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1.  The willingness of community pharmacists to participate in a practice-based research network 
Background:
Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are groups of practitioners and researchers with an interest in designing, evaluating and disseminating solutions to the real-world problems of clinical practices.
Objective:
To evaluate the level of interest of community pharmacists in participating in a PBRN and to document the services such a network should offer.
Method:
In a survey of community pharmacists in Montreal, Quebec, and surrounding areas, a questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1250 pharmacists. Two of the 28 questions were related to PBRNs: one assessed the pharmacists’ interest in participating in a PBRN; the other sought their views on which services and activities this network should offer.
Results:
In total, 571 (45.7%) pharmacists completed the questionnaire, but 6 did not answer the questions about the PBRN. Of the respondents, 58.9% indicated they were “very interested” or “interested” in joining a PBRN, while 41.1% reported little or no interest. The most popular potential services identified were access to clinical tools developed in research projects (77.0%), access to continuing education training programs developed in research projects (75.9%), information about conferences on pharmacy practice research (64.1%) and participation in the development of new pharmaceutical practices (56.1%).
Conclusion:
This study suggests that the level of interest that community pharmacists have in PBRNs is sufficient to further evaluate how such networks may optimize and facilitate pharmacy practice research. Can Pharm J 2013;146:47-54.
doi:10.1177/1715163512473240
PMCID: PMC3676248  PMID: 23795169
2.  Asthma Friendly Pharmacies: A Model to Improve Communication and Collaboration among Pharmacists, Patients, and Healthcare Providers 
Pharmacists, with expertise in optimizing drug therapy outcomes, are valuable components of the healthcare team and are becoming increasingly involved in public health efforts. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in diverse community pharmacy settings can implement a variety of asthma interventions when they are brief, supported by appropriate tools, and integrated into the workflow. The Asthma Friendly Pharmacy (AFP) model addresses the challenges of providing patient-focused care in a community pharmacy setting by offering education to pharmacists and pharmacy technicians on asthma-related pharmaceutical care services, such as identifying or resolving medication-related problems; educating patients about asthma and medication-related concepts; improving communication and strengthening relationships between pharmacists, patients, and other healthcare providers; and establishing higher expectations for the pharmacist’s role in patient care and public health efforts. This article describes the feasibility of the model in an urban community pharmacy setting and documents the interventions and communication activities promoted through the AFP model.
doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9514-9
PMCID: PMC3042067  PMID: 21337057
Asthma; Community pharmacy; Pharmacists; Pharmaceutical care; Collaboration; Communication
3.  Interventions performed by community pharmacists in one Canadian province: a cross-sectional study 
Purpose
Interventions made by pharmacists to resolve issues when filling a prescription ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of medication therapy for patients. The purpose of this study was to provide a current estimate of the number and types of interventions performed by community pharmacists during processing of prescriptions. This baseline data will provide insight into the factors influencing current practice and areas where pharmacists can redefine and expand their role.
Patients and methods
A cross-sectional study of community pharmacist interventions was completed. Participants included third-year pharmacy students and their pharmacist preceptor as a data collection team. The team identified all interventions on prescriptions during the hours worked together over a 7-day consecutive period. Full ethics approval was obtained.
Results
Nine student–pharmacist pairs submitted data from nine pharmacies in rural (n = 3) and urban (n = 6) centers. A total of 125 interventions were documented for 106 patients, with a mean intervention rate of 2.8%. The patients were 48% male, were mostly ≥18 years of age (94%), and 86% had either public or private insurance. Over three-quarters of the interventions (77%) were on new prescriptions. The top four types of problems requiring intervention were related to prescription insurance coverage (18%), drug product not available (16%), dosage too low (16%), and missing prescription information (15%). The prescriber was contacted for 69% of the interventions. Seventy-two percent of prescriptions were changed and by the end of the data collection period, 89% of the problems were resolved.
Conclusion
Community pharmacists are impacting the care of patients by identifying and resolving problems with prescriptions. Many of the issues identified in this study were related to correcting administrative or technical issues, potentially limiting the time pharmacists can spend on patient-focused activities.
doi:10.2147/TCRM.S37581
PMCID: PMC3520548  PMID: 23248573
pharmaceutical care; pharmacy; medications; Canada; prescriptions; drug-related problems
4.  Societal perspectives on community pharmacy services in West Bank - Palestine 
Pharmacy Practice  2012;10(1):17-24.
Background
Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public's perception of community pharmacists in Palestine
Objective
To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offer.
Methods
This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers' patronage patterns, consumers’ interaction with community pharmacists, consumers’ views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations.
Results
Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %). Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring.
Conclusions
Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.
PMCID: PMC3798164  PMID: 24155812
Patient Satisfaction; Pharmacists; Professional Role; Middle East
5.  Tobacco sales in pharmacies: a survey of attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of pharmacists employed in student experiential and other worksites in Western New York 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:413.
Background
Pharmacies are venues in which patients seek out products and professional advice in order to improve overall health. However, many pharmacies in the United States continue to sell tobacco products, which are widely known to cause detrimental health effects. This conflict presents a challenge to pharmacists, who are becoming increasingly more involved in patient health promotion activities. This study sought to assess Western New York (WNY) area pharmacists’ opinions about the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies, and pharmacists’ opinions on their role in patient smoking cessation.
Methods
Participants responded to two parallel surveys; a web-based survey was completed by 148 university-affiliated pharmacist preceptors via a list based sample, and a mail-based survey was completed by the supervising pharmacist in 120 area pharmacies via a list-based sample. The combined response rate for both surveys was 31%. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine any significant differences between the preceptor and supervising pharmacist survey groups.
Results
Over 75% of respondents support legislation banning the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. Over 86% of respondents would prefer to work in a pharmacy that does not sell tobacco products. Differences between preceptor and supervising pharmacist groups were observed. Action regarding counseling patients was uncommon among both groups.
Conclusions
Pharmacists support initiatives that increase their role in cessation counseling and initiatives that restrict the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-413
PMCID: PMC3492148  PMID: 22867129
Tobacco sales; Pharmacists; Preceptors; Public health policy; Survey research; Pharmacies
6.  Use of pharmacists or pharmacies as Medicare Part D information sources 
Objective
To characterize beneficiaries who used a pharmacy or pharmacist as a Medicare Part D information source.
Methods
This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 4,724 Medicare Part D beneficiaries who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The main outcome measure was beneficiary self-reported use of a pharmacy or pharmacist as a Medicare Part D information source.
Results
Only 13% of the total sample and 15% of those with three or more medications used a pharmacy or pharmacist for Medicare Part D information. Adjusted logistic regression revealed that beneficiaries living in rural communities, compared with metropolitan areas, and with higher out-of-pocket prescription costs were more likely to use a pharmacy or pharmacist for Medicare Part D information. Beneficiaries with lower educational attainment were less likely to use a pharmacy or pharmacist for Medicare Part D information.
Conclusion
Pharmacists have the knowledge and are in the position in the community to effectively educate beneficiaries about the Medicare Part D program. However, this study suggests that few beneficiaries are using pharmacists or pharmacies for Medicare Part D information.
doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2012.11199
PMCID: PMC3774520  PMID: 23229982
Medicare Part D; community pharmacies; pharmacists; information sources; rural setting; prescription costs
7.  Pharmacists and harm reduction: A review of current practices and attitudes 
Canadian Pharmacists Journal : CPJ  2012;145(3):124-127.e2.
Background: Injection drug use and other high-risk behaviours are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality and thus have been the focus of many health promotion strategies. Community pharmacists are considered underutilized health providers and are often thought to be more accessible than other health professionals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of community pharmacists' practices as well as pharmacists' attitudes and identified barriers toward providing harm reduction services. We will highlight the major harm reduction services being offered through community pharmacies, as well as identify barriers to implementing these services.
Methods: A review of the literature from 1995 to 2011 was conducted using the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus, encompassing pharmacists' involvement in harm reduction services. Keywords included pharmacist, harm reduction, disease prevention, health promotion, attitudes, competence and barriers. References of included articles were examined to identify further relevant literature.
Results: Pharmacists are primarily involved in providing clean needles to injection drug users, as well as opioid substitution. Pharmacists generally have a positive attitude toward providing health promotion and harm reduction programs and express some interest in increasing their role in this area. Common barriers to expanding harm reduction strategies in community pharmacists' practice include lack of time and training, insufficient remuneration, fear of attracting unruly clientele and inadequate communication between health providers.
Conclusion: As one of the most accessible health care providers, community pharmacists are in an ideal position to provide meaningful services to injection drug users. However, in order to do so, pharmacists require additional support in the form of better health team and system integration, as well as remuneration models.
doi:10.3821/145.3.cpj124
PMCID: PMC3567507  PMID: 23509527
8.  Personality Traits of Hospital Pharmacists: Toward a Better Understanding of Factors Influencing Pharmacy Practice Change 
Background
The profession of pharmacy has adopted a mandate to become more patient-centred; however, significant change in this direction has not been achieved.
Objective:
To characterize the personality traits of hospital pharmacists in one Canadian province, to provide insights into potential barriers to practice change.
Methods:
A cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacists was conducted in Alberta, Canada. An invitation to participate was sent to all 766 hospital pharmacists practising in the province’s 2 health service organizations. The survey was based on the Big Five Inventory, a validated, reliable instrument that uses a 5-point Likert scale to measure the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness.
Results:
Of the 347 pharmacists who completed the survey (45% response rate), the majority (297 [86%]) were staff pharmacists working full time in an urban setting. The average age of respondents was 41 years (standard deviation [SD] 11 years), and the average period in practice was 17 years (SD 11 years). Respondents’ mean scores were 3.2 (SD 0.7) on extraversion, 3.8 (SD 0.4) on agreeableness, 4.0 (SD 0.4) on conscientiousness, 2.5 (SD 0.7) on neuroticism, and 3.5 (SD 0.6) on openness. Total frequency counts revealed that respondents tended toward stronger expression of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness and low levels of neuroticism (with the latter indicating stability).
Conclusion:
The Big Five Inventory represents a novel approach to examining pharmacists’ change-related behaviours. Improving understanding of hospital pharmacists’ personality traits will provide insights for the development of training and support programs tailored specifically to this group.
PMCID: PMC3806417  PMID: 24159231
pharmacy practice change; personality traits; Big Five Inventory; hospital pharmacy practice; changement de la pratique de la pharmacie; traits de personnalité; Inventaire des cinq grands facteurs de personnalité; pratique de la pharmacie hospitalière
9.  What elements of the patient–pharmacist relationship are associated with patient satisfaction? 
Background
Optimal medication management requires an effective relationship between the patient and health care professional. As pharmacists move from the traditional dispensing role to become more actively involved in patient care, factors influencing their relationship with patients need to be identified. A better understanding of these factors will facilitate more effective relationships.
Objective
To explore the effect of patient-perceived pharmacist expertise on relationship quality, self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, and relationship commitment.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five community pharmacies within the province of Alberta, Canada. A total of 500 patients were asked to complete a set of validated, self-administered questionnaires that measured perceived pharmacist expertise, relationship quality, self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, and relationship commitment. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the associations between variables.
Results
A total of 112 surveys were returned. Internal consistency ranged from 0.86–0.92, suggesting good reliability, except for the relationship commitment scale. There was a significant, positive correlation between patient-perceived pharmacist expertise and quality of the relationship (0.78; P < 0.001). There were also significant, positive correlations between perceived expertise and patient satisfaction (0.52; P < 0.001) and relationship commitment (0.47; P < 0.001). These associations remained significant but the magnitude of correlation decreased when relationship quality was taken into account (0.55; P < 0.001 and 0.56; P < 0.001, respectively). On the other hand, there was no significant association between either patient-perceived pharmacist expertise or relationship quality and medication self-efficacy (0.06; P = 0.517 and 0.10; P = 0.292, respectively).
Conclusion
Patient-perceived pharmacist expertise is an independent determinant of relationship quality, patient satisfaction, and relationship commitment. Relationship quality also appears to mediate the effect of perceived expertise on patient satisfaction and relationship commitment.
doi:10.2147/PPA.S35688
PMCID: PMC3461603  PMID: 23055699
relationship quality; pharmacist expertise; self-efficacy; relationship commitment; satisfaction
10.  Role of community pharmacies in prevention of AIDS among injecting drug misusers: findings of a survey in England and Wales. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;299(6707):1076-1079.
OBJECTIVE--To determine the current and potential roles of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs. DESIGN--Cross sectional postal survey of a one in four random sample of registered pharmacies in England and Wales. SETTING--Project conducted in the addiction research unit of the Institute of Psychiatry, London. SUBJECTS--2469 Community pharmacies in the 15 regional health authorities in England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Willingness of pharmacists to sell injecting equipment to known or suspected misusers of drugs; pharmacists' attitudes to syringe exchange schemes, keeping a "sharps" box for use by misusers of drugs, and offering face to face advice and leaflets; and opinions of community pharmacists on their role in AIDS prevention and drug misuse. RESULTS--1946 Questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 79%. This fell short of the target of one in four pharmacies in each family practitioner committee area in England and Wales, and total numbers of respondents were therefore weighted in inverse proportion to the response rate in each area. The findings disclosed a substantial demand for injecting equipment by drug misusers. After weighting of numbers of respondents an estimated 676 of 2434 pharmacies were currently selling injecting equipment and 65 of 2415 (3%) were participating in local syringe exchange schemes; only 94 of 2410 pharmacies (4%) had a sharps box for used equipment. There was a high degree of concern among pharmacists about particular consequences of drug misusers visiting their premises, along with a widespread acceptance that the community pharmacist had an important part to play. CONCLUSIONS--Promoting the participation of community pharmacists in the prevention of AIDS among misusers of injected drugs is a viable policy, but several problems would need to be overcome before it was implemented.
PMCID: PMC1837978  PMID: 2511969
11.  Survey of Canadian Pharmacists’ Responses to Warnings of Potential Interactions Between Ceftriaxone and Calcium in IV Solutions 
Background:
In 2007, because of a potential interaction between ceftriaxone and calcium-containing IV solutions, Roche Laboratories (manufacturer of Rocephin [ceftriaxone] in the United States) issued letters to health care professionals advising them of changes to the product monograph. Subsequently, warning letters were also issued by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada. The Health Canada recommendations and their implications for clinical practice generated debate in the Canadian hospital pharmacy community.
Objective:
To evaluate the response to the warnings among hospital pharmacists and their respective institutions.
Methods:
An anonymous, voluntary 10-question survey was distributed to members of the Pharmacy Specialty Networks of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Requests to participate were solicited via 2 e-mail messages. Responses were analyzed descriptively.
Results:
A total of 152 pharmacists participated in the survey. Forty-three respondents (28.3%) reported being very concerned and 86 (56.6%) reported being somewhat concerned about the Health Canada Notice to Hospitals. About half (77/152 [50.7%]) of the respondents felt that the Health Canada notice did not need to be strictly heeded. Two-thirds (98/145 [67.6%]) reported that their institutions had addressed the risk of an interaction through a change in policy regarding the administration of ceftriaxone. Eighty-eight (61.5%) of 143 participants indicated that their institution’s official position on the notice was that it represented a “relative contraindication” (i.e., the benefit may outweigh the risk).
Conclusions:
Warning letters issued by the manufacturer, the FDA, and Health Canada generated concern within the Canadian hospital pharmacy community. However, a large proportion of hospital pharmacy practitioners did not agree with strict adherence to the Health Canada notice.
PMCID: PMC2827021  PMID: 22478936
ceftriaxone; calcium; administration; precipitation; ceftriaxone; calcium; administration; précipitation
12.  Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study 
Background
Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS) in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study.
Methods
A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics.
Results
Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books.
Conclusions
Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to address the gaps in attitudes, knowledge and to improve effectiveness of information seeking behaviour.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-103
PMCID: PMC3217877  PMID: 22035220
13.  Prostate cancer education in the Washington, DC, area. 
Pharmacists are key members of the healthcare team, especially in minority and urban communities. This study was developed to assess pharmacists' ability and willingness to counsel the public on prostate cancer in the community pharmacy setting. A mail survey was sent to all 192 community pharmacies in Washington, DC, and Prince George's County, Maryland. A total of 90 pharmacists responded to the questionnaire, providing a 46.9% response rate. One third of the pharmacists indicated a willingness to participate in a prostate cancer training program. Perceived benefits and perceived barriers were each measured through five questionnaire items using Likert-style statements with responses ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree." The most significant predictor of perceived benefits of providing prostate cancer information was gender; male pharmacists perceived greater benefits for providing prostate cancer information than female pharmacists. Similarly, black pharmacists perceived greater benefits of providing prostate cancer information to their patients than non-black pharmacists. Also, pharmacists in stores that offered disease state management programs had a significantly lower perceived benefit of providing prostate cancer information. These findings indicate that gender and race may play a role in health promotion in health disparities. There were no significant barriers to providing prostate cancer information. Thus, many pharmacists are willing to participate in health education on prostate cancer.
PMCID: PMC2594186  PMID: 12442999
14.  Results of a national survey on over-the-counter medicines, Part 1: Pharmacist opinion on current scheduling status 
Canadian Pharmacists Journal : CPJ  2012;145(1):40-44.e1.
>Background: OTC medicines make up an important part of the community pharmacy world. As with most aspects of practice, however, hurdles exist that prevent an optimal level of care.
Objective: To gauge pharmacist agreement on the scheduling status of various OTC medicines.
Methods: Pharmacists across Canada were surveyed by mail.
Results: Of the 5037 surveys mailed, 2403 were returned, with 2305 being usable for analysis (response rate of 49.4%). Across 25 agents, pharmacists tended to support existing control for pharmacies (such as Nix crème rinse and minoxidil topical solution) and returning control to pharmacies for unscheduled agents (such as ranitidine 75 mg tablets and nicotine patches).
Conclusions: Pharmacists generally favour tighter control of OTC agents, especially those that are unscheduled. This hopefully reflects pharmacist desire to ensure their proper selection and use.
doi:10.3821/1913-701X-145.1.40
PMCID: PMC3567527  PMID: 23509487
15.  Do community pharmacists in Nepal have a role in adverse drug reaction reporting systems? 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2013;6(2):100-103.
Community pharmacies in Nepal serve both rural and urban populations and are an integral part of the Nepalese healthcare system. These community pharmacies are run by non-pharmacist professionals with orientation training on pharmacology and drug dispensing. Graduate pharmacists’ involvement in community pharmacy will help with patient counselling, dispensing of medication and promotion of safe and appropriate medicine use. Nepal has an organised pharmacovigilance system which incorporates adverse drug reaction (ADRs) from hospitals and tertiary care centres but not from the community. Involvement of pharmacists in community pharmacy will help in ADR reporting and, monitoring at community level and will help in promoting medication safety in the community. This article describes the community pharmacovigilance program in Nepal and the prospects for community pharmacists.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2013.1544
PMCID: PMC3593519  PMID: 23483017
Community Pharmacy; Adverse Drug Reaction; Pharmacist; Nepal
16.  An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists - an Australian perspective 
The Australasian Medical Journal  2011;4(4):236-242.
Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professional practice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australian pharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-counter medications. This review aims to identify Australian studies involving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing. Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacist prescribing were identified and considered in the context of its implementation internationally. Australian studies have mainly focused on the attitudes of community and hospital pharmacists towards such an expansion. Studies evaluating the views of Australian consumers and pharmacy clients were also considered. The available Australian literature indicated support from pharmacists and pharmacy clients for an expanded pharmacist prescribing role, with preference for doctors retaining a primary role in diagnosis. Australian pharmacists and pharmacy client’s views were also in agreement in terms of other key issues surrounding expanded pharmacist prescribing. These included the nature of an expanded prescribing model, the need for additional training for pharmacists and the potential for pharmacy clients gaining improved medication access, which could be achieved within an expanded role that pharmacists could provide. Current evidence from studies conducted in Australia provides valuable insight to relevant policymakers on the issue of pharmacist prescribing in order to move the agenda of pharmacist prescribing forwards.
doi:10.4066/AMJ.2011.694
PMCID: PMC3562903  PMID: 23393515
Pharmacist prescribing; Australia; pharmacy clients; Australian pharmacy; non-medical prescribing
17.  Engaging Students in Wellness and Disease Prevention Services 
Pharmacy education has traditionally focused on medications and treatment of disease. However, as an accessible health care professional, pharmacists can influence healthy behaviors in their patients. Encouraging/promoting healthier lifestyles in the United States is essential because the leading causes of mortality are tobacco use, poor nutrition, and inactivity. In order to prepare pharmacists for this role, student pharmacists must be taught how to implement and deliver wellness and prevention services. Community advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) occur at an ideal point in the curriculum to engage students in these activities. This article provides preceptors with guidance and tools for restructuring the community APPE at their sites to incorporate wellness and disease prevention activities.
PMCID: PMC1636924  PMID: 17149419
wellness; disease prevention; health promotion; advanced pharmacy practice experiences; community pharmacy
18.  Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups 
Background
Natural health products (NHPs) such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines, are currently available for sale in most Canadian pharmacies. However, most pharmacists report that they have limited knowledge about these products which have been regulated in Canada as a specific sub-category of drugs. In this paper, consumers' and practicing pharmacists' perceptions of pharmacists' professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs are examined.
Methods
A total of 16 focus groups were conducted with consumers (n = 50) and pharmacists (n = 47) from four different cities across Canada (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, and Halifax).
Results
In this paper, we illustrate the ways in which pharmacists' professional responsibilities are impacted by changing consumer needs. Many consumers in the study utilized a wide range of information resources that may or may not have included pharmacists. Nevertheless, the majority of consumers and pharmacists agreed that pharmacists should be knowledgeable about NHPs and felt that pharmacists should be able to manage drug-NHPs interactions as well as identify and evaluate the variety of information available to help consumers make informed decisions.
Conclusion
This paper demonstrates that consumers' expectations and behaviour significantly impact pharmacists' perceptions of their professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-40
PMCID: PMC2483265  PMID: 18625059
19.  A comprehensive system of pharmaceutical care for drug misusers 
This article outlines the evolution of a community pharmacy-based supervised consumption of methadone program in Grater Glasgow. The formalization of this program in 1994 promoted full patient compliance with the methadone regimen and reduced seepage of the drug to the illicit market. 184 of the area's 215 community pharmacies now dispense methadone for the treatment of opiate dependence. Of these, 173 have a supplementary contract with the local health board to supervise the consumption of methadone on their premises. In addition 15 of "methadone" pharmacists are involved in the provision of a pharmacy based needle exchange scheme. This has been shown to be the most efficient and cost effective method of delivering clean injecting equipment to injecting drug users in the Greater Glasgow area. Glasgow's pharmacists' have now been involved in the methadone and needle exchange programs for more than ten years. The support needed by pharmacists and the steps that have been put in place to provide this level of commitment are described. The development of the Glasgow pharmacy based services to drug users has had a major impact on practice elsewhere in the United Kingdom.
doi:10.1186/1477-7517-1-6
PMCID: PMC428584  PMID: 15169565
20.  The future of pharmaceutical care in France: a survey of final-year pharmacy students' opinions 
Background
In the last decades, the provision of pharmaceutical care by community pharmacists has developed in OECD countries. These developments involved significant changes in professional practices and organization of primary care. In France, they have recently been encouraged by a new legal framework and favored by an increasing demand for health care (increase in the number of patients with chronic diseases) and reductions in services being offered (reduction in the number of general practitioners and huge regional disparities).
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate final-year pharmacy students' opinions on 1/expanding the scope of pharmacists' practices and 2/the potential barriers for the implementation of pharmaceutical care. We discussed these in the light of the experiences of pharmacists in Quebec, and other countries in Europe (United Kingdom and the Netherlands).
Methods
All final-year students in pharmaceutical studies, preparing to become community pharmacists, at the University Paris-Descartes in Paris during 2010 (n = 146) were recruited. All of them were interviewed by means of a questionnaire describing nine "professional" practices by pharmacists, arranged in four dimensions: (1) screening and chronic disease management, (2) medication surveillance, (3) pharmacy-prescribed medication and (4) participation in health care networks. Respondents were asked (1) how positively they view the extension of their current practices, using a 5 point Likert scale and (2) their perception of potential professional, technical, organizational and/or financial obstacles to developing these practices.
Results
143 (97.9%) students completed the questionnaire. Most of practices studied received a greater than 80% approval rating, although only a third of respondents were in favor of the sales of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The most significant perceived barriers were working time, remuneration and organizational problems, specifically the need to create a physical location for consultations to respect patients' privacy within a pharmacy.
Conclusions
Despite remaining barriers to cross, this study showed that future French pharmacists were keen to develop their role in patient care, beyond the traditional role of dispensing. However, the willingness of doctors and patients to consent should be investigated and also rigorous studies to support or refute the positive impact of pharmaceutical care on the quality of care should be carried out.
doi:10.1186/1472-6904-11-6
PMCID: PMC3115856  PMID: 21612642
21.  The contribution of Ghanaian pharmacists to mental healthcare: current practice and barriers 
Background
There is scant knowledge of the involvement of developing country pharmacists in mental healthcare. The objectives of this study were: to examine the existing role of Ghanaian community and hospital pharmacists in the management of mental illness, and to determine the barriers that hinder pharmacists' involvement in mental healthcare in Ghana.
Method
A respondent self-completion questionnaire was randomly distributed to 120 superintendent community pharmacists out of an estimated 240 pharmacists in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana. A purposive sampling method was utilized in selecting two public psychiatric hospital pharmacists in Accra, the capital city of Ghana for a face-to-face interview. A semi-structured interview guide was employed.
Results
A 91.7% response rate was obtained for the community pharmacists' questionnaire survey. Approximately 65% of community pharmacists were not involved in mental health provision. Of the 35% who were, 57% counseled psychiatric patients and 44% of these dispensed medicines for mental illness. Perceived barriers that hindered community pharmacists' involvement in the management of mental health included inadequate education in mental health (cited by 81% of respondents) and a low level of encounter with patients (72%). The psychiatric hospital pharmacists were mostly involved in the dispensing of medicines from the hospital pharmacy.
Conclusion
Both community and hospital pharmacists in Ghana were marginally involved in the provision of mental healthcare. The greatest barrier cited was inadequate knowledge in mental health.
doi:10.1186/1752-4458-4-14
PMCID: PMC2893087  PMID: 20550668
22.  The conflicts between professional and non professional work of community pharmacists in Indonesia.  
Pharmacy Practice  2012;10(1):33-39.
Objective
The study aimed to determine the type of professional and non professional work of community pharmacists in Surabaya Indonesia and find the difference between time spent for performing both works in actual (current) situation and ideal (expected) situation.
Methods
A cross sectional study was conducted by combining purposive sampling for selecting the community pharmacists. Afterwards, the data was analyzed using SPSS v16 to provide the descriptive results and completed with Wilcoxon signed rank test to find the difference between time spent in actual and ideal situation. The sample size was 100 respondents of 300 pharmacists who have been practicing in Surabaya.
Results
From 100 participants just 30 participants gave response to the questionnaire, 67% was female who 20-30 years old at most (53%) with working experience as pharmacist less than 3 years (60%) and working 30 hours per week (60%) in pharmacy. Significant difference between time spent in actual and ideal situation was found.
Discussion
The time spent for performing professional and non professional work in ideal situation was significantly higher than in actual situation except for preparing medicines activity. This finding illustrated that the respondents did not have adequate time to provide ideal services in their daily practice. Therefore, they expected to improve their time and level of work in more professional manner. Surprisingly, they were also willing to provide more time and higher level of work in some non professional work.
Conclusions
The Indonesian community pharmacists spent little time on both professional work and non-professional work in their daily activities. This indicated that the pharmacists did not focus on delivering quality professional work.
PMCID: PMC3798160  PMID: 24155814
Community Pharmacy Services; Pharmacists; Workload; Professional Practice; Indonesia
23.  Knowledge of folic acid and counseling practices among Ohio community pharmacists 
Pharmacy Practice  2012;10(3):168-172.
Objective
To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500) of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted with permission for this study. The final tool consisted of 28 questions evaluating the knowledge, counseling practices, and demographics of respondents. The cover letter did not reveal the emphasis on folic acid, and surveys were completed anonymously. The university institutional review board deemed the study exempt.
Results
Of the 122 pharmacists who completed the survey, 116 (95.1%) knew that folic acid prevents some birth defects. Twenty-eight (22.9%) responded that they "always" or "usually" discuss multivitamins with women of childbearing potential, and 19 (15.6%) responded that they "always" or "usually" discuss folic acid supplements. Some gaps in knowledge specific to folic acid were revealed. While 63.1% of pharmacists selected the recommended dose of folic acid intake for most women of childbearing potential, 13.1% could identify the dose recommended for women who have had a previous NTD-affected pregnancy. Respondents identified continuing education programs, pharmacy journals/magazines, and the Internet as preferred avenues to obtain additional information about folic acid and NTD.
Conclusions
This study represents the first systematic evaluation of folic acid knowledge and counseling practices among a sample of pharmacists in the United States. As highly accessible healthcare professionals, community pharmacists can fulfill a vital public health role by counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid intake. Educational materials may be beneficial in augmenting knowledge of folic acid and facilitating patient education.
PMCID: PMC3780494  PMID: 24155833
Pharmacists; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Professional Practice; Health promotion; Folic Acid; Neural Tube Defects; United States
24.  Patients Perception of Community Pharmacist in Bosnia and Herzegovina 
Materia Socio-Medica  2013;25(3):206-209.
Community pharmacists play a significant role in patient/disease management and perception by patients is increasingly important. A self-administered questionnaire was developed consisted of sociodemographic part and 15 questions. Patients have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists that is comparable to most studies in Europe. Community pharmacists’ beyond dispensing drugs play a significant role in patient and disease management. This role of the pharmacist is performed through pharmaceutical care. Patient’s opinion is increasingly considered to be a useful component in the determination of care outcomes and consumer satisfaction is an integral component of the quality of primary health care. For the purpose of this study we developed self-administered questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic part, and 15 questions. Survey has been conducted in 10 pharmacies. Results are presented in tables and figures and descriptive statistics has been used. We found that patients in Bosnia and Herzegovina have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and of the services offered from community pharmacies that is comparable to most studies in Europe, but there is still room for improvement of relationships and pharmaceutical services.
doi:10.5455/msm.2013.25.206-209
PMCID: PMC3804417  PMID: 24167438
patients perception; community pharmacists.
25.  Advent of mail-order pharmacy causes concern among some pharmacists. 
MEDITrust, a major mail-order pharmacy, promises low drug prices and dispensing fees for people who order drugs via mail. Its arrival has created some strong opposition in Quebec. The Canadian Pharmaceutical Association says the arrival of mail-order companies may give community pharmacists an opportunity to promote the benefits of face-to-face contact with pharmacists. The CMA's Dr. Anne Carter says there will always be a need for community pharmacists, who can provide drugs on short notice and provide personal counselling for patients.
PMCID: PMC1337914  PMID: 7728698

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