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1.  Activity of Tedizolid Phosphate (TR-701) in Murine Models of Infection with Penicillin-Resistant and Penicillin-Sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae 
The in vitro activity of tedizolid (previously known as torezolid, TR-700) against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) clinical isolates and the in vivo efficacy of tedizolid phosphate (torezolid phosphate, TR-701) in murine models of PRSP systemic infection and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) pneumonia were examined using linezolid as a comparator. The MIC90 against 28 PRSP isolates was 0.25 μg/ml for tedizolid, whereas it was 1 μg/ml for linezolid. In mice infected systemically with a lethal inoculum of PRSP 1 h prior to a single administration of either antimicrobial, oral tedizolid phosphate was equipotent to linezolid (1 isolate) to 2-fold more potent than linezolid (3 isolates) for survival at day 7, with tedizolid phosphate 50% effective dose (ED50) values ranging from 3.19 to 11.53 mg/kg of body weight/day. In the PSSP pneumonia model, the ED50 for survival at day 15 was 2.80 mg/kg/day for oral tedizolid phosphate, whereas it was 8.09 mg/kg/day for oral linezolid following 48 h of treatment with either agent. At equivalent doses (10 mg/kg once daily tedizolid phosphate or 5 mg/kg twice daily linezolid), pneumococcal titers in the lungs at 52 h postinfection were approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower with tedizolid phosphate treatment than with linezolid treatment or no treatment. Lung histopathology showed less inflammatory cell invasion into alveolar spaces in mice treated with tedizolid phosphate than in untreated or linezolid-treated mice. These results demonstrate that tedizolid phosphate is effective in murine models of PRSP systemic infection and PSSP pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC3421900  PMID: 22713339
2.  In Vitro Activity and Microbiological Efficacy of Tedizolid (TR-700) against Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates from a Phase 2 Study of Oral Tedizolid Phosphate (TR-701) in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections 
Tedizolid (TR-700, formerly torezolid) is the active moiety of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a next-generation oxazolidinone, with high potency against Gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A recently completed randomized, double-blind phase 2 trial evaluated 200, 300, or 400 mg of oral tedizolid phosphate once daily for 5 to 7 days in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. This report examines the in vitro activity of tedizolid and Zyvox (linezolid) against Gram-positive pathogens isolated at baseline and describes the microbiological and clinical efficacy of tedizolid. Of 196 isolates tested, 81.6% were S. aureus, and of these, 76% were MRSA. The MIC50 and MIC90 of tedizolid against both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA were 0.25 μg/ml, compared with a MIC50 of 1 μg/ml and MIC90 of 2 μg/ml for linezolid. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 7), viridans group streptococci (n = 15), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (n = 3), the MICs ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml for tedizolid and from 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for linezolid. The microbiological eradication rates at the test-of-cure visit (7 to 14 days posttreatment) in the microbiologically evaluable population (n = 133) were similar in all treatment groups, with overall eradication rates of 97.7% for all pathogens, 97.9% for MRSA, and 95.7% for MSSA. The clinical cure rates for MRSA and MSSA infections were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively, across all dose groups. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of tedizolid against pathogenic Gram-positive cocci, including MRSA, and its 4-fold-greater potency in comparison with linezolid. All dosages of tedizolid phosphate showed excellent microbiological and clinical efficacy against MRSA and MSSA.
PMCID: PMC3421864  PMID: 22687509
3.  Comparative Efficacies of Human Simulated Exposures of Tedizolid and Linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus in the Murine Thigh Infection Model 
Tedizolid (formally torezolid) is an expanded-spectrum oxazolidinone with enhanced in vitro potency against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The efficacies of human simulated exposures of tedizolid and linezolid against S. aureus in an immunocompetent mouse thigh model over 3 days were compared. Four strains of MRSA and one of MSSA with tedizolid and linezolid MICs ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 and from 2 to 4 μg/ml, respectively, were utilized. Tedizolid or linezolid was administered in a regimen simulating a human steady-state 24-h area under the free concentration-time curve of 200 mg every 24 h (Q24) or 600 mg Q12, respectively. Thighs were harvested after 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h, and efficacy was determined by the change in bacterial density. The mean bacterial density in control mice increased over the 3-day period. After 24 h of treatment, a reduction in bacterial density of ≥1 log CFU was observed for both the tedizolid and linezolid treatments. Antibacterial activity was enhanced for both agents with a reduction of ≥2.6 log CFU after 72 h of treatment. Any statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in efficacy between the agents were transient and did not persist throughout the 72-h treatment period. The tedizolid and linezolid regimens demonstrated similar in vivo efficacies against the S. aureus isolates tested. Both agents were bacteriostatic at 24 h and bactericidal on the third day of treatment. These data support the clinical utility of tedizolid for skin and skin structure infections caused by S. aureus, as well as the bactericidal activity of the oxazolidinones after 3 days of treatment.
PMCID: PMC3421595  PMID: 22687504
4.  Pharmacokinetics of Tedizolid Following Oral Administration: Single and Multiple Dose, Effect of Food, and Comparison of Two Solid Forms of the Prodrug 
Pharmacotherapy  2013;34(3):240-250.
The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of tedizolid were examined after oral administration of tedizolid phosphate disodium (TPD), including the effect of food on PK. The relative bioavailability of TPD to the free acid tedizolid phosphate was determined to bridge the results of these and other studies to the solid form of the prodrug selected for further development.
Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind single- and multiple-ascending dose studies and randomized open-label, crossover food effect and relative bioavailability studies.
Clinical Research Units.
Healthy subjects.
Study TR701-101 enrolled 40 subjects in single-ascending dose (200–1200 mg TPD or placebo) and 40 subjects in 21-day multiple-ascending dose (200, 300, or 400 mg TPD once/day; 600 mg linezolid twice/day; or placebo) arms. Study TR701-103 was a food-effect study in 12 subjects administered 600 mg TPD. Study TR701-108 was a relative bioavailability study in 12 subjects administered 150-mg tedizolid equivalents as TPD or tedizolid phosphate.
Measurements and Main Results
Plasma concentrations of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate, its active moiety tedizolid, and/or linezolid were collected. After administration of 200 to 600 mg TPD, tedizolid values increased approximately dose proportionally in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). Tedizolid half-life values were approximately 2-fold greater compared with linezolid. TPD administration with food delayed tedizolid absorption and reduced Cmax relative to the fasted state but did not alter AUC. Minimal accumulation was predicted and observed for tedizolid, whereas observed accumulation of linezolid exceeded predictions based on single-dose PK. Comparable PK of tedizolid was observed following oral administration of either TPD or tedizolid phosphate. In the multiple-ascending dose study, 3 of 24 tedizolid subjects were withdrawn under prespecified stopping rules (one each of elevated alanine aminotransferase, low reticulocyte count, or low white blood cell count), as was 1 of 8 linezolid subjects (low reticulocyte count).
Overall, tedizolid has a favorable PK profile, a half-life that supports once daily administration, and no nonlinearities at steady state. Tedizolid phosphate can be administered without regard to food.
PMCID: PMC4238735  PMID: 23926058
tedizolid phosphate disodium; tedizolid phosphate free acid; TR-700; TR-701; TR-701 FA; pharmacokinetics; food effect; relative bioavailability
5.  Comparative Pharmacodynamics of the New Oxazolidinone Tedizolid Phosphate and Linezolid in a Neutropenic Murine Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5916-5922.
Tedizolid phosphate (TR-701) is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug (converted to the active form tedizolid [TR-700]) with potent Staphylococcus aureus activity. The current studies characterized and compared the in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics of TR-701/TR-700 and linezolid against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the neutropenic murine pneumonia model. The pharmacokinetic properties of both drugs were linear over a dose range of 0.625 to 40 mg/kg of body weight. Protein binding was 30% for linezolid and 85% for TR-700. Mice were infected with one of 11 isolates of S. aureus, including MSSA and community- and hospital-acquired MRSA strains. Each drug was administered by oral-gastric gavage every 12 h (q12h). The dosing regimens ranged from 1.25 to 80 mg/kg/12 h for linezolid and 0.625 to 160 mg/kg/12 h for TR-701. At the start of therapy, mice had 6.24 ± 0.40 log10 CFU/lungs, which increased to 7.92 ± 1.02 log10 CFU/lungs in untreated animals over a 24-h period. A sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) model was used to determine the antimicrobial exposure associated with net stasis (static dose [SD]) and 1-log-unit reduction in organism relative to the burden at the start of therapy. The static dose pharmacodynamic targets for linezolid and TR-700 were nearly identical, at a free drug (non-protein-bound) area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) of 19 and 20, respectively. The 1-log-unit kill endpoints were also similar, at 46.1 for linezolid and 34.6 for TR-700. The exposure targets were also comparable for both MSSA and MRSA isolates. These dosing goals support further clinical trial examination of TR-701 in MSSA and MRSA pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC3486526  PMID: 22964254
6.  In Vivo Pharmacodynamics of Torezolid Phosphate (TR-701), a New Oxazolidinone Antibiotic, against Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in a Mouse Thigh Infection Model ▿ 
Torezolid phosphate (TR-701) is the phosphate monoester prodrug of the oxazolidinone TR-700 which demonstrates potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The pharmacodynamics of TR-701 or TR-700 (TR-701/700) against S. aureus is incompletely defined. Single-dose pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in mice for TR-701/700. Forty-eight-hour dose range and 24-hour dose fractionation studies were conducted in a neutropenic mouse thigh model of S. aureus infection using MRSA ATCC 33591 to identify the dose and schedule of administration of TR-701/700 that was linked with optimized antimicrobial effect. Additional dose range studies compared the efficacies of TR-701/700 and linezolid for one MSSA strain and one community-associated MRSA strain. In dose range studies, TR-701/700 was equally bactericidal against MSSA and MRSA. Mean doses of 37.6 and 66.9 mg/kg of body weight/day of TR-701/700 resulted in stasis and 1 log CFU/g decreases in bacterial densities, respectively, at 24 h, and mean doses of 35.3, 46.6, and 71.1 mg/kg/day resulted in stasis and 1 and 2 log CFU/g reductions, respectively, at 48 h. Linezolid administered at doses as high as 150 mg/kg/day did not achieve stasis at either time point. Dose fractionation studies demonstrated that the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) was the pharmacodynamic index for TR-701/700 that was linked with efficacy. TR-701/700 was highly active against MSSA and MRSA, in vivo, and was substantially more efficacious than linezolid, although linezolid's top exposure has half the human exposure. Dose fractionation studies showed that AUC/MIC was the pharmacodynamic index linked with efficacy, indicating that once-daily dosing in humans is feasible.
PMCID: PMC3122459  PMID: 21502615
7.  Potential role of tedizolid phosphate in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections 
Tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a prodrug of tedizolid (TR-700), is a next-generation oxazolidinone that has shown favorable results in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in its first Phase III clinical trial. Tedizolid has high bioavailability, penetration, and tissue distribution when administered orally or intravenously. The activity of tedizolid was greater than linezolid against strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. in vitro studies, including strains resistant to linezolid and those not susceptible to vancomycin or daptomycin. Its pharmacokinetic characteristics allow for a once-daily administration that leads to a more predictable efficacy and safety profile than those of linezolid. No hematological adverse effects have been reported associated with tedizolid when used at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg in Phase I, II, or III clinical trials of up to 3 weeks of tedizolid administration. Given that the clinical and microbiological efficacy are similar for the 200, 300, and 400 mg doses, the lowest effective dose of 200 mg once daily for 6 days was selected for Phase III studies in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections, providing a safe dosing regimen with low potential for development of myelosuppression. Unlike linezolid, tedizolid does not inhibit monoamine oxidase in vivo, therefore interactions with adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic drugs are not to be expected. In conclusion, tedizolid is a novel antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive microorganisms responsible for skin and soft tissue infections, including strains resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin, thus answers a growing therapeutic need.
PMCID: PMC3622392  PMID: 23589680
oxazolidinone; TR-700; TR-701 FA; tedizolid; skin and soft tissue infections; linezolid resistance
8.  Skin and soft tissue concentrations of tedizolid (formerly torezolid), a novel oxazolidinone, following a single oral dose in healthy volunteers 
Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12 h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24 h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUCtissue/fAUCplasma) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6 h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues.
PMCID: PMC3789129  PMID: 22584101
Microdialysis; Tissue distribution; Tedizolid; Pharmacokinetics
9.  In Vitro, In Vivo, and Clinical Studies of Tedizolid To Assess the Potential for Peripheral or Central Monoamine Oxidase Interactions 
Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug whose active moiety, tedizolid, has improved potency against Gram-positive pathogens and pharmacokinetics, allowing once-daily administration. Given linezolid warnings for drug-drug and drug-food interactions mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, including sporadic serotonergic toxicity, these studies evaluated tedizolid for potential MAO interactions. In vitro, tedizolid and linezolid were reversible inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B; the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for tedizolid was 8.7 μM for MAO-A and 5.7 μM for MAO-B and 46.0 and 2.1 μM, respectively, with linezolid. Tedizolid phosphate was negative in the mouse head twitch model of serotonergic activity. Two randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical studies assessed the potential of 200 mg/day tedizolid phosphate (at steady state) to enhance pressor responses to coadministered oral tyramine or pseudoephedrine. Sensitivity to tyramine was determined by comparing the concentration of tyramine required to elicit a ≥30-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (TYR30) when administered with placebo versus tedizolid phosphate. The geometric mean tyramine sensitivity ratio (placebo TYR30/tedizolid phosphate TYR30) was 1.33; a ratio of ≥2 is considered clinically relevant. In the pseudoephedrine study, mean maximum systolic blood pressure was not significantly different when pseudoephedrine was coadministered with tedizolid phosphate versus placebo. In summary, tedizolid is a weak, reversible inhibitor of MAO-A and MAO-B in vitro. Provocative testing in humans and animal models failed to uncover significant signals that would suggest potential for hypertensive or serotonergic adverse consequences at the therapeutic dose of tedizolid phosphate. Clinical studies are registered at as NCT01539473 (tyramine interaction study conducted at Covance Clinical Research Center, Evansville, IN) and NCT01577459 (pseudoephedrine interaction study conducted at Vince and Associates Clinical Research, Overland Park, KS).
PMCID: PMC3697335  PMID: 23612197
10.  Single- and Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Absolute Bioavailability of Tedizolid 
Pharmacotherapy  2014;34(9):891-900.
Tedizolid phosphate is a novel antibacterial under investigation for the treatment of gram-positive infections. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of intravenous tedizolid phosphate as well as the oral bioavailability of tedizolid phosphate.
Double-blind, single-ascending dose, multiple-dose pharmacokinetics study, as well as tolerability and open-label crossover studies.
Single center in the United States (Covance Clinical Research Unit, Madison, WI) between September 2009 and January 2010.
Ninety healthy volunteers.
Single intravenous (IV) doses of tedizolid phosphate 50 mg (lead-in) and 100–400 mg. Single oral and IV dose of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg in crossover fashion. Multiple IV doses of tedizolid phosphate 200 and 300 mg for up to 7 days.
Measurements and Main Results
A dose-dependent increase was observed in the maximum plasma concentration (1.2–5.1 μg/ml) and the area under the concentration-time curve (17.4–58.7 μg × hr/ml) of tedizolid (the microbiologically active moiety of tedizolid phosphate) after single IV doses of tedizolid phosphate 100–400 mg. Administration of IV tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once/day for 7 days resulted in minimal (28%) tedizolid accumulation. The absolute oral bioavailability of tedizolid after a single 200-mg dose of tedizolid phosphate was 91%; pharmacokinetic parameters of tedizolid were similar with oral and IV administration. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 41% of subjects. Most adverse events were related to infusion site and became more frequent with multiple dosing. In an additional 3-day tolerability study, IV tedizolid phosphate 200 mg and placebo were similarly tolerated, based on visual infusion phlebitis scores.
These results from a population of healthy volunteers support once/day dosing of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg with both the oral and IV formulations, without the need for dose adjustment when switching administration routes.
PMCID: PMC4260119  PMID: 24989138
tedizolid phosphate; intravenous; pharmacokinetics
11.  Platelet Profile in Patients with Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections Receiving Tedizolid or Linezolid: Findings from the Phase 3 ESTABLISH Clinical Trials 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2014;58(12):7198-7204.
Tedizolid, the active moiety of tedizolid phosphate, is a recently approved oxazolidinone antibacterial with activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, including resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. To date, 6 days of 200 mg tedizolid once daily has been shown to be noninferior to 10 days of 600 mg linezolid twice daily in two randomized, double-blind phase 3 trials (ESTABLISH-1 and ESTABLISH-2) for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). The intent of this study was to characterize the platelet profiles of patients receiving tedizolid relative to linezolid over the course of treatment using pooled data from these two trials. The occurrences of clinically defined and statistical analysis plan–specified reduced platelet counts were assessed at the study days 7 to 9 visit, the study days 11 to 13 visit, and the posttherapy evaluation (PTE) visit. At the study days 7 to 9 visit, incidences of reduced platelet counts were low and largely similar between the groups. The only notable difference was a lower incidence of thrombocytopenia (platelet counts, <150,000 cells/mm3) among patients who received tedizolid (3.2%) relative to those who received linezolid (5.6%). At the study days 11 to 13 visit, patients who received tedizolid had lower incidences of platelet counts of <150,000 cells/mm3 (−5.9%), <112,500 cells/mm3 (−2.4%), and <100,000 cells/mm3 (−1.9%) than patients in the linezolid group. Similar differences were noted at the PTE visit. Findings across the two phase 3 ABSSSI trials suggest that 6 days of 200 mg tedizolid daily confers a low potential for reduced platelet counts among patients with ABSSSIs. (The ESTABLISH-1 and ESTABLISH-2 trials have been registered at under registration numbers NCT01170221 and NCT01421511, respectively.)
PMCID: PMC4249542  PMID: 25246392
12.  Activity of Tedizolid (TR-700) against Well-Characterized Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains of Diverse Epidemiological Origins 
The in vitro activities of tedizolid and 10 antistaphylococcal agents were compared against 111 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from 14 epidemiologically characterized groups. Tedizolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin were the most potent agents, with tedizolid 4-fold more potent than linezolid. Tedizolid, linezolid, and vancomycin were unaffected by epidemiological types. Tigecycline and daptomycin had reduced potency against ST80-MRSA-IV and ST239-MRSA-III, respectively. Overall, tedizolid was highly potent against all MRSA strain types, including those resistant to other classes of drugs.
PMCID: PMC3716181  PMID: 23571550
13.  In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Characterization of a Novel Plectasin Antibiotic, NZ2114, in a Murine Infection Model ▿  
NZ2114 is a novel plectasin derivative with potent activity against gram-positive bacteria, including multiply drug-resistant strains. We used the neutropenic murine thigh infection model to characterize the time course of antimicrobial activity of NZ2114 and determine which pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index and magnitude best correlated with efficacy. Serum drug levels following administration of three fourfold-escalating single-dose levels of NZ2114 were measured by microbiologic assay. Single-dose time-kill studies following doses of 10, 40, and 160 mg/kg of body weight demonstrated concentration-dependent killing over the dose range (0.5 to 3.7 log10 CFU/thigh) and prolonged postantibiotic effects (3 to 15 h) against both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice had 106.3 to 106.8 CFU/thigh of strains of S. pneumoniae or S. aureus at the start of therapy when treated for 24 h with 0.625 to 160 mg/kg/day of NZ2114 fractionated for 4-, 6-, 12-, and 24-h dosing regimens. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine which PK/PD index best correlated with microbiologic efficacy. Efficacies of NZ2114 were similar among the dosing intervals (P = 0.99 to 1.0), and regression with the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC index was strong (R2, 0.90) for both S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. The maximum concentration of drug in serum/MIC index regression was also strong for S. pneumoniae (R2, 0.96). Studies to identify the PD target for NZ2114 utilized eight S. pneumoniae and six S. aureus isolates and an every-6-h regimen of drug (0.156 to 160 mg/kg/day). Treatment against S. pneumoniae required approximately twofold-less drug for efficacy in relationship to the MIC than did treatment against S. aureus. The free drug 24-h AUCs/MICs necessary to produce a stasis effect were 12.3 ± 6.7 and 28.5 ± 11.1 for S. pneumoniae and S. aureus, respectively. The 24-h AUC/MIC associated with a 1-log killing endpoint was only 1.6-fold greater than that needed for stasis. Resistance to other antimicrobial classes did not impact the magnitude of the PD target required for efficacy. The PD target in this model should be considered in the design of clinical trials with this novel antibiotic.
PMCID: PMC2704636  PMID: 19414576
14.  In vitro and in vivo comparison of the anti-staphylococcal efficacy of generic products and the innovator of oxacillin 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:153.
Oxacillin continues to be an important agent in the treatment of staphylococcal infections; many generic products are available and the only requirement for their approval is demonstration of pharmaceutical equivalence. We tested the assumption that pharmaceutical equivalence predicts therapeutic equivalence by comparing 11 generics with the innovator product in terms of concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), minimal inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal concentrations (MBC), and antibacterial efficacy in the neutropenic mouse thigh infection model.
The API in each product was measured by a validated microbiological assay and compared by slope (potency) and intercept (concentration) analysis of linear regressions. MIC and MBC were determined by broth microdilution according to Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines. For in vivo efficacy, neutropenic ICR mice were inoculated with a clinical strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The animals had 4.14 ± 0.18 log10 CFU/thigh when treatment started. Groups of 10 mice per product received a total dose ranging from 2.93 to 750 mg/kg per day administered q1h. Sigmoidal dose-response curves were generated by nonlinear regression fitted to Hill equation to compute maximum effect (Emax), slope (N), and the effective dose reaching 50% of the Emax (ED50). Based on these results, bacteriostatic dose (BD) and dose needed to kill the first log of bacteria (1LKD) were also determined.
4 generic products failed pharmaceutical equivalence due to significant differences in potency; however, all products were undistinguishable from the innovator in terms of MIC and MBC. Independently of their status with respect to pharmaceutical equivalence or in vitro activity, all generics failed therapeutic equivalence in vivo, displaying significantly lower Emax and requiring greater BD and 1LKD, or fitting to a non-sigmoidal model.
Pharmaceutical or in vitro equivalence did not entail therapeutic equivalence for oxacillin generic products, indicating that criteria for approval deserve review to include evaluation of in vivo efficacy.
PMCID: PMC2897798  PMID: 20525378
15.  Quantitative effect of granulocytes on antibiotic treatment of experimental staphylococcal infection. 
The quantitative relation between granulocytopenia and antibiotic treatment was established for a short-term Staphylococcus aureus infection in the thighs of mice, using rifampin, benzylpenicillin, and erythromycin. Granulocytopenia was induced by total-body irradiation; the number of granulocytes decreased gradually during the first 5 days after irradiation to 10% of the number in normal mice. Experimental infections were established on each of the 5 days after irradiation. In animals not treated with antibiotics, the number of granulocytes in peripheral blood and the number of CFU at the site of infection exhibited a strong negative correlation. The influence of granulocytes on the effect of antibiotics on the number of CFU differed for the three antibiotics. For erythromycin the slope of the dose-effect relation was rather flat, but a decrease in the number of granulocytes caused a significant, nearly parallel, shift in the dose-effect relation, resulting in an increase in the number of CFU. For benzylpenicillin the slope of the dose-effect relation for normal mice was also flat, but as the number of granulocytes decreased the slope became significantly steeper, resulting in a diminishing influence of granulocytes at higher dosages. For rifampin the slope of the dose-effect relation, which was already steep for nonirradiated animals, increased significantly. Here too the effect of granulocytes decreased as the dose increased.
PMCID: PMC284214  PMID: 3619426
16.  Pharmacodynamics of Cefquinome in a Neutropenic Mouse Thigh Model of Staphylococcus aureus Infection 
Cefquinome is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, including activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The objective of our study was to examine the in vivo activity of cefquinome against S. aureus strains by using a neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. Cefquinome kinetics and protein binding in infected neutropenic mice were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In vivo postantibiotic effects (PAEs) were determined after a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight in mice infected with S. aureus strain ATCC 29213. The animals were treated by subcutaneous injection of cefquinome at doses of 2.5 to 320 mg/kg of body weight per day divided into 1, 2, 3, 6, or 12 doses over 24 h. Cefquinome exhibited time-dependent killing and produced in vivo PAEs at 2.9 h. The percentage of time that serum concentrations were above the MIC (%T>MIC) was the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) index that best described the efficacy of cefquinome. Subsequently, we employed a similar dosing strategy by using increasing total cefquinome doses that increased 4-fold and were administered every 4 h to treat animals infected with six additional S. aureus isolates. A sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) model was used to estimate the magnitudes of the ratios of the %T that the free-drug serum concentration exceeded the MIC (%T>fMIC) associated with net bacterial stasis, a 0.5-log10 CFU reduction from baseline, and a 1-log10 CFU reduction from baseline; the respective values were 30.28 to 36.84%, 34.38 to 46.70%, and 43.50 to 54.01%. The clear PAEs and potent bactericidal activity make cefquinome an attractive option for the treatment of infections caused by S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC4068449  PMID: 24614373
17.  Generic Vancomycin Products Fail In Vivo despite Being Pharmaceutical Equivalents of the Innovator ▿  
Generic versions of intravenous antibiotics are not required to demonstrate therapeutic equivalence with the innovator because therapeutic equivalence is assumed from pharmaceutical equivalence. To test such assumptions, we studied three generic versions of vancomycin in simultaneous experiments with the innovator and determined the concentration and potency of the active pharmaceutical ingredient by microbiological assay, single-dose pharmacokinetics in infected mice, antibacterial effect by broth microdilution and time-kill curves (TKC), and pharmacodynamics against two wild-type strains of Staphylococcus aureus by using the neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. The main outcome measure was the comparison of magnitudes and patterns of in vivo efficacy between generic products and the innovator. Except for one product exhibiting slightly greater concentration, vancomycin generics were undistinguishable from the innovator based on concentration and potency, protein binding, in vitro antibacterial effect determined by minimal inhibitory or bactericidal concentrations and TKC, and serum pharmacokinetics. Despite such similarities, all generic products failed in vivo to kill S. aureus, while the innovator displayed the expected bactericidal efficacy: maximum antibacterial effect (Emax) (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 2.04 (1.89 to 2.19), 2.59 (2.21 to 2.98), and 3.48 (2.92 to 4.04) versus 5.65 (5.52 to 5.78) log10 CFU/g for three generics and the innovator product, respectively (P < 0.0001, any comparison). Nonlinear regression analysis suggests that generic versions of vancomycin contain inhibitory and stimulatory principles within their formulations that cause agonistic-antagonistic actions responsible for in vivo failure. In conclusion, pharmaceutical equivalence does not imply therapeutic equivalence for vancomycin.
PMCID: PMC2916296  PMID: 20547818
18.  Early bacterial clearance from murine lungs. Species-dependent phagocyte response. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1980;66(2):194-199.
Two sets of phagocytic cells are available to defend the lung against inhaled bacteria. Both resident alveolar macrophages and granulocytes from the circulation have been observed in pulmonary air spaces after the deposition of bacteria; their functional roles, however, have been defined. We rendered mice selectively granulocytopenic with heterologous antiserum in order to ascertain the relative contributions of these two groups of cells in intrapulmonary bacterial killing. The clearance of Staphylococcus aureus was unimpaired in granulocytopenic animals, confirming the primary role of the alveolar macrophages in the killing of these organisms. In contrast, granulocytopenic animals cleared only 10.0+/-7.0% of an inoculum of Klebsiella pneumoniae compared with 33.0+/-4.0% clearance in normal animals (P < 0.02), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa proliferated to 513% of baseline levels in granulocytopenic animals, whereas normal mice cleared 26.8+/-10.6% of the inoculum. These findings indicate that circulating granulocytes play a major role in the clearance of the latter two organisms. This variation in cellular response to different bacterial species suggests that the defense of the lung against pathogenic bacteria is more complex than has been previously assumed.
PMCID: PMC371698  PMID: 6995480
19.  Comparative In Vivo Efficacies of Epithelial Lining Fluid Exposures of Tedizolid, Linezolid, and Vancomycin for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Mouse Pneumonia Model 
The antibacterial efficacies of tedizolid phosphate (TZD), linezolid, and vancomycin regimens simulating human exposures at the infection site against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were compared in an in vivo mouse pneumonia model. Immunocompetent BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with one of three strains of MRSA and subsequently administered 20 mg/kg TZD every 24 hours (q24h), 120 mg/kg linezolid q12h, or 25 mg/kg vancomycin q12h over 24 h. These regimens produced epithelial lining fluid exposures comparable to human exposures observed following intravenous regimens of 200 mg TZD q24h, 600 mg linezolid q12h, and 1 g vancomycin q12h. The differences in CFU after 24 h of treatment were compared between control and treatment groups. Vehicle-dosed control groups increased in bacterial density an average of 1.1 logs. All treatments reduced the bacterial density at 24 h with an average of 1.2, 1.6, and 0.1 logs for TZD, linezolid, and vancomycin, respectively. The efficacy of TZD versus linezolid regimens against the three MRSA isolates was not statistically different (P > 0.05), although both treatments were significantly different from controls. In contrast, the vancomycin regimen was significantly different from TZD against one MRSA isolate and from linezolid against all isolates. The vancomycin regimen was less protective than either the TZD or linezolid regimens, with overall survival of 61.1% versus 94.7% or 89.5%, respectively. At human simulated exposures to epithelial lining fluid, vancomycin resulted in minimal reductions in bacterial counts and higher mortality compared to those of either TZD or linezolid. TZD and linezolid showed similar efficacies in this MRSA pneumonia model.
PMCID: PMC3346598  PMID: 22354302
20.  Neutropenia induced in outbred mice by a simplified low-dose cyclophosphamide regimen: characterization and applicability to diverse experimental models of infectious diseases 
For its low cost and ease of handling, the mouse remains the preferred experimental animal for preclinical tests. To avoid the interaction of the animal immune system, in vivo antibiotic pharmacodynamic studies often employ cyclophosphamide (CPM) to induce neutropenia. Although high doses (350–450 mg/kg) are still used and their effects on mouse leukocytes have been described, a lower dose (250 mg/kg) is widely preferred today, but the characteristics and applicability of this approach in outbred mice have not been determined.
Fifteen female ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 150 and 100 mg/kg of CPM on days 1 and 4, respectively. Blood samples (~160 μL) were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of each mouse on days 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 11. Leukocytes were counted manually and the number of granulocytes was based on microscopic examination of Wright-stained smears. The impact of neutropenia induced by this method was then determined with a variety of pathogens in three different murine models of human infections: pneumonia (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus), meningoencephalitis (S. pneumoniae), and the thigh model (S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis).
The basal count of leukocytes was within the normal range for outbred mice. On day 4, there was an 84% reduction in total white blood cells, and by day 5 the leukopenia reached its nadir (370 ± 84 cells/mm3). Profound neutropenia (≤10 neutrophils/mm3) was demonstrated at day 4 and persisted through days 5 and 6. Lymphocytes and monocytes had a 92% and 96% decline between days 1 and 5, respectively. Leukocytes recovered completely by day 11. Mice immunosupressed under this protocol displayed clinical and microbiological patterns of progressive and lethal infectious diseases after inoculation in different organs with diverse human pathogens.
A CPM total dose of 250 mg/kg is sufficient to induce profound and sustained neutropenia (<10 neutrophils/mm3) at least during 3 days in outbred mice, is simpler than previously described methods, and allows successful induction of infection in a variety of experimental models.
PMCID: PMC1434751  PMID: 16545113
21.  Impact of Burden on Granulocyte Clearance of Bacteria in a Mouse Thigh Infection Model ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(10):4368-4372.
We wished to delineate granulocytes' impact on the clearance of different bacterial burdens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in a granulocyte-replete mouse thigh infection model. A mouse thigh model was employed. Bacterial challenges from 105 to 3 × 107 CFU (S. aureus) and from 3 × 104 to 3 × 108 CFU (P. aeruginosa) were injected into murine posterior thighs. Organism quantitation was at baseline, 2 h (Pseudomonas only), and 24 h. A Michaelis-Menten population model was fit to the data for each organism. Breakpoints for microbial containment by granulocytes were identified. Bacterial burdens exceeding that breakpoint value resulted in organism multiplication. The Michaelis-Menten model fit the data well. For P. aeruginosa, the observed-predicted plot had a regression equation that explained over 98% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). For S. aureus, this relationship explained greater than 94% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). Maximal growth rate constants, maximal population burdens, and the bacterial loads at which granulocytes killed if half-saturated were not different. The kill rate constant for P. aeruginosa was almost 10 times that of S. aureus. Bacterial kill by granulocytes is saturable. No difference between saturation points of different isolates was seen. A higher bacterial burden means an increasing reliance on chemotherapy to drive bacterial clearance.
PMCID: PMC2944594  PMID: 20516275
22.  In Vivo Pharmacodynamics of a New Oxazolidinone (Linezolid) 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2002;46(11):3484-3489.
Linezolid is a new oxazolidinone with activity against gram-positive cocci. We determined the in vivo activity of linezolid against four strains of Staphylococcus aureus (two methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA] strains and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains) and one penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP) strain, two penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae strains, and five penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. The mice had 106.3 to 107.7 CFU/thigh before therapy and were then treated for 24 h with 5 to 1,280 mg of linezolid/kg divided into 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 doses. The killing activities after 4 h of therapy ranged from 2.4 to 5.0 log10 CFU/thigh against S. pneumoniae and 1.35 to 2.2 log10 CFU/thigh against S. aureus. Increasing doses produced minimal concentration-dependent killing; doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg produced no in vivo postantibiotic effects (PAEs) with PSSP and modest PAEs (3.4 and 3.2 h) with MSSA. Pharmacokinetic studies at doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis exhibited peak dose values of 0.68 and 0.71 and elimination half-lives of 1.02 and 1.00 h. Linezolid MICs ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 μg/ml for S. pneumoniae and from 1.0 to 4.0 μg/ml for S. aureus. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to estimate the dose required to achieve a net bacteriostatic effect over 24 h. Static doses against S. pneumoniae ranged from 22.2 to 97.1 mg/kg/24 h and from 133 to 167 mg/kg/24 h for S. aureus. The 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio was the major parameter determining the efficacy of linezolid against PSSP (R2 = 82% for AUC/MIC versus 57% for T>MIC and 59% for the peak level in serum/MIC [peak/MIC]). It was difficult to determine the most relevant pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter with S. aureus, although the outcomes correlated slightly better with the 24-h AUC/MIC ratio (R2 = 75%) than with the other parameters (T>MIC R2 = 75% and peak/MIC R2 = 65%). The 24-h AUC/MIC ratio required for a bacteriostatic effect with linezolid varied from 22 to 97 (mean = 48) for pneumococci and from 39 to 167 (mean = 83) for staphylococci. Based upon a pharmacokinetic goal of a 24-h AUC/MIC of 50 to 100, a dosage regimen of 600 mg given either intravenously or orally twice daily would achieve success against organisms with MICs as high as 2 to 4 μg/ml.
PMCID: PMC128755  PMID: 12384354
23.  Pharmacodynamics of the New Fluoroquinolone Gatifloxacin in Murine Thigh and Lung Infection Models 
Gatifloxacin is a new 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone with enhanced activity against gram-positive cocci. We used the neutropenic murine thigh infection model to characterize the time course of antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin and determine which pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) parameter best correlated with efficacy. The thighs of mice were infected with 106.5 to 107.4 CFU of strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Escherichia coli, and the mice were then treated for 24 h with 0.29 to 600 mg of gatifloxacin per kg of body weight per day, with the dose fractionated for dosing every 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. Levels in serum were measured by microbiologic assay. In vivo postantibiotic effects (PAEs) were calculated from serial values of the log10 numbers of CFU per thigh 2 to 4 h after the administration of doses of 8 and 32 mg/kg. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine which PK-PD parameter best correlated with the numbers of CFU per thigh at 24 h. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed peak/dose values of 0.23 to 0.32, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/dose values of 0.47 to 0.62, and half-lives of 0.6 to 1.1 h. Gatifloxacin produced in vivo PAEs of 0.2 to 3.1 h for S. pneumoniae and 0.4 to 2.3 h for S. aureus. The 24-h AUC/MIC was the PK-PD parameter that best correlated with efficacy (R2 = 90 to 94% for the three organisms, whereas R2 = 70 to 81% for peak level/MIC and R2 = 48 to 73% for the time that the concentration in serum was greater than the MIC). There was some reduced activity when dosing every 24 h was used due to the short half-life of gatifloxacin in mice. In subsequent studies we used the neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine thigh and lung infection models to determine if the magnitude of the AUC/MIC needed for the efficacy of gatifloxacin varied among pathogens (including resistant strains) and infection sites. The mice were infected with 106.5 to 107.4 CFU of four isolates of S. aureus (one methicillin resistant) per thigh, nine isolates of S. pneumoniae (two penicillin intermediate, four penicillin resistant, and two ciprofloxacin resistant) per thigh, four isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae per thigh, a single isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa per thigh, and 108.3 CFU of Klebsiella pneumoniae per lung. The mice were then treated for 24 h with 0.29 to 600 mg of gatifloxacin per kg every 6 or 12 h. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to estimate the dose (in milligrams per kilogram per 24 h) required to achieve a net bacteriostatic effect over 24 h. MICs ranged from 0.015 to 8 μg/ml. The 24-h AUC/MICs for each static dose (1.7 to 592) varied from 16 to 72. Mean ± standard deviation 24-h AUC/MICs for isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, S. pneumoniae, and S. aureus were 41 ± 21, 52 ± 20, and 36 ± 9, respectively. Methicillin, penicillin, or ciprofloxacin resistance did not alter the magnitude of the AUC/MIC required for efficacy. The 24-h AUC/MICs required to achieve bacteriostatic effects against K. pneumoniae were quite similar in the thigh and lung (70 versus 56 in neutropenic mice and 32 versus 43 in nonneutropenic mice, respectively). The magnitude of the 24-h AUC/MIC of gatifloxacin required for efficacy against multiple pathogens varied only fourfold and was not significantly altered by drug resistance or site of infection.
PMCID: PMC127205  PMID: 12019073
24.  In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Activity of the Glycopeptide Dalbavancin▿  
Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive cocci and a markedly prolonged serum elimination half-life. We used the neutropenic murine thigh and lung infection models to characterize the pharmacodynamics of dalbavancin. Single-dose pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated linear kinetics and a prolonged elimination half-life which ranged from 7.6 to 13.1 h over the dose range of 2.5 to 80 mg/kg of body weight. The level of protein binding in mouse serum was 98.4%. The time course of in vivo activity of dalbavancin over the same dose range was examined in neutropenic ICR Swiss mice infected with a strain of either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus by using the thigh infection model. The burden of organisms for S. pneumoniae was markedly reduced over the initial 24 h of study, and organism regrowth was suppressed in a dose-dependent fashion for up to the entire 96 h of study following dalbavancin doses of 2.5 mg/kg or greater. Dalbavancin doses of 20 mg/kg or greater resulted in less killing of S. aureus but were still followed by a prolonged suppression of regrowth. Multiple-dosing-regimen studies with the same organisms were used to determined which of the pharmacodynamic indices (maximum concentration in serum [Cmax]/MIC, area under the concentration-versus-time curve [AUC]/MIC, or the duration of time that levels in serum exceed the MIC) best correlated with treatment efficacy. These studies used a dose range of 3.8 to 480 mg/kg/6 days fractionated into 2, 4, 6, or 12 doses over the 144-h dosing period. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to examine the data fit with each pharmacodynamic index. Dalbavancin administration by the use of large, widely spaced doses was the most efficacious for both organisms. Both the 24-h AUC/MIC and the Cmax/MIC parameters correlated well with the in vivo efficacy of treatment against S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (for 24-h AUC/MIC, R2 = 78 and 77%, respectively; for Cmax/MIC, R2 = 90 and 57%, respectively). The free-drug 24-h AUC/MICs required for a bacteriostatic effect were 17 ± 7 for five S. pneumoniae isolates. A similar treatment endpoint for the treatment against five strains of S. aureus required a larger dalbavancin exposure, with a mean free-drug 24-h AUC/MIC of 265 ± 143. Beta-lactam resistance did not affect the pharmacodynamic target. The dose-response curves were relatively steep for both species; thus, the pharmacodynamic target needed to achieve organism reductions of 1 or 2 log10 in the mice were not appreciably larger (1.3- to 1.6-fold). Treatment was similarly efficacious in neutropenic mice and in the lung infection model. The dose-dependent efficacy and prolonged elimination half-life of dalbavancin support the widely spaced regimens used in clinical trials. The free-drug 24-h AUC/MIC targets identified in these studies should be helpful for discerning rational susceptibility breakpoints. The current MIC90 for the target gram-positive organisms would fall within this value.
PMCID: PMC1855559  PMID: 17307987
25.  Pharmacodynamics of TD-1792, a Novel Glycopeptide-Cephalosporin Heterodimer Antibiotic Used against Gram-Positive Bacteria, in a Neutropenic Murine Thigh Model 
TD-1792 is a novel glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer investigational antibiotic that displays potent bactericidal effects against clinically relevant Gram-positive organisms in vitro. The present studies evaluated the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of TD-1792 in the neutropenic murine thigh infection animal model. TD-1792, dosed subcutaneously (SC), produced dose-dependent reduction in the thigh bacterial burden of several organisms, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSA, MRSA, MSSE, MRSE, respectively), penicillin-susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), Streptococcus pyogenes, and vancomycin-intermediate-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). In single-dose efficacy studies, the 1-log10 CFU kill effective dose (ED1-log kill) estimates for TD-1792 ranged from 0.049 to 2.55 mg/kg of body weight administered SC, and the bacterial burden was reduced by up to 3 log10 CFU/g from pretreatment values. Against S. aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), the total 24-h log10 stasis dose (EDstasis) and ED1-logkill doses for TD-1792 were 0.53 and 1.11 mg/kg/24 h, respectively, compared to 23.4 and 54.6 mg/kg/24 h for vancomycin, indicating that TD-1762 is 44- to 49-fold more potent than vancomycin. PK-PD analysis of data from single-dose and dose-fractionation studies for MRSA (ATCC 33591) demonstrated that the total-drug 24-h area under the concentration-time curve-to-MIC ratio (AUC/MIC ratio) was the best predictor of efficacy (r2 = 0.826) compared to total-drug maximum plasma concentration of drug-to-MIC ratio (Cmax/MIC ratio; r2 = 0.715) and percent time that the total-drug plasma drug concentration remains above the MIC (%Time>MIC; r2 = 0.749). The magnitudes of the total-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net bacterial stasis, a 1-log10 CFU reduction from baseline and near maximal effect, were 21.1, 37.2, and 51.8, respectively. PK-PD targets based on such data represent useful inputs for analyses to support dose selection decisions for clinical studies of patients.
PMCID: PMC3294954  PMID: 22155835

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