Reduction of plasma cholesterol by citrus flavonoids is associated with effects on specific liver functions related to lipid handling. In previous in vivo studies, polymethoxylated flavones (PMF) reduced plasma cholesterol levels at lower doses than required for flavanones. To delineate hepatic mechanisms that underlie this differential potency, we used HepG2 cells to quantitate effects on expression of the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. A dose-response analysis showed that 200 μmol/L hesperetin, a flavanone present as a disaccharide in oranges, increased LDLR mRNA levels 3.6- to 4.7-fold of the untreated control. In contrast, nobiletin, a PMF found at the highest concentration in oranges and tangerines, achieved maximal stimulation of 1.5- to 1.6-fold of control at only 5 μmol/L. Transcriptional regulation of the LDLR gene by citrus flavonoids has been implicated but, to our knowledge, not directly demonstrated. Here, using transfection vector constructs containing the upstream region of the LDLR gene, we show differences in both potency and efficacy in the induction of transcription, with peak stimulation of 5.3- to 7.5-fold of control at 150-160 μmol/L hesperetin and 3- to 3.8-fold of control at 10-20 μmol/L nobiletin. Hesperetin sustains induction, whereas nobiletin is inhibitory at high doses, resulting in an inverted-U dose response. The sterol regulatory element (SRE) in the LDLR gene upstream region plays a crucial role, because mutation of this site strongly attenuated induction in response to hesperetin or nobiletin. Thus, citrus flavonoids are likely to act through the SRE-binding proteins, with PMF initially activating these mechanisms at considerably lower concentrations than flavanones.
The global epidemic of metabolic syndrome and its complications demands rapid evaluation of new and accessible interventions. Insulin resistance is the central biochemical disturbance in the metabolic syndrome. The citrus-derived flavonoid, naringenin, has lipid-lowering properties and inhibits VLDL secretion from cultured hepatocytes in a manner resembling insulin. We evaluated whether naringenin regulates lipoprotein production and insulin sensitivity in the context of insulin resistance in vivo.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
LDL receptor–null (Ldlr−/−) mice fed a high-fat (Western) diet (42% calories from fat and 0.05% cholesterol) become dyslipidemic, insulin and glucose intolerant, and obese. Four groups of mice (standard diet, Western, and Western plus 1% or 3% wt/wt naringenin) were fed ad libitum for 4 weeks. VLDL production and parameters of insulin and glucose tolerance were determined.
We report that naringenin treatment of Ldlr−/− mice fed a Western diet corrected VLDL overproduction, ameliorated hepatic steatosis, and attenuated dyslipidemia without affecting caloric intake or fat absorption. Naringenin 1) increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation through a peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α/PPARα-mediated transcription program; 2) prevented sterol regulatory element–binding protein 1c–mediated lipogenesis in both liver and muscle by reducing fasting hyperinsulinemia; 3) decreased hepatic cholesterol and cholesterol ester synthesis; 4) reduced both VLDL-derived and endogenously synthesized fatty acids, preventing muscle triglyceride accumulation; and 5) improved overall insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.
Thus, naringenin, through its correction of many of the metabolic disturbances linked to insulin resistance, represents a promising therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome.
Background. Our previous study has demonstrated that nobiletin could reverse the behavioral alterations in stressed mice. However, the relation of its antidepressant-like action with neurotrophic molecular expression remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the antidepressant-like mechanism of nobiletin related to the neurotrophic system in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods. Depressive-like anhedonia (assessed by sucrose preference) and serum corticosterone secretion were evaluated in the CUMS, followed by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), and the downstream target synapsin I expressions in the hippocampus. Results. Anhedonia, which occurred within week 2, was rapidly ameliorated by nobiletin. While fluoxetine needed additional 2 weeks to improve the anhedonia. In addition, nobiletin administration for 5 weeks significantly ameliorated CUMS-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels. Furthermore, we also found that CUMS-induced deficits of hippocampal BDNF, TrkB, and synapsin I were ameliorated by nobiletin.
Conclusions. Taken together, these findings suggest that nobiletin produces rapidly acting antidepressant-like responses in the CUMS and imply that BDNF-TrkB pathway may play an important role in the antidepressant-like effect of nobiletin.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with accelerated atherogenesis, which may result from a combination of factors, including dyslipidemia characterized by increased VLDL secretion, and insulin resistance. To assess the hypothesis that both hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance contribute to atherogenesis, we crossed mice deficient for the LDL receptor (Ldlr–/– mice) with mice that express low levels of IR in the liver and lack IR in peripheral tissues (the L1B6 mouse strain). Unexpectedly, compared with Ldlr–/– controls, L1B6Ldlr–/– mice fed a Western diet showed reduced VLDL and LDL levels, reduced atherosclerosis, decreased hepatic AKT signaling, decreased expression of genes associated with lipogenesis, and diminished VLDL apoB and lipid secretion. Adenovirus-mediated hepatic expression of either constitutively active AKT or dominant negative glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) markedly increased VLDL and LDL levels such that they were similar in both Ldlr–/– and L1B6Ldlr–/– mice. Knocking down expression of hepatic IR by adenovirus-mediated shRNA decreased VLDL triglyceride and apoB secretion in Ldlr–/– mice. Furthermore, knocking down hepatic IR expression in either WT or ob/ob mice reduced VLDL secretion but also resulted in decreased hepatic Ldlr protein. These findings suggest a dual action of hepatic IR on lipoprotein levels, in which the ability to increase VLDL apoB and lipid secretion via AKT/GSK is offset by upregulation of Ldlr.
Insulin resistance is linked to dyslipidemia, characterized by a decrease in high density lipoproteins and an increase in low density lipoproteins. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin-sensitizing agents used to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the safety of certain TZD regimens has been questioned because of associated adverse effects on the plasma lipid profile. We examined the effect of a TZD, Ciglitazone, on apolipoprotein synthesis and secretion in human liver HepG2 cells.
Methods and Results
The effect of Ciglitazone treatment on apolipoprotein synthesis was addressed at the level of transcription, translation and secretion. RT-PCR showed that Ciglitazone increased the transcription of apoE and apoAI but reduced the levels of apoCI and apoB mRNA. Western blot analysis showed an increase in apoAI and apoE secreted in the cell culture media, whereas the amounts of apoB100 and apoCI were reduced. To confirm that Ciglitazone regulates apolipoprotein translation, its effect on de novo protein synthesis was evaluated by metabolic labeling with [35S]-methionine/cysteine, and a similar pattern of regulation was observed. The change in apolipoprotein levels was not secondary to cholesterol biosynthesis or clearance, since Ciglitazone did not regulate the transcription of HMGCoA reductase, or the LDL receptor. However, mRNA levels for both PPAR-γ and LXRα were induced, suggesting a role for either or both receptors in modulating the hepatic apolipoprotein profile. The involvement of these nuclear receptor transcription factors was confirmed since direct activation of these receptors by endogenous PPAR-γ ligand, 15d-prostaglandin J2, or LXRα ligand, 22(R)hydroxycholesterol, similarly upregulated apoAI and apoE, but down-regulated apoB100 protein synthesis.
Our results suggest that Ciglitazone treatment results in an atheroprotective lipoprotein profile in liver cells. Thus, while the adipose and muscle tissues may be primary targets in TZD-mediated glucose homeostasis, liver PPAR-γ contributes significantly to the regulation of plasma lipoprotein profile.
PPAR-γ; Ciglitazone; Thiazolidinediones; Apolipoproteins; Hepatocytes; HepG2
Absence of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in mice reduces plasma triglycerides and provides protection from obesity and insulin resistance, which would be predicted to be associated with reduced susceptibility to atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of SCD1 deficiency on atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results
Despite an antiatherogenic metabolic profile, SCD1 deficiency increases atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice challenged with a western diet. Lesion area at the aortic root is significantly increased in males and females in two models of SCD1 deficiency. Inflammatory changes are evident in the skin of these mice, including increased intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ulcerative dermatitis. Increases in ICAM-1 and interleukin-6 are also evident in plasma of SCD1-deficient mice. HDL particles demonstrate changes associated with inflammation, including, decreased plasma apoA-II and apoA-I and paraoxonase-1 and increased plasma serum amyloid A. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response and cholesterol efflux are not altered in SCD1-deficient macrophages. In addition, when SCD1 deficiency is limited to bone-marrow derived cells, lesion size is not altered in LDLR-deficient mice.
These studies reinforce the crucial role of chronic inflammation in promoting atherosclerosis, even in the presence of antiatherogenic biochemical and metabolic characteristics.
PMID: 19095997 CAMSID: cams195
atherosclerosis; inflammation; apolipoproteins; lipoproteins; hyperlipoproteinemia
Dyslipoproteinaemia is a cardinal feature of the metabolic syndrome that accelerates atherosclerosis. It is usually characterised by high plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich and apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins, with depressed concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Dysregulation of lipoprotein metabolism in these subjects may be due to a combination of overproduction of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB-100, decreased catabolism of apoB-containing particles, and increased catabolism of HDL apoA-I particles. These abnormalities may be consequent on a global metabolic effect of insulin resistance that increases the flux of fatty acids from adipose tissue to the liver, the accumulation of fat in the liver, the increased hepatic secretion of VLDL-triglycerides and the remodelling of both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL particles in the circulation; perturbations in lipolytic enzymes and lipid transfer proteins contribute to the dyslipidaemia. Our in vivo understanding of the kinetic defects in lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome has been chiefly achieved by ongoing developments in the use of stable isotope tracers and mathematical modelling. Knowledge of the pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism in the metabolic syndrome is well complemented by extensive cell biological data. Nutritional modifications and increased physical exercise may favourably alter lipoprotein transport in the metabolic syndrome by collectively decreasing the hepatic secretion of VLDL-apoB and the catabolism of HDL apoA-I, as well as by increasing the clearance of LDL-apoB. Pharmacological treatments, such as statins, fibrates or fish oils, can also correct the dyslipidaemia by several mechanisms of action including decreased secretion and increased catabolism of apoB, as well as increased secretion and decreased catabolism of apoA-I. The complementary mechanisms of action of lifestyle and drug therapies support the use of combination regimens to treat dyslipidaemia in the metabolic syndrome.
Apolipoprotein (apo) B is essential for the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins made by the liver. As the sole protein component in LDL, apoB is an important determinant of atherosclerosis susceptibility and a potential pharmaceutical target. Single-chain antibodies (sFvs) are the smallest fragment of an IgG molecule capable of maintaining the antigen binding specificity of the parental antibody. In the present study, we describe the cloning and construction of two intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) to human apoB. We targeted these intrabodies to the endoplasmic reticulum for the purpose of retaining nascent apoB within the ER, thereby preventing its secretion. Expression of the 1D1 intrabody in the apoB-secreting human hepatoma cell line HepG2 resulted in marked reduction of apoB secretion. This study demonstrates the utility of an intrabody to specifically block the secretion of a protein determinant of plasma LDL as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.
Single-chain antibodies; apoB; lipoproteins; HepG2 cells
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) participates in the cross-talk between inflammation and insulin resistance, being activated by both lipopolysaccharide and saturated fatty acids. This study was undertaken to determine whether TLR4 deficiency has a protective role in inflammation, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis induced by a diabetogenic diet.
Methods and Results
TLR4 and LDL receptor double knockout (Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/−) mice and Ldlr−/− mice were fed either a normal chow or a diabetogenic diet for 24 weeks. Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice fed a diabetogenic diet showed improved plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels but developed obesity, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance equivalent to obese Ldlr−/− mice. Adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage accumulation and local inflammation were not attenuated in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice. However, TLR4 deficiency led to markedly decreased atherosclerosis in obese Tlr4−/−Ldlr−/− mice. Compensatory up-regulation of TLR2 expression was observed both in obese TLR4 deficient mice and in palmitate-treated TLR4-silenced 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
TLR4 deficiency decreases atherosclerosis without affecting obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in LDL receptor deficient mice. Alternative pathways may be responsible for adipose tissue macrophage infiltration and insulin resistance that occurs in obesity.
Toll-like receptor 4; insulin resistance; atherosclerosis; inflammation; diabetogenic diet
Individuals with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of atherosclerosis. One factor underlying this is dyslipidemia, which in hyperinsulinemic subjects with early type 2 diabetes is typically characterized by increased VLDL secretion but normal LDL cholesterol levels, possibly reflecting enhanced catabolism of LDL via hepatic LDLRs. Recent studies have also suggested that hepatic insulin signaling sustains LDLR levels. We therefore sought to elucidate the mechanisms linking hepatic insulin signaling to regulation of LDLR levels. In WT mice, insulin receptor knockdown by shRNA resulted in decreased hepatic mTORC1 signaling and LDLR protein levels. It also led to increased expression of PCSK9, a known post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR expression. Administration of the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin caused increased expression of PCSK9, decreased levels of hepatic LDLR protein, and increased levels of VLDL/LDL cholesterol in WT but not Pcsk9–/– mice. Conversely, mice with increased hepatic mTORC1 activity exhibited decreased expression of PCSK9 and increased levels of hepatic LDLR protein levels. Pcsk9 is regulated by the transcription factor HNF1α, and our further detailed analyses suggest that increased mTORC1 activity leads to activation of PKCδ, reduced activity of HNF4α and HNF1α, decreased PCSK9 expression, and ultimately increased hepatic LDLR protein levels, which result in decreased circulating LDL levels. We therefore suggest that PCSK9 inhibition could be an effective way to reduce the adverse side effect of increased LDL levels that is observed in transplant patients taking rapamycin as immunosuppressive therapy.
We investigated the differential roles of apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoforms in modulating diabetic dyslipidemia—a potential cause of the increased cardiovascular disease risk of patients with diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Diabetes was induced using streptozotocin (STZ) in human apoE3 (E3) or human apoE4 (E4) mice deficient in the LDL receptor (LDLR−/−).
Diabetic E3LDLR−/− and E4LDLR−/− mice have indistinguishable levels of plasma glucose and insulin. Despite this, diabetes increased VLDL triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in E4LDLR−/− mice twice as much as in E3LDLR−/− mice. Diabetic E4LDLR−/− mice had similar lipoprotein fractional catabolic rates compared with diabetic E3LDLR−/− mice but had larger hepatic fat stores and increased VLDL secretion. Diabetic E4LDLR−/− mice demonstrated a decreased reliance on lipid as an energy source based on indirect calorimetry. Lower phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase content and higher gene expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver indicated reduced fatty acid oxidation and increased fatty acid synthesis. E4LDLR−/− primary hepatocytes cultured in high glucose accumulated more intracellular lipid than E3LDLR−/− hepatocytes concomitant with a 60% reduction in fatty acid oxidation. Finally, the exaggerated dyslipidemia in diabetic E4LDLR−/− mice was accompanied by a dramatic increase in atherosclerosis.
ApoE4 causes severe dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis independent of its interaction with LDLR in a model of STZ-induced diabetes. ApoE4-expressing livers have reduced fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to the accumulation of tissue and plasma lipids.
The human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, secreted an activity that degrades platelet-activating factor (PAF) by the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acetyl group. This activity was Ca++ independent, inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate but not by p-bromophenacyl bromide, and resistant to treatment with trypsin or pronase. Separation of HepG2-conditioned medium by gel filtration disclosed that the activity was associated with lipoproteins. An antiserum against PAF acetylhydrolase immunoprecipitated this activity. It was not recognized by an antibody against lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which also is secreted by HepG2 cells. Therefore the phospholipase A2 activity of LCAT was excluded as a source of the observed activity. PAF added to the culture medium stimulated the secretion of the PAF-degrading activity by HepG2 cells, while lyso-PAF was inactive. Maximal stimulation was observed with 5 ng/ml PAF, which induced a fivefold increase. The presence of 5 ng/ml PAF, enhanced the secretion of [35S]methionine-labeled PAF acetylhydrolase and cycloheximide inhibited both the basal and PAF-stimulated secretion of the labeled enzyme. We conclude that HepG2 cells produce PAF acetylhydrolase. The liver may be a major source of plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, and PAF may induce the production of its inactivating enzyme by the liver.
Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). Fu Fang Zhen Zhu Tiao Zhi formula (FTZ), a Chinese medicinal decoction, has been used to relieve hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and other symptoms associated with metabolic disorders in the clinic.
To evaluate the effect of FTZ on insulin resistance, HepG2 cells were induced with high insulin as a model of insulin resistance and treated with FTZ at one of three dosages. Next, the levels of glucose content, insulin receptor substrate1 (IRS1) protein expression and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) subunit p85 mRNA expression were measured. Alternatively, MS was induced in rats via gavage feeding of a high-fat diet for four consecutive weeks followed by administration of FTZ for eight consecutive weeks. Body weight and the plasma levels of lipids, insulin and glucose were evaluated. Finally, the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in adipose tissue of rats was measured.
Our results revealed that FTZ attenuated glucose content and up-regulated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells in vitro. Moreover, FTZ reduced body weight and the plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, fasting glucose and insulin in insulin resistant MS rats. FTZ also elevated the expression of PI3K p85 mRNA in the adipose tissues of MS rats.
FTZ attenuated MS symptoms by decreasing the plasma levels of glucose and lipids. The underlying mechanism was attenuation of the reduced expression of PI3K p85 mRNA and IRS1 protein in both insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and MS rats.
Metabolic syndrome; Insulin resistance; Fu Fang Zhen Zhu Tiao Zhi formula (FTZ)
Apolipoprotein B (APOB) is an integral part of the LDL, VLDL, IDL, Lp(a) and chylomicron lipoprotein particles. The APOB pre-mRNA consists of 29 constitutively-spliced exons. APOB exists as two natural isoforms: the full-length APOB100 isoform, assembled into LDL, VLDL, IDL and Lp(a) and secreted by the liver in humans; and the C-terminally truncated APOB48, assembled into chylomicrons and secreted by the intestine in humans. Down-regulation of APOB100 is a potential therapy to lower circulating LDL and cholesterol levels.
We investigated the ability of 2'O-methyl RNA antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to induce the skipping of exon 27 in endogenous APOB mRNA in HepG2 cells. These ASOs are directed towards the 5' and 3' splice-sites of exon 27, the branch-point sequence (BPS) of intron 26–27 and several predicted exonic splicing enhancers within exon 27. ASOs targeting either the 5' or 3' splice-site, in combination with the BPS, are the most effective. The splicing of other alternatively spliced genes are not influenced by these ASOs, suggesting that the effects seen are not due to non-specific changes in alternative splicing. The skip 27 mRNA is translated into a truncated isoform, APOB87SKIP27.
The induction of APOB87SKIP27 expression in vivo should lead to decreased LDL and cholesterol levels, by analogy to patients with hypobetalipoproteinemia. As intestinal APOB mRNA editing and APOB48 expression rely on sequences within exon 26, exon 27 skipping should not affect APOB48 expression unlike other methods of down-regulating APOB100 expression which also down-regulate APOB48.
Both reductions in atherogenic lipoproteins and increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels may affect atherosclerosis regression. Here, the relative potential of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering and HDL raising gene transfer strategies to induce regression of complex murine atherosclerotic lesions was directly compared. Male C57BL/6 LDL receptor (LDLr)−/− mice were fed an atherogenic diet (1.25% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil) to induce advanced atherosclerotic lesions. A baseline group was killed after 6 months and remaining mice were randomized into a control progression (Adnull or saline), an apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (AdA-I), an LDLr (AdLDLr), or a combined apo A-I/LDLr (AdA-I/AdLDLr) adenoviral gene transfer group and followed-up for another 12 weeks with continuation of the atherogenic diet. Gene transfer with AdLDLr decreased non-HDL cholesterol levels persistently by 95% (p < 0.001) compared with baseline. This drastic reduction of non-HDL cholesterol levels induced lesion regression by 28% (p < 0.001) in the aortic root and by 25% (p < 0.05) in the brachiocephalic artery at 12 weeks after transfer. Change in lesion size was accompanied by enhanced plaque stability, as evidenced by increased collagen content, reduced lesional macrophage content, a drastic reduction of necrotic core area, and decreased expression of inflammatory genes. Elevated HDL cholesterol following AdA-I transfer increased collagen content in lesions, but did not induce regression. Apo A-I gene transfer on top of AdLDLr transfer resulted in additive effects, particularly on inflammatory gene expression. In conclusion, drastic lipid lowering induced by a powerful gene transfer strategy leads to pronounced regression and stabilization of advanced murine atherosclerosis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00109-011-0722-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Atherosclerosis; Advanced lesions; Regression; Plaque stabilization; Adenoviral gene transfer; Lipoproteins
C-Reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein in humans. Elevated levels of CRP are produced in response to inflammatory cytokines and are associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a common environmental toxicant, also produces cardiovascular disorders, namely atherosclerosis and is associated with insulin-resistance. Inorganic arsenic has been shown to contribute to cardiac toxicities through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that result in the activation of NFκB. In this study we show that exposure of the hepatic cell line, HepG2, to environmentally relevant levels of arsenite (0.13 to 2 µM) results in elevated CRP expression and secretion. ROS analysis of the samples showed that a minimal amount of ROS are produced by HepG2 cells in response to these concentrations of arsenic. In addition, treatment of FvB mice with 100 ppb sodium arsenite in the drinking water for six months starting at weaning age resulted in dramatically higher levels of CRP in both the liver and inner medullary region of the kidney. Further, mouse Inner Medullary Collecting Duct cells (mIMCD-4), a mouse kidney cell line, were stimulated with 10 ng/ml CRP whch resulted in activation of NFκB. Pretreatment with 10 nM Y27632, a known Rho-kinase inhibitor, prior to CRP exposure attenuated NFκB activation. These data suggest that arsenic causes the expression and secretion of CRP and that CRP activates NFκB through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway, thereby providing a novel pathway by which arsenic can contribute to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Prediabetic states are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, but the availability of mouse models to study connections between these diseases has been limited. The aim of this study was to test the selective role of impaired insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate-1 signaling on atherogenesis.
Methods and Results
To address the effects of impaired insulin signaling associated with hyperinsulinemia on atherosclerosis in the absence of obesity and hyperglycemia, we generated insulin receptor (Insr)/insulin receptor substrate-1 (Insr1) double heterozygous apolipoprotein (Apoe)-knockout mice (Insr+/−Irs1+/−Apoe−/−) mice. Insr+/−Irs1+/−Apoe−/− mice fed a Western diet for 15 weeks showed elevated levels of fasting insulin compared to Insr+/+Irs1+/+Apoe−/− mice. There were no significant differences in glucose, triglyceride, HDL, VLDL, cholesterol levels or free fatty acid in the plasma of Insr+/−Irs1+/−Apoe−/− and Insr+/+Irs1+/+Apoe−/− mice. Atherosclerotic lesions were increased in male (brachiocephalic artery) and female (aortic tree) Insr+/−Irs1+/−Apoe−/− compared to Insr+/+Irs1+/+Apoe−/− mice. Bone marrow transfer experiments demonstrated that nonhematopoietic cells have to be Insr+/−Irs1+/− to accelerate atherosclerosis. Impaired insulin signaling resulted in decreased levels of vascular phospho-eNOS, attenuated endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and elevated VCAM-1 expression in aortas of Insr+/−Irs1+/−Apoe−/− mice. In addition, phospho-ERK and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation were significantly elevated in aortas of Insr+/−Irs1+/−Apoe−/− mice.
These results demonstrate that defective insulin signaling is involved in accelerated atherosclerosis in Insr+/−Irs1+/−Apoe−/− mice by promoting vascular dysfunction and inflammation.
atherosclerosis; insulin resistance; leukocytes; vascular biology
Mi(cro)RNAs are small non-coding RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides in length that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. These RNAs have been shown to be involved in a several biological processes, human diseases and metabolic disorders. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant polyphenol class in the human diet, have positive health effects on a variety of metabolic disorders such as inflammation, obesity, diabetes and insulin resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate whether proanthocyanidin-rich natural extracts modulate miRNA expression. Using microarray analysis and Q-PCR, we investigated miRNA expression in HepG2 cells treated with proanthocyanidins. Our results showed that when HepG2 cells were treated with grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), cocoa proanthocyanidin extract (CPE) or pure epigallocatechin gallate isolated from green tea (EGCG), fifteen, six and five differentially expressed miRNAs, respectively, were identified out of 904 mRNAs. Specifically, miR-30b* was downregulated by the three treatments, and treatment with GSPE or CPE upregulated miR-1224-3p, miR-197 and miR-532-3p. Therefore, these results provide evidence of the capacity of dietary proanthocyanidins to influence microRNA expression, suggesting a new mechanism of action of proanthocyanidins.
Genetic defects in LDL clearance result in severe hypercholesterolemia and premature atherosclerosis. Mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the most severe form of genetic hypercholesterolemia. A phenocopy of FH, autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH), is due to mutations in an adaptor protein involved in LDLR internalization. Despite comparable reductions in LDL clearance rates, plasma LDL levels are substantially lower in ARH than in FH. To determine the metabolic basis for this difference, we examined the synthesis and catabolism of VLDL in murine models of FH (Ldlr–/–) and ARH (Arh–/–). The hyperlipidemic response to a high-sucrose diet was greatly attenuated in Arh–/– mice compared with Ldlr–/– mice despite similar rates of VLDL secretion. The rate of VLDL clearance was significantly higher in Arh–/– mice than in Ldlr–/– mice, suggesting that LDLR-dependent uptake of VLDL is maintained in the absence of ARH. Consistent with these findings, hepatocytes from Arh–/– mice (but not Ldlr–/– mice) internalized β-migrating VLDL (β-VLDL). These results demonstrate that ARH is not required for LDLR-dependent uptake of VLDL by the liver. The preservation of VLDL remnant clearance attenuates the phenotype of ARH and likely contributes to greater responsiveness to statins in ARH compared with FH.
Mice with a single copy of Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7), a gene that encodes a mitochondrial enzyme required for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone and other functions, live longer than wild-type mice. The prolonged survival implies a decreased mortality from age-dependent lethal pathologies. Atherosclerosis is one of the main age-dependent pathologies in humans and can be modeled in mice that lack Apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) or mice that lack the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLr-/-) in addition to being fed an atherosclerosis-inducing diet. We sought to determine if Mclk1 heterozygosity protects against atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia in these models.
We found that Mclk1 heterozygosity did not protect against dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, or atherosclerosis in young (6 or 10 months) or older (18 months) mice. Furthermore, the absence of ApoE suppressed the lifespan-promoting effects of Mclk1 heterozygosity.
These findings indicate that although Mclk1 heterozygosity can extend lifespan of mice, it does not necessarily protect against atherosclerosis. Moreover, in the presence of hyperlipidemia and chronic inflammation, Mclk1 heterozygosity is incapable of extending lifespan.
► The pathophysiological link between NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance is unknown. ► We studied the effect of postprandial lipoproteins on hepatic insulin sensitivity. ► Postprandial lipoproteins cause liver steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. ► We characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms. ► Postprandial lipoproteins are a link between NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance with the molecular basis of this association being not well understood. Here we studied the effect of hepatic triglyceride accumulation induced by postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) on hepatic insulin sensitivity in HepG2 cells. Incubation of HepG2 cells with purified TGRL particles induced hepatocellular triglyceride accumulation paralleled by diminished insulin-stimulated glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity. Accordingly, insulin-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase phosphorylation as well as insulin-induced GSK-3 and AKT phosphorylation were reduced by TGRL. The effects of TGRL were dependent on the presence of apolipoproteins and more pronounced for denser TGRL. Moreover, TGRL effects required the presence of heparan sulfate-proteoglycans on the cell membrane and lipase activity but were independent of the cellular uptake of TGRL particles by receptors of the LDL receptor family. We suggest postprandial lipemia to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.
BMI, body mass index; DAPI, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMEM, dulbeccos minimal essential media; FCS, fetal calf serum; GS, glycogen synthase; GSK-3, glycogen synthase kinase 3; HL, hepatic lipase; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HSPG, heparan sulfate proteoglycans; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; LRP, LDL-receptor-related protein; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; RAP, receptor-associated protein; ROS, reactive oxygen species; Sf, Svedberg flotation rate; TGRL, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; THL, tetrahydrolipstatin; Glucose metabolism; Hepatic insulin resistance; Insulin signaling; Liver steatosis; Postprandial lipemia
Apolipoprotein B (apoB) containing lipoproteins, i.e. VLDL, LDL and Lp(a), are consequently lowered by ACTH treatment in humans. This is also seen as reduced plasma apoB by 20-30% and total cholesterol by 30-40%, mostly accounted for by a decrease in LDL-cholesterol. Studies in hepatic cell line (HepG2) cells showed that apoB mRNA expression is reduced in response to ACTH incubation and is followed by a reduced apoB secretion, which may hypothesize that ACTH lowering apoB containing lipoproteins in humans may be mediated by the inhibition of hepatic apoB synthesis. This was recently confirmed in vivo in a human postprandial study, where ACTH reduced transient apoB48 elevation from the small intestine, however, the exogenic lipid turnover seemed unimpaired. In the present study we investigated if lipid synthesis and/or secretion in HepG2 cells were also affected by pharmacological levels of ACTH to accompany the reduced apoB output. HepG2 cells were incubated with radiolabelled precursors ([14C]acetate and [3H]glycerol) either before or during ACTH stimuli. Cellular and secreted lipids were extracted with chloroform:methanol and separated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC), and [14C]labelled cholesterol and cholesteryl ester and [3H]labelled triglycerides and phospholipids were quantitated by the liquid scintillation counting. It demonstrated that ACTH administration did not result in any significant change in neither synthesis nor secretion of the studied lipids, this regardless of presence or absence of oleic acid, which is known to stabilize apoB and enhance apoB production. The present study suggests that ACTH lowers plasma lipids in humans mainly mediated by the inhibition of apoB synthesis and did not via the reduced lipid synthesis.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that a diet abundant in fruits and vegetables may protect against colon cancer. Bioactive compounds, including flavonoids and limonoids, have been shown to possess anti-proliferative and anti-tumorigenic effects in various cancer models. This experiment investigated the effects of four citrus flavonoids and one limonoid mixture at the promotion stage of chemically induced colon cancer in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10 rats/group) were randomly allocated to one of six diets formulated to contain 0.1% apigenin, 0.02% naringenin, 0.1% hesperidin, 0.01% nobiletin, 0.035% limonin glucoside/obacunone glucoside mixture, or a control diet (0% flavonoid/limonoid). Rats received experimental diets for 10 wk and were injected with azoxymethane (15 mg/kg) at wk 3 and 4. Excised colons were evaluated for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, colonocyte proliferation (PCNA assay), apoptosis (TUNEL assay), and expression of iNOS and COX-2 (immunoblotting). When compared to the control diet, apigenin lowered the number of high multiplicity ACF (HMACF > 4 AC/focus) by 57% (P < 0.05), while naringenin lowered both the number of HMACF by 51% (P < 0.05) and the proliferative index by 32% (P < 0.05). Both apigenin and naringenin increased apoptosis of luminal surface colonocytes (78% and 97%, respectively; P < 0.05) when compared to the control diet. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and the limonin glucoside/obacunone glucoside mixture did not affect these variables. The colonic mucosal protein levels of iNOS or COX-2 were not different among the six diet groups. The ability of dietary apigenin and naringenin to reduce HMACF, lower proliferation (naringenin only), and increase apoptosis may contribute toward colon cancer prevention. However, these effects were not due to mitigation of iNOS and COX-2 protein levels at the ACF stage of colon cancer.
Citrus; limonoids; flavonoids; colon cancer
There is accumulating evidence that obesity is closely associated with an impaired free fatty acid metabolism as well as with insulin resistance and inflammation. Excessive fatty acid uptake mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 plays an important role in hepatic steatosis. Molecular hydrogen has been shown to attenuate oxidative stress and improve lipid, glucose and energy metabolism in patients and animal models of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown.
Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were exposed to palmitate-BSA complex after treatment with or without hydrogen for 24 h. The fatty acid uptake was measured by using spectrofluorometry and the lipid content was detected by Oil Red O staining. JNK phosphorylation and CD36 expression were analyzed by Western blot and real-time PCR analyses.
Pretreatment with hydrogen reduced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation after palmitate overload in HepG2 cells, which was associated with inhibition of JNK activation. Hydrogen treatment did not alter CD36 mRNA expression but reduced CD36 protein expression.
Hydrogen inhibits fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through the downregulation of CD36 at the protein level in hepatic cultured cells, providing insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the hydrogen effects in vivo on lipid metabolism disorders.
Molecular hydrogen; HepG2 cells; Fatty acid; JNK; Phosphorylation; CD36; Hepatic steatosis
Previously we showed L-4F, a novel apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic, improved vasodilation in two dissimilar models of vascular disease; hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor null (Ldlr
−/−) mice and transgenic sickle cell disease mice. Here we determine the mechanisms by which D-4F improves vasodilation and arterial wall thickness in hypercholesterolemic Ldlr
−/− mice and Ldlr
−/−/apoA-I null (apoA-I
−/−), double knockout mice. Ldlr
−/− and Ldlr
−/− mice were fed western diet (WD) ± D-4F. Oral D-4F restored endothelium- and eNOS-dependent vasodilation in direct relationship to duration of treatments and reduced wall thickness in as little as 2 weeks in vessels with pre-existing disease in Ldlr
−/− mice. D-4F had no effect on total or HDL cholesterol concentrations but reduced proinflammatory HDL levels. D-4F had no effect on plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations but reduced MPO association with apoA-I as well as 3-nitrotyrosine in apoA-I. D-4F increased endothelium- and eNOS-dependent vasodilation in Ldlr
−/− mice but did not reduce wall thickness as it had in Ldlr
−/− mice. Vascular endothelial cells were treated with 22-hydroxycholesterol (22-OHC) ± L-4F. 22-OHC decreased nitric oxide (•NO) and increased superoxide anion (O2
•−) production and increased ABCA-1 and collagen expression. L-4F restored •NO and O2
•− balance, had little effect on ABCA-1 expression but reduced collagen expression. These data demonstrate that although D-4F restores vascular endothelial cell and eNOS function to increase vasodilation, HDL containing apoA-I, or at least some critical concentration of the anti-atherogenic lipoprotein, is required for D-4F to decrease vessel wall thickness.
cardiovascular diseases; hypercholesterolemia; lipoproteins; nitric oxide synthase; vasodilation