To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of arterial esophageal bleeding.
Materials and Methods
Between August 2000 and April 2008, five patients diagnosed with arterial esophageal bleeding by conventional angiography, CT-angiography or endoscopy, underwent a TAE with NBCA. We mixed NBCA with iodized oil at ratios of 1:1 to 1:4 to supply radiopacity and achieve a proper polymerization time. After embolization, we evaluated the angiographic and clinical success, recurrent bleeding, and procedure-related complications.
The bleeding esophageal artery directly originated from the aorta in four patients and from the left inferior phrenic artery in one patient. Although four patients had an underlying coagulopathy at the time of the TAE, angiographic and clinical success was achieved in all five patients. In addition, no procedure-related complications such as esophageal infarction were observed during this study.
NBCA can be an effective and feasible embolic agent in patients with active arterial esophageal bleeding, even with pre-existing coagulopathy.
Esophageal artery; Hemorrhaging; Angiography; Therapeutic embolization
The liquid embolic agent n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is a tissue adhesive used as an immediate and permanent embolic agent when mixed with oil-based contrast medium. In this study, the preservation of fertility with TAE using NBCA for massive haemorrhage during pregnancy or the peripartum period and the utility of this therapy were investigated.
Cases from January 2005 to October 2010 in which TAE was performed for massive haemorrhage in pregnant women, particularly during the peripartum period, were investigated.
TAE was performed in 27 pregnant women. The embolic agent used was GS only in five cases, NBCA only in 19 cases, and additional embolization with NBCA when the effect with GS was insufficient in three cases, one each of abruptio placentae, cervical pregnancy, and uterine atony.A comparison of mean blood loss when each embolic agent was used for haemostasis showed a significant difference between cases in which GS only was used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a comparison of mean transfusion volume, a significant difference was seen between cases in which both GS and NBCA were used and cases in which NBCA only was used. In a postoperative follow-up survey, menses resumed in eight patients, including four patients who later became pregnant and three who delivered.
TAE with NBCA, which has an embolic effect unrelated to clotting dysfunction for massive haemorrhage during the peripartum period, is a minimally invasive and very effective treatment method for patients with severe DIC.
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and gelatin sponge particles (GSPs).
METHODS: Six healthy female swine were divided into two groups to be treated with BAE using NBCA-lipiodol (NBCA-Lp) and using GSPs. The occlusive durability, the presence of embolic materials, the response of the vessel wall, and damage to the bronchial wall and pulmonary parenchyma were compared.
RESULTS: No animals experienced any major complication. Two days later, no recanalization of the bronchial artery was observed in the NBCA-Lp group, while partial recanalization was seen in the GSP group. Embolic materials were not found in the pulmonary artery or pulmonary vein. NBCA-Lp was present as a bubble-like space in bronchial branch arteries of 127-1240 μm, and GSPs as reticular amorphous substance of 107-853 μm. These arteries were in the adventitia outside the bronchial cartilage but not in the fine vessels inside the bronchial cartilage. No damage to the bronchial wall and pulmonary parenchyma was found in either group. Red cell thrombus, stripping of endothelial cells, and infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in vessels embolized with NBCA-Lp or GSP.
CONCLUSION: NBCA embolization is more potent than GSP with regard to bronchial artery occlusion, and both materials were present in bronchial branch arteries ≥ 100 μm diameter.
Bronchial artery embolization; Embolic materials; N-butyl cyanoacrylate; Gelatin sponge; Lipiodol
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
Materials and Methods
Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1-1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated.
The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18).
TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.
Gastrointestinal tract, hemorrhage; Angiography, therapeutic embolization
Varicoceles are abnormally dilated veins within the pampiniform plexus. They are caused by reflux of blood in the internal spermatic vein. The incidence of varicoceles is approximately 10–15% of the adolescent male population. The etiology of varicoceles is probably multifactorial. The diagnosis is based on Doppler US. Treatment could be endovascular or surgical.
The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate a novel method of endovascular embolization of varicoceles using n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) glue.
17 patients were subjected to endovascular treatment of varicoceles using NBCA. A 2.8 Fr microcatheter and a 1:1 mixture of NBCA and lipiodol were used for embolization of the spermatic vein.
All 17 procedures were successful. There were no complications.
Embolization of varicoceles using NBCA glue is efficient and safe for all patients. The method should be considered as a method of choice in all patients. Phlebography and Valsalva maneuver are crucial for technical success and avoidance of complications.
Endovascular treatment of varicoceles using NBCA glue is very effective and safe.
varicoceles; embolization; n-butyl cyanoacrylate
We present a case of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm that mimicked a presumed vascular anomaly by CTA (Computerized Tomographic Angiography). A parenchymal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the craniocervical junction can present with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cannot be differentiated from a vertebral artery dissection by non invasive imaging. Catheter based cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of a diminutive right vertebral artery terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) that to our knowledge has not been previously reported. NBCA (N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate) embolization of the pseudoaneurysm lumen and sacrifice of the parent vessel resulted in cerebellar infarction, requiring an emergent decompressive craniectomy. The patient recovered to a functional neurologic status.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vertebral artery dissection; Arteriovenous Malformation; Cyanoacrylate embolization
Mycotic celiac artery aneurysm following infective endocarditis is extremely rare and, to our knowledge, only four cases have been reported in the literature to date. We describe the case of a 60 year-old man who developed a mycotic aneurysm of the celiac artery, which was detected by computed tomography (CT) following an episode of infective endocarditis. He successfully underwent endovascular isolation and packing of the aneurysm using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) with embolization coils.
mycotic celiac artery aneurysm; embolization; n-butyl cyanoacrylate
Embolization using n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is now a daily practice over the world, but there exists no objective data that can be a basis for discussion or decision-making on the best concentration and injection rate of NBCA mixture. The purpose of this study was to obtain objective data on control and behavior of NBCA mixture with an in vitro simulation system of NBCA embolization for AVM.
A nidus model made of a one-ml syringe filled with small beads was connected to a pulsatile flow circuit. A microcatheter was introduced just before the nidus model. Endoluminal pressures proximal and distal to the nidus and flow volume through the nidus were measured. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed to calculate transit time of the contrast medium (CM) through the nidus. NBCA was injected at various rates with an autoinjector and transit time of NBCA through the nidus was calculated.
27 trials were completed. Transit time of CM through the nidus model is well correlated to flow volume per unit of time through the nidus model. Shorter the transit time, larger was the flow volume per unit of time. The correlation was statistically significant (P < .0001). Though statistical significance was not attained, transit time of NBCA mixture at 50% concentration had a tendency to be correlated to flow volume per unit of time through the nidus, and slower injection of the NBCA mixture led to slower filling of the nidus model.
Though this simulation system was artificial and the results should be interpreted carefully, it was shown with this system that transit time of CM through the nidus could be a good index for flow volume per unit of time through the nidus. Also suggested was a possibility to utilize this in vitro system for research and training on NBCA embolization of AVM.
AVM, embolization, NBCA
The use of bilateral internal iliac artery embolization to control hemorrhage associated with pelvic fractures is a life saving intervention. Gluteal necrosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of this procedure. Following debridement, reconstruction can present a considerable challenge due to the compromised vascularity of local tissue.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 17 year old girl suffered an open book pelvic fracture following a road traffic accident. In order to stop profuse bleeding, bilateral internal iliac artery embolization was performed. This procedure was complicated by the development of right sided gluteal necrosis. Following extensive debridement, a transposition flap based on the lumbar artery perforators was performed to cover the soft tissue defect.
Gluteal necrosis occurs in approximately 3% of cases following internal iliac artery embolization. Following complete excision of the devitalised tissue reconstructive surgery is necessary. Local flaps are suboptimal options when the integument supplied by branches of the internal iliac arteries has been compromised following embolization. Furthermore, the use of a free flap is restricted by the lack of a readily accessible undamaged recipient vessel. In the present case a transposition flap based on the lumbar artery perforators facilitated robust reconstruction of the buttock region.
To avoid sepsis, it is imperative that gluteal necrosis following internal iliac artery embolization is recognized and promptly debrided. A transposition flap based on the lumbar artery perforators is a good option for subsequent soft tissue coverage, which avoids use of tissue supplied by the branches of the internal iliac arteries.
Gluteal necrosis; Lumbar artery; Transposition flap; Embolization; Internal iliac artery
The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method.
Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post-seal-off primary patency vs. secondary patency at 90, 180 and 360 days were 66.7 ± 11.1% vs. 94.4 ± 5.4%; 33.3 ± 11.1% vs. 83.3 ± 8.8%; and 13.3 ± 8.5% vs. 63.3 ± 12.1%, respectively.
Our results suggest that the NBCA seal-off technique is effective for immediate control of a venous rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for hemodialysis accesses. Both high technical and clinical success rates can be achieved. However, the treatment is not durable, and about 40% of the completely sealed off accesses are associated with developed delayed pseudoaneurysms in a 2-month of follow-up. Further repair of the vascular tear site, with surgery or stent-graft insertion, is often necessary.
Angioplasty, balloon; Arteriovenous shunt, surgical; Rupture; Cyanoacrylates; Aneurysm, false
A 71 year old man was diagnosed to have enlargement of abdominal aortic aneurysm due to
type 2 endoleak two years after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). 3D-CT demonstrated a
type 2 endoleak that originated from the superior mesenteric artery that fed the inferior
mesenteric artery and the right iliolumbar artery that flowed into the 4th lumbar artery.
Transarterial embolization was performed by means of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). After
the treatment, he suffered ischemic colitis that extended from the sigmoid colon to the
descending colon. Conservative treatment was mainly performed, and clinical improvement
was observed over time. He was discharged after 73 postoperative days.
type 2 endoleak; transarterial embolization; ischemic colitis
Aneurysms of the gluteal arteries are very rare with the majority being post-trauma pseudoaneurysms. Generally, management of these aneurysms could be surgical or through endovascular techniques. We present a case of a superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm complicating a pelvic fracture that presented as a gluteal mass. It was successfully treated by transcatheter coil embolization. We review the presentation, imaging, and treatment options. Aneurysms have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses, therefore lesion intervention by aspiration or needle biopsy should not be tried before ruling out a possible vascular nature which will easily be revealed by ultrasound Doppler or computed tomography scans.
Aneurysm; artery; gluteal; literature; review; superior
We report on cases of life-threatening maxillomandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVM) whereby patients had successful endovascular treatment with good outcomes. Out of a total 93 facial AVMs treated endovascularly between 1991 and 2009, five patients (5.4%) had maxillomandibular AVMs. All presented with uncontrolled dental bleeding. Endovascular procedure was the primary treatment of choice in all cases, either transfemoral approach with arterial feeder embolization or transosseous puncture, depending on the accessible route in each patient. NBCA (glue) was the only embolic agent used. Tooth extraction and dental care were performed after bleeding was controlled.
All five patients (8-18 years) with a mean age of 12.4 years presented with massive dental bleeding following loosening of teeth, dental extraction and/or cheek trauma. The plain films and CT scans of four patients with AVMs of mandibles and one of maxilla, revealed expansile osteolytic lesions. The mean follow-up period was 6.6 years (ranging between one and 19 years). Three cases developed recurrent bleeding between two weeks to three months after first embolization, resulting from residual AVM and infection. Late complications occurred in two patients from chronic localized infection and osteonecrosis, which were successfully eradicated with antibiotic therapy and bony curettage. Complications occurring in two patients which included soft tissue infection, osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis were successfully treated with antibiotics, curettage and bone resection. No patient had a recurrence of bleeding after the disease had cured
Initial glue embolization is recommended as the effective treatment of dental AVMs for emergent bleeding control, with the aim to complete eradicate the intraosseous venous pouches either by means of transarterial superselection or direct transosseous puncture. Patient care by a multidisciplinary team approach is important for sustained treatment results.
maxillomandibular, AVM, embolization
Direct percutaneous puncture of a cervical carotid pseudoaneurysm for coil placement or acrylic embolization is described for the endovascular management of acute carotid blowout. However, direct puncture of the internal carotid artery (ICA) for the endovascular management of carotid blowout has not been described.
We report a difficult case of acute carotid blowout syndrome in a patient who had radiation-induced occlusion of the right common carotid artery with vasculopathy and pseudoaneurysm in the right cervical ICA. Collaterals from the branches of the controlateral external carotid artery (ECA) anastomosed with branches of right ECA supplied the vasculopathy. We performed direct percutaneous puncture of the bulb of the right ICA using a spinal needle and placed fiber coils to occlude antegrade flow of the artery. During the injection of a mixture of N-butyl cyanoacrylate and lipiodol oil for embolization of the remaining carotid bulb, we transiently inflated an occlusion balloon in the controlateral common carotid artery to further arrest antegrade flow in the ICA. The vasculopathy and pseudoaneurysm of the right cervical ICA were successfully embolized, with preservation of the distal branches of the right ICA.
carotid blowout, balloon occlusion, direct percutaneous puncture
Hemothorax due to rupture of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare complication with high mortality because of uncontrollable hemorrhage. A 71-year-old man treated by transcatheter arterial embolization for HCC with massive bleeding from chest wall metastasis is reported. Enhanced computed tomography and selective intercostal angiogram showed a hypervascular mass in the right chest wall and extravasation of contrast agent. After successful transcatheter arterial embolization with gelatin sponge particles and metallic coils, the patient recovered from shock without major complication. To our knowledge, a successfully treated case of hemothorax due to rupture of metastatic HCC has not previously been described.
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Chest wall metastasis; Rupture; Transcatheter arterial embolization; Hemothorax
Variceal bleeding is the most serious complication of portal hypertension, and it accounts for approximately one fifth to one third of all deaths in liver cirrhosis patients. Currently, endoscopic treatment remains the predominant method for the prevention and treatment of variceal bleeding. Endoscopic treatments include band ligation and injection sclerotherapy. Injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been successfully used to treat variceal bleeding. Although injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate provides effective treatment for variceal bleeding, injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is associated with a variety of complications, including systemic embolization. Herein, we report a case of cerebral and splenic infarctions after the injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate to treat esophageal variceal bleeding.
Cerebrum; Esophageal varix; Infarction; N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Spleen
The high risk cerebral AVM can do great harm to people in case of hemorrhage .The goal of aathis paper is to discuss the characters of images and the technical manipulate of endovascular embolization for high risk cerebral AVM with bleeding. Fifty-six cases of high risk cerebral AVM with bleeding were confirmed by CT?MRI?and approved by whole cerebral DSA. Depended on the nidus of AVM, the superselective endovascular embolization with NBCA or embolization combined with radiological surgery was chosen. The nidus was eliminated for 100% in 36 cases after embolization for 1 to 3 processes. The rebleeding was found in 2 cases with new growth and survival aneurysm in nidus during the following period and treatment with Y-knife, and cured by second embolization. These are the main causes of brain bleeding composed of aneurysm and aneurysm-like dilation beside and located at the nidus, fine draining veins, and growth in ventricles. It is the favourable for the preference to eliminate the aneurysm in AVM during embolization to prevent brain from bleeding.
cerebral arteriovenous malformations, angiography, digital subtraction, neuroradiology interventional
The purpose of this study was to determine the yield of stereotactic core breast biopsy and its cost-saving potential.
This observational study was conducted at the Department of Radiology at Aga Khan Hospital in Karachi. All female patients (n = 84) undergoing stereotactic core breast biopsy under mammographic guidance from January 2005 to May 2010 were included. Stereotactic core biopsy was performed on a dedicated mammography unit employing a 14-gauge needle with an automated biopsy device. Ten patients with incomplete medical records were excluded. All breast biopsy results were either compared with surgical findings in cases of malignant histopathological findings or with follow-up needle localization in case of benign core biopsy findings.
Fifteen of our 74 patients had malignant findings on stereotactic biopsy, confirmed on histopathology of the final surgical mastectomy specimen. The remaining 59 patients had benign results on histopathology; five patients had needle localization of the same area due to either suspicious mammographic findings or clinical suspicion of malignancy. All were proven to be histopathologically benign on open surgical biopsy. Fifty-four patients with benign results had follow-up mammograms, and the follow-up period was 18 months to 5 years. The sensitivity and specificity was 100%. The cost saving per patient was US$253.
Stereotactic core breast biopsy is a safe and cost-effective method for determining the nature of suspicious mammographic findings.
stereotactic; breast biopsy; BI-RADS®; mammography
The most serious complication that can occur during mediastinoscopy is hemorrhage from large vessels in the mediastinum, whereas there are few articles relating to injury to major vessels. We describe a case of 77-year-old male with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, who underwent a mediastinoscopy procedure. When the pretracheal lymph nodes adjoining the right pulmonary artery were biopsied, a massive amount of bleeding spilled out through the scope. Immediately, the scope was removed from the body and the bleeding was controlled with digital compression at the skin incision. Then we closed the incision in a three-layer manner without any gauze packing in the mediastinum. Although some reports recommended gauze packing for massive bleeding during mediastinoscopy, we believe not all cases need gauze packing because bleeding from a low-pressure circulation system component into closed compartment, such as mediastinum, would cease without resulting in a large hematoma or pseudoaneurysm.
Intrarenal pseudoaneurysm is a rare, yet clinically significant, complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary in order to recognize pseudoaneurysm as the cause of delayed bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy and angiography confirms the diagnosis which allows endovascular management.
We present a case of a 65-year old Caucasian woman who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the supine position for a two centimetre renal calculus. The postoperative course was complicated by persistent bleeding due to a renal pseudoaneurysm. The vascular lesion was successfully managed by endovascular exclusion through the use of a covered stent graft. We report the first successful use of this method for the management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm in a branch of the left renal artery and we focus on the imaging findings, technical details, advantages and limitations of this technique.
As a result of its high efficacy, interventional radiology has largely replaced open surgery for the management of renal pseudoaneurysm related to percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Recent technical advancements have allowed the use of covered stent grafts as an alternative to embolisation for the angiographic management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysm located in other organs. This novel technique allows the endovascular exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm, without compromising arterial supply to the end-structures - an advantage of critical importance in organs supplied by segmental arteries - in the absence of collateral vasculature, such as the kidney.
BACKGROUND--A number of reports of radiologically guided percutaneous biopsy of mediastinal masses have been described but techniques have varied, particularly the type of needle used. In this study mediastinal biopsies with fine aspiration needles and cutting needles have been compared, sometimes in the same patient. The results are reviewed with particular emphasis on the choice of biopsy needle and its influence on pathological diagnosis. METHODS--A retrospective review was undertaken of radiologically guided mediastinal biopsies performed between 1981 and 1991. RESULTS--Sixty fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNA) and 34 Tru-Cut biopsies of mediastinal masses were performed in 75 patients with fluoroscopic or computed tomographic guidance. Overall sensitivity and specificity in terms of diagnosis of malignant disease were 90% and 100% respectively for FNA biopsies, and 96% and 100% for Tru-Cut biopsies. Diagnostic accuracy in terms of precise diagnosis of the malignant or benign nature of a mass and its origin was 77% for FNA biopsies and 94% for Tru-Cut biopsies. For FNA biopsies sensitivity and accuracy were higher for carcinomatous lesions (96% and 88%) than for noncarcinomatous lesions (81% and 69%). The only significant complication encountered was a pneumothorax following a biopsy which required intercostal drainage. CONCLUSIONS--Radiologically guided percutaneous needle biopsy is a safe procedure which provides useful diagnostic information in the majority of cases. Fine needle aspiration techniques usually suffice for carcinomatous lesions but a cutting needle biopsy should be performed whenever possible when lymphoma, thymoma, or neural masses are suspected to obtain larger specimens for more accurate histological diagnosis.
To characterize the clinical presentation, imaging features and endovascular treatment of paraspinal non-vertebral arteriovenous fistulas along the segmental nerve.
Retrospective review was performed on the five patients identified in our database covering 1985 to 2003. All patients presented with an incidentally found continuous murmur over the upper paraspinal or parasternal regions before three years old. In four patients, the AV fistula was in the mid-thoracic level and at L3 in one. All AV fistulas were a high-flow single-hole fistula at the neural foramen with venous drainage into paraspinal and epidural veins without intradural reflux. All fistulas were endovascularly occluded in the same session as the diagnostic angiography. The fistula was occluded with detachable coils in one case and with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) with flow control in four cases. Complete occlusion of the fistula was obtained in all cases and all patients remained neurologically intact at the last follow up (average six years). Non-vertebral paraspinal arteriovenous fistula along the segmental nerve is a specific disease entity seen in children. Embolization is the first choice of treatment for this disease.
paraspinal arteriovenous fistula, pediatrics, nerve
BACKGROUND: Malignancies located in the upper middle mediastinum usually do not have a sufficiently large acoustic window to permit a conventional ultrasound guided parasternal biopsy. This study was concerned with an alternative approach whereby ultrasound is applied through the supraclavicular paratracheal window to allow percutaneous biopsy of middle mediastinal malignancies. METHODS: Fifteen patients who had upper mediastinal malignancies not in contact with the chest wall underwent real time and Doppler ultrasonographic studies by the supraclavicular approach. None of these tumours could be reached by conventional ultrasound guided parasternal biopsy. The ultrasound was scanned downwards through the supraclavicular fossa, along the acoustic window of the paratracheal soft tissue space. Percutaneous aspiration biopsy was performed with a 22 gauge needle under ultrasound guidance. If fine needle aspiration could not obtain an adequate tissue smear an 18 gauge Trucut biopsy was performed to obtain a histological diagnosis. RESULTS: Twelve of 15 mediastinal malignancies were detected by ultrasound through the supraclavicular approach. These 12 patients underwent percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy under ultrasound guidance. Four of the patients also had a Trucut biopsy because the needle aspirates from the tumours were inadequate. The needle had to pass through the jugular veins in four patients who received fine needle aspiration but in none of the patients who required a Trucut biopsy. Definite histological diagnoses were obtained in all 12 of these patients. Ten of the tumours were malignant and two benign. None of the patients developed any complication. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound and ultrasound guided biopsy through the supraclavicular paratracheal window provides a new approach for malignancy located in the upper middle mediastinum, which cannot be reached by conventional ultrasound guided parasternal biopsy. The diagnostic yield of this technique is high and the procedure is relatively safe.
A bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is uncommon and usually associated with chronic inflammatory lung disease or a systemic vascular condition, which is rarely the etiology of mediastinal hemorrhage. A middle-aged person presented with spontaneous hemothorax and hemomediastinum. A diagnostic evaluation identified a bronchial artery aneurysm as the source. To prevent further rupture, we performed a bronchial artery embolization. In the absence of trauma or other causes for hemothorax and mediastinal hemorrhage, the possibility of a BAA should be considered. A bronchial artery aneurysm can be managed by interventional techniques as well as surgery.
Mediastinum; Vascular disease; Hemorrhage; Bronchial arteries; Aneurysm
Endovascular embolization for craniofacial arteriovenous malformation has been used as preoperative adjuvant devascularization or as definitive therapy. However, because the vascular network is complex, embolization via arterial access may be ineffective, risky, incomplete or technically difficult.
The purpose of this report is to describe our experience of percutaneous direct venous pouch puncture embolization. Four patients with craniofacial AVMs were treated with direct puncture embolization via injection of NBCA. After the selective transarterial angiogram, the lesions were directly punctured in the venous pouch under a road map angiogram. A glue mixture was injected, and post-embolization angiograms revealed that in all patients, the lesions had been completely obliterated without complication. Percutaneous direct puncture embolization is an effective, time saving and safe technique for the superficial craniofacial AVM with prominent venous pouch.
arteriovenous malformation, direct puncture, embolization, n-butyl cyanoacrylate