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1.  Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Arterial Esophageal Bleeding with the Use of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2009;10(4):361-365.
Objective
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of arterial esophageal bleeding.
Materials and Methods
Between August 2000 and April 2008, five patients diagnosed with arterial esophageal bleeding by conventional angiography, CT-angiography or endoscopy, underwent a TAE with NBCA. We mixed NBCA with iodized oil at ratios of 1:1 to 1:4 to supply radiopacity and achieve a proper polymerization time. After embolization, we evaluated the angiographic and clinical success, recurrent bleeding, and procedure-related complications.
Results
The bleeding esophageal artery directly originated from the aorta in four patients and from the left inferior phrenic artery in one patient. Although four patients had an underlying coagulopathy at the time of the TAE, angiographic and clinical success was achieved in all five patients. In addition, no procedure-related complications such as esophageal infarction were observed during this study.
Conclusion
NBCA can be an effective and feasible embolic agent in patients with active arterial esophageal bleeding, even with pre-existing coagulopathy.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2009.10.4.361
PMCID: PMC2702045  PMID: 19568464
Esophageal artery; Hemorrhaging; Angiography; Therapeutic embolization
2.  N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Is Very Effective for Massive Haemorrhage during the Perinatal Period 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e77494.
Objective
The liquid embolic agent n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is a tissue adhesive used as an immediate and permanent embolic agent when mixed with oil-based contrast medium. In this study, the preservation of fertility with TAE using NBCA for massive haemorrhage during pregnancy or the peripartum period and the utility of this therapy were investigated.
Methods
Cases from January 2005 to October 2010 in which TAE was performed for massive haemorrhage in pregnant women, particularly during the peripartum period, were investigated.
Results
TAE was performed in 27 pregnant women. The embolic agent used was GS only in five cases, NBCA only in 19 cases, and additional embolization with NBCA when the effect with GS was insufficient in three cases, one each of abruptio placentae, cervical pregnancy, and uterine atony.A comparison of mean blood loss when each embolic agent was used for haemostasis showed a significant difference between cases in which GS only was used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a comparison of mean transfusion volume, a significant difference was seen between cases in which both GS and NBCA were used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a postoperative follow-up survey, menses resumed in eight patients, including four patients who later became pregnant and three who delivered.
Conclusions
TAE with NBCA, which has an embolic effect unrelated to clotting dysfunction for massive haemorrhage during the peripartum period, is a minimally invasive and very effective treatment method for patients with severe DIC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077494
PMCID: PMC3819394  PMID: 24223099
3.  Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2007;8(1):48-56.
Objective
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Materials and Methods
Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1-1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated.
Results
The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18).
Conclusion
TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2007.8.1.48
PMCID: PMC2626693  PMID: 17277563
Gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhage; Angiography, therapeutic embolization
4.  Successful Endovascular Therapy of a Penetrating Zone III Jugular Bulb Injury 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2012;18(2):195-199.
Summary
Penetrating venous injuries via Zone III of the neck extended over jugular bulb are rare. The optimal strategies for these venous injuries are currently unknown because many of the vital structures in this region are poorly accessible to the surgeon and therefore it is difficult to control bleeding. A 76-year-old man got drunk and fell down onto a paper door. The wooden framework of the paper door was broken and got stuck deep in the right side of his neck. Enhanced computed tomography showed the wood stick had penetrated through the right jugular foramen and injured the jugular bulb. We successfully performed right sigmoid and jugular vein occlusion via an endovascular approach using Guglielmi detachable coils at first and then to draw out the wood stick in order to avoid venous bleeding. To our best knowledge, these venous injuries have reported in only four cases. Only one case was performed by endovascular approach using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Coil embolization is much better than NBCA in the light of reducing complications due to adhesion to the inserted wood stick and embolization of unintended vessels. Venous occlusion using coil embolization is the best way to treat a penetrating jugular bulb injury via zone III because of reducing the hemorrhage and air embolism.
PMCID: PMC3380399  PMID: 22681736
coil embolization, endovascular therapy, jugular vein injury, neck trauma, zone III
5.  Safety of bronchial arterial embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate in a swine model 
World Journal of Radiology  2012;4(12):455-461.
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and gelatin sponge particles (GSPs).
METHODS: Six healthy female swine were divided into two groups to be treated with BAE using NBCA-lipiodol (NBCA-Lp) and using GSPs. The occlusive durability, the presence of embolic materials, the response of the vessel wall, and damage to the bronchial wall and pulmonary parenchyma were compared.
RESULTS: No animals experienced any major complication. Two days later, no recanalization of the bronchial artery was observed in the NBCA-Lp group, while partial recanalization was seen in the GSP group. Embolic materials were not found in the pulmonary artery or pulmonary vein. NBCA-Lp was present as a bubble-like space in bronchial branch arteries of 127-1240 μm, and GSPs as reticular amorphous substance of 107-853 μm. These arteries were in the adventitia outside the bronchial cartilage but not in the fine vessels inside the bronchial cartilage. No damage to the bronchial wall and pulmonary parenchyma was found in either group. Red cell thrombus, stripping of endothelial cells, and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in vessels embolized with NBCA-Lp or GSP.
CONCLUSION: NBCA embolization is more potent than GSP with regard to bronchial artery occlusion, and both materials were present in bronchial branch arteries ≥ 100 μm diameter.
doi:10.4329/wjr.v4.i12.455
PMCID: PMC3543995  PMID: 23320136
Bronchial artery embolization; Embolic materials; N-butyl cyanoacrylate; Gelatin sponge; Lipiodol
6.  Percutaneous needle biopsy of the mediastinum: review of 94 procedures. 
Thorax  1993;48(6):632-637.
BACKGROUND--A number of reports of radiologically guided percutaneous biopsy of mediastinal masses have been described but techniques have varied, particularly the type of needle used. In this study mediastinal biopsies with fine aspiration needles and cutting needles have been compared, sometimes in the same patient. The results are reviewed with particular emphasis on the choice of biopsy needle and its influence on pathological diagnosis. METHODS--A retrospective review was undertaken of radiologically guided mediastinal biopsies performed between 1981 and 1991. RESULTS--Sixty fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNA) and 34 Tru-Cut biopsies of mediastinal masses were performed in 75 patients with fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Overall sensitivity and specificity in terms of diagnosis of malignant disease were 90% and 100% respectively for FNA biopsies, and 96% and 100% for Tru-Cut biopsies. Diagnostic accuracy in terms of precise diagnosis of the malignant or benign nature of a mass and its origin was 77% for FNA biopsies and 94% for Tru-Cut biopsies. For FNA biopsies sensitivity and accuracy were higher for carcinomatous lesions (96% and 88%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (81% and 69%). The only significant complication encountered was a pneumothorax following a biopsy which required intercostal drainage. CONCLUSIONS--Radiologically guided percutaneous needle biopsy is a safe procedure which provides useful diagnostic information in the majority of cases. Fine needle aspiration techniques usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but a cutting needle biopsy should be performed whenever possible when lymphoma, thymoma, or neural masses are suspected to obtain larger specimens for more accurate histological diagnosis.
Images
PMCID: PMC464591  PMID: 8346494
7.  Retroperitoneal hemorrhage associated with bone marrow trephine biopsy 
Patient: Male, 19
Final Diagnosis: Hyperleukocytosis • thrombocytosis
Symptoms: Hyperleukocytosis • retroperitoneal hemorrhage • thrombocytosis
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Bone marrow trephine biopsy
Specialty: Hematology • Radiology
Objective:
Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents
Background:
Bone marrow (BM) trephine biopsy is generally a safe procedure, but adverse events such as retroperitoneal hemorrhage (RPH) may occur. We report 3 cases of this complication.
Case Report:
A 19-year-old male with thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy underwent BM trephine biopsy to confirm relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two hours later, he developed severe hypotension and a CT scan revealed a massive RPH, and was treated conservatively. The RPH recurred 2 weeks after chemotherapy and was successfully treated with gel foam embolization. A 55-year-old male with coagulopathy underwent BM trephine biopsy for hyperleukocytosis and thrombocytosis. He developed a large RPH preceded by left lumbar dermatome sensory neuropathy. He was treated conservatively. A 56-year-old overweight woman on aspirin underwent BM trephine biopsy for polycythemia. Twelve hours later she developed severe abdominal pain with hypotension. A CT scan showed a massive RPH and secondary hemothorax. She was treated conservatively and the RPH resolved after several months.
Conclusions:
We and others showed that myeloproliferative neoplasm, quantitative or qualitative platelet abnormalities, aspirin, coagulopathy, and obesity are associated with development of RPH following BM trephine biopsy. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial. Correction of coagulopathy and cessation of anti-platelet treatment prior to biopsy can prevent this serious complication.
doi:10.12659/AJCR.889274
PMCID: PMC3843570  PMID: 24298302
bone marrow trephine biopsy; retroperitoneal hemorrhage; Retroperitoneal hematoma
8.  Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic infarction after liver biopsy 
Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms (HAP) are rare events, particularly after liver biopsy, but can be associated with serious complications. Therefore a high suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We report on a case of HAP that potentially formed after a liver biopsy in a patient with sarcoidosis. The HAP in our case was virtually undetectable initially by angiography but resulted in several complications including recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic cholecystitis and finally hepatic infarction with abscess formation until it became detectable at a size of 5-mm. The patient remains asymptomatic over a year after endovascular embolization of the HAP. In this report, we demonstrate that a small HAP can avoid detection by angiography at an early stage while being symptomatic for a prolonged course. A high clinical suspicion with a close clinical/radiological follow-up is needed in symptomatic patients with history of liver biopsy despite initial negative work up. Once diagnosed, HAP can be safely and effectively treated by endovascular embolization.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i7.1878
PMCID: PMC3930987  PMID: 24587666
Gastrointestinal bleed; Abnormal liver enzymes; Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms; Liver biopsy; Angiography
9.  Life-Threatening Arteriovenous Malformation of the Maxillomandibular Region and Treatment Outcomes 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2012;18(1):49-59.
Summary
We report on cases of life-threatening maxillomandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVM) whereby patients had successful endovascular treatment with good outcomes. Out of a total 93 facial AVMs treated endovascularly between 1991 and 2009, five patients (5.4%) had maxillomandibular AVMs. All presented with uncontrolled dental bleeding. Endovascular procedure was the primary treatment of choice in all cases, either transfemoral approach with arterial feeder embolization or transosseous puncture, depending on the accessible route in each patient. NBCA (glue) was the only embolic agent used. Tooth extraction and dental care were performed after bleeding was controlled.
All five patients (8-18 years) with a mean age of 12.4 years presented with massive dental bleeding following loosening of teeth, dental extraction and/or cheek trauma. The plain films and CT scans of four patients with AVMs of mandibles and one of maxilla, revealed expansile osteolytic lesions. The mean follow-up period was 6.6 years (ranging between one and 19 years). Three cases developed recurrent bleeding between two weeks to three months after first embolization, resulting from residual AVM and infection. Late complications occurred in two patients from chronic localized infection and osteonecrosis, which were successfully eradicated with antibiotic therapy and bony curettage. Complications occurring in two patients which included soft tissue infection, osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis were successfully treated with antibiotics, curettage and bone resection. No patient had a recurrence of bleeding after the disease had cured
Initial glue embolization is recommended as the effective treatment of dental AVMs for emergent bleeding control, with the aim to complete eradicate the intraosseous venous pouches either by means of transarterial superselection or direct transosseous puncture. Patient care by a multidisciplinary team approach is important for sustained treatment results.
PMCID: PMC3312089  PMID: 22440601
maxillomandibular, AVM, embolization
10.  Endovascular embolization of varicoceles using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue 
Polish Journal of Radiology  2013;78(2):26-30.
Summary
Background:
Varicoceles are abnormally dilated veins within the pampiniform plexus. They are caused by reflux of blood in the internal spermatic vein. The incidence of varicoceles is approximately 10–15% of the adolescent male population. The etiology of varicoceles is probably multifactorial. The diagnosis is based on Doppler US. Treatment could be endovascular or surgical.
The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate a novel method of endovascular embolization of varicoceles using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue.
Material/Methods:
17 patients were subjected to endovascular treatment of varicoceles using NBCA. A 2.8 Fr microcatheter and a 1:1 mixture of NBCA and lipiodol were used for embolization of the spermatic vein.
Results:
All 17 procedures were successful. There were no complications.
Discussion:
Embolization of varicoceles using NBCA glue is efficient and safe for all patients. The method should be considered as a method of choice in all patients. Phlebography and Valsalva maneuver are crucial for technical success and avoidance of complications.
Conclusions:
Endovascular treatment of varicoceles using NBCA glue is very effective and safe.
doi:10.12659/PJR.889181
PMCID: PMC3693833  PMID: 23807881
varicoceles; embolization; n-butyl cyanoacrylate
11.  Successful percutaneous treatment for massive hemorrhage due to infectious pseudoaneurysm in the abdominal wall after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:354.
Background
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is often performed for alimentation and to prevent weight loss in patients with feeding problems due to central neurologic diseases such as cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage. Although infection at the skin site after PEG placement is a typical late complication of PEG, a ruptured infectious pseudoaneurysm caused massive bleeding adjacent to the tract is rare. Prompt treatment is required to avoid the hemorrhage shock, however surgical ligation is difficult to obtain the arrest of bleeding in damaged skin due to the infection.
Case presentation
A 70-year-old male was bedridden due a cerebral infarction suffered 1 year previously. APEG was placed because of feeding problems, and a push-type, 20-Fr gastrostomy tube was inserted through the anterior abdominal wall. On day 16 after PEG placement, the patient had massive bleeding from the PEG site due to the rupture of infectious pseudoaneurysm and developed a decreased level of consciousness and hypotension. Treatment by percutaneous direct injection of a mixture of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol was performed and achieved good hemostasis is obtained.
Conclusions
A rare case of an infectious pseudoaneurysm that developed in the abdominal wall and caused massive bleeding at a PEG placement site was described. Percutaneous injection of a mixture of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol under ultrasound guidance is an effective treatment in this case.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-354
PMCID: PMC4057582  PMID: 24915936
n-butyl-cyanoacrylate-lipiodol; Infectious pseudoaneurysm; Abdominal wall; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
12.  Treatment of Hemodialysis Vascular Access Rupture Irresponsive to Prolonged Balloon Tamponade: Retrospective Evaluation of the Effectiveness of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Seal-Off Technique 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2012;14(1):70-80.
Objective
The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results
Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post-seal-off primary patency vs. secondary patency at 90, 180 and 360 days were 66.7 ± 11.1% vs. 94.4 ± 5.4%; 33.3 ± 11.1% vs. 83.3 ± 8.8%; and 13.3 ± 8.5% vs. 63.3 ± 12.1%, respectively.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that the NBCA seal-off technique is effective for immediate control of a venous rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for hemodialysis accesses. Both high technical and clinical success rates can be achieved. However, the treatment is not durable, and about 40% of the completely sealed off accesses are associated with developed delayed pseudoaneurysms in a 2-month of follow-up. Further repair of the vascular tear site, with surgery or stent-graft insertion, is often necessary.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2013.14.1.70
PMCID: PMC3542305  PMID: 23323033
Angioplasty, balloon; Arteriovenous shunt, surgical; Rupture; Cyanoacrylates; Aneurysm, false
13.  Mediastinal malignancy: ultrasound guided biopsy through the supraclavicular approach. 
Thorax  1992;47(5):377-380.
BACKGROUND: Malignancies located in the upper middle mediastinum usually do not have a sufficiently large acoustic window to permit a conventional ultrasound guided parasternal biopsy. This study was concerned with an alternative approach whereby ultrasound is applied through the supraclavicular paratracheal window to allow percutaneous biopsy of middle mediastinal malignancies. METHODS: Fifteen patients who had upper mediastinal malignancies not in contact with the chest wall underwent real time and Doppler ultrasonographic studies by the supraclavicular approach. None of these tumours could be reached by conventional ultrasound guided parasternal biopsy. The ultrasound was scanned downwards through the supraclavicular fossa, along the acoustic window of the paratracheal soft tissue space. Percutaneous aspiration biopsy was performed with a 22 gauge needle under ultrasound guidance. If fine needle aspiration could not obtain an adequate tissue smear an 18 gauge Trucut biopsy was performed to obtain a histological diagnosis. RESULTS: Twelve of 15 mediastinal malignancies were detected by ultrasound through the supraclavicular approach. These 12 patients underwent percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy under ultrasound guidance. Four of the patients also had a Trucut biopsy because the needle aspirates from the tumours were inadequate. The needle had to pass through the jugular veins in four patients who received fine needle aspiration but in none of the patients who required a Trucut biopsy. Definite histological diagnoses were obtained in all 12 of these patients. Ten of the tumours were malignant and two benign. None of the patients developed any complication. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound and ultrasound guided biopsy through the supraclavicular paratracheal window provides a new approach for malignancy located in the upper middle mediastinum, which cannot be reached by conventional ultrasound guided parasternal biopsy. The diagnostic yield of this technique is high and the procedure is relatively safe.
Images
PMCID: PMC463758  PMID: 1609382
14.  Successful interventional management of abdominal compartment syndrome caused by blunt liver injury with hemorrhagic diathesis 
We report that a case of primary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), caused by blunt liver injury under the oral anticoagulation therapy, was successfully treated. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was initially selected, and the bleeding point of hepatic artery was embolized with N-Butyl Cyanoacylate (NBCA). Secondary, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) was performed for massive hemoperitoneum. There are some reports of ACS treated with TAE. However, combination treatment of TAE with NBCA and PCD for ACS has not been reported. Even low invasive interventional procedures may improve primary ACS if the patient has hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy discouraging surgeon from laparotomy.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-9-20
PMCID: PMC3994338  PMID: 24656215
Abdominal compartment syndrome; Transcatheter arterial embolization; N-butyl cyanoacylate
15.  Selective Embolization for Post-Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Bleeding: Technical Aspects and Clinical Efficacy 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2011;13(1):73-81.
Objective
The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and clinical efficacy of selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the records of 10 patients (3%; M:F = 6:4; mean age, 63.3 years) that underwent selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding among 344 patients who received arteriography for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed the endoscopic procedure, onset of bleeding, underlying clinical condition, angiographic findings, interventional procedure, and outcomes in these patients.
Results
Among the 12 bleeding branches, primary success of hemostasis was achieved in 10 bleeding branches (83%). Secondary success occurred in two additional bleeding branches (100%) after repeated embolization. In 10 patients, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleedings were detected during the endoscopic procedure (n = 2, 20%) or later (n = 8, 80%), and the delay was from one to eight days (mean, 2.9 days; ± 2.3). Coagulopathy was observed in three patients. Eight patients had a single bleeding branch, whereas two patients had two branches. On the selective arteriography, bleeding branches originated from the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 8, 67%) and anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 4, 33%), respectively. Superselection was achieved in four branches and the embolization was performed with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. The eight branches were embolized by combined use of coil, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, or Gelfoam. After the last embolization, there was no rebleeding or complication related to embolization.
Conclusion
Selective embolization is technically feasible and an effective procedure for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. In addition, the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the main origin of the causative vessels of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2012.13.1.73
PMCID: PMC3253406  PMID: 22247639
Bleeding; Embolization; Pancreaticoduodenal artery; Sphincterotomy
16.  Post-Operative Hemorrhage after Myomectomy: Safety and Efficacy of Transcatheter Uterine Artery Embolization 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(3):356-363.
Objective
To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of transcatheter uterine artery embolization (UAE) for post-myomectomy hemorrhage.
Materials and Methods
We identified eight female patients (age ranged from 29 to 51 years and with a median age of 37) in two regional hospitals who suffered from post-myomectomy hemorrhage requiring UAE during the time period from 2004 to 2012. A retrospective review of the patients' clinical data, uterine artery angiographic findings, embolization details, and clinical outcomes was conducted.
Results
The pelvic angiography findings were as follows: hypervascular staining without bleeding focus (n = 5); active contrast extravasation from the uterine artery (n = 2); and pseudoaneurysm in the uterus (n = 1). Gelatin sponge particle was used in bilateral uterine arteries of all eight patients, acting as an empirical or therapeutic embolization agent for the various angiographic findings. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was administered to the target bleeding uterine arteries in the two patients with active contrast extravasation. Technical and clinical success were achieved in all patients (100%) with bleeding cessation and no further related surgical intervention or embolization procedure was required for hemorrhage control. Uterine artery dissection occurred in one patient as a minor complication. Normal menstrual cycles were restored in all patients.
Conclusion
Uterine artery embolization is a safe, minimally invasive, and effective management option for controlling post-myomectomy hemorrhage without the need for hysterectomy.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.3.356
PMCID: PMC4023054  PMID: 24843240
Uterine artery embolization; Digital subtraction angiography; Uterine myomectomy; Uterine myoma
17.  N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Embolization with Blood Flow Control of an Arterioportal Shunt That Developed after Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(2):250-253.
We present a case of a patient with rapid deterioration of esophageal varices caused by portal hypertension accompanied by a large arterioportal shunt that developed after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. We used n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) as an embolic material to achieve pinpoint embolization of the shunt, because the microcatheter tip was 2 cm away from the shunt site. Under hepatic arterial flow control using a balloon catheter, the arterioportal shunt was successfully embolized with NBCA, which caused an improvement in the esophageal varices.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.2.250
PMCID: PMC3955792  PMID: 24643464
Arterioportal shunt; Balloon catheter; Blood flow control; Embolization; N-butyl cyanoacrylate
18.  In-Vitro Simulation of NBCA Embolization for Arteriovenous Malformation 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2004;9(4):351-358.
Summary
Embolization using n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is now a daily practice over the world, but there exists no objective data that can be a basis for discussion or decision-making on the best concentration and injection rate of NBCA mixture. The purpose of this study was to obtain objective data on control and behavior of NBCA mixture with an in vitro simulation system of NBCA embolization for AVM.
A nidus model made of a one-ml syringe filled with small beads was connected to a pulsatile flow circuit. A microcatheter was introduced just before the nidus model. Endoluminal pressures proximal and distal to the nidus and flow volume through the nidus were measured. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed to calculate transit time of the contrast medium (CM) through the nidus. NBCA was injected at various rates with an autoinjector and transit time of NBCA through the nidus was calculated.
27 trials were completed. Transit time of CM through the nidus model is well correlated to flow volume per unit of time through the nidus model. Shorter the transit time, larger was the flow volume per unit of time. The correlation was statistically significant (P < .0001). Though statistical significance was not attained, transit time of NBCA mixture at 50% concentration had a tendency to be correlated to flow volume per unit of time through the nidus, and slower injection of the NBCA mixture led to slower filling of the nidus model.
Though this simulation system was artificial and the results should be interpreted carefully, it was shown with this system that transit time of CM through the nidus could be a good index for flow volume per unit of time through the nidus. Also suggested was a possibility to utilize this in vitro system for research and training on NBCA embolization of AVM.
PMCID: PMC3547376  PMID: 20591314
AVM, embolization, NBCA
19.  The Safety and Efficacy of Gastric Fundal Variceal Obliteration Using N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate; The Experience of a Single Canadian Tertiary Care Centre 
Background/Aim:
Bleeding from Gastric Varices (GV) is not only life threatening, but also leads to many hospitalizations, contributes to morbidity and is resource intensive. GV are difficult to diagnose and their treatment can be challenging due to their location and complex structure. To assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopic gastric fundal variceal gluing using periodic endoscopic injections of N-butyl-2-cyanoacylate (NBCA) and to assess the utility of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in assessing for the eradication of GV post-NBCA treatment.
Materials and Methods:
Analysis of prospectively collected data of a cohort of patients with GV who underwent periodic endoscopic variceal gluing from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes included success of GV obliteration, incidence of rebleeding, complications from the procedure, and analysis of factors that might predict GV rebleeding. The success of GV eradication was assessed by both EUS and direct endoscopy.
Results:
The cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients that had undergone NBCA injection for GV. The mean age was 60.8 years standard deviations (SD 13.3, range 20-81). The average follow-up was 28 months (SD 19.61, range 1-64) and the most common cause for GV was alcoholic liver cirrhosis (34.48%). A total of 91 sessions of NBCA injections were carried out for 29 patients (average of 3.14 sessions/patient, SD 1.79, range 1-8) with a total of 124 injections applied (average of 4.28 injections/patient, SD 3.09, range 1-13). 24 patients were treated for previously documented GV bleeding while five were treated for primary prevention. Overall, 79% of patients were free of rebleeding once three sessions of histoacryl® injection were completed. None of the patients treated for primary prevention developed bleeding during follow-up. 11 of the 24 patients (46%) with previous bleeding however had rebleeding. 4/11 (36%) patients had GV rebleeding while awaiting scheduled additional NBCA sessions. 19/29 (60%) patients had complete eradication of GV, 11/19 (58%) documented by endoscopic assessment alone, 4/19 (21%) by EUS alone and 4/19 (21%) by both techniques. Two of the 11 (18%) patients that had rebleeding had recurrence of GV bleeding after documented eradication by EUS compared to 5/11 (45%) patients documented eradication by endoscopic assessment and 2/11 (18%) patients that had rebleeding after documented eradication by both modalities. Twenty five patients in total had documented residual GV by EUS (14, 56%), direct endoscopic assessment (18, 72%) or both modalities (9, 36%), two of which developed recurrent bleeding (13%). No immediate or long-term complications of NBCA injection occurred, nor any related endoscopic complications were reported in any of these cases during the time of follow-up.
Conclusion:
NBCA injection of GV is a safe and successful therapeutic intervention. A minimum of three endoscopic sessions is required to significantly decrease the risk of bleeding/rebleeding. In this small sample of patients, neither EUS nor direct endoscopic assessment was reliable in predicting the recurrence of GV bleeding.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.114508
PMCID: PMC3745656  PMID: 23828744
Cyanoacrylate injection; gastric varices; rebleeding
20.  Gluteal necrosis following pelvic fracture and bilateral internal iliac embolization: Reconstruction using a transposition flap based on the lumbar artery perforators 
INTRODUCTION
The use of bilateral internal iliac artery embolization to control hemorrhage associated with pelvic fractures is a life saving intervention. Gluteal necrosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of this procedure. Following debridement, reconstruction can present a considerable challenge due to the compromised vascularity of local tissue.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 17 year old girl suffered an open book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. In order to stop profuse bleeding, bilateral internal iliac artery embolization was performed. This procedure was complicated by the development of right sided gluteal necrosis. Following extensive debridement, a transposition flap based on the lumbar artery perforators was performed to cover the soft tissue defect.
DISCUSSION
Gluteal necrosis occurs in approximately 3% of cases following internal iliac artery embolization. Following complete excision of the devitalised tissue reconstructive surgery is necessary. Local flaps are suboptimal options when the integument supplied by branches of the internal iliac arteries has been compromised following embolization. Furthermore, the use of a free flap is restricted by the lack of a readily accessible undamaged recipient vessel. In the present case a transposition flap based on the lumbar artery perforators facilitated robust reconstruction of the buttock region.
CONCLUSION
To avoid sepsis, it is imperative that gluteal necrosis following internal iliac artery embolization is recognized and promptly debrided. A transposition flap based on the lumbar artery perforators is a good option for subsequent soft tissue coverage, which avoids use of tissue supplied by the branches of the internal iliac arteries.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.11.002
PMCID: PMC3267240  PMID: 22288054
Gluteal necrosis; Lumbar artery; Transposition flap; Embolization; Internal iliac artery
21.  Vascular anomaly at the craniocervical junction presenting with sub arachnoid hemorrhage: Dilemma in Imaging Diagnosis, Endovascular Management and Complications 
We present a case of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm that mimicked a presumed vascular anomaly by CTA (Computerized Tomographic Angiography). A parenchymal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the craniocervical junction can present with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cannot be differentiated from a vertebral artery dissection by non invasive imaging. Catheter based cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of a diminutive right vertebral artery terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) that to our knowledge has not been previously reported. NBCA (N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate) embolization of the pseudoaneurysm lumen and sacrifice of the parent vessel resulted in cerebellar infarction, requiring an emergent decompressive craniectomy. The patient recovered to a functional neurologic status.
doi:10.3941/jrcr.v4i5.413
PMCID: PMC3303408  PMID: 22470727
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vertebral artery dissection; Arteriovenous Malformation; Cyanoacrylate embolization
22.  Predictive complication factors for ct‐guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions 
Clinics  2010;65(9):847-850.
OBJECTIVE:
Distinct aspects can influence the complication rates of computed tomography‐guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions. The purpose of the current study is to determine the influence of radiological techniques and clinical characteristics in predicting complications from this procedure.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
A retrospective study was developed involving 340 patients who were submitted to a consecutive series of 362 computed tomography‐guided fine needle aspiration biopsies of lung lesions between July 1996 and June 2004, using 22‐gauge needles (CHIBA). Variables such as the radiological characteristics of the lesions, secondary pulmonary radiological findings, co‐morbidities, and aspects concerning the procedure were studied.
RESULTS:
The diameters of the lung lesions varied from 9 to 140 mm, with a mean of 51.5 ± 24.3 mm and median of 40 mm. The depth of the lesions varied from 10 mm to 130 mm, with a mean of 44 ± 20.9 mm, and median median of 52 mm. Complications occurred in 52 (14.4%) cases, pneumothorax being the most frequent, with 40 (11.1%) cases, followed by hemoptisis with 7 (1.9%) cases, and hematoma with 4 (1.1%) cases. Lesions that did not contact the pleura, with normal pulmonary tissue interposition between lesion and pleura, had higher complication rates, with 22 (22%) cases, than lesions that contact the pleura, with 6 (9%) cases, with a statistically significant difference (p  =  0.03).
CONCLUSIONS:
CT‐guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions had a lower rate of complications in our study and presented more rates of complications on lesions that lack pleural contact.
doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010000900006
PMCID: PMC2954735  PMID: 21049211
Fine; Needle; Biopsy; Lung; Complication
23.  Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms 
Executive Summary
Objective
To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms.
The Technology
Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons.
Background
Intracranial Aneurysms
Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks.
Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility.
Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds, resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the mortality rate can be 40% to 50%, with severe morbidity of 10% to 20%. The reported overall risk of rupture is 1.9% per year and is higher for women, cigarette smokers, and cocaine users, and in aneurysms that are symptomatic, greater than 10 mm in diameter, or located in the posterior circulation. If left untreated, there is a considerable risk of repeat hemorrhage in a ruptured aneurysm that results in increased mortality.
In Ontario, intracranial aneurysms occur in about 1% to 4% of the population, and the annual incidence of SAH is about 10 cases per 100,000 people. In 2004-2005, about 660 intracranial aneurysm repairs were performed in Ontario.
Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms
Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm attempts to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing. The treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm aims to prevent further hemorrhage. There are 3 approaches to treating an intracranial aneurysm.
Small, asymptomatic aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter may be monitored without any intervention other than treatment for underlying risk factors such as hypertension.
Open surgical clipping, involves craniotomy, brain retraction, and placement of a silver clip across the neck of the aneurysm while a patient is under general anesthesia. This procedure is associated with surgical risks and neurological deficits.
Endovascular coil embolization, introduced in the 1990s, is the health technology under review.
Literature Review
Methods
The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the International Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) Database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant systematic reviews. OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase were searched for English-language journal articles that reported primary data on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of treatments for intracranial aneurysms, obtained in a clinical setting or analyses of primary data maintained in registers or institutional databases. Internet searches of Medscape and manufacturers’ databases were conducted to identify product information and recent reports on trials that were unpublished but that were presented at international conferences. Four systematic reviews, 3 reports on 2 randomized controlled trials comparing coil embolization with surgical clipping of ruptured aneurysms, 30 observational studies, and 3 economic analysis reports were included in this review.
Results
Safety and Effectiveness
Coil embolization appears to be a safe procedure. Complications associated with coil embolization ranged from 8.6% to 18.6% with a median of about 10.6%. Observational studies showed that coil embolization is associated with lower complication rates than surgical clipping (permanent complication 3-7% versus 10.9%; overall 23% versus 46% respectively, p=0.009). Common complications of coil embolization are thrombo-embolic events (2.5%–14.5%), perforation of aneurysm (2.3%–4.7%), parent artery obstruction (2%–3%), collapsed coils (8%), coil malposition (14.6%), and coil migration (0.5%–3%).
Randomized controlled trials showed that for ruptured intracranial aneurysms with SAH, suitable for both coil embolization and surgical clipping (mostly saccular aneurysms <10 mm in diameter located in the anterior circulation) in people with good clinical condition:Coil embolization resulted in a statistically significant 23.9% relative risk reduction and 7% absolute risk reduction in the composite rate of death and dependency compared to surgical clipping (modified Rankin score 3–6) at 1-year.
The advantage of coil embolization over surgical clipping varies widely with aneurysm location, but endovascular treatment seems beneficial for all sites.
There were less deaths in the first 7 years following coil embolization compared to surgical clipping (10.8% vs 13.7%). This survival benefit seemed to be consistent over time, and was statistically significant (log-rank p= 0.03).
Coil embolization is associated with less frequent MRI-detected superficial brain deficits and ischemic lesions at 1-year.
The 1- year rebleeding rate was 2.4% after coil embolization and 1% for surgical clipping. Confirmed rebleeding from the repaired aneurysm after the first year and up to year eight was low and not significantly different between coil embolization and surgical clipping (7 patients for coil embolization vs 2 patients for surgical clipping, log-rank p=0.22).
Observational studies showed that patients with SAH and good clinical grade had better 6-month outcomes and lower risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after coil embolization compared to surgical clipping.
For unruptured intracranial aneurysms, there were no randomized controlled trials that compared coil embolization to surgical clipping. Large observational studies showed that:
The risk of rupture in unruptured aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter is about 0.05% per year for patients with no pervious history of SAH from another aneurysm. The risk of rupture increases with history of SAH and as the diameter of the aneurysm reaches 10 mm or more.
Coil embolization reduced the composite rate of in hospital deaths and discharge to long-term or short-term care facilities compared to surgical clipping (Odds Ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.6–3.1, p<0.001). The improvement in discharge disposition was highest in people older than 65 years.
In-hospital mortality rate following treatment of intracranial aneurysm ranged from 0.5% to 1.7% for coil embolization and from 2.1% to 3.5% for surgical clipping. The overall 1-year mortality rate was 3.1% for coil embolization and 2.3% for surgical clipping. One-year morbidity rate was 6.4% for coil embolization and 9.8% for surgical clipping. It is not clear whether these differences were statistically significant.
Coil embolization is associated with shorter hospital stay compared to surgical clipping.
For both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, the outcome of coil embolization does not appear to be dependent on age, whereas surgical clipping has been shown to yield worse outcome for patients older than 64 years.
Angiographic Efficiency and Recurrences
The main drawback of coil embolization is its low angiographic efficiency. The percentage of complete aneurysm occlusion after coil embolization (27%–79%, median 55%) remains lower than that achieved with surgical clipping (82%–100%). However, about 90% of coiled aneurysms achieve near total occlusion or better. Incompletely coiled aneurysms have been shown to have higher aneurysm recurrence rates ranging from 7% to 39% for coil embolization compared to 2.9% for surgical clipping. Recurrence is defined as refilling of the neck, sac, or dome of a successfully treated aneurysm as shown on an angiogram. The long-term clinical significance of incomplete occlusion following coil embolization is unknown, but in one case series, 20% of patients had major recurrences, and 50% of these required further treatment.
Long-Term Outcomes
A large international randomized trial reported that the survival benefit from coil embolization was sustained for at least 7 years. The rebleeding rate between year 2 and year 8 following coil embolization was low and not significantly different from that of surgical clipping. However, high quality long-term angiographic evidence is lacking. Accordingly, there is uncertainty about long-term occlusion status, coil durability, and recurrence rates. While surgical clipping is associated with higher immediate procedural risks, its long-term effectiveness has been established.
Indications and Contraindications
Coil embolization offers treatment for people at increased risk for craniotomy, such as those over 65 years of age, with poor clinical status, or with comorbid conditions. The technology also makes it possible to treat surgical high-risk aneurysms.
Not all aneurysms are suitable for coil embolization. Suitability depends on the size, anatomy, and location of the aneurysm. Aneurysms more than 10 mm in diameter or with an aneurysm neck greater than or equal to 4 mm are less likely to achieve total occlusion. They are also more prone to aneurysm recurrences and to complications such as coil compaction or parent vessel occlusion. Aneurysms with a dome to neck ratio of less than 1 have been shown to have lower obliteration rates and poorer outcome following coil embolization. Furthermore, aneurysms in the middle cerebral artery bifurcation are less suitable for coil embolization. For some aneurysms, treatment may require the use of both coil embolization and surgical clipping or adjunctive technologies, such as stents and balloons, to obtain optimal results.
Diffusion
Information from 3 countries indicates that coil embolization is a rapidly diffusing technology. For example, it accounted for about 40% of aneurysm treatments in the United Kingdom.
In Ontario, coil embolization is an insured health service, with the same fee code and fee schedule as open surgical repair requiring craniotomy. Other costs associated with coil embolization are covered under hospitals’ global budgets. Utilization data showed that in 2004-2005, coil embolization accounted for about 38% (251 cases) of all intracranial aneurysm repairs in the province. With the 2005 publication of the positive long-term survival data from the International Subarachnoid Aneursym Trial, the pressure for diffusion will likely increase.
Economic Analysis
Recent economic studies show that treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms smaller than 10 mm in diameter in people with no previous history of SAH, either by coil embolization or surgical clipping, would not be effective or cost-effective. However, in patients with aneurysms that are greater than or equal to 10 mm or symptomatic, or in patients with a history of SAH, treatment appears to be cost-effective.
In Ontario, the average device cost of coil embolization per case was estimated to be about $7,500 higher than surgical clipping. Assuming that the total number of intracranial aneurysm repairs in Ontario increases to 750 in the fiscal year of 2007, and assuming that up to 60% (450 cases) of these will be repaired by coil embolization, the difference in device costs for the 450 cases (including a 15% recurrence rate) would be approximately $3.8 million. This figure does not include capital costs (e.g. $3 million for an angiosuite), additional human resources required, or costs of follow-up. The increase in expenditures associated with coil embolization may be offset partially, by shorter operating room times and hospitalization stays for endovascular repair of unruptured aneurysms; however, the impact of these cost savings is probably not likely to be greater than 25% of the total outlay since the majority of cases involve ruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, the recent growth in aneurysm repair has predominantly been in the area of coil embolization presumably for patients for whom surgical clipping would not be advised; therefore, no offset of surgical clipping costs could be applied in such cases. For ruptured aneurysms, downstream cost savings from endovascular repair are likely to be minimal even though the savings for individual cases may be substantial due to lower perioperative complications for endovascular aneurysm repair.
Guidelines
The two Guidance documents issued by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (UK) in 2005 support the use of coil embolization for both unruptured and ruptured (SAH) intracranial aneurysms, provided that procedures are in place for informed consent, audit, and clinical governance, and that the procedure is performed in specialist units with expertise in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.
Conclusion
For people in good clinical condition following subarachnoid hemorrhage from an acute ruptured intracranial aneurysm suitable for either surgical clipping or endovascular repair, coil embolization results in improved independent survival in the first year and improved survival for up to seven years compared to surgical clipping. The rebleeding rate is low and not significantly different between the two procedures after the first year. However, there is uncertainty regarding the long-term occlusion status, durability of the stent graft, and long-term complications.
For people with unruptured aneurysms, level 4 evidence suggests that coil embolization may be associated with comparable or less mortality and morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and less need for discharge to short-term rehabilitation facilities. The greatest benefit was observed in people over 65 years of age. In these patients, the decision regarding treatment needs to be based on the assessment of the risk of rupture against the risk of the procedure, as well as the morphology of the aneurysm.
In people who require treatment for intracranial aneurysm, but for whom surgical clipping is too risky or not feasible, coil embolization provides survival benefits over surgical clipping, even though the outcomes may not be as favourable as in people in good clinical condition and with small aneurysms. The procedure may be considered under the following circumstances provided that the aneurysm is suitable for coil embolization:
Patients in poor/unstable clinical or neurological state
Patients at high risk for surgical repair (e.g. people>age 65 or with comorbidity), or
Aneurysm(s) with poor accessibility or visibility for surgical treatment due to their location (e.g. ophthalmic or basilar tip aneurysms)
Compared to small aneurysms with a narrow neck in the anterior circulation, large aneurysms (> 10 mm in diameter), aneurysms with a wide neck (>4mm in diameter), and aneurysms in the posterior circulation have lower occlusion rates and higher rate of hemorrhage when treated with coil embolization.
The extent of aneurysm obliteration after coil embolization remains lower than that achieved with surgical clipping. Aneurysm recurrences after successful coiling may require repeat treatment with endovascular or surgical procedures. Experts caution that long-term angiographic outcomes of coil embolization are unknown at this time. Informed consent for and long-term follow-up after coil embolization are recommended.
The decision to treat an intracranial aneurysm with surgical clipping or coil embolization needs to be made jointly by the neurosurgeon and neuro-intervention specialist, based on the clinical status of the patient, the size and morphology of the aneurysm, and the preference of the patient.
The performance of endovascular coil embolization should take place in centres with expertise in both neurosurgery and endovascular neuro-interventions, with adequate treatment volumes to maintain good outcomes. Distribution of the technology should also take into account that patients with SAH should be treated as soon as possible with minimal disruption.
PMCID: PMC3379525  PMID: 23074479
24.  Mycotic Celiac Artery Aneurysm Following Infective Endocarditis: Successful Treatment Using N-butyl Cyanoacrylate with Embolization Coils 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2012;5(2):208-212.
Mycotic celiac artery aneurysm following infective endocarditis is extremely rare and, to our knowledge, only four cases have been reported in the literature to date. We describe the case of a 60 year-old man who developed a mycotic aneurysm of the celiac artery, which was detected by computed tomography (CT) following an episode of infective endocarditis. He successfully underwent endovascular isolation and packing of the aneurysm using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) with embolization coils.
doi:10.3400/avd.cr.11.00052
PMCID: PMC3595875  PMID: 23555513
mycotic celiac artery aneurysm; embolization; n-butyl cyanoacrylate
25.  Surgical Treatment of Giant Cavernous Hemangioma Liver 
HPB Surgery  1991;4(1):69-79.
In the past five years, 16 adults (10 females, age 25–61 years, mean 48) with giant cavernous hemangioma of the liver measuring 15–31 cm (mean-19) underwent surgery in a single Institution. Diagnosis was made with the help of multimodal investigations– ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), hepatic angiography, hepatic scintigraphy and fine needle biopsy. Ultrasound and CT had sensitivities of 69% and 82% respectively. Fourteen had preoperative selective hepatic artery embolization to study its effect on operative blood loss. Indication for surgery in all cases was a large abdominal mass with varying severity of pain. In addition, 5 had hemetological and/or coagulation abnormalities, hemobilia in and pyrexia in 1. Seven left lobectomies, 3 left lateral segmentectomies, 2 right lobectomies, 2 right trisegmentectomies and 4 non-anatomical resections of to 3 segments were performed. Postoperative complications developed in 25% with no operative mortality. Preoperative selective hepatic artery embolization helped to decrease the operative hemorrhage in 13 (mean blood loss– 1146 ml). In two cases severe bleeding required use of Cell-saver and massive donor blood transfusion. Our results suggest use of preoperative selective hepatic artery embolization and Cell-saver as an adjunct to the liver resection for these vascular tumors.
doi:10.1155/1991/91486
PMCID: PMC2423625  PMID: 1911479

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