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1.  Ruptured Intracranial Mycotic Aneurysm in Infective Endocarditis: A Natural History 
Case Reports in Medicine  2010;2010:168408.
Mycotic aneurysms are a rare cause of intracranial aneurysms that develop in the presence of infections such as infective endocarditis. They account for a small percentage of all intracranial aneurysms and carry a high-mortality rate when ruptured. The authors report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve and acute stroke. He subsequently developed subarachnoid hemorrhage during antibiotic treatment, and a large intracranial aneurysm was discovered on CT Angiography. His lesion quickly progressed into an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, requiring emergent craniotomy and aneurysm clipping. Current recommendations on the management of intracranial Mycotic Aneurysms are based on few retrospective case studies. The natural history of the patient's ruptured aneurysm is presented, as well as a literature review on the management and available treatment modalities.
doi:10.1155/2010/168408
PMCID: PMC2946581  PMID: 20885918
2.  Endovascular Treatment of Intracerebral Mycotic Aneurysm before Surgical Treatment of Infective Endocarditis 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2004;31(2):165-167.
Mycotic aneurysms are rarely seen in patients who have infective endocarditis, and the management of these patients remains controversial. We present the case of a patient who had infective endocarditis complicated by a mycotic aneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery. There was substantial mitral regurgitation, and Streptococcus viridans was isolated from the blood samples. Dysarthria appeared during the 4th week of the antibiotic therapy, but resolved completely 8 hours after onset. The left middle cerebral artery was embolized with platinum detachable coils. On the 7th day after the radiologic intervention, the native mitral valve was replaced with a 33-mm St. Jude Medical® bileaflet mechanical mitral prosthesis. Most mycotic aneurysms show notable regression of symptoms with effective antibiotic treatment, and a very few may diminish in size. However, it is impossible to predict the response of these aneurysms to therapy. To prevent the perioperative rupture of mycotic aneurysms and intracranial hemorrhage, priority should be given to endovascular interventions to treat cerebrovascular aneurysms in patients such as ours.
PMCID: PMC427378  PMID: 15212129
Aneurysm, infected; embolization, therapeutic; endocarditis, bacterial; intracranial aneurysm/therapy; mitral valve/surgery
3.  Technical challenges to surgical clipping of aneurysmal regrowth with coil herniation following endovascular treatment – a case report 
In recent years, technical developments have made endovascular procedures attractive therapeutic options and enabled the endovascular surgeon to redefine the management of cerebral aneurysms. However, as the number of aneurysms undergoing endovascular therapy has grown, so has the number of patients with incompletely treated aneurysms who are presenting for further management. In cases of failure of endovascular treatment caused by either incomplete occlusion or regrowth of the aneurysm, a complementary treatment is often necessary. Surgical treatment of these patients is challenging. We present a case of a ruptured posterior cerebral artery aneurysm treated initially with endovascular coiling that left behind significant residual aneurysmal sac. Regrowth of the aneurysm documented on follow-up was treated surgically. At surgery, the coil was found to have herniated through the aneurysmal sac into the subarachnoid space, and the aneurysm was successfully clipped without removing the coils. We review the regrowth of aneurysms following endovascular therapy and potential problems and challenges of surgically managing these lesions.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-168
PMCID: PMC2217529  PMID: 18053204
4.  An overview of intracranial aneurysms 
McGill Journal of Medicine : MJM  2006;9(2):141-146.
Intracranial aneurysms are relatively common, with a prevalence of approximately 4%. Unruptured aneurysms may cause symptoms mainly due to a mass effect, but the real danger is when an aneurysm ruptures, leading to a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most aneurysms are asymptomatic and will not rupture, but they grow unpredictably and even small aneurysms carry a risk of rupture. Intracranial aneurysms are diagnosed and monitored with imaging including intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and recently transcranial Doppler ultrasonograpy has been proposed as a potential modality. Treatment options include observation, endovascular coiling, and surgical clipping. This paper will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, natural history, and management of unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC2323531  PMID: 18523626
5.  Combined Endovascular and Microsurgical Procedures as Complementary Approaches in the Treatment of a Single Intracranial Aneurysm 
Objective
Both endovascular coil embolization and microsurgical clipping are now firmly established as treatment options for the management of cerebral aneurysms. Moreover, they are sometimes used as complementary approaches each other. This study retrospectively analyzed our experience with endovascular and microsurgical procedures as complementary approaches in treating a single aneurysm.
Methods
Nineteen patients with intracranial aneurysm were managed with both endovascular and microsurgical treatments. All of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. Eighteen patients presented with SAH, and 14 aneurysms had diameters of less than 10 mm, and five had diameters of 10-25 mm.
Results
Thirteen of the 19 patients were initially treated with endovascular coil embolization, followed by microsurgical management. Of the 13 patients, 9 patients had intraprocedural complications during coil embolization (intraprocedural rupture, coil protrusion, coil migration), rebleeding with regrowth of aneurysm in two patients, residual sac in one patient, and coil compaction in one patient. Six patients who had undergone microsurgical clipping were followed by coil embolization because of a residual aneurysm sac in four patients, and regrowth in two patients.
Conclusion
In intracranial aneurysms involving procedural endovascular complications or incomplete coil embolization and failed microsurgical clipping, because of anatomical and/or technical difficulties, the combined and complementary therapy with endovascular coiling and microsurgical clipping are valuable in providing the best outcome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.1.21
PMCID: PMC2588162  PMID: 19096540
Cerebral aneurysm; Clipping; Coil embolization; Complementary therapy
6.  Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Is Associated with Angiogenesis and Inflammatory Cell Infiltration in Aneurysm Walls 
Journal of neurosurgery  2013;120(1):10.3171/2013.9.JNS122074.
Object
A small percentage of cerebral aneurysms rupture, but when they do, the effects are devastating. Current management of unruptured aneurysms consist of surgery, endovascular treatment, or watchful waiting. If the biology of how aneurysms grow and rupture were better known, a novel drug could be developed to prevent unruptured aneurysms from rupturing. Ruptured cerebral aneurysms are characterized by inflammation-mediated wall remodeling. We studied the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in inflammation-mediated wall remodeling in cerebral aneurysms.
Methods
Human aneurysms; murine carotid aneurysms; and murine intracranial aneurysms were studied by immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on blood from mice developing carotid aneurysms or intracranial aneurysms. The effect of SDF-1 on endothelial cells and macrophages was studied by chemotaxis cell migration assay and capillary tube formation assay. Anti-SDF-1 blocking antibody was given to mice and compared to control (vehicle)-administered mice for its effects on the walls of carotid aneurysms and the development of intracranial aneurysms.
Results
Human aneurysms, murine carotid aneurysms, and murine intracranial aneurysms, all express SDF-1; and mice with developing carotid aneurysms or intracranial aneurysms have increased progenitor cells expressing CXCR4, the receptor for SDF-1 (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). Human aneurysms and murine carotid aneurysms have endothelial cells, macrophages, and capillaries in the walls of the aneurysms; and the presence of capillaries in the walls of human aneurysms is associated with presence of macrophages (P=0.01). SDF-1 promotes endothelial cell and macrophage migration (P<0.01 for each), and promotes capillary tube formation (P<0.001). When mice are given anti-SDF-1 blocking antibody, there is a significant reduction in endothelial cells (P<0.05), capillaries (P<0.05), and cell proliferation (P<0.05) in the aneurysm wall. Mice given anti-SDF-1 blocking antibody develop significantly fewer intracranial aneurysms (33% versus 89% in mice given control IgG)(P<0.05).
Conclusions
These data suggest SDF-1 associated with angiogenesis and inflammatory cell migration and proliferation in the walls of aneurysms, and may have a role in the development of intracranial aneurysms.
doi:10.3171/2013.9.JNS122074
PMCID: PMC3877706  PMID: 24160472
aneurysm; inflammation; stromal cell-derived factor-1; angiogenesis; wall remodeling
7.  Clinical Analysis of Giant Intracranial Aneurysms with Endovascular Embolization 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical analysis of nine patients with giant aneurysms managed with endovascular embolization.
Methods
From March 2000 to September 2009, nine cases of giant intracranial aneurysms were treated (five unruptured and four ruptured). The nine patients included two males and seven females who were 47 to 72 years old (mean, 59.2 years old). The types of giant intracranial aneurysms were eight internal carotid artery aneurysms and one vertebral artery aneurysm. Treatment for each aneurysm was chosen based on anatomic relationships, aneurysmal factors, and the patients' clinical state. Three patients underwent endovascular coiling with stent and six initially underwent endovascular coiling alone. Medical records, operation records, postoperative angiographies, and follow-up angiographies were reviewed retrospectively.
Results
Eight out of nine patients showed good clinical outcomes. (six were excellent and two were good) after a mean follow-up period of 27.9 months. Six (67%) of the nine patients had a near-complete occlusions on the post-operative angiogram (mean, 13.5 months after the procedure). Occlusion rates of 90% or higher were obtained for eight (89%) of all the patients. One patient died due to multiple organ failure. Stents were ultimately required at some point for managing four aneurysms. Two patients needed additional procedures because of aneurysm regrowth.
Conclusion
Endovascular treatment could be an alternative option for managing giant aneurysms adjuvant to surgical intervention.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.1.22
PMCID: PMC3471252  PMID: 23210026
Giant intracranial aneurysm; endovascular coiling
8.  Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Intracranial Aneurysm in an Infant 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2004;9(2):199-204.
Summary
Traumatic intracranial aneurysms in children are rare and mostly related to skull fracture or rapid decelerating closed head injury. We report the case of an infant who developed intracranial aneurysm after minor head trauma and managed by endovascular treatment.
A seven-month-old infant presented with delayed intracranial hemorrhage following minor head trauma. Cerebral angiography disclosed a multilobulated fusiform aneurysm involving the right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) distal to the anterior communicating artery. Endovascular treatment of the aneurysm was performed and the infant made an excellent recovery during six months clinical and radiological follow-up.
Delayed presentation of intracranial hemorrhage with acute deterioration in the infant after head trauma warrants angiography for proper diagnosis and management of the traumatic aneurysm, which has a high mortality rate after rupture and rebleeding. Endovascular treatment of traumatic aneurysm is feasible in infants, and occlusion of distal intracranial arterial aneurysms can be safely and precisely achieved using current coil technology.
PMCID: PMC3547510  PMID: 20591271
brain aneurysms, endovascular treatment, trauma
9.  Acute Pure Spontaneous Subdural Haematoma from Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2004;8(4):393-398.
Summary
Acute subdural haematoma (ASDH) is rarely caused by an aneurysmal rupture. We report four cases of pure acute subdural haematomas caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Aneurysms were localized in the posterior communicating artery in two cases, in the anterior communicating artery in one case and in the middle cerebral artery in one other case. Possible mechanisms for this type of aneurysmal bleeding are discussed. A good prognosis for these patients can be expected with rapid evacuation of the haematoma (in case of high intracranial pressure and midline structure shift), and treatment of the aneurysm (surgical clipping or endovascular treatment).
Our report demonstrates the utility of angiography in the evaluation of nontraumatic acute subdural haematomas. Angiography has to be performed before haematoma evacuation or just after if the patient requires urgent surgery in case of intracranial hypertension. Aneurysms may require surgical clipping or endovascular treatment.
PMCID: PMC3572495  PMID: 20594500
subdural haematoma, intracranial aneurysm, angiography
10.  Treatment of an Acute Mycotic Aneurysm of the Common Carotid Artery with a Covered Stent-Graft 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;53(1):224-227.
We report herein a case successful endovascular treatment with a stent-graft of a rare case of rapidly growing mycotic aneurysm of the left common carotid artery due to acute bacterial endocarditis after eradication of the infection. Infected mycotic aneurysms of the peripheral vasculature have been considered as a contraindication for stent-graft implantation because of the possibility of microorganism spreading to the stent-graft; however, if there is evidence of complete eradication of microorganism and surgery is not an option, stent-graft implantation can be an effective and safe treatment modality for exclusion of the mycotic aneurysm.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.1.224
PMCID: PMC3250342  PMID: 22187257
Mycotic aneurysm; covered stent; endovascular therapy; infective endocarditis; carotid artery
11.  Limitation of Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms: Results from the Protocol “GDC as the first choice” 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2001;6(Suppl 1):43-47.
Summary
Since October, 1997, endovascular embolization using GDC has been our primary treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms in the acute stage. According to our protocol, an aneurysm more than 3 mm in diameter, without a wide-neck or massive intracranial hematoma is indicated for endovascular therapy. Under this protocol, we experienced 35 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 22 of them (62.8%) were treated endovascularly. The most common reason for the contra-indication of coil embolization was wide-necked aneurysm (9 cases). We experienced two cases with embolic stroke and one case with post-embolization hemorrhage as a complication after endovascular treatment. Morbidity rate due to the complications was 9.1%. In conclusion, a system that allows both surgical and endovascular treatments to be performed in any given case is necessary for the appropriate treatment of ruptured aneurysm. In order to avoid ischemic embolic complications, postoperative anticoagulation therapy is crucial. The safety of coil embolization for very thin-walled aneurysm is questionable.
PMCID: PMC3685934  PMID: 20667220
aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, endovascular therapy, complication
12.  Onyx Embolization of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Associated with Behçet's Disease 
Introduction. Intracranial aneurysms associated with Behçet's disease (BD) are a rare occurrence. They are fragile, thin-walled pseudoaneurysms, which have high tendency to rupture and present a therapeutic challenge. Case Presentation. We report a 26-year-old male with BD presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Additionally, two unruptured aneurysms were identified. He underwent endovascular embolization using Onyx with successful obliteration of the ruptured aneurysm. Medical therapy resulted in regression of one and resolution of the other aneurysms. Conclusion. We describe the first report of the application of Onyx for obliteration of ruptured cerebral aneurysm in BD as a feasible and safe therapeutic option for patients who are not candidates for other techniques.
doi:10.1155/2013/797045
PMCID: PMC3800601  PMID: 24224110
13.  Salvage Surgical Treatment for Failed Endovascular Procedure of a Blood Blister-Like Aneurysm 
The blood blister-like aneurysm (BBA) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare but clinically important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which accounts for 0.5% of incidences of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. BBA is a thin-walled, broad-based aneurysm that lacks an identifiable neck and is one of the most difficult lesions to treat. In this paper, a case is presented of a 57-year-old woman with SAH. Her cerebral angiography demonstrated a small BBA on the dorsal wall of her right ICA. Endovascular treatment that consisted of a stent-within-a-stent was attempted, but the replacement of the second stent failed, and the aneurysm became bigger. Surgery was performed by clipping the BBA with a Sundt slim-line encircling graft clip. The patient completely recovered with no complications. This treatment may be a salvageable option for BBA, especially when endovascular treatment has failed.
doi:10.7461/jcen.2012.14.2.99
PMCID: PMC3471259  PMID: 23210036
Blood-blister like aneurysm; Internal carotid artery; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Encircling graft clip; Endovascular stent
14.  Intracranial Aneurysms: Review of Current Treatment Options and Outcomes 
Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience.
doi:10.3389/fneur.2011.00045
PMCID: PMC3134887  PMID: 21779274
subarachnoid hemorrhage; aneurysms; endovascular surgery; coiling; clipping; stents; flow diversion
15.  Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Ruptured Aneurysms Associated with Arteriovenous Malformations: a Clinical Analysis of 14 Hemorrhagic Cases 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2011;17(1):78-86.
Summary
This study investigated and summarized endovascular therapeutic strategies for intracranial ruptured aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between June 2005 and June 2009, we identified 16 aneurysms in 14 hemorrhagic cases of intracranial AVM using digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Of the 16 aneurysms, 14 were ruptured and two were unruptured. Aneurysms were classified as types I to IV, and were treated. Aneurysm treatment was followed by AVM treatment via various therapies, including embolization, gamma knife radiotherapy, or follow-up and observation to reduce the risk of aneurysm rupture or intracranial hemorrhage. Over a follow-up period ranging from six months to one year, none of the patients had aneurysm ruptures or intracranial hemorrhage. Most (13/14) patients had a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, and one patient had a score of 4. Sixteen aneurysms were treated successfully, as confirmed by DSA examination, and no AVMs re-grew. Clinical therapeutic strategies for intracranial ruptured aneurysms associated with AVMs should include aneurysm treatment first to reduce the risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage, eventually leading to a better prognosis.
PMCID: PMC3278018  PMID: 21561563
aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, endovascular treatment
16.  Immediate and follow-up results for 44 consecutive cases of small (<10 mm) internal carotid artery aneurysms treated with the pipeline embolization device 
Background:
The pipeline embolization device (PED) provides effective, durable and safe endovascular reconstruction of large and giant intracranial aneurysms. However, 80% of all cerebral aneurysms found in the general population are less than 10 mm in size. Treatment of small aneurysms (<10 mm) with flow diverters may be advantageous over endosaccular modalities that carry risks of procedural rupture during aneurysm access or coil placement.
Methods:
We retrospectively reviewed a prospective, single-center aneurysm database to identify all patients with small (<10 mm) internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms who underwent endovascular treatment using the PED. Patient demographics, aneurysm characteristics, procedural details, complications, and technical and clinical outcomes were analyzed.
Results:
Forty-four cases were performed in 41 patients (age range 31-78 years). PED was successfully implanted in 42 cases. A single PED was used in 37/42 (88%) cases. Mean postprocedure hospital stay was 1.7 ± 0.3 days and 98% of patients were discharged home. Major complication occurred in one patient (2.3%), who died of early subarachnoid hemorrhage. Transient neurological deficit, delayed intracerebral hemorrhage (asymptomatic), and delayed groin infection occurred in one patient each. Follow-up rate was 91.8% (45 aneurysms in 35 patients) with a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.9 months. By 6 months post-PED implantation, angiographic success (complete or near complete aneurysm occlusion) was observed in 80%. Mild (<50%), asymptomatic, nonflow limiting in-stent stenosis was observed in 5.4% (2/37 cases). All the 35 patients with follow-up remained at preprocedure neurological baseline.
Conclusion:
Small (<10 mm) ICA aneurysm treatment with PED implantation is safe and carries a high rate of early angiographic success.
doi:10.4103/2152-7806.117711
PMCID: PMC3779399  PMID: 24083050
Cerebral aneurysms; flow diverter; pipeline embolization device
17.  Infective endocarditis and infected aneurysm of splenic artery post colonoscopy 
Colonoscopy, a relatively non-invasive procedure, has been associated with several complications including perforation, hemorrhage and abdominal pain. Post-colonoscopy bacteremia can occur up to 4.4% of the time but is almost always transient without significant clinical sequelae. Post-colonoscopy infective endocarditis, on the other hand, is a rare occurrence associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, and may be further complicated by aneurysm of splenic artery. Current definitive treatment of infected aneurysm is surgical ligation and excision with or without vascular anastomosis. If surgery is contraindicated, endovascular graft and transcatheter embolization may be the preferred treatment options. This is a case report of infective endocarditis and infected aneurysm of splenic artery presenting two weeks after elective colonoscopy.
PMCID: PMC3959929
Sepsis post colonoscopy; infective endocarditis; infected aneurysm of splenic artery; mycotic splenic aneurysm
18.  Outcomes Analysis of Ruptured Distal Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysms Treated by Endosaccular Embolization and Surgical Clipping 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2011;17(1):49-57.
Summary
Although endovascular surgery is now widely used to treat intracranial aneurysms, no comparative studies of clipping versus endovascular surgery to address distal ACA aneurysms at the same institution are available. We compared the results of these treatment modalities to address distal ACA aneurysms at our institution.
We treated 68 patients with ruptured distal ACA aneurysms (endovascular surgery, n=13; clipping surgery, n=55). We performed a retrospective comparison of the treatment outcomes. To study the efficacy o f endovascular surgery we classified all our cases into three types: type A were small-necked aneurysms, type B were wide-necked aneurysms on the parent artery, and type C were aneurysms in which the A3 portion of the ACA arose from the aneurysmal dome near the neck.
Intraoperative hemorrhage occurred in 7.7% of aneurysms treated by endovascular surgery and in 34.5% treated by clipping surgery. In 7.7% of the endovascularly-treated aneurysms we noted coil migration during embolization surgery; venous infarction due to cortical vein injury occurred in 7.3% of clipped aneurysms. Of the endovascularly-treated aneurysms, 7.7% manifested post-embolization hemorrhage; 23.1% manifested coil compaction. In clipping surgery, postoperative rerupture occurred in 1.8% of the aneurysms; one patient presented with postoperative acute epidural hematoma. Clip dislocation was noted in 1.8% of aneurysms. Angiography was indicative of post-treatment vasospasm in 7.7% of aneurysms treated endovascularly and in 50.9% of the clipped aneurysms.
The clinical outcome showed no significant difference between endovascular surgery and clipping surgery.
PMCID: PMC3278019  PMID: 21561558
distal ACA, aneurysm, endovascular surgery, clipping surgery
19.  Spontaneous Anterior Cerebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Simultaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction in a Patient with Multiple Extracranial Arterial Dissections 
Simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and infarction is a quite rare presentation in a patient with a spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery. Identifying relevant radiographic features and serial angiographic surveillance as well as mode of clinical manifestation, either hemorrhage or infarction, could sufficiently determine appropriate treatment. Enlargement of ruptured aneurysm and progressing arterial stenosis around the aneurysm indicates impending risk of subsequent stroke. In this setting, prompt treatment with stent-assisted endovascular embolization can be a reliable alternative to direct surgery. When multiple arterial dissections are coexistent, management strategy often became complicated. However, satisfactory clinical results can be obtained by acknowledging responsible arterial site with careful radiographic inspection and antiplatelet medication.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.2.115
PMCID: PMC3611055  PMID: 23560177
Dissecting aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Cerebral infarction; Anterior cerebral artery; Endovascular embolization
20.  Basilar Artery Aneurysm at a Persistent Trigeminal Artery Junction 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2011;17(3):343-346.
Summary
The trigeminal artery is an anastomosis between the embryonic precursors of the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems, and may persist into adult life. The association of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) with cerebral aneurysm is well documented in the literature and, in general, aneurysms are located in the anterior circulation. We describe a patient who presented with a panencephalic Fisher III subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Digital arteriography showed a saccular aneurysm in the middle third of the basilar artery, adjacent to the junction with a persistent trigeminal artery. She was submitted to endovascular treatment with embolization of the basilar artery aneurysm with coils. Aneurysms at the PTA junction with the basilar artery are rare. This paper describes a case of PTA associated with an aneurysm in the basilar artery at PTA junction and briefly reviews the literature.
PMCID: PMC3396038  PMID: 22005697
trigeminal artery, basilar artery, aneurysm, subarachnoid hemorrhage
21.  Endovascular Surgery for Ruptured Aneurysms with Vasospasm 
Interventional Neuroradiology  2007;13(Suppl 1):48-52.
Summary
With the existence of vasospasm, it is recommended that direct clipping surgery for a ruptured aneurysm be delayed until its disappearance, but this may be associated with aneurysmal re-rupture resulting in a poor outcome for the patients. Indications for endovascular coil embolization in such cases are discussed.
Since November in 2003, we have applied endovascular coil embolization in 11 consecutive patients with ruptured aneurysms and apparent vasospasm of the parent artery from two to 17 days (average: eight days) after initial subarachnoid hemorrhage. Three patients had aneurysmal re-rupture before treatment, but the other eight had only experienced the one episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage. With one exception, all endovascular procedures could be successfully performed, resulting in complete occlusion of aneurysms and remarkable dilatation of inserted spastic vessels without technical complications or aneurysmal re-rupture.
For the one case of failure because of a tortuous artery, direct clipping surgery was performed after disappearance of vasospasm. Cerebral infarction occurred in four, but only one correlated with the distribution of catheterization, and neurological deficits had completely disappeared three months after the onset. This preliminary report concerning a small number of patients suggests that endovascular coil embolization is not contra-indicated for aneurysms with vasospasm requiring catheterization. A large study for confirmation is now warranted.
PMCID: PMC3345466  PMID: 20566076
endovascular surgery, vasospasm, aneurysm
22.  Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms 
Executive Summary
Objective
To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms.
The Technology
Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons.
Background
Intracranial Aneurysms
Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks.
Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility.
Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds, resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the mortality rate can be 40% to 50%, with severe morbidity of 10% to 20%. The reported overall risk of rupture is 1.9% per year and is higher for women, cigarette smokers, and cocaine users, and in aneurysms that are symptomatic, greater than 10 mm in diameter, or located in the posterior circulation. If left untreated, there is a considerable risk of repeat hemorrhage in a ruptured aneurysm that results in increased mortality.
In Ontario, intracranial aneurysms occur in about 1% to 4% of the population, and the annual incidence of SAH is about 10 cases per 100,000 people. In 2004-2005, about 660 intracranial aneurysm repairs were performed in Ontario.
Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms
Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm attempts to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing. The treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm aims to prevent further hemorrhage. There are 3 approaches to treating an intracranial aneurysm.
Small, asymptomatic aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter may be monitored without any intervention other than treatment for underlying risk factors such as hypertension.
Open surgical clipping, involves craniotomy, brain retraction, and placement of a silver clip across the neck of the aneurysm while a patient is under general anesthesia. This procedure is associated with surgical risks and neurological deficits.
Endovascular coil embolization, introduced in the 1990s, is the health technology under review.
Literature Review
Methods
The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the International Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) Database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant systematic reviews. OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase were searched for English-language journal articles that reported primary data on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of treatments for intracranial aneurysms, obtained in a clinical setting or analyses of primary data maintained in registers or institutional databases. Internet searches of Medscape and manufacturers’ databases were conducted to identify product information and recent reports on trials that were unpublished but that were presented at international conferences. Four systematic reviews, 3 reports on 2 randomized controlled trials comparing coil embolization with surgical clipping of ruptured aneurysms, 30 observational studies, and 3 economic analysis reports were included in this review.
Results
Safety and Effectiveness
Coil embolization appears to be a safe procedure. Complications associated with coil embolization ranged from 8.6% to 18.6% with a median of about 10.6%. Observational studies showed that coil embolization is associated with lower complication rates than surgical clipping (permanent complication 3-7% versus 10.9%; overall 23% versus 46% respectively, p=0.009). Common complications of coil embolization are thrombo-embolic events (2.5%–14.5%), perforation of aneurysm (2.3%–4.7%), parent artery obstruction (2%–3%), collapsed coils (8%), coil malposition (14.6%), and coil migration (0.5%–3%).
Randomized controlled trials showed that for ruptured intracranial aneurysms with SAH, suitable for both coil embolization and surgical clipping (mostly saccular aneurysms <10 mm in diameter located in the anterior circulation) in people with good clinical condition:Coil embolization resulted in a statistically significant 23.9% relative risk reduction and 7% absolute risk reduction in the composite rate of death and dependency compared to surgical clipping (modified Rankin score 3–6) at 1-year.
The advantage of coil embolization over surgical clipping varies widely with aneurysm location, but endovascular treatment seems beneficial for all sites.
There were less deaths in the first 7 years following coil embolization compared to surgical clipping (10.8% vs 13.7%). This survival benefit seemed to be consistent over time, and was statistically significant (log-rank p= 0.03).
Coil embolization is associated with less frequent MRI-detected superficial brain deficits and ischemic lesions at 1-year.
The 1- year rebleeding rate was 2.4% after coil embolization and 1% for surgical clipping. Confirmed rebleeding from the repaired aneurysm after the first year and up to year eight was low and not significantly different between coil embolization and surgical clipping (7 patients for coil embolization vs 2 patients for surgical clipping, log-rank p=0.22).
Observational studies showed that patients with SAH and good clinical grade had better 6-month outcomes and lower risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after coil embolization compared to surgical clipping.
For unruptured intracranial aneurysms, there were no randomized controlled trials that compared coil embolization to surgical clipping. Large observational studies showed that:
The risk of rupture in unruptured aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter is about 0.05% per year for patients with no pervious history of SAH from another aneurysm. The risk of rupture increases with history of SAH and as the diameter of the aneurysm reaches 10 mm or more.
Coil embolization reduced the composite rate of in hospital deaths and discharge to long-term or short-term care facilities compared to surgical clipping (Odds Ratio 2.2, 95% CI 1.6–3.1, p<0.001). The improvement in discharge disposition was highest in people older than 65 years.
In-hospital mortality rate following treatment of intracranial aneurysm ranged from 0.5% to 1.7% for coil embolization and from 2.1% to 3.5% for surgical clipping. The overall 1-year mortality rate was 3.1% for coil embolization and 2.3% for surgical clipping. One-year morbidity rate was 6.4% for coil embolization and 9.8% for surgical clipping. It is not clear whether these differences were statistically significant.
Coil embolization is associated with shorter hospital stay compared to surgical clipping.
For both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, the outcome of coil embolization does not appear to be dependent on age, whereas surgical clipping has been shown to yield worse outcome for patients older than 64 years.
Angiographic Efficiency and Recurrences
The main drawback of coil embolization is its low angiographic efficiency. The percentage of complete aneurysm occlusion after coil embolization (27%–79%, median 55%) remains lower than that achieved with surgical clipping (82%–100%). However, about 90% of coiled aneurysms achieve near total occlusion or better. Incompletely coiled aneurysms have been shown to have higher aneurysm recurrence rates ranging from 7% to 39% for coil embolization compared to 2.9% for surgical clipping. Recurrence is defined as refilling of the neck, sac, or dome of a successfully treated aneurysm as shown on an angiogram. The long-term clinical significance of incomplete occlusion following coil embolization is unknown, but in one case series, 20% of patients had major recurrences, and 50% of these required further treatment.
Long-Term Outcomes
A large international randomized trial reported that the survival benefit from coil embolization was sustained for at least 7 years. The rebleeding rate between year 2 and year 8 following coil embolization was low and not significantly different from that of surgical clipping. However, high quality long-term angiographic evidence is lacking. Accordingly, there is uncertainty about long-term occlusion status, coil durability, and recurrence rates. While surgical clipping is associated with higher immediate procedural risks, its long-term effectiveness has been established.
Indications and Contraindications
Coil embolization offers treatment for people at increased risk for craniotomy, such as those over 65 years of age, with poor clinical status, or with comorbid conditions. The technology also makes it possible to treat surgical high-risk aneurysms.
Not all aneurysms are suitable for coil embolization. Suitability depends on the size, anatomy, and location of the aneurysm. Aneurysms more than 10 mm in diameter or with an aneurysm neck greater than or equal to 4 mm are less likely to achieve total occlusion. They are also more prone to aneurysm recurrences and to complications such as coil compaction or parent vessel occlusion. Aneurysms with a dome to neck ratio of less than 1 have been shown to have lower obliteration rates and poorer outcome following coil embolization. Furthermore, aneurysms in the middle cerebral artery bifurcation are less suitable for coil embolization. For some aneurysms, treatment may require the use of both coil embolization and surgical clipping or adjunctive technologies, such as stents and balloons, to obtain optimal results.
Diffusion
Information from 3 countries indicates that coil embolization is a rapidly diffusing technology. For example, it accounted for about 40% of aneurysm treatments in the United Kingdom.
In Ontario, coil embolization is an insured health service, with the same fee code and fee schedule as open surgical repair requiring craniotomy. Other costs associated with coil embolization are covered under hospitals’ global budgets. Utilization data showed that in 2004-2005, coil embolization accounted for about 38% (251 cases) of all intracranial aneurysm repairs in the province. With the 2005 publication of the positive long-term survival data from the International Subarachnoid Aneursym Trial, the pressure for diffusion will likely increase.
Economic Analysis
Recent economic studies show that treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms smaller than 10 mm in diameter in people with no previous history of SAH, either by coil embolization or surgical clipping, would not be effective or cost-effective. However, in patients with aneurysms that are greater than or equal to 10 mm or symptomatic, or in patients with a history of SAH, treatment appears to be cost-effective.
In Ontario, the average device cost of coil embolization per case was estimated to be about $7,500 higher than surgical clipping. Assuming that the total number of intracranial aneurysm repairs in Ontario increases to 750 in the fiscal year of 2007, and assuming that up to 60% (450 cases) of these will be repaired by coil embolization, the difference in device costs for the 450 cases (including a 15% recurrence rate) would be approximately $3.8 million. This figure does not include capital costs (e.g. $3 million for an angiosuite), additional human resources required, or costs of follow-up. The increase in expenditures associated with coil embolization may be offset partially, by shorter operating room times and hospitalization stays for endovascular repair of unruptured aneurysms; however, the impact of these cost savings is probably not likely to be greater than 25% of the total outlay since the majority of cases involve ruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, the recent growth in aneurysm repair has predominantly been in the area of coil embolization presumably for patients for whom surgical clipping would not be advised; therefore, no offset of surgical clipping costs could be applied in such cases. For ruptured aneurysms, downstream cost savings from endovascular repair are likely to be minimal even though the savings for individual cases may be substantial due to lower perioperative complications for endovascular aneurysm repair.
Guidelines
The two Guidance documents issued by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (UK) in 2005 support the use of coil embolization for both unruptured and ruptured (SAH) intracranial aneurysms, provided that procedures are in place for informed consent, audit, and clinical governance, and that the procedure is performed in specialist units with expertise in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.
Conclusion
For people in good clinical condition following subarachnoid hemorrhage from an acute ruptured intracranial aneurysm suitable for either surgical clipping or endovascular repair, coil embolization results in improved independent survival in the first year and improved survival for up to seven years compared to surgical clipping. The rebleeding rate is low and not significantly different between the two procedures after the first year. However, there is uncertainty regarding the long-term occlusion status, durability of the stent graft, and long-term complications.
For people with unruptured aneurysms, level 4 evidence suggests that coil embolization may be associated with comparable or less mortality and morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and less need for discharge to short-term rehabilitation facilities. The greatest benefit was observed in people over 65 years of age. In these patients, the decision regarding treatment needs to be based on the assessment of the risk of rupture against the risk of the procedure, as well as the morphology of the aneurysm.
In people who require treatment for intracranial aneurysm, but for whom surgical clipping is too risky or not feasible, coil embolization provides survival benefits over surgical clipping, even though the outcomes may not be as favourable as in people in good clinical condition and with small aneurysms. The procedure may be considered under the following circumstances provided that the aneurysm is suitable for coil embolization:
Patients in poor/unstable clinical or neurological state
Patients at high risk for surgical repair (e.g. people>age 65 or with comorbidity), or
Aneurysm(s) with poor accessibility or visibility for surgical treatment due to their location (e.g. ophthalmic or basilar tip aneurysms)
Compared to small aneurysms with a narrow neck in the anterior circulation, large aneurysms (> 10 mm in diameter), aneurysms with a wide neck (>4mm in diameter), and aneurysms in the posterior circulation have lower occlusion rates and higher rate of hemorrhage when treated with coil embolization.
The extent of aneurysm obliteration after coil embolization remains lower than that achieved with surgical clipping. Aneurysm recurrences after successful coiling may require repeat treatment with endovascular or surgical procedures. Experts caution that long-term angiographic outcomes of coil embolization are unknown at this time. Informed consent for and long-term follow-up after coil embolization are recommended.
The decision to treat an intracranial aneurysm with surgical clipping or coil embolization needs to be made jointly by the neurosurgeon and neuro-intervention specialist, based on the clinical status of the patient, the size and morphology of the aneurysm, and the preference of the patient.
The performance of endovascular coil embolization should take place in centres with expertise in both neurosurgery and endovascular neuro-interventions, with adequate treatment volumes to maintain good outcomes. Distribution of the technology should also take into account that patients with SAH should be treated as soon as possible with minimal disruption.
PMCID: PMC3379525  PMID: 23074479
23.  Extravasation during Aneurysm Embolization without Neurologic Consequences. Lessons learned from Complications of Pseudoaneurysm Coiling. Report of 2 Cases 
Although endovascular intervention is the first-line treatment of intracranial aneurysm, intraprocedural rupture or extravasation is still an endangering event. We describe two interesting cases of extravasation during embolotherapy for ruptured peripheral cerebral pseudoaneurysms. Two male patients were admitted after development of sudden headache with presentation of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. Initial angiographic assessment failed to uncover any aneurysmal dilatation in both patients. Two weeks afterwards, catheter angiography revealed aneurysms each in the peripheral middle cerebral artery and anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Under a general anesthesia, endovascular embolization was attempted without systemic heparinization. In each case, sudden extravasation was noted around the aneurysm during manual injection of contrast after microcatheter navigation. Immediate computed tomographic scan showed a large amount of contrast collection within the brain, but they tolerated and made an unremarkable recovery thereafter. Intraprocedural extravasation is an endangering event and needs prompt management, however proximal plugging with coil deployment can be sufficient alternative, if one confronts with peripheral pseudoaneurysm. Peculiar angiographic features are deemed attributable to extremely fragile, porous vascular wall of the pseudoaneurysm. Accordingly, it should be noted that extreme caution being needed to handle such a friable vascular lesion.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.3.178
PMCID: PMC2588302  PMID: 19096673
Endovascular embolization; Extravasation; Pseudoaneurysm
24.  Cost-effectiveness analysis of endovascular versus neurosurgical treatment for ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the United States 
Journal of neurosurgery  2009;110(5):880-886.
Object
The results of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) demonstrated lower rates of death and disability with endovascular treatment (coiling) than with open surgery (clipping) to secure the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. However, cost-effectiveness may not be favorable because of the greater need for follow-up cerebral angiograms and additional follow-up treatment with endovascular methods. In this study, the authors’ goal was to compare the cost-effectiveness of endovascular and neurosurgical treatments in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who were eligible to undergo either type of treatment.
Methods
Clinical data (age, sex, frequency of retreatment, and rebleeding) and quality of life values were obtained from the ISAT. Total cost included those associated with disability, hospitalization, retreatment, and rebleeding. Cost estimates were derived from the Premier Perspective Comparative Database, data from long-term care in stroke patients, and relevant literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated during a 1-year period. Parametric bootstrapping was used to determine the uncertainty of the estimates.
Results
The median estimated costs of endovascular and neurosurgical treatments (in US dollars) were $45,493 (95th percentile range $44,693–$46,365) and $41,769 (95th percentile range $41,094–$42,518), respectively. The overall quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in the endovascular group was 0.69, and for the neurosurgical group it was 0.64. The cost per QALY in the endovascular group was $65,424 (95th percentile range $64,178–$66,772), and in the neurosurgical group it was $64,824 (95th percentile range $63,679–$66,086). The median estimated ICER at 1 year for endovascular treatment versus neurosurgical treatment was $72,872 (95th percentile range $50,344–$98,335) per QALY gained. Given that most postprocedure angiograms and additional treatments occurred in the 1st year and the 1-year disability status is unlikely to change in the future, ICER for endovascular treatment will progressively decrease over time.
Conclusions
Using outcome and economic data obtained in the US at 1 year after the procedure, endovascular treatment is more costly but is associated with better outcomes than the neurosurgical alternative among patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who are eligible to undergo either procedure. With accrual of additional years with a better outcome status, the ICER for endovascular coiling would be expected to progressively decrease and eventually reverse.
doi:10.3171/2008.8.JNS0858
PMCID: PMC2752732  PMID: 19199452
cost-effective analysis; endovascular coil placement; intracranial aneurysm; neurosurgical treatment; subarachnoid hemorrhage
25.  What is the optimal timing for surgery in infective endocarditis with cerebrovascular complications? 
Neurologic dysfunction complicates the course of 10–40% of left-side infective endocarditis (IE). In right-sided IE, instead, when systemic emboli occur, paradoxical embolism should be considered. The spectrum of neurologic events includes embolic cerebrovascular complication (CVC), intracranial haemorrhage, ruptured mycotic aneurysm, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), meningitis, encephalopathy and brain abscess. Cardiopulmonary bypass might exacerbate neurological deficits due to: heparinization and secondary cerebral haemorrhage; hypotension and cerebral oedema in areas of the disrupted blood brain barrier. A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was, whether there is an optimal timing for surgery in IE with CVCs. One hundred papers were found using the reported search criteria, and out of these 20 papers, provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results were tabulated. We found that evidence is conflicting because of lack of controlled studies. The optimal timing for the valve replacement depends on the type of neurological complication and the urgency of the operation. The new 2009 Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) recommend a multidisciplinary approach and to wait for 1–2 weeks of antibiotics treatment before performing cardiac surgery. However, early surgery is indicated in: heart failure (class 1 B), uncontrolled infection (class 1 B) and prevention of embolic events (class 1B/C). After a stroke, surgery should not be delayed as long as coma is absent and cerebral haemorrhage has been excluded by cranial CT (class IIa level B). After a TIA or a silent cerebral embolism, surgery is recommended without delay (class 1 level B). In intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), surgery must be postponed for at least 1 month (class 1 level C). Surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) follows the general principles outlined for native valve IE. Every patient should have a repeated head CT scan immediately before the operation to rule out a preoperative haemorrhagic transformation of a brain infarction. The presence of a haematoma warrants neurosurgical consultation and consideration of cerebral angiography to rule out a mycotic aneurysm.
doi:10.1093/icvts/ivr010
PMCID: PMC3420303  PMID: 22108925
Infective endocarditis; Cerebrovascular complication; Brain injury; Stroke cardiac surgery; Timing

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