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1.  Multiple fibroadenomas in bilateral breasts of a 46-year-old Indian woman – A case report☆ 
Fibroadenomas are among the most common tumours of the female breast, occurring most frequently in women of child-bearing age, especially those under 30 years.
We report a case with a total of 27 fibroadenomas presenting bilaterally of a 46-year-old woman. The histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of the fibroadenomata are described.
Most fibroadenomas are present as single mass, however the presence of multiple fibroadenomata can be seen in 15–20% of the patients. It has been reported that the average number of masses in cases of multiple fibroadenomas is 3–4 in a single breast but occurrence of more than five fibroadenomas in an individual patient is much less common.
There are few reports of multiple fibroadenomas. We report this case hoping to expand the literature and to provide insight to aetiology of multiple fibroadenoma formation and advice on management.
PMCID: PMC4008863  PMID: 24709623
2.  Bilateral Giant Juvenile Fibroadenomas of Breasts:A Case Report 
Juvenile fibroadenoma constitutes only 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is found to be only 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare, and only four cases have been reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, we are presenting the fifth case of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas in a 12-year-old prepubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. In this paper, we present this rare case to illustrate the diagnosis and management of this tumour and to emphasize that these tumours are almost always benign and should be treated with breast-conserving surgery to provide a healthy physical and social life to the patient.
PMCID: PMC3108471  PMID: 21660274
3.  Aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-related genes in giant breast fibroadenoma: a case report 
Giant fibroadenoma is an uncommon variant of benign breast lesions. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is known to be involved in the silencing of genes (for example, tumor-suppressor genes) and appears to be an early event in the etiology of breast carcinogenesis. Only hypermethylation of p16INK4a has been reported in non-giant breast fibroadenoma. In this particular case, there are no previously published data on epigenetic alterations in giant fibroadenomas. Our previous results, based on the analysis of 49 cancer-related CpG islands have confirmed that the aberrant methylation is specific to malignant breast tumors and that it is completely absent in normal breast tissue and breast fibroadenomas.
Case presentation
A 13-year-old Hispanic girl was referred after she had noted a progressive development of a mass in her left breast. On physical examination, a 10 × 10 cm lump was detected and axillary lymph nodes were not enlarged. After surgical removal the lump was diagnosed as a giant fibroadenoma. Because of the high growth rate of this benign tumor, we decided to analyze the methylation status of 49 CpG islands related to cell growth control. We have identified the methylation of five cancer-related CpG islands in the giant fibroadenoma tissue: ESR1, MGMT, WT-1, BRCA2 and CD44.
In this case report we show for the first time the methylation analysis of a giant fibroadenoma. The detection of methylation of these five cancer-related regions indicates substantial epigenomic differences with non-giant fibroadenomas. Epigenetic alterations could explain the higher growth rate of this tumor. Our data contribute to the growing knowledge of aberrant methylation in breast diseases. In this particular case, there exist no previous data regarding the role of methylation in giant fibroadenomas, considered by definition as a benign breast lesion.
PMCID: PMC3206866  PMID: 22011321
4.  Multiple fibroadenomas harbouring carcinoma in situ in a woman with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2002;55(10):795-797.
A 46 year old woman with a family history of breast and ovarian cancer presented with multiple fibroadenomas in both breasts. From three fibroadenomas removed from the left breast carcinoma in situ (CIS) had developed. One fibroadenoma gave rise to ductal CIS, whereas the other two harboured lobular CIS. This is the first report of three fibroadenomas simultaneously giving rise to CIS. In addition, synchronous fibroadenomas harbouring different types of CIS from one fibroadenoma to the other have never been described. Direct sequencing revealed a mutation (5075G→A) in the BRCA1 gene, but retention of BRCA1 immunohistochemical staining and no loss of heterozygosity at the BRCA1 locus by polymerase chain reaction made a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 unlikely. Furthermore, in this family no cosegregation of breast cancer with this BRCA1 mutation was seen. Indeed, this mutation is now regarded as a polymorphism. This case stresses the need for histological evaluation of all breast masses in women with a strong positive family history for breast and/or ovarian cancer.
PMCID: PMC1769772  PMID: 12354814
breast; fibroadenoma; carcinoma in situ; BRCA1
5.  Carcinoma developing in a fibroadenoma in a woman with a family history of breast cancer: a case report and review of literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:9348.
Malignant transformation of a fibroadenoma is rare with only about 100 cases reported in the world literature. Fibroadenoma occurring in middle aged woman with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer should be investigated with a high suspicion for malignancy.
Case presentation
A 35-year- old Indian lady operated previously for fibroadenoma of the right breast presented with a recurrent lump at the same site. She had a strong family history of breast carcinoma. Mammography and trucut biopsy was suggestive of infiltrating duct carcinoma. She was managed by lumpectomy and axillary lymph node dissection with a satisfactory outcome. There was no evidence of BRCA-1, BRCA-2 mutation on immunohistochemistry.
Malignant change in a pre-existing fibroadenoma is rare, however in a middle aged woman with a family history of breast cancer it should be suspected. In the absence of any definite clinical and radiological criteria of diagnosing malignant change in a fibroadenoma, high suspicion index is mandatory. The management and outcome depends on the stage and grade of presentation.
PMCID: PMC2806393  PMID: 20072677
6.  Juvenile fibroadenoma of the breast: Treatment and literature review 
A fibroadenoma is a benign breast lump that occurs mainly in females, and is a major cause of unilateral breast masses in adolescents. Juvenile fibroadenoma may double in size, reaching 15 cm to 20 cm, within three to six months. Because it is a rapidly growing mass and distorts overlying skin, it can be very traumatic to the young patient. This article presents such a fibroadenoma in a 17-year-old girl, and discusses its treatment and management.
It is uncommon to find palpable breast masses in young patients. Generally, such masses are benign. Juvenile fibroadenoma is the most frequent benign tumour of the breast. The present report describes a case involving a 17-year-old girl with unilateral right breast hypertrophy, for whom resection and breast reduction was effectively achieved.
Resection was combined with an aesthetically pleasing outcome through breast reduction, via a wise pattern of reduction with a superior pedicle.
While young patients rarely present with breast masses, the consideration of fibroadenoma in these cases is always warranted. The disconcerting appearance of the breasts for adolescents afflicted by such benign masses underscores the importance of achieving aesthetically optimal outcomes and attaining adequate tumour resection for diagnostic purposes through pathological specimens. In the present case, the young patient underwent a procedure that fulfilled both of these valuable goals through careful pre-operative planning, pedicle selection and skin resection patterns.
PMCID: PMC3269333  PMID: 22942662
Breast reduction; Breast tumours; Juvenile fibroadenoma
7.  An Ectopic Breast Tissue Presenting with Fibroadenoma in Axilla 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:947295.
Introduction. The congenital anomalies of breast, especially the polymastia (supernumerary breast) and polythelia (supernumerary nipple), always do not fail to amuse the clinicians because of their varied presentations, associated renal anomalies, and pathologies arising from them. The axillary polymastia is a variant of ectopic breast tissue (EBT). Ectopic breast tissue can undergo the same physiological and pathological processes as the normally located breast. The incidence of fibroadenoma developing in ectopic breast is reported as a rare entity, the most common being the carcinoma. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old Dravidian female presented with a lump of 4 cm in the right axilla for the past year which gradually increased in size, giving discomfort. Our initial differential diagnosis was fibroadenoma, lipoma, and lymphadenopathy. Further investigation and histopathological report of excision biopsy confirmed it as a fibroadenoma on ectopic breast tissue in the axilla. Patient has no associated urological or cardiac anomaly. Conclusion. This case has been reported for its rarity and to reemphasise the importance of screening of EBT for any pathology during routine screening of breast.
PMCID: PMC3623429  PMID: 23607040
8.  Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia arising within breast fibroadenoma 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:267.
Fibroadenomas are the second most common breast pathology occurring in young women under the age of 35 years old. Fibroadenomas can be classified as simple or complex according to histological features. Complex fibroadenomas differ from simple fibroadenomas because of the presence of cysts (3 mm), sclerosing adenosis, epithelial calcifications, or papillary apocrine changes. Most fibroadenomas are clinically identifiable. In 25% of cases, fibroadenomas are non-palpable and are diagnosed with mammography and ultrasound. Differential diagnosis with well differentiated breast cancer is often necessary, particularly with medullary or mucinous tumors. Calcification findings within fibroadenomas by mammogram have to be investigated. The age of a lump is usually reflected by calcifications. Microcalcification can hide foci of carcinoma in situ when they are small, branching type, and heterogeneous. However, many morphological possibilities may not be reliable for deciding whether a certain calcification is the product of a malignant or a benign process. From a radiological point of view, fibroadenomas containing foci of carcinoma in situ can be indistinguishable from benign lesions, even if the incidence of carcinoma within fibroadenomas is estimated as 0.1–0.3%, and it could be a long-term risk factor for invasive breast cancer.
Case presentation
A 44-year-old woman presented with a 1.5-cm palpable, smooth, mobile lump in the lower-inner quadrant of her right breast. Standard mediolateral oblique and craniocaudal mammograms showed a cluster of eccentric popcorn-like calcifications within the fibroadenoma. After lumpectomy, a definitive histological examination confirmed the intra-operative diagnosis of a benign mass. However, lobular intraepithelial neoplasia foci were found, surrounded by atypical lobular hyperplasia.
The possibility of an old benign breast lump might be supported by fine needle aspiration biopsy or core biopsy before initiating follow-up. According to our experience, when patients are older than 40 years and have a familial history of breast cancer, we prefer to carry out lumpectomy with follow up to avoid the risk of underestimation in situ foci within the lump.
PMCID: PMC3716517  PMID: 23849288
Fibroadenoma; Lobular intraepithelial neoplasia; Popcorn-like calcifications
9.  The utilization of an ultrasound-guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy system as an innovative approach to accomplishing complete eradication of multiple bilateral breast fibroadenomas 
Ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy technology is extremely useful for diagnostic biopsy of suspicious breast lesions and for attempted complete excision of appropriately selected presumed benign breast lesions.
Case presentation
A female patient presented with 16 breast lesions (eight within each breast), documented on ultrasound and all presumed to be fibroadenomas. Over a ten and one-half month period of time, 14 of these 16 breast lesions were removed under ultrasound guidance during a total of 11 separate 8-gauge Mammotome® excision procedures performed during seven separate sessions. Additionally, two of these 16 breast lesions were removed by open surgical excision. A histopathologic diagnosis of fibroadenoma and/or fibroadenomatous changes was confirmed at all lesion excision sites. Interval follow-up ultrasound imaging revealed no evidence of a residual lesion at the site of any of the 16 original breast lesions.
This report describes an innovative approach of utilizing ultrasound-guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy technology for assisting in achieving complete eradication of multiple bilateral fibroadenomas in a patient who presented with 16 documented breast lesions. As such, this innovative approach is highly recommended in similar appropriately selected patients.
PMCID: PMC2147012  PMID: 17967193
10.  Vulvar lactating adenoma associated to a fibroadenoma: common neoplasms in an uncommon site 
Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign (fibroadenoma) or malignant pathologic processes. Less than forty cases of fibroadenomas have been reported in the literature. Although lactation changes can occur, lactating adenoma in the vulva are extremely rare. Only four cases have been reported. We report a case of a young woman who presented with vulvar mass during her lactation. The mass was excised, and histology confirmed vulvar lactating adenoma associated with fibroadenoma. This is the first case of vulvar heterotopic breast lesion associating lactating adenoma and fibroadenoma.
PMCID: PMC3542777  PMID: 23330038
Ectopic breast tissue; vulva; lactating adenoma; fibroadenoma; pathology
11.  Bifocal juvenile papillomatosis as a marker of breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2014;8(6):2587-2590.
Juvenile papillomatosis (JP), also termed Swiss cheese disease, is a rare and benign type of proliferative breast tumor that is specifically observed in children and adolescents. The majority of JP patients are Caucasian and exhibit a single breast mass. The current report presents an unusual case of bifocal JP in an 11-year-old Chinese female. The patient presented with a slow-growing palpable mass in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Ultrasonography identified a further impalpable lesion in the lower outer quadrant of the ipsilateral breast. The preoperative clinical diagnosis of the two masses was fibroadenoma, however, following complete excision of the two tumors, histopathology revealed JP. Furthermore, the patient had a family history of breast cancer. The current report describes a review of the literature regarding the presentation, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of JP and its association with breast carcinoma. In the current case, JP was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the patient, as well as the patient’s elder female relatives; therefore, a more thorough medical follow-up may prove prudent for those individuals with a high risk of developing breast cancer.
PMCID: PMC4214435  PMID: 25364432
juvenile papillomatosis; diagnosis and treatment; breast cancer risk
12.  Adenoid cystic carcinoma of female breast: A case report 
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a rare neoplasm accounting for 0.1% of breast carcinomas.
A 30 year old female patient presented with multiple lumps in the right breast. Excision biopsy of a lump in the lower outer quadrant revealed adenoid cystic carcinoma. A right sided modified radical mastectomy (MRM) was performed, with axillary clearance. Histopathology revealed a fibroadenoma accounting for one mass and adenoid cystic carcinoma in another, confirmed on Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. Three out of the eight excised axillary lymph nodes contained malignancy. There was no evidence of recurrence or distant spread at follow-up 6 months postoperatively.
ACC of the breast is a rare neoplasm accounting for 0.1% of breast carcinomas and is of special interest because of its favourable prognosis and distinctive histological appearance. This tumor occurs predominantly in women in their sixth decade and usually presents as a tender breast mass, often in the subareolar area though in our case it was not tender and presented as multiple lumps in the right breast. The diagnosis can be made on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), but in our case FNAC was inconclusive. We performed MRM with axillary clearance, and three out eight lymph nodes proved positive for malignancy.
ACC is a rare malignant neoplasm. Surgical treatment is the mainstay with little role for radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the published literature.
PMCID: PMC3731693  PMID: 23562896
Adenoid cystic carcinoma; Axillary lymph nodes; Modified radical mastectomy
13.  Myoid hamartoma of the breast that proved difficult to diagnose: a case report 
Myoid hamartomas of the breast are extremely rare breast lesions, with a poorly understood pathogenesis. We describe the case of a 38-year-old premenopausal woman who presenting with a mass in the left breast. Mammography revealed an oval mass that was partly indistinct, and ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass with a slightly irregular margin. Bilateral breast dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed for a more detailed evaluation. The images showed rapid initial enhancement and a microlobulated margin. Because the suspicion of malignancy was strong at that time, core needle biopsy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was identified as fibroadenoma. A case of myoid hamartoma of the breast that proved difficult to diagnose is reported, and discussed with reference to the literature.
PMCID: PMC3271982  PMID: 22248347
myoid hamartoma; breast tumor; smooth-muscle actin
14.  Infarcted fibroadenoma of the breast: report of two new cases with review of the literature 
Diagnostic Pathology  2013;8:38.
Fibroadenomas are the most common benign breast tumors in young women. Infarction is rarely observed in fibroadenomas and when present, it is usually associated with pregnancy or lactation. Infarction can exceptionally occur as a complication of previous fine-needle aspiration biopsy or during lactation and pregnancy.
Materials and methods
Retrospective review of 650 cases of fibroadenomas diagnosed at our institution during the 8-years period identified two cases of fibroadenomas with infarction (rate ~0.3%).
Two partially infarcted fibroadenomas were diagnosed on core biopsy and frozen section in an adolescent girl (13 years old) and in a young woman (25 years old), respectively. No preceding fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in these cases, nor were the patients pregnant or lactating at the time of the diagnosis.
Spontaneous infarction within fibroadenoma is a rare phenomenon in younger patients. The presence of necrosis on core biopsy or frozen section should be cautiously interpreted and is not a sign of malignancy.
Virtual Slides
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
PMCID: PMC3598275  PMID: 23445683
Breast tumors; Benign tumors; Fibroadenoma; Infarction; Necrosis
15.  Tubular Adenoma of the Breast: A Rare Presentation and Review of the Literature 
Tubular adenomas, also known as pure adenomas, are rare epithelial tumors of the breast. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, especially in young women of reproductive age. Postmenopausal women are very rarely affected. We describe here a very rare case of tubular breast adenoma in a postmenopausal woman who presented with a gradually enlarging breast lump. Clinical examination and imaging studies revealed a non-tender well circumscribed left breast tumor suggestive of a fibroadenoma. Due to the history of progressive enlargement of the breast lump, a surgical excision was performed. Histological findings were suggestive of a tubular breast adenoma. We conclude that although tubular breast adenoma is rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis in postmenopausal patients presenting with a gradually enlarging breast mass. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult because tubular adenoma is indistinguishable from a fibroadenoma on physical examination and breast imaging. Surgical excision is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis. Clinical presentation and management of our patient are discussed along with a review of the literature.
Tubular adenoma; Breast; Breast mass.
PMCID: PMC3279505  PMID: 22383931
16.  Spontaneous Infarction in a Fibroadenoma of the Breast 
Breast Care  2011;6(1):54-55.
Fibroadenomas are common neoplasms in young women but occur in a wide age range from adolescent females to octogenians.
Case Report
A 21-year-old female patient presented with a 10-week history of a mass in her breast. Ultrasound examination demonstrated a 3.5 × 3 cm, well-circumscribed, semisolid mass. An excisional biopsy but no fine needle aspiration was performed. The patient had no history of pregnancy or lactation, or trauma or infection to the area of the lesion. The histopathological examination showed a spontaneously infarcted fibroadenoma.
Spontaneous infarction is an uncommon complication in fibroadenoma of the breast, and there are very few reported cases in the literature.
PMCID: PMC3083272  PMID: 21547027
Fibroadenoma; Infarction; Breast
17.  Intraductal fibroadenoma under the nipple in an 11-year-old female 
Diagnostic Pathology  2014;9:32.
Recently, Chung et al. have reported the detailed clinicopathological features of an extremely rare case sharing similar histopathological characteristics with fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours, intraductal papillomas or ductal adenomas, given the name of intraductal fibroadenomatosis, as an unusual variant of intracanalicular fibroadenoma. Herein we demonstrated a very unusual case of intraductal fibroadenoma of the breast with admixture of components of intracanalicular type fibroadenoma or benign phyllodes tumour and a smaller amount of intraductal papilloma, occupying the one duct and some adjacent ductules, presenting as a well-demarcated nodule.
PMCID: PMC3922281  PMID: 24512699
Intraductal fibroadenoma; Intracanalicular type fibroadenoma; Phyllodes tumour; Breast
18.  Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case 
A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann’s operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well.
PMCID: PMC4247717  PMID: 25217973
Synchronous malignancy; Accessory mammary gland; Breast carcinoma; Primary breast lymphoma; Rectal carcinoma; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; Invasive lobular carcinoma
19.  Fibroadenoma of the ectopic breast of the axilla 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2010;72(2):143-145.
Polymastia is a term that is used to describe the presence of more than two breasts in human beings. It is synonymous with supernumerary or accessory breast tissue. Ectopic breast tissue (EBT) may occur any where along the primitive embryonic milk lines, which extend from the axilla to the groin, and may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. In the EBT any disease can develop that affects the normal breast, including fibroadenoma. Since publications describing this anomaly are rare, we decided to report a case of fibroadenoma in axillary breast tissue.
PMCID: PMC3452521  PMID: 23133228
Fibroadenoma; Axilla; Ectopic breast tissue
20.  Invasive ductal carcinoma within fibroadenoma: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:174.
Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the female breast with the highest incidence before age 30. Fibroadenoma may be associated with fibrocystic changes, proliferative epithelial changes, and extremely rarely, with non-invasive and invasive cancer.
Case presentation
We present a rare case of a 39 years old female with invasive ductal carcinoma arising within fibroadenoma.
There is a low percentage of fibroadenomas harboring carcinoma; however, all breast lumps should be seriously managed; extirpation and histological examination is recommended.
PMCID: PMC2783130  PMID: 19946485
21.  Extensive Multifocal Mammary Infarction – a Case Report 
Breast Care  2013;8(2):143-145.
Breast infarction can occur in benign breast lesions, such as fibroadenomas, as well as healthy breast tissue, typically in the gravid or lactating patient. Few theories, however, exist to explain this unusual lesion.
Case Report
We present a very rare case of a 27-year-old female patient with extensive, multifocal, bilateral mammary infarction. A literature search was also performed to confirm its rarity. Although solitary or limited areas of spontaneous infarction have been documented, there are no documented cases where such a large, multifocal area of involvement has occurred without obvious explanation.
Extensive multifocal post-partum breast infarction is a rare occurrence that has potential long-term effects. This should be considered when taking patient history in post-partum patients, as well as those with extensive calcifications on mammogram years after giving birth.
PMCID: PMC3683947  PMID: 24419154
Differential diagnosis; Pregnancy; Radioimaging; Review; Screening; Ultrasound; Mammary infarction
22.  Ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a benign phyllodes tumor: A case report with a review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2010;2(2):223-228.
Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare type of breast tumor that rarely occurs with breast carcinoma. This study evaluated a 53-year-old female patient with a benign PT with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the tumor. A firm, painless, well-demarcated tumor measuring 4–5 cm was noted in the left breast. Over the course of the previous 14 years, the patient underwent excision of a breast tumor four times at the same site in the left breast. The pathological diagnosis of the first tumor was a fibroadenoma (FA), and those of the following three were benign PTs. The tumor was the 5th one noted over the course of the previous 14 years, following the previously recorded surgeries. A firm tumor with a diameter of 3.5 cm was located beneath the scar from the previous surgery, just above the nipple of the left breast. Mammography revealed a high-density irregularly shaped mass with a clear margin. An ultrasound showed low but heterogeneous echogenicity. A computed tomography scan revealed a well-defined enhanced tumor. These image examinations were compatible with recurrent PT. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed that the tumor was likely a benign FA. The patient underwent a partial mastectomy with a 1.0 cm margin from the tumor edge, and the firm, attached scar tissue was also resected. Macroscopic examination showed a hard elastic mass, which was encapsulated by thin fibrous tissue and which adhered firmly to the adjacent scar tissue. Microscopic examination showed a 5 mm in diameter DCIS of the cribiform type in a section of the PT epithelial component with an apparently benign stroma. The DCIS cells were strongly positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, but HER2 expression was negative (score 0). The patient received local irradiation following surgery and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was detected in the 2 years following surgery. This was a noteworthy case of a DCIS arising in benign PT. To the best of our knowledge, a total of 28 breast carcinomas were previously reported to arise in PT. In this case report, a female patient who presented with a PT was evaluated. A review of the literature is also discussed.
PMCID: PMC3410609  PMID: 22866068
phyllodes tumor; ductal carcinoma in situ
23.  Visualizing Typical Features of Breast Fibroadenomas Using Phase-Contrast CT: An Ex-Vivo Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97101.
Fibroadenoma is the most common benign solid breast lesion type and a very common cause for histologic assessment. To justify a conservative therapy, a highly specific discrimination between fibroadenomas and other breast lesions is crucial. Phase-contrast imaging offers improved soft-tissue contrast and differentiability of fine structures combined with the potential of 3-dimensional imaging. In this study we assessed the potential of grating-based phase-contrast CT imaging for visualizing diagnostically relevant features of fibroadenomas.
Materials and Methods
Grating-based phase-contrast CT was performed on six ex-vivo formalin-fixed breast specimens containing a fibroadenoma and three samples containing benign changes that resemble fibroadenomas using Talbot Lau interferometry and a polychromatic X-ray source. Phase-contrast and simultaneously acquired absorption-based 3D-datasets were manually matched with corresponding histological slices. The visibility of diagnostically valuable features was assessed in comparison with histology as the gold-standard.
In all cases, matching of grating-based phase-contrast CT images and histology was successfully completed. Grating-based phase-contrast CT showed greatly improved differentiation of fine structures and provided accurate depiction of strands of fibrous tissue within the fibroadenomas as well as of the diagnostically valuable dilated, branched ductuli of the fibroadenomas. A clear demarcation of tumor boundaries in all cases was provided by phase- but not absorption-contrast CT.
Pending successful translation of the technology to a clinical setting and considerable reduction of the required dose, the data presented here suggest that grating-based phase-contrast CT may be used as a supplementary non-invasive diagnostic tool in breast diagnostics. Phase-contrast CT may thus contribute to the reduction of false positive findings and reduce the recall and core biopsy rate in population-based screening. Phase-contrast CT may further be used to assist during histopathological workup, offering a 3D view of the tumor and helping to identify diagnostically valuable tissue sections within large tumors.
PMCID: PMC4019647  PMID: 24824169
24.  Fibroadenoma in women in Ghana 
Fibroadenoma is the commonest benign tumor of female breast. It is particularly common in young women in Africa.
This paper describes the clinicopathologic features of fibroadenoma of breast in African women from central Ghana and compares them to the data from African-American women.
Fibroadenomas constituted 47.7% of all palpable breast masses. The median age of women was 22 years (range 14-49). Almost a third of the cases occurred in teenager. The mean size of masses was 3.8 cm (range 1-9 cm), with 22.5% showing larger sizes. A total of 16.1% had multiple and/or bilateral lesions.
Women from Central Ghana tend to have proportionately more fibroadenomas and larger (>5 cm) variants compared to published data from African-American women, however, the average age, size, multifocality and bilaterality do not differ significantly between these two groups of women.
PMCID: PMC2984278  PMID: 21532907
25.  Cyclosporine-A therapy-induced multiple bilateral breast and accessory axillary breast fibroadenomas: a case report 
Breast adenoma is common. However, in the setting of post-transplantation immune suppression it may be expressed differently.
Case presentation
A 35-year-old Sudanese woman, with a history of renal transplantation two and half years prior to presentation, was on a single immune suppression therapy in the form of cyclosporine-A since the transplantation. During a regular follow-up visit, she was noticed to have gingival hypertrophy and bilateral breast and axillary swellings. She underwent successful surgical resection of the bilateral fibroadenomas.
Cyclosporine-A therapy post renal transplantation is associated with an increased incidence of benign breast changes as fibroadenoma. Regular follow-up and appropriate selection of immunosuppressant therapy are essential in the post transplantation management of these patients.
PMCID: PMC2928248  PMID: 20701786

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