The role of peroxisomes in isoprenoid metabolism, especially in plants, has been questioned in several reports. A recent study of Sapir-Mir et al.1 revealed that the two isoforms of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase, catalyzing the isomerisation of IPP to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) are found in the peroxisome. In this addendum, we provide additional data describing the peroxisomal localization of 5-phosphomevalonate kinase and mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, the last two enzymes of the mevalonic acid pathway leading to IPP.2 This finding was reinforced in our latest report showing that a short isoform of farnesyl diphosphate, using IPP and DMAPP as substrates, is also targeted to the organelle.3 Therefore, the classical sequestration of isoprenoid biosynthesis between plastids and cytosol/ER can be revisited by including the peroxisome as an additional isoprenoid biosynthetic compartment within plant cells.
5-phosphomevalonate kinase; Arabidopsis thaliana; Catharanthus roseus; farnesyl diphosphate synthase; isoprenoid; mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase; mevalonic acid pathway; peroxisome
Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the bacterial pathway an attractive antibiotic target. Since DPM has poor drug characteristics, being highly charged, we propose to use unphosphorylated, cell-permeable prodrugs based on mevalonate that will be phosphorylated in turn by MK and phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK) to generate the active compound in situ. To test the limits of this approach, we synthesized a series of C3-substituted mevalonate analogues to probe the steric and electronic requirements of the MK and PMK active sites. MK and PMK accepted substrates with up to two additional carbons, showing a preference for small substitutents. This result establishes the feasibility of using a prodrug strategy for DPM-based antibiotics in S. pneumoniae and identified several analogues to be tested as inhibitors of MK. Among the substrates accepted by both enzymes were cyclopropyl, vinyl, and ethynyl mevalonate analogues that, when diphosphorylated, might be mechanism-based inactivators of the next enzyme in the pathway, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase.
Isoprenoid pathway; mevalonic acid; phosphomevalonic acid; diphosphomevalonic acid; mevalonate kinase; phosphomevalonate kinase; diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase; prodrug
Isoprenoid compounds are ubiquitous in nature, participating in important biological phenomena such as signal transduction, aerobic cellular respiration, photosynthesis, insect communication, and many others. They are derived from the 5-carbon isoprenoid substrates isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In Archaea and Eukarya, these building blocks are synthesized via the mevalonate pathway. However, the genes required to convert mevalonate phosphate (MP) to IPP are missing in several species of Archaea. An enzyme with isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK) activity was recently discovered in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MJ), suggesting a departure from the classical sequence of converting MP to IPP. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structures of isopentenyl phosphate kinases in complex with both substrates and products from Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA), as well as the IPK from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MTH), by means of single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) and molecular replacement. A histidine residue (His50) in THA IPK makes a hydrogen bond with the terminal phosphates of IP and IPP, poising these molecules for phosphoryl transfer through an in-line geometry. Moreover, a lysine residue (Lys14) makes hydrogen bonds with non-bridging oxygen atoms at Pα and Pγ and with the Pβ- Pγ bridging oxygen atom in ATP. These interactions suggest a transition state-stabilizing role for this residue. Lys14 is a part of a newly discovered “lysine triangle” catalytic motif in IPK’s that also includes Lys5 and Lys205. Moreover, His50, Lys5, Lys14, and Lys205 are conserved in all IPK’s and can therefore serve as fingerprints for identifying new homologues.
Substrate analogues for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), where the C3 methyl groups were replaced by chlorine, were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase). The IPP analogue (3-ClIPP) was a co-substrate when incubated with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) or geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to give the corresponding chlorinated analogues of geranyl diphosphate (3-ClGPP) and farnesyl diphosphate (3-ClFPP), respectively. No products were detected in incubations of 3-ClIPP with 3-ClDMAPP. Incubation of IPP with 3-ClDMAPP gave 11-ClFPP as the sole product. Values of KM3-ClIPP (with DMAPP) and KM3-ClDMAPP (with IPP) were similar to those for IPP and DMAPP, however values of kcat for both analogues were substantially lower. These results are consistent with a dissociative electrophilic alkylation mechanism where the rate-limiting step changes from heterolytic cleavage of the carbon-oxygen bond in the allylic substrate to alkylation of the double bond of the homoallylic substrate.
Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autoinflammatory disorder caused by mutations in the MVK gene resulting in decreased activity of the enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK). Although MK is required for biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, in MKD, in particular, the timely synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate appears to be compromised. Because small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) depend on geranylgeranylation for their proper signaling function, we studied the effect of MK deficiency on geranylgeranylation and activation of the two small GTPases, RhoA and Rac1. We demonstrate that both geranylgeranylation and activation of the two GTPases are more easily disturbed in MKD cells than in control cells when the flux though the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway is suppressed by low concentrations of simvastatin. The limited capacity of geranylgeranylation in MKD cells readily leads to markedly increased levels of nonisoprenylated and activated GTPases, which will affect proper signaling by these GTPases.
Archaea have been shown to produce isoprenoids from mevalonate; however, genome analysis has failed to identify several genes in the mevalonate pathway on the basis of sequence similarity. A predicted archaeal kinase, coded for by the MJ0044 gene, was associated with other mevalonate pathway genes in the archaea and was predicted to be the “missing” phosphomevalonate kinase. The MJ0044-derived protein was tested for phosphomevalonate kinase activity and was found not to catalyze this reaction. The MJ0044 gene product was found to phosphorylate isopentenyl phosphate, generating isopentenyl diphosphate. Unlike other known kinases associated with isoprene biosynthesis, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii isopentenyl phosphate kinase is predicted to be a member of the aspartokinase superfamily.
Isoprenoids are a diverse group of molecules found in all organisms, where they perform such important biological functions as hormone signaling (e.g., steroids) in mammals, antioxidation (e.g., carotenoids) in plants, electron transport (e.g., ubiquinone), and cell wall biosynthesis intermediates in bacteria. All isoprenoids are synthesized by the consecutive condensation of the five-carbon monomer isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The biosynthetic pathway for the formation of IPP from acetyl-CoA (i.e., the mevalonate pathway) had been established mainly in mice and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curiously, most prokaryotic microorganisms lack homologs of the genes in the mevalonate pathway, even though IPP and DMAPP are essential for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria. This observation provided an impetus to search for an alternative pathway to synthesize IPP and DMAPP, ultimately leading to the discovery of the mevalonate-independent 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. This review article focuses on our significant contributions to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of IPP and DMAPP.
biosynthesis; inhibitor; isoprenoid; MEP pathway; mevalonate pathway; terpenoid
Isoprenoid biosynthesis is essential for survival of all living organisms. More than 50,000 unique isoprenoids occur naturally, with each constructed from two simple five-carbon precursors: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Two pathways for the biosynthesis of IPP and DMAPP are found in nature. Humans exclusively use the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, while most bacteria, including all Gram-negative and many Gram-positive species, use the unrelated methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we report the development of a novel, whole-cell phenotypic screening platform to identify compounds that selectively inhibit the MEP pathway. Strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were engineered to have separately inducible MEP (native) and MVA (nonnative) pathways. These strains, RMC26 and CT31-7d, were then used to differentiate MVA pathway- and MEP pathway-specific perturbation. Compounds that inhibit MEP pathway-dependent bacterial growth but leave MVA-dependent growth unaffected represent MEP pathway-selective antibacterials. This screening platform offers three significant results. First, the compound is antibacterial and is therefore cell permeant, enabling access to the intracellular target. Second, the compound inhibits one or more MEP pathway enzymes. Third, the MVA pathway is unaffected, suggesting selectivity for targeting the bacterial versus host pathway. The cell lines also display increased sensitivity to two reported MEP pathway-specific inhibitors, further biasing the platform toward inhibitors selective for the MEP pathway. We demonstrate development of a robust, high-throughput screening platform that combines phenotypic and target-based screening that can identify MEP pathway-selective antibacterials simply by monitoring optical density as the readout for cell growth/inhibition.
The isopentenols, including isoprenol and prenol, are excellent alternative fuels. However, they are not compounds largely accumulated in natural organism. The need for the next generation of biofuels with better physical and chemical properties impels us to develop biosynthetic routes for the production of isoprenol and prenol from renewable sugar. In this study, we use the heterogenous mevalonate-dependent (MVA) isoprenoid pathway for the synthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) intermediates, and then convert IPP and DMAPP to isoprenol and prenol, respectively.
A mevalonate titer of 1.7 g/L was obtained by constructing an efficient MVA upper pathway in engineered E. coli. Different phosphatases and pyrophosphatases were investigated for their abilities in hydrolyzing the IPP and DMAPP. Consequently, ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase was found to be an efficient IPP and DMAPP hydrolase. Moreover, ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase from Bacillus subtilis (BsNudF) exhibited a equivalent substrate specificity towards IPP and DMAPP, while ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase from E. coli (EcNudF) presented a high substrate preference for DMAPP. Without the expression of any phosphatases or pyrophosphatases, a background level of isopentenols was synthesized. When the endogenous pyrophosphatase genes (EcNudF and yggV) that were capable of enhancing the hydrolyzation of the IPP and DMAPP were knocked out, the background level of isopentenols was still obtained. Maybe the synthesized IPP and DMAPP were hydrolyzed by some unknown hydrolases of E. coli. Finally, 1.3 g/L single isoprenol was obtained by blocking the conversion of IPP to DMAPP and employing the BsNudF, and 0.2 g/L ~80% prenol was produced by employing the EcNudF. A maximal yield of 12% was achieved in both isoprenol and prenol producing strains.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful report on high-specificity production of isoprenol and prenol by microbial fermentation. Over 1.3 g/L isoprenol achieved in shake-flask experiments represents a quite encouraging titer of higher alcohols. In addition, the substrate specificities of ADP-ribose pyrophosphatases were determined and successfully applied for the high-specificity synthesis of isoprenol and prenol. Altogether, this work presents a promising strategy for high-specificity production of two excellent biofuels, isoprenol and prenol.
Isoprenol; Prenol; Metabolic engineering; Escherichia coli; Biofuel
Type 2 isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzes the interconversion between two active units for isoprenoid biosynthesis, i.e., isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, in almost all archaea and in some bacteria, including human pathogens. The enzyme is a good target for discovery of antibiotics because it is essential for the organisms that use only the mevalonate pathway to produce the active isoprene units and because humans possess a nonhomologous isozyme, type 1 isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase. However, type 2 enzymes were reportedly inhibited by mechanism-based drugs for the type 1 enzyme due to their surprisingly similar reaction mechanisms. Thus, a different approach is now required to develop new inhibitors specific to the type 2 enzyme. X-ray crystallography and gel filtration chromatography revealed that the enzyme from a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus shibatae, is in the octameric state at a high concentration. Interestingly, a part of the regions that are involved in the substrate binding in the previously reported tetrameric structures is integral to the formation of the tetramer-tetramer interface in the substrate-free octameric structure. Site-directed mutagenesis at such regions resulted in stabilization of the tetramer. Small-angle X-ray scattering, tryptophan fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering analyses showed that substrate binding causes the dissociation of an octamer into tetramers. This property, i.e., incompatibility between octamer formation and substrate binding, might provide clues to develop new specific inhibitors of the archaeal enzyme.
Archaea synthesize isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the essential building blocks of isoprenoid compounds, from mevalonate (MVA). However, an analysis of the genomes of several members of the Archaea failed to identify genes for the enzymes required to convert phosphomevalonate (PM) to IPP in Eukaryotes. The recent discovery of an isopentenyl kinase (IPK) in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MJ) suggests a new variation of the MVA pathway where PM is decarboxylated to give isopentenyl phosphate (IP), which is phosphorylated to produce IPP. A blast search using the MJ protein as a probe revealed a subfamily of amino acid kinases that include the fosfomycin resistance protein fomA, which deactivates the antibiotic by phosphorylation of its phosphonate residue in a reaction similar to the conversion of IP to IPP. IPK genes were cloned from two organisms identified in the search, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MTH) and Thermoplasma acidophilum (THA), and the His-tagged recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The enzymes catalyze the reversible phosphorylation of IP by ATP, Keq = 6.3 ± 1. The catalytic efficiencies (V/K) of the proteins were ~2 × 106 M−1s−1. In the reverse direction, ADP was a substrate inhibitor for THA IPK, KiADP = 58 ± 6 µM but not for MTH IPK. Both enzymes were active over a broad range of pH and temperature. Five compounds, dimethylallyl phosphate, isopentenyl thiolophosphate, 1-butyl phosphate, 3-buten-1-yl phosphate, and geranyl phosphate, were evaluated as alternative substrate for the MTH and THA IP kinases. All of the compounds were phosphorylated, although the catalytic efficiency was low for geranyl phosphate.
Ras protein requires an intermediate of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway for posttranslational modification and membrane anchorage. This step is necessary for biological activity. Maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes induced by an oncogenic human Ras protein can be inhibited by lovastatin or compactin, inhibitors of the synthesis of mevalonate, an intermediate of cholesterol biosynthesis. This inhibition can be overcome by mevalonic acid or farnesyl diphosphate, a cholesterol biosynthetic intermediate downstream of mevalonate, but not by squalene, an intermediate after farnesyl pyrophosphate in the pathway. This study supports the idea that in Xenopus oocytes, the Ras protein is modified by a farnesyl moiety or its derivative. Furthermore, an octapeptide with the sequence similar to the C-terminus of the c-H-ras protein inhibits the biological activity of Ras proteins in vivo, suggesting that it competes for the enzyme or enzymes responsible for transferring the isoprenoid moiety (prenylation) in the oocytes. This inhibition of Ras prenylation by the peptide was also observed in vitro, using both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus oocyte extracts. These observations show that Xenopus oocytes provide a convenient in vivo system for studies of inhibitors of the posttranslational modification of the Ras protein, especially for inhibitors such as peptides that do not penetrate cell membranes.
Mevalonic aciduria (MVA) and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) represent the two ends of a clinical spectrum of disease caused by deficiency of mevalonate kinase (MVK), the first committed enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. At least 30 patients with MVA and 180 patients with HIDS have been reported worldwide. MVA is characterized by psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysmorphic features, progressive visual impairment and recurrent febrile crises. The febrile episodes are commonly accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, abdominal symptoms, arthralgia and skin rashes. Life expectancy is often compromised. In HIDS, only febrile attacks are present, but a subgroup of patients may also develop neurological abnormalities of varying degree such as mental retardation, ataxia, ocular symptoms and epilepsy. A reduced activity of MVK and pathogenic mutations in the MVK gene have been demonstrated as the common genetic basis in both disorders. In MVA, the diagnosis is established by detection of highly elevated levels of mevalonic acid excreted in urine. Increased levels of immunoglobulin D (IgD) and, in most patients of immunoglobulin A (IgA), in combination with enhanced excretion of mevalonic acid provide strong evidence for HIDS. The diagnosis is confirmed by low activity of mevalonate kinase or by demonstration of disease-causing mutations. Genetic counseling should be offered to families at risk. There is no established successful treatment for MVA. Simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, and anakinra have been shown to have beneficial effect in HIDS.
The gene encoding the putative mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, an enzyme from the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis, has been cloned from T. brucei. Recombinant protein has been expressed, purified and highly ordered crystals obtained and characterized to aid the structure–function analysis of this enzyme.
Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase catalyses the last and least well characterized step in the mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate, an isoprenoid precursor. A gene predicted to encode the enzyme from Trypanosoma brucei has been cloned, a highly efficient expression system established and a purification protocol determined. The enzyme gives monoclinic crystals in space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.5, b = 168.7, c = 54.9 Å, β = 118.8°. A Matthews coefficient V
M of 2.5 Å3 Da−1 corresponds to two monomers, each approximately 42 kDa (385 residues), in the asymmetric unit with 50% solvent content. These crystals are well ordered and data to high resolution have been recorded using synchrotron radiation.
decarboxylases; mevalonate biosynthesis; isoprenoids; Trypanosoma
Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells monitor isoprenoid metabolism by recognizing (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), an intermediate in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway used by microbes, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway used by humans. Aminobisphosphonates and alkylamines indirectly stimulate Vγ2Vδ2 cells by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) in the mevalonate pathway, thereby increasing IPP/ApppI that directly stimulate. In this study, we further characterize stimulation by these compounds, and define pathways used by new classes of compounds. Consistent with FDPS inhibition, stimulation of Vγ2Vδ2 cells by aminobisphosphonates and alkylamines was much more sensitive to statin inhibition than stimulation by prenyl pyrophosphates. However, the continuous presence of aminobisphosphonates was toxic for T cells, and blocked their proliferation. Aminobisphosphonate stimulation was rapid and prolonged, independent of known antigen presenting molecules, and resistant to fixation. New classes of stimulatory compounds–mevalonate, the alcohol of HMBPP, and alkenyl phosphonates–likely stimulate differently. Mevalonate, a rate-limiting metabolite, appears to enter cells to increase IPP levels whereas the alcohol of HMBPP and alkenyl phosphonates are directly recognized. The critical chemical feature of bisphosphonates is the amino moiety, because its loss switched aminobisphosphonates to direct antigens. Transfection of APC with siRNA downregulating FDPS rendered them stimulatory for Vγ2Vδ2 cells, and increased cellular IPP. siRNAs for isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase functioned similarly. Our results show that a variety of manipulations affecting isoprenoid metabolism lead to stimulation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and that pulsing aminobisphosphonates would be more effective for the ex vivo expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.
gamma delta T cell; Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells; human; bisphosphonate; antigen presentation; prenyl pyrophosphates; isopentenyl pyrophosphate; isoprenoid metabolism; farnesyl diphosphate synthase; siRNA
Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase catalyzes the consecutive head-to-tail condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP, C5) with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP, C5) and geranyl diphosphate (GPP, C10) to give (E,E)-FPP (C15). The enzyme belongs to a genetically distinct family of chain elongation enzymes that install E-double bonds during each addition of a five-carbon isoprene unit. Analysis of the C10 and C15 products from incubations with avian FPP synthase reveals that small amounts of neryl diphosphate (Z-C10) and (Z,E)-FPP are formed along with the E-isomers during the C5 → C10 and C10 → C15 reactions. Similar results were obtained for FPP synthase from Escherichia coli, Artemisia tridentata (sage brush), Pyrococcus furiosus, and Methanobacter thermautotrophicus and for GPP and FPP synthesized in vivo by E. coli FPP synthase. When (R)-[2-2H]IPP was a substrate for chain elongation, no deuterium was found in the chain elongation products. In contrast, the deuterium in (S)-[2-2H]IPP was incorporated into all of the products. Thus, the pro-R hydrogen at C2 of IPP is lost when the E- and Z-double bond isomers are formed. The synthesis of Z-double bond isomers by FPP synthase during chain elongation is unexpected for a highly evolved enzyme and probably reflects a compromise between optimizing double bond stereoselectivity and the need to exclude DMAPP from the IPP binding site.
The photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 possesses homologs of known genes of the non-mevalonate 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2-phosphate (MEP) pathway for synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Isoprenoid biosynthesis in extracts of this cyanobacterium, measured by incorporation of radiolabeled IPP, was not stimulated by pyruvate, an initial substrate of the MEP pathway in Escherichia coli, or by deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate, the first pathway intermediate in E. coli. However, high rates of IPP incorporation were obtained with addition of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P), as well as a variety of pentose phosphate cycle compounds. Fosmidomycin (at 1 μM and 1 mM), an inhibitor of deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, did not significantly inhibit phototrophic growth of the cyanobacterium, nor did it affect [14C]IPP incorporation stimulated by DHAP plus GA3P. To date, it has not been possible to unequivocally demonstrate IPP isomerase activity in this cyanobacterium. The combined results suggest that the MEP pathway, as described for E. coli, is not the primary path by which isoprenoids are synthesized under photosynthetic conditions in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. Our data support alternative routes of entry of pentose phosphate cycle substrates derived from photosynthesis.
It has been proposed that isoprenoid biosynthesis in several gram-positive cocci depends on the mevalonate pathway for conversion of acetyl coenzyme A to isopentenyl diphosphate. Mevalonate kinase catalyzes a key reaction in this pathway. In this study the enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus was expressed in Escherichia coli, isolated in a highly purified form, and characterized. The overall amino acid sequence of this enzyme was very heterologous compared with the sequences of eukaryotic mevalonate kinases. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical gel filtration chromatography suggested that the native enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of approximately 33 kDa. The specific activity was 12 U/mg, and the pH optimum was 7.0 to 8.5. The apparent Km values for R,S-mevalonate and ATP were 41 and 339 μM, respectively. There was substantial substrate inhibition at millimolar levels of mevalonate. The sensitivity to feedback inhibition by farnesyl diphosphate and its sulfur-containing analog, farnesyl thiodiphosphate, was characterized. These compounds were competitive inhibitors with respect to ATP; the Ki values were 46 and 45 μM for farnesyl diphosphate and its thio analog, respectively. Parallel measurements with heterologous eukaryotic mevalonate kinases indicated that S. aureus mevalonate kinase is much less sensitive to feedback inhibition (Ki difference, 3 orders of magnitude) than the human enzyme. In contrast, both enzymes tightly bound trinitrophenyl-ATP, a fluorescent substrate analog, suggesting that there are similarities in structural features that are important for catalytic function.
Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPPI) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of insects. IPPI catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP); afterwards IPP and DMAPP condense in a head-to-tail manner to produce geranyl diphosphate (GPP), this head-to-tail condensation can be repeated, by the further reaction of GPP with IPP, yielding the JH precursor farnesyl diphosphate. An IPPI expressed sequence tag (EST) was obtained from an Aedes aegypti corpora-allata + corpora cardiaca library. Its full-length cDNA encodes a 244-aa protein that shows a high degree of similarity with type I IPPIs from other organisms, particularly for those residues that have important roles in catalysis, metal coordination and interaction with the diphosphate moiety of the IPP. Heterologous expression produced a recombinant protein that metabolized IPP into DMAPP; treatment of DMAPP with phosphoric acid produced isoprene, a volatile compound that was measured with an assay based on a solid-phase micro extraction protocol and direct analysis by gas chromatography. A. aegypti IPPI (AaIPPI) required Mg2+ or Mn2+ but not Zn2+ for full activity and it was entirely inhibited by iodoacetamide. Real time PCR experiments showed that AaIPPI is highly expressed in the CA. Changes in AaIPPI mRNA levels in the CA in the pupal and adult female mosquito corresponded well with changes in JH synthesis (Li et al., 2003). This is the first molecular and functional characterization of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in the production of juvenile hormone in the CA of an insect.
Mosquito; IPP isomerase; juvenile hormone; corpora allata; Aedes
Isoprenoids are natural products that are all derived from isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). These precursors are synthesized either by the mevalonate (MVA) pathway or the 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose 5-Phosphate (DXP) pathway. Metabolic engineering of microbes has enabled overproduction of various isoprenoid products from the DXP pathway including lycopene, artemisinic acid, taxadiene and levopimaradiene. To date, there is no method to accurately measure all the DXP metabolic intermediates simultaneously so as to enable the identification of potential flux limiting steps. In this study, a solid phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE UPLC-MS) method was developed. This method was used to measure the DXP intermediates in genetically engineered E. coli. Unexpectedly, methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEC) was found to efflux when certain enzymes of the pathway were over-expressed, demonstrating the existence of a novel competing pathway branch in the DXP metabolism. Guided by these findings, ispG was overexpressed and was found to effectively reduce the efflux of MEC inside the cells, resulting in a significant increase in downstream isoprenoid production. This study demonstrated the necessity to quantify metabolites enabling the identification of a hitherto unrecognized pathway and provided useful insights into rational design in metabolic engineering.
Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This is an essential step in the mevalonate entry into the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The isomerization catalyzed by type I IDI involves protonation of the carbon-carbon double bond in IPP or DMAPP to form a tertiary carbocation, followed by deprotonation. Diene analogs for DMAPP (E-2-OPP and Z-2-OPP) and IPP (4-OPP) were synthesized and found to be potent active-site directed irreversible inhibitors of the enzyme. X-ray analysis of the E·I complex between E. coli IDI and 4-OPP reveals the presence of two isomers that differ in the stereochemistry of the newly formed C3-C4 double bond in the hydrocarbon chain of the inhibitor. In both adducts C5 of the inhibitor is joined to the sulfur of C67. In these structures the methyl group formed upon protonation of the diene moiety in 4-OPP is located near E116, implicating that residue in the protonation step.
The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway produces not only sterols but also non-sterol mevalonate metabolites involved in isoprenoid synthesis. Mevalonate metabolites affect transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that in turn affect various biological processes including energy metabolism. In the present study, we examine whether mevalonate metabolites activate PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ), a ligand-dependent transcription factor playing a central role in adipocyte differentiation. In the luciferase reporter assay using both GAL4 chimaera and full-length PPARγ systems, a mevalonate metabolite, FPP (farnesyl pyrophosphate), which is the precursor of almost all isoprenoids and is positioned at branch points leading to the synthesis of other longer-chain isoprenoids, activated PPARγ in a dose-dependent manner. FPP induced the in vitro binding of a co-activator, SRC-1 (steroid receptor co-activator-1), to GST (glutathione transferase)–PPARγ. Direct binding of FPP to PPARγ was also indicated by docking simulation studies. Moreover, the addition of FPP up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of PPARγ target genes during adipocyte differentiation induction. In the presence of lovastatin, an HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitor, both intracellular FPP levels and PPARγ-target gene expressions were decreased. In contrast, the increase in intracellular FPP level after the addition of zaragozic acid, a squalene synthase inhibitor, induced PPARγ-target gene expression. The addition of FPP and zaragozic acid promotes lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. These findings indicated that FPP might function as an endogenous PPARγ agonist and regulate gene expression in adipocytes.
adipocyte differentiation; farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP); ligand; metabolic syndrome; mevalonate metabolite; peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ); aP2, adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein; CREB, cAMP-response-element-binding protein; CBP, CREB-binding protein; DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; Fmoc, fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl; FPP, farnesyl pyrophosphate; FPTase, farnesyl pyrophosphate transferase; GGPP, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate; GLUT4, glucose transporter 4; GST, glutathione transferase; 5HE, 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid; HMG-CoA, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA; IBMX, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine; LC/MS, liquid chromatography MS; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; MD, molecular dynamics; Pio, pioglitazone; PPAR, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor; RMSD, root-mean-square displacement; RT–PCR, reverse transcription–PCR; RXR, retinoid X receptor; SCD, stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SRC-1, steroid receptor co-activator-1; SREBP, sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein; TAMRA, 6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine; WAT, white adipose tissue
Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase catalyzes the interconversion of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In eukaryotes, archaebacteria, and some bacteria, IPP is synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A by the mevalonate pathway. The subsequent isomerization of IPP to DMAPP activates the five-carbon isoprene unit for subsequent prenyl transfer reactions. In Escherichia coli, the isoprene unit is synthesized from pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by the recently discovered nonmevalonate pathway. An open reading frame (ORF696) encoding a putative IPP isomerase was identified in the E. coli chromosome at 65.3 min. ORF696 was cloned into an expression vector; the 20.5 kDa recombinant protein was purified in three steps, and its identity as an IPP isomerase was established biochemically. The gene for IPP isomerase, idi, is not clustered with other known genes for enzymes in the isoprenoid pathway. E. coli FH12 was constructed by disruption of the chromosomal idi gene with the aminoglycoside 3′-phosphotransferase gene and complemented by the wild-type idi gene on plasmid pFMH33 with a temperature-sensitive origin of replication. FH12/pFMH33 was able to grow at the restrictive temperature of 44°C and FH12 lacking the plasmid grew on minimal medium, thereby establishing that idi is a nonessential gene. Although the Vmax of the bacterial protein was 20-fold lower than that of its yeast counterpart, the catalytic efficiencies of the two enzymes were similar through a counterbalance in Kms. The E. coli protein requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme contains conserved cysteine and glutamate active-site residues found in other IPP isomerases.
Eukarya, Archaea, and some Bacteria encode all or part of the essential mevalonate (MVA) metabolic pathway clinically modulated using statins. Curiously, two components of the MVA pathway are often absent from archaeal genomes. The search for these missing elements led to the discovery of isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK), one of two activities necessary to furnish the universal five-carbon isoprenoid building block, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). Unexpectedly, we now report functional IPKs also exist in Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, amongst a subset of species within the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi, we identified a new enzyme catalyzing the missing decarboxylative step of the putative alternative MVA pathway. These results demonstrate, for the first time, a functioning alternative MVA pathway. Key to this pathway is the catalytic actions of a newly uncovered enzyme, mevalonate phosphate decarboxylase (MPD) and IPK. Together, these two discoveries suggest that unforeseen variation in isoprenoid metabolism may be widespread in nature.
Living things make thousands of chemicals that are vital for life, and are also useful as medicines, perfumes, and food additives. The largest family of these natural chemicals is called the isoprenoids, and members of this family are found in all three domains of life: the eukaryotes (such as plants and animals), the Archaea (an ancient group of single-celled microbes), and bacteria.
The isoprenoids are made from a smaller building block called isopentenyl diphosphate, IPP for short, that contains five carbon atoms and two phosphate groups. IPP can be produced in two ways. The classical mevalonate pathway is found in most eukaryotes, including humans; statin drugs are used to inhibit this pathway to treat those with high cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease. The second pathway does not use the compound mevalonate and is found in many, but not all, bacteria as well as the chloroplasts of plants. Until recently, however, the enzymes needed for the last two steps of the classical mevalonate pathway appeared to be missing in the Archaea and in some bacteria.
Researchers subsequently discovered that an enzyme called isopentenyl phosphate kinase, shortened to IPK, was responsible for one of these two missing steps—the addition of IPP’s second phosphate group. The way this enzyme worked also suggested that there was an alternative mevalonate pathway in which the order of the last two steps was reversed. However, the identity of the enzyme responsible for the other step—the removal of a molecule of carbon dioxide to make the starting material needed by IPK—remained mysterious.
Now Dellas et al. have discovered the enzyme responsible for this missing step in Green non-sulphur bacteria, confirming the existence of the alternative mevalonate pathway for the first time. Previously it had been thought that this enzyme acted in the classical mevalonate pathway; but in fact this enzyme has evolved a new function and is not involved in the classical pathway at all. Moreover, Dellas et al. show that Green non-sulphur bacteria, and some eukaryotes, also have functional IPK enzymes. This means that IPK has now unexpectedly been observed in all three domains of life, and hints at another target to medically control mevalonate pathways. The discovery of the missing enzyme in the alternative pathway opens the door to the re-examination of many other living things, to find which have the new pathway and to work out why.
Mevalonate pathway; Isopentenyl diphosphate; Archaea; Mevalonate phosphate decarboxylase; Chloroflexi; Plants; Arabidopsis; Other
The structure of a triclinic crystal form of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase has been determined. Comparisons with a previously reported monoclinic crystal form raise questions about our knowledge of the quaternary structure of this enzyme.
4-Diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase (IspE; EC 220.127.116.11) contributes to the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate or mevalonate-independent biosynthetic pathway that produces the isomers isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. These five-carbon compounds are the fundamental building blocks for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids. The mevalonate-independent pathway does not occur in humans, but is present and has been shown to be essential in many dangerous pathogens, i.e. Plasmodium species, which cause malaria, and Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, the enzymes involved in this pathway have attracted attention as potential drug targets. IspE produces 4-diphosphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2-phosphate by ATP-dependent phosphorylation of 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-d-erythritol. A triclinic crystal structure of the Escherichia coli IspE–ADP complex with two molecules in the asymmetric unit was determined at 2 Å resolution and compared with a monoclinic crystal form of a ternary complex of E. coli IspE also with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The molecular packing is different in the two forms. In the asymmetric unit of the triclinic crystal form the substrate-binding sites of IspE are occluded by structural elements of the partner, suggesting that the ‘triclinic dimer’ is an artefact of the crystal lattice. The surface area of interaction in the triclinic form is almost double that observed in the monoclinic form, implying that the dimeric assembly in the monoclinic form may also be an artifact of crystallization.
mevalonate-independent pathway; isoprenoid biosynthesis; kinases