PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (1256626)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Selection of eating-disorder phenotypes for linkage analysis 
Vulnerability to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) arise from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. To explore the genetic contribution, we measured over 100 psychiatric, personality and temperament phenotypes of individuals with eating disorders from 154 multiplex families accessed through an AN proband (AN cohort) and 244 multiplex families accessed through a BN proband (BN cohort). To select a parsimonious subset of these attributes for linkage analysis, we subjected the variables to a multilayer decision process based on expert evaluation and statistical analysis. Criteria for trait choice included relevance to eating disorders pathology, published evidence for heritability, and results from our data. Based on these criteria, we chose six traits to analyze for linkage. Obsessionality, Age-at-Menarche, and a composite Anxiety measure displayed features of heritable quantitative traits, such as normal distribution and familial correlation, and thus appeared ideal for quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage analysis. By contrast, some families showed highly concordant and extreme values for three variables — lifetime minimum Body Mass Index (lowest BMI attained during the course of illness), concern over mistakes, and food-related obsessions — whereas others did not. These distributions are consistent with a mixture of populations, and thus the variables were matched with covariate linkage analysis. Linkage results appear in a subsequent report. Our report lays out a systematic roadmap for utilizing a rich set of phenotypes for genetic analyses, including the selection of linkage methods paired to those phenotypes.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30227
PMCID: PMC2560991  PMID: 16152575
Complex disease; endophenotype; liability; clinical judgment; covariate selection; mixture model; regression
2.  Anorexia nervosa 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2011;2011:1011.
Introduction
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review, and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: atypical antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment (HRT or oral contraceptives), older-generation antipsychotic drugs, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.
Key Points
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and the condition may affect up to 0.7% of this group.Anorexia nervosa is related to family, sociocultural, genetic, and other biological factors. Psychiatric and personality disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and perfectionism are commonly found in people who have anorexia nervosa.Most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, but about 5% die from the condition and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder.Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of fractures later in life.Population assessment indicates that risks to fertility may be overstated in those who reach a healthy BMI, but children born to mothers who have recovered from anorexia nervosa seem to have lower birth weights.
There is no strong RCT evidence that any treatments work well for anorexia nervosa. However, there is a gradual accumulation of evidence suggesting that early intervention is effective. Increasing evidence suggests that working with the family may also interrupt the development of a persistent form of the illness, when this work begins early in the disease.
Evidence on the benefits of psychotherapy is unclear.
Refeeding is a necessary and effective component of treatment, but is not sufficient alone. Very limited evidence from a quasi-experimental study suggests that a lenient approach to refeeding is as effective and more acceptable compared with a more strict approach.Refeeding may be as effective in an outpatient setting as during hospital admission.Nasogastric refeeding has been used to speed up weight gain in inpatient observational studies, although it is rarely studied in RCTs. Very limited RCT evidence suggests that adding nasogastric feeding to oral nutrition can increase weight gain and reduce relapse in the short term more than oral nutrition alone, but these gains are not maintained at 1 year post-discharge. Given ethical and medical concerns with tube feeding, this approach is encouraged with caution.Nutritional supplements, including zinc, have only limited evidence for their effectiveness, and additional evaluations of these measures are warranted.
We don't know whether inpatient or outpatient treatment is more effective in people with anorexia nervosa.
Limited evidence from small RCTs has not shown significant weight gain from SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants, some of which may cause serious adverse effects. Tricyclic antidepressants may cause drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and a prolonged QT interval in people who have anorexia nervosa. SSRIs have not been shown to be beneficial, but the evidence remains very limited; in the 4 RCTs we found, conclusions were limited because of small trial size and high rates of withdrawal.
Older-generation antipsychotic drugs may prolong the QT interval, increasing the risk of ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes, and sudden death. Atypical antipsychotics have been evaluated for their potential role in reducing agitation and anxiety related to refeeding, as well as for potentially increasing appetite. Increasing observational data (case series) have suggested that they may decrease obsessiveness and agitation. However, further evidence from large, well-conducted RCTs is necessary to draw reliable conclusions. Newer atypical antipsychotics, in particular olanzapine, do not seem to be associated with the same cardiac risks as older-generation antipsychotic drugs, but the known association between olanzapine and weight gain may impact compliance in people with anorexia nervosa. However, further research needs to be done.
We found insufficient RCT evidence assessing benzodiazepines or cyproheptadine for treating anorexia nervosa.
Oestrogen treatment has been hypothesised to reduce the negative effects on bone mineral density associated with anorexia nervosa. However, three small RCTs have failed to demonstrate clinically relevant changes in bone mineral density after treatment with oestrogen either HRT or oral contraceptives), and these results are supported by 2-year longitudinal data, which found similar lack of improvement.
PMCID: PMC3275304  PMID: 21481284
3.  Anorexia nervosa 
BMJ Clinical Evidence  2009;2009:1011.
Introduction
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review which aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anxiolytic drugs, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.
Key Points
Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low BMI, fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and may affect up to 0.7% of this group.Anorexia nervosa is related to family, sociocultural, genetic, and other biological factors. Psychiatric and personality disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and perfectionism, are commonly found in people who have anorexia nervosa.Most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, but about 5% die from the condition and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder.Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of fractures later in life.
There is no strong research evidence that any treatments work well for anorexia nervosa. However, there is a gradual accumulation of evidence which suggests that early intervention is effective. Working with the family may also interrupt the development of a persistent form of the illness.
Evidence on the benefits of psychotherapy is unclear.
Refeeding is a necessary and effective component of treatment, but is not sufficient alone. Very limited evidence from a quasi-experimental study suggests that a lenient approach to refeeding is as effective and more acceptable compared with a more strict approach.Refeeding may be as effective in an outpatient setting as during hospital admission.Nasogastric feeding is rarely required and can lead to problems due to hypophosphataemia.Nutritional supplements, including zinc, have only limited evidence for their effectiveness, and additional evaluation of these measures are warranted.
Limited evidence from small RCTs has not shown significant weight gain from SSRIs or tricyclic antidepressants, some of which may cause serious adverse effects. Tricyclic antidepressants may cause drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and a prolonged QT interval in people who have anorexia nervosa. SSRIs have not been shown to be beneficial, but the evidence remains very limited; in the four RCTs we found, conclusions were limited due to small trial size and high withdrawal rates.
Anxiolytic drugs (mainly older generation antipsychotic drugs) may prolong the QT interval, increasing the risk of ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes, and sudden death. Atypical antipsychotics have been evaluated for their potential role in reducing agitation and anxiety related to refeeding, as well as for potentially increasing appetite. Weak observational evidence has suggested that they may decrease obsessiveness and agitation. However, we found no RCTs of sufficient quality on the effects of atypical antipsychotics, and further evidence from large, well-conducted RCTs is necessary to draw reliable conclusions. Some atypical antipsychotics do not appear to be associated with the same cardiac risks as older-generation antipsychotic drugs. However, further research needs to be done.
We found insufficient evidence assessing cyproheptadine for treating anorexia nervosa.
Oestrogen treatment has been hypothesized to reduce the negative effects on bone mineral density associated with anorexia nervosa. However, three small RCTs have failed to demonstrate significant changes in bone mineral density after treatment with oestrogen.
PMCID: PMC2907776  PMID: 19445758
4.  Linkage analysis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa cohorts using selected behavioral phenotypes as quantitative traits or covariates 
To increase the likelihood of finding genetic variation conferring liability to eating disorders, we measured over 100 attributes thought to be related to liability to eating disorders on affected individuals from multiplex families and two cohorts: one recruited through a proband with anorexia nervosa (AN; AN cohort); the other recruited through a proband with bulimia nervosa (BN; BN cohort). By a multilayer decision process based on expert evaluation and statistical analysis, six traits were selected for linkage analysis (1): obsessionality (OBS), age at menarche (MENAR) and anxiety (ANX) for quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage analysis; and lifetime minimum Body Mass Index (BMI), concern over mistakes (CM) and food-related obsessions (OBF) for covariate-based linkage analysis. The BN cohort produced the largest linkage signals: for QTL linkage analysis, four suggestive signals: (for MENAR, at 10p13; for ANX, at 1q31.1, 4q35.2, and 8q13.1); for covariate-based linkage analyses, both significant and suggestive linkages (for BMI, one significant [4q21.1] and three suggestive [3p23, 10p13, 5p15.3]; for CM, two significant [16p13.3, 14q21.1] and three suggestive [4p15.33, 8q11.23, 10p11.21]; and for OBF, one significant [14q21.1] and five suggestive [4p16.1, 10p13.1, 8q11.23, 16p13.3, 18p11.31]). Results from the AN cohort were far less compelling: for QTL linkage analysis, two suggestive signals (for OBS at 6q21 and for ANX at 9p21.3); for covariate-based linkage analysis, five suggestive signals (for BMI at 4q13.1, for CM at 11p11.2 and 17q25.1, and for OBF at 17q25.1 and 15q26.2). Overlap between the two cohorts was minimal for substantial linkage signals.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30226
PMCID: PMC2590774  PMID: 16152574
Complex disease; endophenotype; liability; mixture model; regression
5.  Dysfunctional metacognition and drive for thinness in typical and atypical anorexia nervosa 
Background
Anorexia nervosa is complex and difficult to treat. In cognitive therapies the focus has been on cognitive content rather than process. Process-oriented therapies may modify the higher level cognitive processes of metacognition, reported as dysfunctional in adult anorexia nervosa. Their association with clinical features of anorexia nervosa, however, is unclear. With reclassification of anorexia nervosa by DSM-5 into typical and atypical groups, comparability of metacognition and drive for thinness across groups and relationships within groups is also unclear. Main objectives were to determine whether metacognitive factors differ across typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and a non-clinical community sample, and to explore a process model by determining whether drive for thinness is concurrently predicted by metacognitive factors.
Methods
Women receiving treatment for anorexia nervosa (n = 119) and non-clinical community participants (n = 100), aged between 18 and 46 years, completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (3rd Edition) and Metacognitions Questionnaire (Brief Version). Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m2 differentiated between typical (n = 75) and atypical (n = 44) anorexia nervosa. Multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted.
Results
Metacognitive profiles were similar in both typical and atypical anorexia nervosa and confirmed as more dysfunctional than in the non-clinical group. Drive for thinness was concurrently predicted in the typical patients by the metacognitive factors, positive beliefs about worry, and need to control thoughts; in the atypical patients by negative beliefs about worry and, inversely, by cognitive self-consciousness, and in the non-clinical group by cognitive self-consciousness.
Conclusions
Despite having a healthier weight, the atypical group was as severely affected by dysfunctional metacognitions and drive for thinness as the typical group. Because metacognition concurrently predicted drive for thinness in both groups, a role for process-oriented therapy in adults is suggested. Implications are discussed.
doi:10.1186/s40337-015-0060-4
PMCID: PMC4491244  PMID: 26146555
Anorexia nervosa; Atypical anorexia nervosa; Metacognition; Drive for thinness
6.  Anorexia nervosa trios: behavioral profiles of individuals with anorexianervosa and their parents 
Psychological medicine  2008;39(3):451-461.
Background
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with behavioral traits that predate the onset of AN and persist after recovery. We identified patterns of behavioral traits in AN trios (proband plus two biological parents).
Method
A total of 433 complete trios were collected in the Price Foundation Genetic Study of AN using standardized instruments for eating disorder (ED) symptoms, anxiety, perfectionism, and temperament. We used latent profile analysis and ANOVA to identify and validate patterns of behavioral traits.
Results
We distinguished three classes with medium to large effect sizes by mothers’ and probands’ drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, neuroticism, trait anxiety, and harm avoidance. Fathers did not differ significantly across classes. Classes were distinguished by degree of symptomatology rather than qualitative differences. Class 1 (~33 %) comprised low symptom probands and mothers with scores in the healthy range. Class 2 (~43 %) included probands with marked elevations in drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, neuroticism, trait anxiety, and harm avoidance and mothers with mild anxious/perfectionistic traits. Class 3 (~24 %) included probands and mothers with elevations on ED and anxious/perfectionistic traits. Mother–daughter symptom severity was related in classes 1 and 3 only. Trio profiles did not differ significantly by proband clinical status or subtype.
Conclusions
A key finding is the importance of mother and daughter traits in the identification of temperament and personality patterns in families affected by AN. Mother–daughter pairs with severe ED and anxious/perfectionistic traits may represent a more homogeneous and familial variant of AN that could be of value in genetic studies.
doi:10.1017/S0033291708003826
PMCID: PMC3714180  PMID: 18578898
Anorexia nervosa; eating disorder; genetics; temperament
7.  Association Study of 182 Candidate Genes in Anorexia Nervosa 
We performed association studies with 5,151 SNPs that were judged as likely candidate genetic variations conferring susceptibility to anorexia nervosa (AN) based on location under reported linkage peaks, previous results in the literature (182 candidate genes), brain expression, biological plausibility, and estrogen responsivity. We employed a case–control design that tested each SNP individually as well as haplotypes derived from these SNPs in 1,085 case individuals with AN diagnoses and 677 control individuals. We also performed separate association analyses using three increasingly restrictive case definitions for AN: all individuals with any subtype of AN (All AN: n = 1,085); individuals with AN with no binge eating behavior (AN with No Binge Eating: n = 687); and individuals with the restricting subtype of AN (Restricting AN: n = 421). After accounting for multiple comparisons, there were no statistically significant associations for any individual SNP or haplotype block with any definition of illness. These results underscore the importance of large samples to yield appropriate power to detect genotypic differences in individuals with AN and also motivate complementary approaches involving Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analyses, sequencing-based rare variant discovery assays, and pathway-based analysis in order to make up for deficiencies in traditional candidate gene approaches to AN.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31082
PMCID: PMC2963154  PMID: 20468064
single nucleotide polymorphisms; probands; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa
8.  Appetite Regulatory Hormones in Women With Anorexia Nervosa: Binge-Eating/Purging Versus Restricting Type 
Objective
Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric illness characterized by low weight, disordered eating, and hallmark neuroendocrine dysfunction. Behavioral phenotypes are defined by predominant restriction or bingeing/purging; binge-eating/purging type anorexia nervosa is associated with poorer outcome. The pathophysiology underlying anorexia nervosa types is unknown, but altered hormones, known to be involved in eating behaviors, may play a role.
Method
To examine the role of anorexigenic hormones in anorexia nervosa subtypes, we examined serum levels of peptide YY (PYY; total and active [3-36] forms), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and leptin as primary outcomes in women with OSM-5 restricting type anorexia nervosa (n=50), binge-eating/purging type anorexia nervosa (n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 22).1n addition, women completed validated secondary outcome measures of eating disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) and depression and anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression [HDRS] and Anxiety [HARS]). The study samples were collected from May 22, 2004, to February 7, 2012.
Results
Mean PYY 3-36 and leptin levels were lower and BDNF levels higher in binge-eating/purging type anorexia nervosa than in restricting type anorexia nervosa (all Pvalues <.05). After controlling for body mass index, differences in PYY and PYY 3-36 between anorexia nervosa types were significant (P<.05) and differences in BDNF were at the trend level (P < .10). PYY 3-36 was positively (r=0.27, P=.02) and leptin was negatively (r=−0.51, P< .0001) associated with dietary restraint; BDNF was positively associated with frequency of purging (r=0.21, P=.04); and leptin was negatively associated with frequency of bingeing (r=−0.29, P=.007) and purging (r=−0.31, P=.004).
Conclusions
Among women with anorexia nervosa, the anorexigenic hormones PYY, BDNF, and leptin are differentially regulated between the restricting and binge/purge types. Whether these hormone pathways play etiologic roles with regard to anorexia nervosa behavioral types or are compensatory merits further study.
doi:10.4088/JCP.13m08753
PMCID: PMC4408926  PMID: 25098834
9.  Genetic variants associated with disordered eating 
Objective
While the genetic contribution to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN) has long been recognized, there has been little progress relative to other psychiatric disorders in identifying specific susceptibility genes. Here we have carried out a GWAS on an unselected community sample of female twins surveyed for eating disorders.
Method
We conducted genome wide association analyses in 2564 female twins for four different phenotypes derived from self-report data relating to lifetime presence of 15 types of disordered eating: anorexia nervosa spectrum, bulimia nervosa spectrum, purging via substances, and a binary measure of no disordered eating behaviors versus 3 or more. To complement the variant level results we also conducted gene-based association tests using VEGAS.
Results
While no variants reached genome-wide significance at the level of p<10−8, six regions were suggestive (p<5×10−7). The current results implicate the following genes: CLEC5A; LOC136242, TSHZ1 and SYTL5 for the anorexia nervosa spectrum phenotype, NT5C1B for the bulimia nervosa spectrum phenotype, and ATP8A2 for the disordered eating behaviors phenotype.
Discussion
As with other medical and psychiatric phenotypes, much larger samples and meta-analyses will ultimately be needed to identify genes and pathways contributing to predisposition to eating disorders.
doi:10.1002/eat.22133
PMCID: PMC3775874  PMID: 23568457
10.  Cardiac abnormalities in young women with anorexia nervosa. 
British Heart Journal  1994;71(3):287-292.
OBJECTIVE--To identify the characteristics of cardiac involvement in the self-induced starvation phase of anorexia nervosa. METHODS--Doppler echocardiographic indices of left ventricular geometry, function, and filling were examined in 21 white women (mean (SD) 22 (5) years) with anorexia nervosa according to the DSMIII (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria, 19 women (23 (2) years) of normal weight, and 22 constitutionally thin women (21 (4) years) with body mass index < 20. RESULTS--13 patients (62%) had abnormalities of mitral valve motion compared with one normal weight woman and two thin women (p < 0.001) v both control groups). Left ventricular chamber dimension and mass were significantly less in women with anorexia nervosa than in either the women of normal weight or the thin women, even after standardisation for body size or after controlling for blood pressure. There were no substantial changes in left ventricular shape. Midwall shortening as a percentage of the values predicted from end systolic stress was significantly lower in the starving patients than in women of normal weight: when endocardial shortening was used as the index this difference was overestimated. The cardiac index was also significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa because of a low stroke index and heart rate. The total peripheral resistance was significantly higher in starving patients than in both control groups. The left atrial dimension was significantly smaller in anorexia than in the women of normal weight and the thin women, independently of body size. The transmitral flow velocity E/A ratio was significantly higher in anorexia than in both the control groups because of the reduction of peak velocity A. When data from all three groups were pooled the flow velocity E/A ratio was inversely related to left atrial dimension (r = -0.43, p < 0.0001) and cardiac output (r = -0.64, p < 0.0001) independently of body size. CONCLUSIONS--Anorexia nervosa caused demonstrable abnormalities of mitral valve motion and reduced left ventricular mass and filling associated with systolic dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC483668  PMID: 8142200
11.  Specific common variants of the obesity-associated FTO gene are not associated with psychological and behavioral eating disorder phenotypes 
Extensive population-based genome-wide association studies have identified an association between the FTO gene and BMI; however, the mechanism of action is still unknown. To determine whether FTO may influence weight regulation through psychological and behavioral factors, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FTO gene were genotyped in 1085 individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 677 healthy weight controls from the international Price Foundation Genetic Studies of Eating Disorders. Each SNP was tested in association with eating disorder phenotypes and measures that have previously been associated with eating behavior pathology: trait anxiety, harm-avoidance, novelty seeking, impulsivity, obsessionality, compulsivity, and concern over mistakes. After appropriate correction for multiple comparisons, no significant associations between individual FTO gene SNPs and eating disorder phenotypes or related eating behavior pathology were identified in cases or controls. Thus, this study found no evidence that FTO gene variants associated with weight regulation in the general population are associated with eating disorder phenotypes in AN participants or matched controls.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31182
PMCID: PMC3249222  PMID: 21438147
12.  What can we learn from the history of male anorexia nervosa? 
The eating disorders literature has focussed on females and little is known of the male experience. The overall image this has generated suggests a young woman in conflict with socio-cultural pressures which associate thinness with beauty. Historical studies have examined anorexia nervosa from an entirely female focus while ignoring how diagnostic categories have shaped approaches to the male body. This paper will track the case of the male with anorexia nervosa through changing theories of causation and treatment approaches, from when the condition first emerged in 1873 to the present. In doing so, we gain a valuable new insight into how anorexia nervosa has been historically gendered and the far-reaching implications this has had for diagnosis and treatment of the male sufferer.
Similarities between the sexes helped to establish male anorexia as a distinct category. However, this shifted focus away from important differences, which have yet unexplored implications in the assessment, diagnosis and management of disordered eating. Throughout history, there has been constant pressure to give a precise definition to anorexia nervosa, despite being fraught with medical uncertainties. This has resulted in inevitably harmful generalisations rooted in the dominant epidemiology. This paper reveals that anorexia nervosa is a truly global phenomenon which cannot be adequately constructed through exclusive studies of the female. There is consequently a pressing need to address the dearth of research examining eating disorders in males.
doi:10.1186/s40337-014-0036-9
PMCID: PMC4323236  PMID: 25671131
Anorexia nervosa; Eating disorder; History of psychiatry
13.  Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa? 
Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways.
doi:10.3389/fnut.2014.00019
PMCID: PMC4428488  PMID: 25988121
anorexia nervosa; dopamine; medication; drug; anxiety; cognitive flexibility; eating
14.  Food motivation circuitry hypoactivation related to hedonic and nonhedonic aspects of hunger and satiety in women with active anorexia nervosa and weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa 
Background
Previous studies have provided evidence of food motivation circuitry dysfunction in individuals with anorexia nervosa. However, methodological limitations present challenges to the development of a cohesive neurobiological model of anorexia nervosa. Our goal was to investigate the neural circuitry of appetite dysregulation across states of hunger and satiety in active and weight-restored phases of anorexia nervosa using robust methodology to advance our understanding of potential neural circuitry abnormalities related to hedonic and nonhedonic state and trait.
Methods
We scanned women with active anorexia nervosa, weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and healthy-weight controls on a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance scanner while they viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and objects before (premeal) and after (postmeal) eating a 400 kcal meal.
Results
We enrolled 12 women with active disease, 10 weight-restored women with anorexia nervosa and 11 controls in our study. Compared with controls, both weight-restored women and those with active disease demonstrated hypoactivity premeal in the hypothalamus, amygdala and anterior insula in response to high-calorie foods (v. objects). Postmeal, hypoactivation in the anterior insula persisted in women with active disease. Percent signal change in the anterior insula was positively correlated with food stimuli ratings and hedonic and nonhedonic appetite ratings in controls, but not women with active disease.
Limitations
Our findings are limited by a relatively small sample size, which prevented the use of an analysis of variance model and exploration of interaction effects, although our substantial effect sizes of between-group differences suggest adequate power for our statistical analysis approach. Participants taking psychotropic medications were included.
Conclusion
Our data provide evidence of potential state and trait hypoactivations in food motivation regions involved in the assessment of food’s reward value and integration of these with interoceptive signalling of one’s internal state of well-being, with important relations between brain activity and homeostatic and hedonic aspects of appetite. Our findings give novel evidence of disruption in neurobiological circuits and stress the importance of examining both state and trait characteristics in the investigation of brain phenotypes in individuals with anorexia nervosa.
doi:10.1503/jpn.110156
PMCID: PMC3447131  PMID: 22498079
15.  Heightened Fear of Uncertainty in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa 
Objective
To test whether intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is related to eating disorder (ED) pathology.
Method
Thirty individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), 19 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 28 healthy control women (CW) completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS).
Results
AN and BN groups showed higher IU compared to CW. In AN and BN, Harm Avoidance and Depression scores were positively correlated with IU. In AN but not BN, IU was related positively to Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction.
Conclusion
Elevated IU is associated with AN and BN. Anxious traits may be inherent in EDs and IU could be a developmental factor contributing to anxiety, mood and ED behavior in AN and BN.
doi:10.1002/eat.20929
PMCID: PMC3140557  PMID: 21495057
16.  An Atlas of Genetic Correlations across Human Diseases and Traits 
Nature genetics  2015;47(11):1236-1241.
Identifying genetic correlations between complex traits and diseases can provide useful etiological insights and help prioritize likely causal relationships. The major challenges preventing estimation of genetic correlation from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data with current methods are the lack of availability of individual genotype data and widespread sample overlap among meta-analyses. We circumvent these difficulties by introducing a technique – cross-trait LD Score regression – for estimating genetic correlation that requires only GWAS summary statistics and is not biased by sample overlap. We use this method to estimate 276 genetic correlations among 24 traits. The results include genetic correlations between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, anorexia and obesity and associations between educational attainment and several diseases. These results highlight the power of genome-wide analyses, since there currently are no significantly associated SNPs for anorexia nervosa and only three for educational attainment.
doi:10.1038/ng.3406
PMCID: PMC4797329  PMID: 26414676
17.  Identifying Predictors of Activity Based Anorexia Susceptibility in Diverse Genetic Rodent Populations 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50453.
Animal studies are very useful in detection of early disease indicators and in unravelling the pathophysiological processes underlying core psychiatric disorder phenotypes. Early indicators are critical for preventive and efficient treatment of progressive psychiatric disorders like anorexia nervosa. Comparable to physical hyperactivity observed in anorexia nervosa patients, in the activity-based anorexia rodent model, mice and rats express paradoxical high voluntary wheel running activity levels when food restricted. Eleven inbred mouse strains and outbred Wistar WU rats were exposed to the activity-based anorexia model in search of identifying susceptibility predictors. Body weight, food intake and wheel running activity levels of each individual mouse and rat were measured. Mouse strains and rats with high wheel running activity levels during food restriction exhibited accelerated body weight loss. Linear mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed that baseline wheel running activity levels preceding the scheduled food restriction phase strongly predicted activity-based anorexia susceptibility (mice: Beta  =  −0.0158 (±0.003 SE), P<0.0001; rats: Beta  =  −0.0242 (±0.004 SE), P<0.0001) compared to other baseline parameters. These results suggest that physical activity levels play an important role in activity-based anorexia susceptibility in different rodent species with genetically diverse background. These findings support previous retrospective studies on physical activity levels in anorexia nervosa patients and indicate that pre-morbid physical activity levels could reflect an early indicator for disease severity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050453
PMCID: PMC3511580  PMID: 23226287
18.  Perplexities of treatment resistence in eating disorders 
BMC Psychiatry  2013;13:292.
Background
Treatment resistance is an omnipresent frustration in eating disorders. Attempts to identify the features of this resistance and subsequently develop novel treatments have had modest effects. This selective review examines treatment resistant features expressed in core eating disorder psychopathology, comorbidities and biological features. Novel treatments addressing resistance are discussed.
Description
The core eating disorder psychopathology of anorexia nervosa becomes a coping mechanism likely via vulnerable neurobiological features and conditioned learning to deal with life events. Thus it is reinforcing and ego syntonic resulting in resistance to treatment. The severity of core features such as preoccupations with body image, weight, eating and exercising predicts greater resistance to treatment. Bulimia nervosa patients are less resistant to treatment with treatment failure related to greater body image concerns, impulsivity, depression, severe diet restriction and poor social adjustment. For those with binge eating disorder overweight in childhood and high emotional eating predicts treatment resistance. There is suggestive data that a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder and severe perfectionism may confer treatment resistance in anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders or personality disorders with impulse control problems may produce resistance to treatment in bulimia nervosa. Traits such as perfectionism, cognitive inflexibility and negative affect with likely genetic influences may also affect treatment resistance. Pharmacotherapy and novel therapies have been developed to address treatment resistance. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have shown some effect in treatment resistant anorexia nervosa and topiramate and high doses of SSRIs are helpful for treatment of resistant binge eating disorder patients. There are insufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the novel psychotherapies which are primarily based on the core psychopathological features of the eating disorders.
Conclusion
Treatment resistance in eating disorders is usually predicted by the severity of the core eating disorder psychopathology which develops from an interaction between environmental risk factors with genetic traits and a vulnerable neurobiology. Future investigations of the biological features and neurocircuitry of the core eating disorders psychopathology and behaviors may provide information for more successful treatment interventions.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-292
PMCID: PMC3829659  PMID: 24199597
Treatment resistance; Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia nervosa; Binge eating disorder
19.  Prevalence of functional dyspepsia and its subgroups in patients with eating disorders 
AIM: To study the prevalence of functional dyspepsia (FD) (Rome III criteria) across eating disorders (ED), obese patients, constitutional thinner and healthy volunteers.
METHODS: Twenty patients affected by anorexia nervosa, 6 affected by bulimia nervosa, 10 affected by ED not otherwise specified according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, nine constitutional thinner subjects and, thirty-two obese patients were recruited from an outpatients clinic devoted to eating behavior disorders. Twenty-two healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were enrolled as healthy controls. All participants underwent a careful clinical examination. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were obtained from a structured questionnaires. The presence of FD and, its subgroups, epigastric pain syndrome and postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) were diagnosed according to Rome III criteria. The intensity-frequency score of broader dyspeptic symptoms such as early satiety, epigastric fullness, epigastric pain, epigastric burning, epigastric pressure, belching, nausea and vomiting were studied by a standardized questionnaire (0-6). Analysis of variance and post-hoc Sheffè tests were used for comparisons.
RESULTS: 90% of patients affected by anorexia nervosa, 83.3% of patients affected by bulimia nervosa, 90% of patients affected by ED not otherwise specified, 55.6% of constitutionally thin subjects and 18.2% healthy volunteers met the Postprandial Distress Syndrome Criteria (χ2, P < 0.001). Only one bulimic patient met the epigastric pain syndrome diagnosis. Postprandial fullness intensity-frequency score was significantly higher in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not otherwise specified groups compared to the score calculated in the constitutional thinner group (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 1.44 ± 2.35, P = 0.003; 5.00 ± 2.45 vs 1.44 ± 2.35, P = 0.003; 4.10 ± 2.23 vs 1.44 ± 2.35, P = 0.002, respectively), the obese group (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001; 5.00 ± 2.45 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001; 4.10 ± 2.23 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001, respectively) and healthy volunteers (4.15 ± 2.08 vs 0.36 ± 0.79, P < 0.001; 5.00 ± 2.45 vs 0.36 ± 0.79, P < 0.001; 4.10 ± 2.23 vs 0.36 ± 0.79, P < 0.001, respectively). Early satiety intensity-frequency score was prominent in anorectic patients compared to bulimic patients (3.85 ± 2.23 vs 1.17 ± 1.83, P = 0.015), obese patients (3.85 ± 2.23 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001) and healthy volunteers (3.85 ± 2.23 vs 0.05 ± 0.21, P < 0.001). Nausea and epigastric pressure were increased in bulimic and ED not otherwise specified patients. Specifically, nausea intensity-frequency-score was significantly higher in bulimia nervosa and ED not otherwise specified patients compared to anorectic patients (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.89 ± 1.66, P = 0.04; 2.70 ± 2.91 vs 0.89 ± 1.66, P = 0.05, respectively), constitutional thinner subjects (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P = 0.004; 2.70 ± 2.91 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P = 0.005, respectively), obese patients (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001; 3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.001 respectively) and, healthy volunteers (3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.17 ± 0.71, P = 0.002; 3.17 ± 2.56 vs 0.17 ± 0.71, P = 0.001, respectively). Epigastric pressure intensity-frequency score was significantly higher in bulimic and ED not otherwise specified patients compared to constitutional thin subjects (4.67 ± 2.42 vs 1.22 ± 1.72, P = 0.03; 4.20 ± 2.21 vs 1.22 ± 1.72, P = 0.03, respectively), obese patients (4.67 ± 2.42 vs 0.75 ± 1.32, P = 0.001; 4.20 ± 2.21 vs 0.75 ± 1.32, P < 0.001, respectively) and, healthy volunteers (4.67 ± 2.42 vs 0.67 ± 1.46, P = 0.001; 4.20 ± 2.21 vs 0.67 ± 1.46, P = 0.001, respectively). Vomiting was referred in 100% of bulimia nervosa patients, in 20% of ED not otherwise specified patients, in 15% of anorexia nervosa patients, in 22% of constitutional thinner subjects, and, in 5.6% healthy volunteers (χ2, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: PDS is common in eating disorders. Is it mandatory in outpatient gastroenterological clinics to investigate eating disorders in patients with PDS?
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i32.4379
PMCID: PMC3436054  PMID: 22969202
Eating disorders; Functional dyspepsia; Post prandial distress syndrome; Epigastric pain sindrome; Rome III criteria; Upper abdominal symptoms; Anorexia nervosa; Bulimia nervosa; Eating disorders not otherwise specified; Constitutional thinness
20.  Daily Patterns of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa: Associations with Eating Disorder Behaviors in the Natural Environment 
Journal of abnormal psychology  2013;122(3):672-683.
The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1526) based on anxiety ratings, seven distinct daily anxiety trajectories were identified. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Further, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were both found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., Stable High anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors.
doi:10.1037/a0031823
PMCID: PMC4515356  PMID: 23647124
eating disorder; anxiety; ecological momentary assessment; latent growth mixture modeling; personality
21.  Genetics and Epigenetics of Eating Disorders 
Eating disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of AN, BN, and BED, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research.
doi:10.2147/AGG.S55776
PMCID: PMC4803116  PMID: 27013903
eating disorders; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; binge eating disorder; genetics; epigenetics
22.  An Association Study of the A218C Polymorphism of the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 Gene with Eating Disorders in a Korean Population: A Pilot Study 
Psychiatry Investigation  2009;6(1):44-49.
Objective
We examined the association between the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene and eating disorders focusing on obsessionality.
Methods
The sample included 62 women with a lifetime diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) as well as 50 women with a lifetime diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN) recruited from specialist clinics for eating disorders and 131 healthy women in Korea. Blood samples were collected from all participants for the TPH1 genotyping. The patients were ad ministered the Korean version of the Eating Disorders Examination and obsessionality was conceptualized using measures of persistence, harm avoidance, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
Results
In the case-control comparisons, the frequency of the A/A genotype was increased in the patients with BN, but this difference was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. We found no effect of the TPH A218C polymorphism on obsessionality in the patients with AN or BN.
Conclusion
Although the present findings should be regarded as preliminary because of the small size of our sample, they suggest that the TPH1 gene may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to BN and be associated with the other unexplored traits of bulimic case status.
doi:10.4306/pi.2009.6.1.44
PMCID: PMC2796036  PMID: 20046373
Tryptophan hydroxylase; Eating disorders; Bulimia nervosa; Obsessionality
23.  Disruption of brain white matter microstructure in women with anorexia nervosa 
Background
The etiology of anorexia nervosa is still unknown. Multiple and distributed brain regions have been implicated in its pathophysiology, implying a dysfunction of connected neural circuits. Despite these findings, the role of white matter in anorexia nervosa has been rarely assessed. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize alterations of white matter microstructure in a clinically homogeneous sample of patients with anorexia nervosa.
Methods
Women with anorexia nervosa (restricting subtype) and healthy controls underwent brain DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps between the groups. Furthermore, axial (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) measures were extracted from regions showing group differences in either FA or MD.
Results
We enrolled 19 women with anorexia nervosa and 19 healthy controls in our study. Patients with anorexia nervosa showed significant FA decreases in the parietal part of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF; pFWE < 0.05), with increased MD and RD but no differences in AD. Patients with anorexia nervosa also showed significantly increased MD in the fornix (pFWE < 0.05), accompanied by decreased FA and increased RD and AD.
Limitations
Limitations include our modest sample size and cross-sectional design.
Conclusion
Our findings support the presence of white matter pathology in patients with anorexia nervosa. Alterations in the SLF and fornix might be relevant to key symptoms of anorexia nervosa, such as body image distortion or impairments in body–energy–balance and reward processes. The differences found in both areas replicate those found in previous DTI studies and support a role for white matter pathology of specific neural circuits in individuals with anorexia nervosa.
doi:10.1503/jpn.130135
PMCID: PMC4214871  PMID: 24913136
24.  JEPEG: a summary statistics based tool for gene-level joint testing of functional variants 
Bioinformatics  2014;31(8):1176-1182.
Motivation: Gene expression is influenced by variants commonly known as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). On the basis of this fact, researchers proposed to use eQTL/functional information univariately for prioritizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, most genes are influenced by multiple eQTLs which, thus, jointly affect any downstream phenotype. Therefore, when compared with the univariate prioritization approach, a joint modeling of eQTL action on phenotypes has the potential to substantially increase signal detection power. Nonetheless, a joint eQTL analysis is impeded by (i) not measuring all eQTLs in a gene and/or (ii) lack of access to individual genotypes.
Results: We propose joint effect on phenotype of eQTL/functional SNPs associated with a gene (JEPEG), a novel software tool which uses only GWAS summary statistics to (i) impute the summary statistics at unmeasured eQTLs and (ii) test for the joint effect of all measured and imputed eQTLs in a gene. We illustrate the behavior/performance of the developed tool by analysing the GWAS meta-analysis summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Stage 1 and the Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa.
Conclusions: Applied analyses results suggest that JEPEG complements commonly used univariate GWAS tools by: (i) increasing signal detection power via uncovering (a) novel genes or (b) known associated genes in smaller cohorts and (ii) assisting in fine-mapping of challenging regions, e.g. major histocompatibility complex for schizophrenia.
Availability and implementation: JEPEG, its associated database of eQTL SNPs and usage examples are publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/jepeg/.
Contact: dlee4@vcu.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu816
PMCID: PMC4393522  PMID: 25505091
25.  Reduced salience and default mode network activity in women with anorexia nervosa 
Background
The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa is poorly understood. Neuronal networks contributing to action selection, self-regulation and interoception could contribute to pathologic eating and body perception in people with anorexia nervosa. We tested the hypothesis that the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) would show decreased intrinsic activity in women with anorexia nervosa and those who had recovered from the disease compared to controls. The basal ganglia (BGN) and sensorimotor networks (SMN) were also investigated.
Methods
Between January 2008 and January 2012, women with restricting-type anorexia nervosa, women who recovered from the disease and healthy control women completed functional magnetic resonance imaging during a conditioned stimulus task. Network activity was studied using independent component analysis.
Results
We studied 20 women with anorexia nervosa, 24 recovered women and 24 controls. Salience network activity in the anterior cingulate cortex was reduced in women with anorexia nervosa (p = 0.030; all results false-discovery rate–corrected) and recovered women (p = 0.039) compared to controls. Default mode network activity in the precuneus was reduced in women with anorexia compared to controls (p = 0.023). Sensorimotor network activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA; p = 0.008), and the left (p = 0.028) and right (p = 0.002) postcentral gyrus was reduced in women with anorexia compared to controls; SMN activity in the SMA (p = 0.019) and the right postcentral gyrus (p = 0.008) was reduced in women with anorexia compared to recovered women. There were no group differences in the BGN.
Limitations
Differences between patient and control populations (e.g., depression, anxiety, medication) are potential confounds, but were included as covariates.
Conclusion
Reduced SN activity in women with anorexia nervosa and recovered women could be a trait-related biomarker or illness remnant, altering the drive to approach food. The alterations in the DMN and SMN observed only in women with anorexia nervosa suggest state-dependent abnormalities that could be related to altered interoception and body image in these women when they are underweight but that remit following recovery.
doi:10.1503/jpn.130046
PMCID: PMC3997603  PMID: 24280181

Results 1-25 (1256626)