This study shows that microRNA-503 interacts with the CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) mRNA and represses its translation by recruiting the CUGBP1 mRNA to processing bodies.
microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) jointly regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are involved in many aspects of cellular functions. The RBP CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) destabilizes and represses the translation of several target mRNAs, but the exact mechanism that regulates CUGBP1 abundance remains elusive. In this paper, we show that miR-503, computationally predicted to associate with three sites of the CUGBP1 mRNA, represses CUGBP1 expression. Overexpression of an miR-503 precursor (pre-miR-503) reduced the de novo synthesis of CUGBP1 protein, whereas inhibiting miR-503 by using an antisense RNA (antagomir) enhanced CUGBP1 biosynthesis and elevated its abundance; neither intervention changed total CUGBP1 mRNA levels. Studies using heterologous reporter constructs revealed a greater repressive effect of miR-503 through the CUGBP1 coding region sites than through the single CUGBP1 3′-untranslated region target site. CUGBP1 mRNA levels in processing bodies (P-bodies) increased in cells transfected with pre-miR-503, while silencing P-body resident proteins Ago2, RCK, or LSm4 decreased miR-503–mediated repression of CUGBP1 expression. Decreasing the levels of cellular polyamines reduced endogenous miR-503 levels and promoted CUGBP1 expression, an effect that was prevented by ectopic miR-503 overexpression. Repression of CUGBP1 by miR-503 in turn altered the expression of CUGBP1 target mRNAs and thus increased the sensitivity of intestinal epithelial cells to apoptosis. These findings identify miR-503 as both a novel regulator of CUGBP1 expression and a modulator of intestinal epithelial homoeostasis.
The present study shows that RNA-binding proteins CUGBP1 and HuR jointly regulate the translation of occludin and play a crucial role in the maintenance of tight junction integrity.
RNA-binding proteins CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) and HuR are highly expressed in epithelial tissues and modulate the stability and translation of target mRNAs. Here we present evidence that CUGBP1 and HuR jointly regulate the translation of occludin and play a crucial role in the maintenance of tight junction (TJ) integrity in the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer. CUGBP1 and HuR competed for association with the same occludin 3′-untranslated region element and regulated occludin translation competitively and in opposite directions. CUGBP1 overexpression decreased HuR binding to occludin mRNA, repressed occludin translation, and compromised the TJ barrier function, whereas HuR overexpression inhibited CUGBP1 association with occludin mRNA and promoted occludin translation, thereby enhancing the barrier integrity. Repression of occludin translation by CUGBP1 was due to the colocalization of CUGBP1 and tagged occludin RNA in processing bodies (P-bodies), and this colocalization was prevented by HuR overexpression. These findings indicate that CUGBP1 represses occludin translation by increasing occludin mRNA recruitment to P-bodies, whereas HuR promotes occludin translation by blocking occludin mRNA translocation to P-bodies via the displacement of CUGBP1.
Differentiation of myocytes is impaired in patients with mytonic dystrophy type 1, DM1. CUG repeat binding protein, CUGBP1, is a key regulator of translation of proteins that are involved in muscle development and differentiation. In this paper, we present evidence that RNA-binding activity of CUGBP1 and its interactions with initiation translation complex eIF2 are differentially regulated during myogenesis by specific phosphorylation and that this regulation is altered in DM1. In normal myoblasts, Akt kinase phosphorylates CUGBP1 at Ser28 and increases interactions of CUGBP1 with cyclin D1 mRNA. During differentiation, CUGBP1 is phosphorylated by cyclinD3-cdk4/6 at Ser302, which increases CUGBP1 binding with p21 and C/EBPβ mRNAs. While cyclin D3 and cdk4 are elevated in normal myotubes; DM1 differentiating cells do not increase these proteins. In normal myotubes, CUGBP1 interacts with cyclin D3/cdk4/6 and eIF2; however, interactions of CUGBP1 with eIF2 are reduced in DM1 differentiating cells and correlate with impaired muscle differentiation in DM1. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 in DM1 cells increases the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex, corrects expression of differentiation markers, myogenin and desmin, and enhances fusion of DM1 myoblasts. Thus, normalization of cyclin D3 might be a therapeutic approach to correct differentiation of skeletal muscle in DM1 patients.
Myotonic Dystrophy 1; CUG repeats; CUGBP1-eIF2 complex; cyclin D3; differentiation
The findings presented indicate that polyamine-regulated CUG-binding protein 1 and microRNA-222 modulate cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) translation at least in part by altering the recruitment of CDK4 mRNA to processing bodies.
The amino acid–derived polyamines are organic cations that are essential for growth in all mammalian cells, but their exact roles at the molecular level remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that polyamines promote the translation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) by the action of CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) and microRNA-222 (miR-222) in intestinal epithelial cells. Both CUGBP1 and miR-222 were found to bind the CDK4 mRNA coding region and 3′-untranslated region and repressed CDK4 translation synergistically. Depletion of cellular polyamines increased cytoplasmic CUGBP1 abundance and miR-222 levels, induced their associations with the CDK4 mRNA, and inhibited CDK4 translation, whereas increasing the levels of cellular polyamines decreased CDK4 mRNA interaction with CUGBP1 and miR-222, in turn inducing CDK4 expression. Polyamine-deficient cells exhibited an increased colocalization of tagged CDK4 mRNA with processing bodies; this colocalization was abolished by silencing CUGBP1 and miR-222. Together, our findings indicate that polyamine-regulated CUGBP1 and miR-222 modulate CDK4 translation at least in part by altering the recruitment of CDK4 mRNA to processing bodies.
CUG-repeat binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) mediates selective mRNA decay by binding to GU-rich elements (GREs) containing the sequence UGUUUGUUUGU found in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of short-lived transcripts. We used an anti-CUGBP1 antibody to immunoprecipitate CUGBP1 from HeLa cytoplasmic extracts and analyzed the associated transcripts using oligonucleotide microarrays. We identified 613 putative mRNA targets of CUGBP1 and found that the UGUUUGUUUGU GRE sequence and a GU-repeat sequence were both highly enriched in the 3′ UTRs of these targets. We showed that CUGBP1 bound specifically to the GU-repeat sequence and that insertion of this sequence into the 3′ UTR of a beta-globin reporter transcript conferred instability to the transcript. Based on these results, we redefined the GRE to include this GU-repeat sequence. Our results suggest that CUGBP1 coordinately regulates the mRNA decay of a network of transcripts involved in cell growth, cell motility, and apoptosis.
The p27Kip1 protein plays a critical role in the regulation of cell proliferation through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase activity. Translation of p27Kip1 is directed by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5′ nontranslated region of p27Kip1 mRNA. Here, we report that polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) specifically enhances the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA through an interaction with the IRES element. We found that addition of PTB to an in vitro translation system and overexpression of PTB in 293T cells augmented the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA but that knockdown of PTB by introduction of PTB-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) diminished the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA. Moreover, the G1 phase in the cell cycle (which is maintained in part by p27Kip1) was shortened in cells depleted of PTB by siRNA knockdown. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation in HL60 cells was used to examine PTB-induced modulation of p27Kip1 protein synthesis during differentiation. The IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA in HL60 cells was increased by TPA treatment (with a concomitant increase in PTB protein levels), but the levels of p27Kip1 mRNA remained unchanged. Together, these data suggest that PTB modulates cell cycle and differentiation, at least in part, by enhancing the IRES activity of p27Kip1 mRNA.
The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a CTG expansion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of DMPK. The pathogenic mechanism involves an RNA gain of function in which the repeat containing transcripts accumulate in nuclei and alter the functions of RNA binding proteins such as CUG binding protein 1 (CUGBP1). CUGBP1 levels are increased in DM1 myoblasts, heart and skeletal muscle tissues and in some DM1 mouse models. However, the molecular mechanisms for increased CUGBP1 in DM1 are unclear. Here we demonstrate that expression of DMPK-CUG repeat RNA results in hyper-phosphorylation and stabilization of CUGBP1. CUGBP1 is hyper-phosphorylated in DM1 tissues, cells, and a DM1 mouse model. Activation of PKC is required for CUGBP1 hyper-phosphorylation in DM1 cells and PKCα and βII directly phosphorylate CUGBP1 in vitro. These results indicate that inappropriate activation of the PKC pathway contributes to the pathogenic effects of a non-coding RNA.
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a complex neuromuscular disease characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, weakness, and myotonia. DM1 is caused by the accumulation of CUG repeats, which alter the biological activities of RNA-binding proteins, including CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1). CUGBP1 is an important skeletal muscle translational regulator that is activated by cyclin D3–dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Here we show that mutant CUG repeats suppress Cdk4 signaling by increasing the stability and activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Using a mouse model of DM1 (HSALR), we found that CUG repeats in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of human skeletal actin increase active GSK3β in skeletal muscle of mice, prior to the development of skeletal muscle weakness. Inhibition of GSK3β in both DM1 cell culture and mouse models corrected cyclin D3 levels and reduced muscle weakness and myotonia in DM1 mice. Our data predict that compounds normalizing GSK3β activity might be beneficial for improvement of muscle function in patients with DM1.
Differentiation of skeletal muscle is affected in myotonic dystrophy (DM) patients. Analysis of cultured myoblasts from DM patients shows that DM myoblasts lose the capability to withdraw from the cell cycle during differentiation. Our data demonstrate that the expression and activity of the proteins responsible for cell cycle withdrawal are altered in DM muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells from DM patients fail to induce cytoplasmic levels of a CUG RNA binding protein, CUGBP1, while normal differentiated cells accumulate CUGBP1 in the cytoplasm. In cells from normal patients, CUGBP1 up-regulates p21 protein during differentiation. Several lines of evidence show that CUGBP1 induces the translation of p21 via binding to a GC-rich sequence located within the 5′ region of p21 mRNA. Failure of DM cells to accumulate CUGBP1 in the cytoplasm leads to a significant reduction of p21 and to alterations of other proteins responsible for the cell cycle withdrawal. The activity of cdk4 declines during differentiation of cells from control patients, while in DM cells cdk4 is highly active during all stages of differentiation. In addition, DM cells do not form Rb/E2F repressor complexes that are abundant in differentiated cells from normal patients. Our data provide evidence for an impaired cell cycle withdrawal in DM muscle cells and suggest that alterations in the activity of CUGBP1 causes disruption of p21-dependent control of cell cycle arrest.
The neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) affects multiple organ systems with the major symptoms being severe muscle weakness, progressive muscle wasting and myotonia. The causative mutation in DM1 is a CTG repeat expansion in the 3′-untranslated region of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. RNA transcribed from the expanded allele contains the expanded CUG repeats and leads to the nuclear depletion of Muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) and to the increased steady-state levels of CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1). The pathogenic effects of MBNL1 depletion have previously been tested by the generation of MBNL1 knockout mice, but the consequence of CUGBP1 overexpression in adult muscle is not known. In a DM1 mouse model expressing RNA containing 960 CUG repeats in skeletal muscle, CUGBP1 up-regulation is temporally correlated with severe muscle wasting. In this study, we generated transgenic mice with doxycycline-inducible and skeletal muscle-specific expression of CUGBP1. Adult mouse skeletal muscle overexpressing CUGBP1 reproduces molecular and physiological defects of DM1 tissue. The results from this study strongly suggest that CUGBP1 has a major role in DM1 skeletal muscle pathogenesis.
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by a CTG trinucleotide expansion in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of DM protein kinase (DMPK). The key feature of DM1 pathogenesis is nuclear accumulation of RNA, which causes aberrant alternative splicing of specific pre-mRNAs by altering the functions of CUG-binding proteins (CUGBPs). Cardiac involvement occurs in more than 80% of individuals with DM1 and is responsible for up to 30% of disease-related deaths. We have generated an inducible and heart-specific DM1 mouse model expressing expanded CUG RNA in the context of DMPK 3′ UTR that recapitulated pathological and molecular features of DM1 including dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and misregulated alternative splicing. Combined in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent staining for CUGBP1 and CUGBP2, the 2 CUGBP1 and ETR-3 like factor (CELF) proteins expressed in heart, demonstrated elevated protein levels specifically in nuclei containing foci of CUG repeat RNA. A time-course study demonstrated that colocalization of MBNL1 with RNA foci and increased CUGBP1 occurred within hours of induced expression of CUG repeat RNA and coincided with reversion to embryonic splicing patterns. These results indicate that CUGBP1 upregulation is an early and primary response to expression of CUG repeat RNA.
The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta, C/EBPbeta, plays a significant role in the regulation of hepatocyte growth and differentiation. A single mRNA coding for C/EBPbeta produces several protein isoforms. Two pathways for generation of low molecular weight C/EBPbeta isoforms have been described: specific proteolytic cleavage and initiation of translation from different AUG codons of C/EBPbeta mRNA. A truncated C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP, is induced in rat livers in response to partial hepatectomy (PH) via the alternative translation mechanism. Here we present evidence that CUG repeat binding protein, CUGBP1, interacts with the 5' region of C/EBPbeta mRNA and regulates translation of C/EBPbeta isoforms. Two binding sites for CUGBP1 are located side by side between the first and second AUG codons of C/EBPbeta mRNA. One binding site is observed in an out of frame short open reading frame (sORF) that has been previously shown to regulate initiation of translation from different AUG codons of C/EBPbeta mRNA. Analysis of cytoplasmic and polysomal proteins from rat liver after PH showed that CUGBP1 is associated with polysomes that translate low molecular weight isoforms of C/EBPbeta. The binding activity of CUGBP1 to the 5' region of C/EBPbeta mRNA shows increased association with these polysomal fractions after PH. Addition of CUGBP1 into a cell-free translation system leads to increased translation of low molecular weight isoforms of C/EBPbeta. Our data demonstrate that CUGBP1 protein is an important component for the regulation of initiation from different AUG codons of C/EBPbeta mRNA.
CUG binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) regulates multiple aspects of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing, with implications for onset of myotonic dystrophy. CUGBP1 harbors three RRM domains and preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements. We report on crystal structures of CUGBP1 RRM1 and tandem RRM1/2 domains bound to RNAs containing tandem UGU(U/G) elements. Both RRM1 in RRM1-RNA and RRM2 in RRM1/2-RNA complexes use similar principles to target UGU(U/G) elements, with recognition mediated by face-to-edge stacking and water-mediated hydrogen bonding networks. The UG step adopts a left-handed Z-RNA conformation, with the syn guanine recognized through Hoogsteen edge-protein backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions. NMR studies on the RRM1/2-RNA complex establish that both RRM domains target tandem UGUU motifs in solution, while filter-binding assays identify a preference for recognition of GU over AU or GC steps. We discuss the implications of CUGBP1-mediated targeting and sequestration of UGU(U/G) elements on pre-mRNA alternative-splicing regulation, translational regulation and mRNA decay.
CUGBP1 and MBNL1 are developmentally regulated RNA-binding proteins that are causally associated with myotonic dystrophy type 1. We globally determined the in vivo RNA-binding sites of CUGBP1 and MBNL1. Interestingly, CUGBP1 and MBNL1 are both preferentially bound to 3′ UTRs. Analysis of CUGBP1- and MBNL1-bound 3′ UTRs demonstrated that both factors mediate accelerated mRNA decay and temporal profiles of expression arrays supported this. Role of CUGBP1 on accelerated mRNA decay has been previously reported, but the similar function of MBNL1 has not been reported to date. It is well established that CUGBP1 and MBNL1 regulate alternative splicing. Screening by exon array and validation by RT-PCR revealed position dependence of CUGBP1- and MBNL1-binding sites on the resulting alternative splicing pattern. This study suggests that regulation of CUGBP1 and MBNL1 is essential for accurate control of destabilization of a broad spectrum of mRNAs as well as of alternative splicing events.
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by a CTG expansion within the 3′-untranslated region of the DMPK gene. The predominant mechanism of pathogenesis is a toxic gain of function of CUG repeat containing RNA transcribed from the expanded allele. The molecular mechanisms by which the RNA containing expanded repeats produce pathogenic effects include: sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) protein and up-regulation of CUG binding protein 1 (CUGBP1). MBNL1 and CUGBP1 are RNA binding proteins that regulate alternative splicing transitions during development. Altered functions of these proteins in DM1 lead to misregulated splicing of their target genes, resulting in several features of the disease. The role of MBNL1 depletion in DM1 is well established through a mouse knock-out model that reproduces many disease features. Here we directly test the hypothesis that CUGBP1 up-regulation also contributes to manifestations of DM1. Using tetracycline-inducible CUGBP1 and heart-specific reverse tetracycline trans-activator transgenes, we expressed human CUGBP1 in adult mouse heart. Our results demonstrate that up-regulation of CUGBP1 is sufficient to reproduce molecular, histopathological and functional changes observed in a previously described DM1 mouse model that expresses expanded CUG RNA repeats as well as in individuals with DM1. These results strongly support a role for CUGBP1 up-regulation in DM1 pathogenesis.
The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27 plays an important role in controlling the eukaryotic cell cycle by regulating progression through G1 and entry into S phase. It is often elevated during differentiation and under conditions of cellular stress. In contrast, it is commonly downregulated in cancer cells and its levels are generally inversely correlated with favorable prognosis. The cellular levels of p27 are regulated, in part, by translational control mechanisms. The 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the p27 mRNA harbors an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) which may facilitate synthesis of p27 in certain conditions. In this study, Far Upstream Element (FUSE) Binding Protein 1 (FBP1) was shown to directly bind to the human p27 5′-UTR and to promote IRES activity. An eight-nucleotide element downstream of a U-rich region within the 5′-UTR was important for FBP1 binding and p27 IRES activity. Overexpression of FBP1 enhanced endogenous p27 levels and stimulated translation initiation. In contrast, repression of FBP1 by siRNA transfection downregulated endogenous p27 protein levels. Using rabbit reticulocyte lysates, FBP1 stimulated p27 mRNA translation in vitro. The central domain of FBP1, containing four K homology motifs, was required for p27 5′-UTR RNA binding and the N terminal domain was important for translational activation. These findings indicate that FBP1 is a novel activator of p27 translation upon binding to the 5′-UTR.
p27Kip1; cell cycle; IRES; FBP; 5′-untranslated region
We used computational algorithms to find conserved sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of transcripts that exhibited rapid decay in primary human T cells and found that the consensus sequence UGUUUGUUUGU, which we have termed a GU-rich element (GRE), was enriched in short-lived transcripts. Using a tet-off reporter system, we showed that insertion of GRE-containing sequences from c-jun, jun B, or TNF receptor 1B, but not mutated GRE sequences, into the 3′UTR of a β-globin transcript conferred instability on the otherwise stable β-globin transcript. CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1) was identified as the major GRE-binding activity in cytoplasmic extracts from primary human T cells based on supershift and immunoprecipitation assays. siRNA-mediated knockdown of CUGBP1 in HeLa cells caused stabilization of GRE-containing transcripts, suggesting that CUGBP1 is a mediator of GRE-dependent mRNA decay. Overall, our results suggest that the GRE mediates coordinated mRNA decay by binding to CUGBP1.
We previously identified an RNA binding protein, CUGBP1, which binds to GCN repeats located within the 5′ region of C/EBPβ mRNAs and regulates translation of C/EBPβ isoforms. To further investigate the role of RNA binding proteins in the posttranscriptional control of C/EBP proteins, we purified additional RNA binding proteins that interact with GC-rich RNAs and that may regulate RNA processing. In HeLa cells, the majority of GC-rich RNA binding proteins are associated with endogenous RNA transcripts. The separation of these proteins from endogenous RNA identified several proteins in addition to CUGBP1 that specifically interact with the GC-rich 5′ region of C/EBPβ mRNA. One of these proteins was purified to homogeneity and was identified as calreticulin (CRT). CRT is a multifunctional protein involved in several biological processes, including interaction with and regulation of rubella virus RNA processing. Our data demonstrate that both CUGBP1 and CRT interact with GCU repeats within myotonin protein kinase and with GCN repeats within C/EBPα and C/EBPβ mRNAs. GCN repeats within these mRNAs form stable SL structures. The interaction of CRT with SL structures of C/EBPβ and C/EBPα mRNAs leads to inhibition of translation of C/EBP proteins in vitro and in vivo. Deletions or mutations abolishing the formation of SL structures within C/EBPα and C/EBPβ mRNAs lead to a failure of CRT to inhibit translation of C/EBP proteins. CRT-dependent inhibition of C/EBPα is sufficient to block the growth-inhibitory activity of C/EBPα. This finding further defines the molecular mechanism for posttranscriptional regulation of the C/EBPα and C/EBPβ proteins.
p27kip1 (p27) is a cell cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor whose expression is tightly regulated in the cell. Translational control of p27 mRNA has emerged as a prominent mechanism to regulate p27 expression during differentiation, quiescence, and cancer progression. The microRNAs miR-221 and miR-222 repress p27 expression in various cancer cells, and this repression promotes tumor cell proliferation. In addition, the presence of an internal ribosome entry site in the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of p27 mRNA has been reported. Here, we show that p27 mRNA is translated via a cap-dependent mechanism in HeLa and HL60 cells and that the previously reported IRES activity can be attributed to cryptic promoters in the sequence corresponding to the p27 5′ UTR. Furthermore, cap-dependent translation of p27 mRNA is repressed by miR-181a in undifferentiated HL60 cells. Repression by miR-181a is relieved during differentiation of HL60 into monocyte-like cells, allowing the accumulation of p27, which is necessary to fully block cell cycle progression and reach terminal differentiation. These results identify miR-181a as a regulator of p27 mRNA translation during myeloid cell differentiation.
To determine whether sequence-specific RNA–protein interaction at the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) can potently repress translation in mammalian cells, a bicistronic translational repression assay was developed to permit direct assessment of RNA–protein interaction and translational repression in transiently transfected living mammalian cells. Changes in cap-dependent yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and internal ribosome entry sequence (IRES)-dependent cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) translation were monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Selective repression of YFP or coordinate repression of both YFP and CFP translation occurred, indicating two distinct modes by which RNA-binding proteins repress translation through the 5′-UTR. Interestingly, a single-stranded RNA-binding protein from Bacillus subtilis, tryptophan RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP), showed potent translational repression, dependent on the level of TRAP expression and position of its cognate binding site within the bicistronic reporter transcript. As the first of its class to be examined in mammalian cells, its potency in repression of translation through the 5′-UTR may be a general feature for this class of single-stranded RNA-binding proteins. Finally, a one-hybrid screen based on translational repression through the 5′-UTR identified linkers supporting full-translational repression as well as a range of partial repression by TRAP within the context of a fusion protein.
Aging liver is characterized by alterations of liver biology and by a reduction of many functions which are important for the maintenance of body homeostasis. The main dysfunctions include appearance of enlarged hepatocytes, impaired liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH), development of hepatic steatosis, reduction of secretion of proteins and alterations in the hepatic sinusoid. RNA binding proteins are involved in the regulation of gene expression in all tissues including regulation of biological processes in the liver. This review is focused on the role of a conserved, multi-functional RNA-binding protein, CUGBP1, in the development of aging phenotype in the liver. CUGBP1 has been identified as a protein which binds to RNA CUG repeats expanded in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1). CUGBP1 is highly expressed in the liver and regulates translation of proteins which are critical for maintenance of liver functions. In livers of young mice, CUGBP1 forms complexes with eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 and supports translation of C/EBPβ and HDAC1 proteins, which are involved in liver growth, differentiation and liver cancer. Aging changes several signaling pathways which lead to the elevation of the CUGBP1-eIF2α complex and to an increase of translation of C/EBPβ and HDAC1. These proteins form multi-protein complexes with additional transcription factors and with chromatin remodeling proteins causing epigenetic alterations of gene expression in livers of old mice. It appears that CUGBP1-mediated translational elevation of HDAC1 is one of the key events in the epigenetic changes in livers of old mice, leading to the development of age- associated dysfunctions of the liver. This review will also discuss a possible role of CUGBP1 in liver dysfunction in patients affected with DM1.
Aging; liver; CUGBP1; C/EBP; chromatin; epigenetic
CUG-BP1/CELF1 is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein involved in the regulation of alternative splicing and translation. To elucidate its role in mammalian development, we produced mice in which the Cugbp1 gene was inactivated by homologous recombination. These Cugbp1−/− mice were viable, although a significant portion of them did not survive after the first few days of life. They displayed growth retardation, and most Cugbp1−/− males and females exhibited impaired fertility. Male infertility was more thoroughly investigated. Histological examination of testes from Cugbp1−/− males showed an arrest of spermatogenesis that occurred at step 7 of spermiogenesis, before spermatid elongation begins, and an increased apoptosis. A quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed a decrease of all the germ cell markers tested but not of Sertoli and Leydig markers, suggesting a general decrease in germ cell number. In wild-type testes, CUG-BP1 is expressed in germ cells from spermatogonia to round spermatids and also in Sertoli and Leydig cells. These findings demonstrate that CUG-BP1 is required for completion of spermatogenesis.
p27kip1 regulates cell proliferation by binding to and inhibiting the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases and its expression oscillates with cell cycle. Recently, it has been suggested from studies using the traditional dicistronic DNA assay that the expression of p27kip1 is regulated by internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation initiation, and several RNA-binding protein factors were thought to play some role in this regulation. Considering the inevitable drawbacks of the dicistronic DNA assay, which could mislead a promoter activity or alternative splicing to IRES as previously demonstrated, we decided to reanalyze the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) sequence of p27kip1 and test whether it contains an IRES element or a promoter using more stringent methods, such as dicistronic RNA and promoterless dicistronic and monocistronic DNA assays. We found that the 5′-UTR sequence of human p27kip1 does not have any significant IRES activity. The previously observed IRES activities are likely generated from the promoter activities present in the 5′-UTR sequences of p27kip1. The findings in this study indicate that transcriptional regulation likely plays an important role in p27kip1 expression, and the mechanism of regulation of p27 expression by RNA-binding factors needs to be re-examined. The findings in this study also further enforce the importance that more stringent studies, such as promoterless dicistronic and monocistronic DNA and dicistronic RNA tests, are required to safeguard any future claims of cellular IRES.
CUGBP, Elav-like family member 1 (CELF1) is an RNA binding protein with important roles in the regulation of splicing, mRNA decay and translation. CELF1 contains three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs). We used gel retardation, gel filtration, isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR titration studies to investigate the recognition of RNA by the first two RRMs of CELF1. NMR shows that RRM1 is promiscuous in binding to both UGU and CUG repeat sequences with comparable chemical shift perturbations. In contrast, RRM2 shows greater selectivity for UGUU rather than CUG motifs. A construct (T187) containing both binding domains (RRM1 and RRM2) was systematically studied for interaction with tandem UGU RNA binding sites with different length linker sequences UGU(U)xUGU where x = 1–7. A single U spacer results in interactions only with RRM1, demonstrating both steric constraints in accommodating both RRMs simultaneously at adjacent sites, and also subtle differences in binding affinities between RRMs. However, high affinity co-operative binding (Kd ~ 0.4 µM) is evident for RNA sequences with x = 2–4, but longer spacers (x ≥ 5) lead to a 10-fold reduction in affinity. Our analysis rationalizes the high affinity interaction of T187 with the 11mer GRE consensus regulatory sequence UGUUUGUUUGU and has significant consequences for the prediction of CELF1 binding sites.
Translation initiation by internal ribosome binding is a recently discovered mechanism of eukaryotic viral and cellular protein synthesis in which ribosome subunits interact with the mRNAs at internal sites in the 5' untranslated RNA sequences and not with the 5' methylguanosine cap structure present at the extreme 5' ends of mRNA molecules. Uncapped poliovirus mRNAs harbor internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) in their long and highly structured 5' noncoding regions. Such IRES sequences are required for viral protein synthesis. In this study, a novel poliovirus was isolated whose genomic RNA contains two gross deletions removing approximately 100 nucleotides from the predicted IRES sequences within the 5' noncoding region. The deletions originated from previously in vivo-selected viral revertants displaying non-temperature-sensitive phenotypes. Each revertant had a different predicted stem-loop structure within the 5' noncoding region of their genomic RNAs deleted. The mutant poliovirus (Se1-5NC-delta DG) described in this study contains both stem-loop deletions in a single RNA genome, thereby creating a minimum IRES. Se1-5NC-delta DG exhibited slow growth and a pinpoint plaque phenotype following infection of HeLa cells, delayed onset of protein synthesis in vivo, and defective initiation during in vitro translation of the mutated poliovirus mRNAs. Interestingly, the peak levels of viral RNA synthesis in cells infected with Se1-5NC-delta DG occurred at slightly later times in infection than those achieved by wild-type poliovirus, but these mutant virus RNAs accumulated in the host cells during the late phases of virus infection. UV cross-linking assays with the 5' noncoding regions of wild-type and mutated RNAs were carried out in cytoplasmic extracts from HeLa cells and neuronal cells and in reticulocyte lysates to identify the cellular factors that interact with the putative IRES elements. The cellular proteins that were cross-linked to the minimum IRES may represent factors playing an essential role in internal translation initiation of poliovirus mRNAs.