU/ml to an A. baumannii M3237 suspension killed >99.9% of A. baumannii M3237 after 5 min, regardless of A. baumannii M3237 concentration (104, 105, or 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml). The addition of ϕAB2 at a concentration of 108 PFU/slide (>107 PFU/cm2) to glass slides containing A. baumannii M3237 at 104, 105, or 106 CFU/slide, significantly reduced bacterial numbers by 93%, 97%, and 99%, respectively. Thus, this concentration is recommended for decontamination of glass surfaces. Moreover, infusion of ϕAB2 into 10% glycerol exhibited strong anti-MDRAB activity (99.9% reduction), even after 90 days of storage. Treatment of a 10% paraffin oil-based lotion with ϕAB2 significantly reduced (99%) A. baumannii M3237 after 1 day of storage. However, ϕAB2 had no activity in the lotion after 1 month of storage.
Phages may be useful for reducing MDRAB contamination in liquid suspensions or on hard surfaces. Phages may also be inoculated into a solution to produce an antiseptic hand wash. However, the phage concentration and incubation time (the duration of phage contact with bacteria) should be carefully considered to reduce the risk of MDRAB contamination.
Bacteriophage; Biocontrol; MDRAB
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the main pathogens that cause ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and is associated with a high rate of mortality. Little is known about the efficacy of macrolides against A. baumannii. In order to confirm the efficacy of azithromycin (AZM) against VAP caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB), we used a mouse model that mimics VAP by placement of a plastic tube in the bronchus. AZM (10 and 100 mg/kg of body weight) was administered subcutaneously every 24 h beginning at 3 h after inoculation. Phosphate-buffered saline was administered as the control. Survival was evaluated over 7 days. At 48 h postinfection, mice were sacrificed and the numbers of viable bacteria in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were compared. Histopathological analysis of lung specimens was also performed. The treatment groups displayed significantly longer survival than the control group (P < 0.05). AZM did not have an antimicrobial effect. Histopathological examination of lung specimens indicated that the progression of lung inflammation was prevented in the AZM-treated groups. Furthermore, total cell and neutrophil counts, as well as cytokine levels, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the AZM-treated groups. AZM may have a role for the treatment of VAP with MDRAB because of its anti-inflammatory effects.
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major concern in hospitals. Current infection-control practices legitimately focus on hygiene and appropriate use of antibiotics. However, little is known about the intrinsic abilities of some bacterial strains to cause outbreaks. They can be measured at a population level by the pathogen’s transmission rate, i.e. the rate at which the pathogen is transmitted from colonized hosts to susceptible hosts, or its reproduction number, counting the number of secondary cases per infected/colonized host. We collected data covering a 20-month surveillance period for carriage of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in a surgery ward. All isolates were subjected to molecular fingerprinting, and a cluster analysis of profiles was performed to identify clonal groups. We then applied stochastic transmission models to infer transmission rates of MDRAB and each MDRAB clone. Molecular fingerprinting indicated that 3 clonal complexes spread in the ward. A first model, not accounting for different clones, quantified the level of in-ward cross-transmission, with an estimated transmission rate of 0.03/day (95% credible interval [0.012–0.049]) and a single-admission reproduction number of 0.61 [0.30–1.02]. The second model, accounting for different clones, suggested an enhanced transmissibility of clone 3 (transmission rate 0.047/day [0.018–0.091], with a single-admission reproduction number of 0.81 [0.30–1.56]). Clones 1 and 2 had comparable transmission rates (respectively, 0.016 [0.001–0.045], 0.014 [0.001–0.045]). The method used is broadly applicable to other nosocomial pathogens, as long as surveillance data and genotyping information are available. Building on these results, more epidemic clones could be identified, and could lead to follow-up studies dissecting the functional basis for variation in transmissibility of MDRAB lineages.
Sequence analysis of an 850-bp fragment internal to the aspecific drug efflux gene adeB revealed 11 sequence types (STs) among a collection of 50 multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) strains, including members of pan-European clones I, II, and III. The delineation of STs conformed with the intraspecific grouping of these strains previously determined by different DNA fingerprinting methods. Larger strain collections need to be screened to further explore the potential of sequence-based adeB typing as a universal tool for the monitoring of MDRAB clones.
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an increasing problem worldwide. Prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. due to acquired carbapenemase genes is not known in Finland. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii group species, and their carbapenemase genes. A total of 55 Acinetobacter isolates were evaluated with repetitive PCR (DiversiLab) to analyse clonality of isolates, in conjunction with antimicrobial susceptibility profile for ampicillin/sulbactam, colistin, imipenem, meropenem, rifampicin and tigecycline. In addition, a new real-time PCR assay, detecting most clinically important carbapenemase genes just in two multiplex reactions, was developed. The assay detects genes for KPC, VIM, IMP, GES-1/-10, OXA-48, NDM, GIM-1, SPM-1, IMI/NMC-A, SME, CMY-10, SFC-1, SIM-1, OXA-23-like, OXA-24/40-like, OXA-58 and ISAbaI-OXA-51-like junction, and allows confident detection of isolates harbouring acquired carbapenemase genes. There was a time-dependent, clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii strongly correlating with carbapenamase gene profile, at least in this geographically restricted study material. The new carbapenemase screening assay was able to detect all the genes correctly suggesting it might be suitable for epidemiologic screening purposes in clinical laboratories.
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) presents an increasing challenge to health care. Although colistin has been used as a treatment of last resort, there is concern regarding its potential for toxicity and the emergence of resistance. The mechanism of action of colistin, however, raises the possibility of synergy with compounds that are normally inactive against Gram-negative organisms by virtue of the impermeability of the bacterial outer membrane. This study evaluated the effect of colistin combined with vancomycin on 5 previously characterized epidemic strains and 34 MDRAB clinical isolates by using time-kill assay, microdilution, and Etest methods. For all the isolates, significant synergy was demonstrated by at least one method, with reductions in the MIC of vancomycin from >256 μg/ml to ≤48 μg/ml for all strains after exposure to 0.5 μg/ml colistin. This raises the possibility of the clinical use of this combination for infections due to MDRAB, with the potential for doses lower than those currently used.
The consumption of carbapenems has increased worldwide, together with the increase in resistant gram negative bacilli. Subsequently, the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter infections has increased rapidly and become a significant problem particularly in intensive care unit patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of Acinetobacter infection by restricting the consumption of carbapenems in intensive care unit patients.
This study was conducted between May 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. The amount of carbapenem consumption and the number of patients with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolates during the study period were retrospectively obtained from the records of the patients, who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The study period was divided into two periods named as: Carbapenem non-restricted period (CNRP) and carbapenem-restricted period (CRP). During CNRP, no restrictions were made on the use of carbapenems. During CRP, the use of carbapenems was not allowed if there was an alternative to carbapenems. Primary Endpoint: MDRAB infection after ICU admission. The definition of nosocomial infections related to Acinetobacter spp. was based on the criteria of the Center for Disease Control (CDC). The correlation between the amount of carbapenem consumption and the number of infections with MDRAB strains between the two periods were evaluated.
During the study period, a total of 1822 patients’ (1053 patients in CNRP and 769 patients in CRP) records were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 10.82 defined daily dose (DDD/100 ICU days) of anti-pseudomonal carbapenem were used in CNRP, and this figure decreased to 6.95 DDD/100 ICU days in CRP. In the 8-month CNRP, 42 (3.98%) MDRAB-related nosocomial infections were detected, and 14 (1.82%) infections were detected in CRP (p = 0.012).
The prevalence of MDRAB strains isolated in the CNRP was 2.24-fold higher than the prevalence in the CRP. The prevalence of Acinetobacter infections can be reduced by taking strict isolation measures as well as by implementing good antibiotics usage policy.
Carbapenem; Acinetobacter infection; Carbapenem consumption
To determine whether the variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene is associated with lung injury in children with community-acquired pneumonia.
A prospective cohort of children diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia.
Two pediatric hospitals.
Eight hundred fifty pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled.
Genotyping of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene was performed on DNA isolated from whole blood.
Measurements and Main Results
The requirement for positive pressure ventilation or the diagnosis of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome were the main outcomes of the study. Children (14 days–19 yrs) with community-acquired pneumonia (850) were enrolled; analysis was limited to African American (515) and Caucasian (232) patients. Of the 82 patients requiring positive pressure ventilation, 44 were diagnosed with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that children without a copy of the A1 allele of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphism in intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene were more likely to need positive pressure ventilation compared to those with one or two copies of this allele (odds ratio = 2.65, confidence interval, 1.02– 6.90). In addition, the absence of the A1 allele also appeared to be associated with the development of community-acquired pneumonia–induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio = 3.1, confidence interval, 0.99 –9.67).
In children with community-acquired pneumonia, absence of the A1 allele at the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist intron 2 polymorphic site is associated with increased risk for more severe lung injury, as measured by the need for positive pressure ventilation or the development of acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Conversely, presence of the A1 allele is associated with decreased risk for more severe lung injury in this patient population.
interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; genetic polymorphisms; pediatrics; lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen posing an increased risk to hospitalized persons, causing nosocomial pneumonias, urinary tract infections and postoperative infections.
Between 1 December 2011 and 30 September 2012, strains of Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from clinical samples obtained from hospitalized patients. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the standard microdilution method and phenotypic testing was used to detect the presence of serine carbapenemases and metallo-beta-lactamases. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the genes encoding carbapenemases. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the genetic relationship among the carbapenem resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.
In three strains of Acinetobacter baumannii enzyme OXA-23 was detected. This positive result was confirmed by restriction analysis and sequencing. The study reported an OXA-23-producing strains of Acinetobacter baumannii in the Czech Republic. All three strains isolated from Military Hospital patients had a completely identical restriction profile, indicating clonal spread of a strain carrying serine carbapenemase OXA-23 in this health care facility. Moreover this was the first time the strain was detected in the country in patients who had not stayed abroad.
Few clinical data are available on the relationship between genospecies and outcome of Acinetobacter bacteremia, and the results are inconsistent. We performed this study to evaluate the relationship between genospecies and the outcome of Acinetobacter bacteremia.
Clinical data from 180 patients who had Acinetobacter bacteremia from 2003 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. The genospecies were identified by rpoB gene sequence analysis. The clinical features and outcomes of 90 patients with A. baumannii bacteremia were compared to those of 90 patients with non-baumannii Acinetobacter bacteremia (60 with A. nosocomialis, 17 with Acinetobacter species “close to 13 TU”, 11 with A. pittii, and two with A. calcoaceticus).
A. baumannii bacteremia was associated with intensive care unit-onset, mechanical ventilation, pneumonia, carbapenem resistance, and higher APACHE II scores, compared to non-baumannii Acinetobacter bacteremia (P<0.05). In univariate analyses, age, pneumonia, multidrug resistance, carbapenem resistance, inappropriate empirical antibiotics, higher APACHE II scores, and A. baumannii genospecies were risk factors for mortality (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed A. baumannii genospecies (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.56–8.33), age, pneumonia, and higher APACHE II scores to be independent risk factors for mortality (P<0.05).
A. baumannii genospecies was an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with Acinetobacter bacteremia. Our results emphasize the importance of correct species identification of Acinetobacter blood isolates.
Resistance to carbapenems among Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. We describe the epidemiology and genetic basis of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae in a six-hospital healthcare system in Northeast Ohio.
Clinical isolates of A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae distributed across the healthcare system were collected from April 2007 to April 2008. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed followed by molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. Genetic relatedness of isolates was established with repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), multilocus PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and PFGE. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients were reviewed.
Among 39 isolates of A. baumannii, two predominant genotypes related to European clone II were found. Eighteen isolates contained blaOXA-23, and four isolates possessed blaOXA-24/40. Among 29 K. pneumoniae isolates with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, two distinct genotypes containing blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 were found. Patients with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were elderly, possessed multiple co-morbidities, were frequently admitted from and discharged to post-acute care facilities, and experienced prolonged hospital stays (up to 25 days) with a high mortality rate (up to 35%).
In this outbreak of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae across a healthcare system, we illustrate the important role post-acute care facilities play in the dissemination of multidrug-resistant phenotypes.
LTCF; LTACH; molecular epidemiology; MLST; PFGE; rep-PCR; KPC
Fast, reliable, and versatile typing tools are essential to differentiate among related bacterial strains for epidemiological investigation and surveillance of health care-associated infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The DiversiLab (DL) system is a semiautomated repetitive-sequence-based PCR system designed for rapid genotyping. The DL system performance was assessed by comparing its reproducibility, typeability, discriminatory power, and concordance with those of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and by assessing its epidemiological concordance on well-characterized MDR bacterial strains (n = 165). These included vanA Enterococcus faecium, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii, and ESBL- or metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The DL system showed very good performance for E. faecium and K. pneumoniae and good performance for other species, except for a discrimination index of <95% for A. baumannii and E. coli (93.9% and 93.5%, respectively) and incomplete concordance with MLST for P. aeruginosa (78.6%) and E. coli (97.0%). Occasional violations of MLST assignment by DL types were noted for E. coli. Complete epidemiological concordance was observed for all pathogens, as all outbreak-associated strains clustered in identical DL types that were distinct from those of unrelated strains. In conclusion, the DL system showed good to excellent performance, making it a reliable typing tool for investigation of outbreaks caused by study pathogens, even though it was generally less discriminating than PFGE analysis. For E. coli and P. aeruginosa, MLST cannot be reliably inferred from DL type due to phylogenetic group violation or discordance.
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen usually in the context of serious underlying disease. Multidrug resistance in these organisms is frequent. The β-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam have intrinsic activity against Acinetobacter strains. To evaluate their potential therapeutic usefulness, we determined the in vitro activity of ampicillin, sulbactam, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, piperacillin, piperacillin-sulbactam, tazobactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ticarcillin, and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. All isolates were epidemiologically characterized by RAPD [random(ly) amplified polymorphic DNA] analysis and/or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and represented different strain types, including sporadic strains, as well as outbreak-related strains. The MICs were determined by agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton agar (using fixed concentrations, as well as fixed ratios for β-lactamase inhibitors) and the E-test. The majority of E-test results were within two dilutions of those recorded by agar dilution, with the exception of piperacillin-tazobactam. Sulbactam was superior to clavulanic acid and tazobactam and may represent an alternative treatment option for infections due to multiresistant A. baumannii strains. β-Lactamase inhibitors have intrinsic activity but do not enhance activity of β-lactams against A. baumannii. Testing with the inhibitor added at a fixed concentration as recommended for piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards may falsely suggest high activity or gives uninterpretable results due to trailing. If combinations are used for testing, fixed ratios may give more useful results.
Military members, injured in Afghanistan or Iraq, have returned home with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The source of these infections is unknown.
Retrospective study of all Canadian soldiers who were injured in Afghanistan and who required mechanical ventilation from January 1 2006 to September 1 2006. Patients who developed A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) were identified. All A. baumannii isolates were retrieved for study patients and compared with A. baumannii isolates from environmental sources from the Kandahar military hospital using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
During the study period, six Canadian Forces (CF) soldiers were injured in Afghanistan, required mechanical ventilation and were repatriated to Canadian hospitals. Four of these patients developed A. baumannii VAP. A. baumannii was also isolated from one environmental source in Kandahar – a ventilator air intake filter. Patient isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other and from the isolates cultured from the ventilator filter. These isolates were resistant to numerous classes of antimicrobials including the carbapenems.
These results suggest that the source of A. baumannii infection for these four patients was an environmental source in the military field hospital in Kandahar. A causal linkage, however, was not established with the ventilator. This study suggests that infection control efforts and further research should be focused on the military field hospital environment to prevent further multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections in injured soldiers.
Isolating carriers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is the main measure to prevent its spread. Identification of carriers accompanied by contact precautions is essential. We aimed to determine the appropriate surveillance sampling sites and the duration of carriage of MDR A. baumannii. We studied prospectively two groups of patients from whom MDR A. baumannii was previously isolated: (i) those with recent clinical isolation (≤10 days) and (ii) those with remote clinical isolation (≥6 months). Screening for carriage was conducted from six sites: nostrils, pharynx, skin, rectum, wounds, and endotracheal aspirates. Strains recovered concurrently from different sites were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twelve of 22 with recent clinical isolation of MDR A. baumannii had ≥1 positive screening culture, resulting in a sensitivity of 55% when six body sites were sampled. Sensitivities of single sites ranged from 13.5% to 29%. Among 30 patients with remote clinical isolation, screening cultures were positive in 5 (17%), with a mean duration of 17.5 months from the last clinical culture. Remote carriers had positive screening cultures from the skin and pharynx but not from nose, rectum, wounds, or endotracheal aspirates. Eleven strains from five patients were genotyped. In all but one case, isolates from different sites in a given patient were clonal. Current methodology is suboptimal to detect MDR A. baumannii carriage. The sensitivity of surveillance cultures is low, even when six different body sites are sampled. The proportion of individuals with previous MDR A. baumannii isolation who remain carriers for prolonged periods is substantial. These data should be considered when designing measures to limit the spread of MDR A. baumannii.
Colistin is used for the treatment of pneumonia associated with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the best route of administration and dosage is not known. We report our experience with aerosolized colistin in twelve patients with pneumonia caused by colistin-only-susceptible (COS) A. baumannii.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed patients' medical records who were treated with aerosolized colistin for the treatment of pneumonia.
Ten patients were treated only with aerosolized colistin inhalation and two patients received a 3-day course intravenous colistin, and then switched to colistin inhalation therapy. The median duration of aerosolized colistin therapy was 17 days (5-31 days). Four patients were treated only with aerosolized colistin, whereas 4 patients received concomitant glycopeptides, and 4 received concomitant levofloxacin or cefoperazone/sulbactam. At the end of the therapy, the clinical response rate and bacteriological clearance rate was 83% and 50%, respectively. Colistin-resistant strains were isolated from 3 patients after aerosolized colistin therapy; however, all of them showed favorable clinical response. The median interval between inhalation therapy and resistance was 7 days (range 5-19 days). Acute kidney injury developed in 3 patients. Two patients experienced Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. One patient developed fever and skin rash after aerosolized colistin therapy. No patient developed neurotoxicity or bronchospasm.
Colistin inhalation therapy is deemed tolerable and safe, and could be beneficial as an adjuctive therapy for the management of pneumonia due to COS A. baumannii. However, the potential development of colistin resistance cannot be overlooked.
Acinetobacter baumannii; colistin; pneumonia
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii are a challenging problem worldwide. Here, the molecular epidemiology and the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in 111 MDR A. baumannii strains isolated from June 2005 to March 2009 from infected patients in 10 intensive care units (ICUs) in central Italy were investigated.
Epidemiological typing was performed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA, PCR-based sequence grouping and macrorestriction analysis. MICs of antibiotics were determined by the broth microdilution method. Genes for OXA carbapenemases, metallo-β-lactamases and the CarO porin were searched for by PCR.
Molecular genotyping identified one predominant A. baumannii lineage, related to the international clonal lineage II, accounting for 95.6% of isolates. Isolates referable to this lineage were recovered from all ICUs surveyed and were resistant to nearly all classes of antimicrobials, with the exception of tigecycline and colistin. A high percentage (60.5%) of A. baumannii isolates showed elevated resistance to imipenem (MICs ≥ 128 mg/L), concomitant with resistance to meropenem. Carbapenem resistance was associated with the presence of either blaOXA-58-like (22.8%) or blaOXA-23-like (71.1%) carbapenemase genes. Molecular typing showed that the epidemic lineage encoding OXA-23 emerged in 2007 and displaced a genetically related clone encoding OXA-58 that had been responsible for previous ICU outbreaks in the same region.
Emergence of the OXA-23 epidemic lineage could result from selective advantage conferred by the blaOXA-23-like determinant, which provides increased resistance to carbapenems.
genotyping; intensive care units; OXA-23
Acinetobacter isolates from eight subjects with community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia (CAAP), a major cause of fatal community-acquired pneumonia in tropical Australia, were phenotypically and genotypically confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis to be broadly diverse Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Wet-season throat carriage of A. baumannii was found in 10% of community residents with excess levels of alcohol consumption, the major at-risk group for CAAP.
The mechanism of stepwise acquired multidrug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a hospitalized patient was investigated. Thirteen consecutive multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered from the same patient over a 2-month period. The Vitek 2 system identified the isolates as meropenem-sensitive Acinetobacter lwoffii; however, molecular identification showed that the isolates were A. baumannii. Etest revealed that the isolates were meropenem resistant. The presence of oxacillinase (OXA)-type enzymes were investigated by sequencing. The clonal relatedness of isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Expression of the genes encoding the efflux pumps AdeB and AdeJ was performed by semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). The adeRS two-component system was sequenced. All isolates had identical PFGE fingerprints, suggesting clonal identity. The first six isolates were positive for the novel blaOXA-164 gene. The following seven isolates, recovered after treatment with a combination of meropenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and co-trimoxazole showed an increase of >7-fold in adeB mRNA transcripts and a missense mutation in blaOXA-164, converting it to blaOXA-58. Sequencing revealed a novel mutation in adeR. These data illustrate how A. baumannii can adapt during antimicrobial therapy, leading to increased antimicrobial resistance.
Objectives: In the intensive care setting, Acinetobacter baumannii causes ventilator-associated pneumonia and other nosocomial infections that are difficult to treat. Objective of this study was to investigate nosocomial A. baumannii infections and its changing antibiotic resistance.
Methods: A total of 56 patients diagnosed with A.baumannii infections between January 2009 and December 2011 were included in the study. Diagnosis for nosocomial infections was established according to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) criteria. Identification of the agents isolated was carried out using conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated system, while antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed through VITEK 2 AST-N090 automated system.
Results: The most common infection was nosocomial pneumonia by 43%, among which 46% were ventilator-associated pneumonia. Considering all years, the most effective antibiotics on the isolated strains were found as colistin, tigecycline, imipenem and meropenem. However resistance to imipenem and meropenem was observed to increase over years.
Conclusion: The issue of increased resistance to antibiotics poses difficulty in treatment of A. baumannii infections which in turn increases the rate of mortality and cost. In order to prevent development of resistance, antibiotics must be used in an appropriate way in accompanied with proper guidance.
Acinetobacter baumannii; Antibiotic resistance; Nosocomial infections
The molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was investigated in the medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital in Italy during two window periods in which two sequential A. baumannii epidemics occurred. Genotype analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of A. baumannii isolates from 131 patients identified nine distinct PFGE patterns. Of these, PFGE clones B and I predominated and occurred sequentially during the two epidemics. A. baumannii epidemic clones showed a multidrug-resistant antibiotype, being clone B resistant to all antimicrobials tested except the carbapenems and clone I resistant to all antimicrobials except ampicillin-sulbactam and gentamicin. Type 1 integrons of 2.5 and 2.2 kb were amplified from the chromosomal DNA of epidemic PFGE clones B and I, respectively, but not from the chromosomal DNA of the nonepidemic clones. Nucleotide analysis of clone B integron identified four gene cassettes: aacC1, which confers resistance to gentamicin; two open reading frames (ORFs) coding for unknown products; and aadA1a, which confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The integron of clone I contained three gene cassettes: aacA4, which confers resistance to amikacin, netilmicin, and tobramycin; an unknown ORF; and blaOXA-20, which codes for a class D β-lactamase that confers resistance to amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxacillin, and cloxacillin. Also, the blaIMP allele was amplified from chromosomal DNA of A. baumannii strains of PFGE type I. Class 1 integrons carrying antimicrobial resistance genes and blaIMP allele in A. baumannii epidemic strains correlated with the high use rates of broad-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and aminoglycosides in the ICU during the study period.
Resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae to most antibiotics is on the rise. Tigecycline has been considered as one of the few therapeutic options available to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria. We investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia.
Adult patients with tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan over a 3-year period were enrolled. K. pneumoniae isolates were identified by the E-test using criteria set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Data on the clinical features of patients were collected from medical records. Genes for β-lactamases, antimicrobial susceptibilities and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results were determined for all isolates.
Of 36 patients, 27 had nosocomial bacteremia. Overall 28-day mortality was 38.9%. The MIC50 and MIC90 of tigecycline were 6 and 8 mg/L, respectively. No carbapenemase was detected among the 36 isolates. Twenty isolates carried extended spectrum β-lactamases and/or DHA-1 genes. No major cluster of isolates was found among the 36 isolates by PFGE. Intensive care unit onset of tigecycline non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia was the only independent risk factor for 28-day mortality.
The high mortality of patients with tigecycline non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bacteremia may suggest a critical problem. Further study to identify the possible risk factors for its development and further investigation of this type of bacteremia is necessary.
Antimicrobial resistance; Bacteremia; Clinical characteristics; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Tigecycline
This study investigated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with recurrent bacteremia caused by the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex at a medical center. All ACB complex isolates associated with recurrent bacteremia were identified to the genomic species level using a 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer sequence-based method. Genotypes were determined by the random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns generated by arbitrarily primed PCR and by pulsotypes generated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Relapse of infection was defined as when the genotype of the recurrent isolate was identical to that of the original infecting strain. Reinfection was defined as when the genospecies or genotype of the recurrent isolate differed from that of the original isolate. From 2006 to 2008, 446 patients had ACB complex bacteremia and 25 (5.6%) had recurrent bacteremia caused by the ACB complex. Among the 25 patients, 12 (48%) had relapse of bacteremia caused by A. nosocomialis (n = 7) or A. baumannii (n = 5). Among the 13 patients with reinfection, 5 (38.5%) had reinfection caused by different genospecies of the ACB complex. Most of the patients were immunocompromised, and most of the infection foci were catheter-related bloodstream infections. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 33.3%. A. baumannii isolates had lower antimicrobial susceptibility rates than A. nosocomialis and A. pittii isolates. In conclusion, relapse of ACB complex bacteremia can develop in immunocompromised patients, especially those with central venous catheters. Molecular methods to identify the ACB complex to the genospecies level are essential for differentiating between reinfection and relapse of bacteremia caused by the ACB complex.