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1.  In Vitro Activity and Microbiological Efficacy of Tedizolid (TR-700) against Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates from a Phase 2 Study of Oral Tedizolid Phosphate (TR-701) in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections 
Tedizolid (TR-700, formerly torezolid) is the active moiety of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a next-generation oxazolidinone, with high potency against Gram-positive species, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A recently completed randomized, double-blind phase 2 trial evaluated 200, 300, or 400 mg of oral tedizolid phosphate once daily for 5 to 7 days in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections. This report examines the in vitro activity of tedizolid and Zyvox (linezolid) against Gram-positive pathogens isolated at baseline and describes the microbiological and clinical efficacy of tedizolid. Of 196 isolates tested, 81.6% were S. aureus, and of these, 76% were MRSA. The MIC50 and MIC90 of tedizolid against both methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA were 0.25 μg/ml, compared with a MIC50 of 1 μg/ml and MIC90 of 2 μg/ml for linezolid. For coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 7), viridans group streptococci (n = 15), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (n = 3), the MICs ranged from 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml for tedizolid and from 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for linezolid. The microbiological eradication rates at the test-of-cure visit (7 to 14 days posttreatment) in the microbiologically evaluable population (n = 133) were similar in all treatment groups, with overall eradication rates of 97.7% for all pathogens, 97.9% for MRSA, and 95.7% for MSSA. The clinical cure rates for MRSA and MSSA infections were 96.9% and 95.7%, respectively, across all dose groups. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of tedizolid against pathogenic Gram-positive cocci, including MRSA, and its 4-fold-greater potency in comparison with linezolid. All dosages of tedizolid phosphate showed excellent microbiological and clinical efficacy against MRSA and MSSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00458-12
PMCID: PMC3421864  PMID: 22687509
2.  Comparative Efficacies of Human Simulated Exposures of Tedizolid and Linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus in the Murine Thigh Infection Model 
Tedizolid (formally torezolid) is an expanded-spectrum oxazolidinone with enhanced in vitro potency against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The efficacies of human simulated exposures of tedizolid and linezolid against S. aureus in an immunocompetent mouse thigh model over 3 days were compared. Four strains of MRSA and one of MSSA with tedizolid and linezolid MICs ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 and from 2 to 4 μg/ml, respectively, were utilized. Tedizolid or linezolid was administered in a regimen simulating a human steady-state 24-h area under the free concentration-time curve of 200 mg every 24 h (Q24) or 600 mg Q12, respectively. Thighs were harvested after 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h, and efficacy was determined by the change in bacterial density. The mean bacterial density in control mice increased over the 3-day period. After 24 h of treatment, a reduction in bacterial density of ≥1 log CFU was observed for both the tedizolid and linezolid treatments. Antibacterial activity was enhanced for both agents with a reduction of ≥2.6 log CFU after 72 h of treatment. Any statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) in efficacy between the agents were transient and did not persist throughout the 72-h treatment period. The tedizolid and linezolid regimens demonstrated similar in vivo efficacies against the S. aureus isolates tested. Both agents were bacteriostatic at 24 h and bactericidal on the third day of treatment. These data support the clinical utility of tedizolid for skin and skin structure infections caused by S. aureus, as well as the bactericidal activity of the oxazolidinones after 3 days of treatment.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00122-12
PMCID: PMC3421595  PMID: 22687504
3.  Activity of Tedizolid Phosphate (TR-701) in Murine Models of Infection with Penicillin-Resistant and Penicillin-Sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae 
The in vitro activity of tedizolid (previously known as torezolid, TR-700) against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) clinical isolates and the in vivo efficacy of tedizolid phosphate (torezolid phosphate, TR-701) in murine models of PRSP systemic infection and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) pneumonia were examined using linezolid as a comparator. The MIC90 against 28 PRSP isolates was 0.25 μg/ml for tedizolid, whereas it was 1 μg/ml for linezolid. In mice infected systemically with a lethal inoculum of PRSP 1 h prior to a single administration of either antimicrobial, oral tedizolid phosphate was equipotent to linezolid (1 isolate) to 2-fold more potent than linezolid (3 isolates) for survival at day 7, with tedizolid phosphate 50% effective dose (ED50) values ranging from 3.19 to 11.53 mg/kg of body weight/day. In the PSSP pneumonia model, the ED50 for survival at day 15 was 2.80 mg/kg/day for oral tedizolid phosphate, whereas it was 8.09 mg/kg/day for oral linezolid following 48 h of treatment with either agent. At equivalent doses (10 mg/kg once daily tedizolid phosphate or 5 mg/kg twice daily linezolid), pneumococcal titers in the lungs at 52 h postinfection were approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower with tedizolid phosphate treatment than with linezolid treatment or no treatment. Lung histopathology showed less inflammatory cell invasion into alveolar spaces in mice treated with tedizolid phosphate than in untreated or linezolid-treated mice. These results demonstrate that tedizolid phosphate is effective in murine models of PRSP systemic infection and PSSP pneumonia.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00346-12
PMCID: PMC3421900  PMID: 22713339
4.  Comparative Pharmacodynamics of the New Oxazolidinone Tedizolid Phosphate and Linezolid in a Neutropenic Murine Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia Model 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(11):5916-5922.
Tedizolid phosphate (TR-701) is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug (converted to the active form tedizolid [TR-700]) with potent Staphylococcus aureus activity. The current studies characterized and compared the in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics of TR-701/TR-700 and linezolid against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the neutropenic murine pneumonia model. The pharmacokinetic properties of both drugs were linear over a dose range of 0.625 to 40 mg/kg of body weight. Protein binding was 30% for linezolid and 85% for TR-700. Mice were infected with one of 11 isolates of S. aureus, including MSSA and community- and hospital-acquired MRSA strains. Each drug was administered by oral-gastric gavage every 12 h (q12h). The dosing regimens ranged from 1.25 to 80 mg/kg/12 h for linezolid and 0.625 to 160 mg/kg/12 h for TR-701. At the start of therapy, mice had 6.24 ± 0.40 log10 CFU/lungs, which increased to 7.92 ± 1.02 log10 CFU/lungs in untreated animals over a 24-h period. A sigmoid maximum-effect (Emax) model was used to determine the antimicrobial exposure associated with net stasis (static dose [SD]) and 1-log-unit reduction in organism relative to the burden at the start of therapy. The static dose pharmacodynamic targets for linezolid and TR-700 were nearly identical, at a free drug (non-protein-bound) area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) of 19 and 20, respectively. The 1-log-unit kill endpoints were also similar, at 46.1 for linezolid and 34.6 for TR-700. The exposure targets were also comparable for both MSSA and MRSA isolates. These dosing goals support further clinical trial examination of TR-701 in MSSA and MRSA pneumonia.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01303-12
PMCID: PMC3486526  PMID: 22964254
5.  Comparative In Vivo Efficacies of Epithelial Lining Fluid Exposures of Tedizolid, Linezolid, and Vancomycin for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Mouse Pneumonia Model 
The antibacterial efficacies of tedizolid phosphate (TZD), linezolid, and vancomycin regimens simulating human exposures at the infection site against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were compared in an in vivo mouse pneumonia model. Immunocompetent BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with one of three strains of MRSA and subsequently administered 20 mg/kg TZD every 24 hours (q24h), 120 mg/kg linezolid q12h, or 25 mg/kg vancomycin q12h over 24 h. These regimens produced epithelial lining fluid exposures comparable to human exposures observed following intravenous regimens of 200 mg TZD q24h, 600 mg linezolid q12h, and 1 g vancomycin q12h. The differences in CFU after 24 h of treatment were compared between control and treatment groups. Vehicle-dosed control groups increased in bacterial density an average of 1.1 logs. All treatments reduced the bacterial density at 24 h with an average of 1.2, 1.6, and 0.1 logs for TZD, linezolid, and vancomycin, respectively. The efficacy of TZD versus linezolid regimens against the three MRSA isolates was not statistically different (P > 0.05), although both treatments were significantly different from controls. In contrast, the vancomycin regimen was significantly different from TZD against one MRSA isolate and from linezolid against all isolates. The vancomycin regimen was less protective than either the TZD or linezolid regimens, with overall survival of 61.1% versus 94.7% or 89.5%, respectively. At human simulated exposures to epithelial lining fluid, vancomycin resulted in minimal reductions in bacterial counts and higher mortality compared to those of either TZD or linezolid. TZD and linezolid showed similar efficacies in this MRSA pneumonia model.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06427-11
PMCID: PMC3346598  PMID: 22354302
6.  Skin and soft tissue concentrations of tedizolid (formerly torezolid), a novel oxazolidinone, following a single oral dose in healthy volunteers 
Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12 h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24 h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUCtissue/fAUCplasma) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6 h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues.
doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2012.03.006
PMCID: PMC3789129  PMID: 22584101
Microdialysis; Tissue distribution; Tedizolid; Pharmacokinetics
7.  Potential role of tedizolid phosphate in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections 
Tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), a prodrug of tedizolid (TR-700), is a next-generation oxazolidinone that has shown favorable results in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in its first Phase III clinical trial. Tedizolid has high bioavailability, penetration, and tissue distribution when administered orally or intravenously. The activity of tedizolid was greater than linezolid against strains of Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. in vitro studies, including strains resistant to linezolid and those not susceptible to vancomycin or daptomycin. Its pharmacokinetic characteristics allow for a once-daily administration that leads to a more predictable efficacy and safety profile than those of linezolid. No hematological adverse effects have been reported associated with tedizolid when used at the therapeutic dose of 200 mg in Phase I, II, or III clinical trials of up to 3 weeks of tedizolid administration. Given that the clinical and microbiological efficacy are similar for the 200, 300, and 400 mg doses, the lowest effective dose of 200 mg once daily for 6 days was selected for Phase III studies in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections, providing a safe dosing regimen with low potential for development of myelosuppression. Unlike linezolid, tedizolid does not inhibit monoamine oxidase in vivo, therefore interactions with adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic drugs are not to be expected. In conclusion, tedizolid is a novel antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive microorganisms responsible for skin and soft tissue infections, including strains resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin, thus answers a growing therapeutic need.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S30728
PMCID: PMC3622392  PMID: 23589680
oxazolidinone; TR-700; TR-701 FA; tedizolid; skin and soft tissue infections; linezolid resistance
8.  Pulmonary Disposition of Tedizolid following Administration of Once-Daily Oral 200-Milligram Tedizolid Phosphate in Healthy Adult Volunteers 
This study assessed the pulmonary disposition of tedizolid, an oxazolidinone, in adult volunteers receiving 200 mg of the prodrug tedizolid phosphate orally every 24 h for 3 days to steady state. Plasma samples were collected over the dosing interval, and participants were randomized to undergo bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 2, 6, 12, or 24 h after the last dose. Drug concentrations in plasma, BAL fluid, and alveolar macrophages (AM) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the urea correction method was used to calculate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental methods followed by compartmental population pharmacokinetics. Penetration was calculated as the area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC0–24) for ELF and AM relative to the free AUC0–24 (fAUC0–24) in plasma. The half-life and volume of distribution in plasma were 9.23 ± 2.04 h and 108.25 ± 20.53 liters (means ± standard deviations), respectively. Total AUC0–24 in plasma was 25.13 ± 5.78 μg · h/ml. Protein binding was 89.44% ± 1.58%, resulting in a mean fAUC0–24 of 2.65 ± 0.72 μg · h/ml in plasma. Mean concentrations (μg/ml) at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h were 9.05 ± 3.83, 4.45 ± 2.18, 5.62 ± 1.99, and 1.33 ± 0.59 in ELF and 3.67 ± 1.02, 4.38 ± 2.18, 1.42 ± 0.63, and 1.04 ± 0.52 in AM. ELF and AM penetration ratios were 41.2 and 20.0. The mean ELF penetration ratio after population analyses was 39.7. This study demonstrates that tedizolid penetrates into ELF and AM to levels approximately 40-fold and 20-fold, respectively, higher than free-drug exposures in plasma.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05354-11
PMCID: PMC3346604  PMID: 22330925
9.  In Vitro, In Vivo, and Clinical Studies of Tedizolid To Assess the Potential for Peripheral or Central Monoamine Oxidase Interactions 
Tedizolid phosphate is a novel oxazolidinone prodrug whose active moiety, tedizolid, has improved potency against Gram-positive pathogens and pharmacokinetics, allowing once-daily administration. Given linezolid warnings for drug-drug and drug-food interactions mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition, including sporadic serotonergic toxicity, these studies evaluated tedizolid for potential MAO interactions. In vitro, tedizolid and linezolid were reversible inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B; the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for tedizolid was 8.7 μM for MAO-A and 5.7 μM for MAO-B and 46.0 and 2.1 μM, respectively, with linezolid. Tedizolid phosphate was negative in the mouse head twitch model of serotonergic activity. Two randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical studies assessed the potential of 200 mg/day tedizolid phosphate (at steady state) to enhance pressor responses to coadministered oral tyramine or pseudoephedrine. Sensitivity to tyramine was determined by comparing the concentration of tyramine required to elicit a ≥30-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (TYR30) when administered with placebo versus tedizolid phosphate. The geometric mean tyramine sensitivity ratio (placebo TYR30/tedizolid phosphate TYR30) was 1.33; a ratio of ≥2 is considered clinically relevant. In the pseudoephedrine study, mean maximum systolic blood pressure was not significantly different when pseudoephedrine was coadministered with tedizolid phosphate versus placebo. In summary, tedizolid is a weak, reversible inhibitor of MAO-A and MAO-B in vitro. Provocative testing in humans and animal models failed to uncover significant signals that would suggest potential for hypertensive or serotonergic adverse consequences at the therapeutic dose of tedizolid phosphate. Clinical studies are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01539473 (tyramine interaction study conducted at Covance Clinical Research Center, Evansville, IN) and NCT01577459 (pseudoephedrine interaction study conducted at Vince and Associates Clinical Research, Overland Park, KS).
doi:10.1128/AAC.00431-13
PMCID: PMC3697335  PMID: 23612197
10.  Pharmacokinetics and Pulmonary Disposition of Tedizolid and Linezolid in a Murine Pneumonia Model under Variable Conditions 
In vivo pharmacokinetics are often evaluated in only one variation of an infection model, and the resulting exposures are assumed to be similar in each model. We evaluated and compared the effect of lung infection and immune status on the murine pharmacokinetics and pulmonary disposition of tedizolid and linezolid. Both factors resulted in differing blood and pulmonary exposure profiles, with similar trends for tedizolid and linezolid. These data highlight the importance of pharmacokinetic confirmation in each model.
doi:10.1128/AAC.06121-11
PMCID: PMC3370766  PMID: 22430966
11.  In Vivo Pharmacodynamics of Torezolid Phosphate (TR-701), a New Oxazolidinone Antibiotic, against Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains in a Mouse Thigh Infection Model ▿ 
Torezolid phosphate (TR-701) is the phosphate monoester prodrug of the oxazolidinone TR-700 which demonstrates potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The pharmacodynamics of TR-701 or TR-700 (TR-701/700) against S. aureus is incompletely defined. Single-dose pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in mice for TR-701/700. Forty-eight-hour dose range and 24-hour dose fractionation studies were conducted in a neutropenic mouse thigh model of S. aureus infection using MRSA ATCC 33591 to identify the dose and schedule of administration of TR-701/700 that was linked with optimized antimicrobial effect. Additional dose range studies compared the efficacies of TR-701/700 and linezolid for one MSSA strain and one community-associated MRSA strain. In dose range studies, TR-701/700 was equally bactericidal against MSSA and MRSA. Mean doses of 37.6 and 66.9 mg/kg of body weight/day of TR-701/700 resulted in stasis and 1 log CFU/g decreases in bacterial densities, respectively, at 24 h, and mean doses of 35.3, 46.6, and 71.1 mg/kg/day resulted in stasis and 1 and 2 log CFU/g reductions, respectively, at 48 h. Linezolid administered at doses as high as 150 mg/kg/day did not achieve stasis at either time point. Dose fractionation studies demonstrated that the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) was the pharmacodynamic index for TR-701/700 that was linked with efficacy. TR-701/700 was highly active against MSSA and MRSA, in vivo, and was substantially more efficacious than linezolid, although linezolid's top exposure has half the human exposure. Dose fractionation studies showed that AUC/MIC was the pharmacodynamic index linked with efficacy, indicating that once-daily dosing in humans is feasible.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01565-10
PMCID: PMC3122459  PMID: 21502615
12.  Activity of Tedizolid (TR-700) against Well-Characterized Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains of Diverse Epidemiological Origins 
The in vitro activities of tedizolid and 10 antistaphylococcal agents were compared against 111 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from 14 epidemiologically characterized groups. Tedizolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin were the most potent agents, with tedizolid 4-fold more potent than linezolid. Tedizolid, linezolid, and vancomycin were unaffected by epidemiological types. Tigecycline and daptomycin had reduced potency against ST80-MRSA-IV and ST239-MRSA-III, respectively. Overall, tedizolid was highly potent against all MRSA strain types, including those resistant to other classes of drugs.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00274-13
PMCID: PMC3716181  PMID: 23571550
13.  Phase 2, Randomized, Double-Blind, Dose-Ranging Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, Population Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Oral Torezolid Phosphate in Patients with Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections▿ † ‡  
Torezolid (TR-700) is the active moiety of the prodrug torezolid phosphate ([TP] TR-701), a second-generation oxazolidinone with 4- to 16-fold greater potency than linezolid against Gram-positive species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A double-blind phase 2 study evaluated three levels (200, 300, or 400 mg) of oral, once-daily TP over 5 to 7 days for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI). Patients 18 to 75 years old with cSSSI caused by suspected or confirmed Gram-positive pathogens were randomized 1:1:1. Of 188 treated patients, 76.6% had abscesses, 17.6% had extensive cellulitis, and 5.9% had wound infections. S. aureus, the most common pathogen, was isolated in 90.3% of patients (139/154) with a baseline pathogen; 80.6% were MRSA. Cure rates in clinically evaluable patients were 98.2% at 200 mg, 94.4% at 300 mg, and 94.4% at 400 mg. Cure rates were consistent across diagnoses, regardless of lesion size or the presence of systemic signs of infection. Clinical cure rates in patients with S. aureus isolated at baseline were 96.6% overall and 96.8% for MRSA. TP was safe and well tolerated at all dose levels. No patients discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. Three-stage hierarchical population pharmacokinetic modeling yielded a geometric mean clearance of 8.28 liters/h (between-patient variability, 32.3%), a volume of the central compartment of 71.4 liters (24.0%), and a volume of the peripheral compartment of 27.9 liters (35.7%). Results of this study show a high degree of efficacy at all three dose levels without significant differences in the safety profile and support the continued evaluation of TP for the treatment of cSSSI in phase 3 trials.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00076-10
PMCID: PMC3028792  PMID: 21115795
14.  Pharmacodynamics of Daptomycin in a Murine Thigh Model of Staphylococcus aureus Infection 
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with activity against gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. We defined the pharmacodynamic parameters that determine the activity of daptomycin for S. aureus using in vitro methods and the Craig (W. A. Craig, J. Redington, and S. C. Ebert, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 27[Suppl. C]:29–40, 1991) neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. In Mueller-Hinton broth, the MICs for three S. aureus isolates were 0.1 to 0.2 μg/ml. In mouse serum, the MICs were 1.0 μg/ml. The protein binding of daptomycin was 90 to 92.5% in mouse serum. Single-dose intraperitoneal (i.p.) pharmacokinetic studies with infected mice showed a linear relationship between dose versus the maximum concentration of drug in serum and dose versus the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). The serum half-life of daptomycin in infected mice was approximately 1.8 h. In single-dose, dose-ranging studies using mice, daptomycin showed a dose-response effect described by an inhibitory sigmoid Emax (maximum effect) curve (r = 0.974; P ≪ 0.001). The density of S. aureus in untreated controls was 8.26 log10 CFU/g, and the Emax was 3.97 log10 CFU/g. The 50% effective dose (ED50) was 3.7 mg/kg of body weight i.p. and the stasis dose was 7.1 mg/kg. Dose fractionation studies at schedules of Q6h, Q12h, and Q24h, for total 24-h ED30, ED60, and ED80 doses of 2.5, 5.6, and 15 mg/kg i.p., showed no difference in effect at each total 24-h dose level by schedule, indicating that the AUC/MIC ratio is the dynamically linked variable.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.3.845-851.2001
PMCID: PMC90383  PMID: 11181370
15.  Therapy with cefoperazone plus sulbactam against disseminated infection due to cefoperazone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in granulocytopenic mice. 
Using a granulocytopenic murine model, we evaluated the efficacy of cefoperazone plus sulbactam against disseminated infection due to isolates of beta-lactamase-producing, cefoperazone-resistant (MIC, > or = 50 micrograms/ml) Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both isolates were susceptible in vitro to cefoperazone plus sulbactam (MIC, < or = 6.3 micrograms/ml). Mice rendered granulocytopenic with cyclophosphamide were divided into three groups: group A--infected, untreated mice (controls); group B--infected, cefoperazone-treated mice (700 mg/kg of body weight); and group C--infected, cefoperazone-plus-sulbactam-treated mice (700 mg plus 350 mg). In the E. coli experiment, survival rates in groups A, B, and C were 25, 46, and 73%, respectively. In the experiment with P. aeruginosa, survival rates in groups A, B, and C were 0, 10, and 50%, respectively (P < 0.001). Highly significant differences also were noted for colony counts in the blood, liver, and spleen of group C mice versus group A or B mice in both experiments. Thus, cefoperazone plus sulbactam appears to be a promising combination for the treatment of infections due to certain cefoperazone-resistant gram-negative bacilli, including P. aeruginosa.
PMCID: PMC188094  PMID: 8239607
16.  Early bacterial clearance from murine lungs. Species-dependent phagocyte response. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1980;66(2):194-199.
Two sets of phagocytic cells are available to defend the lung against inhaled bacteria. Both resident alveolar macrophages and granulocytes from the circulation have been observed in pulmonary air spaces after the deposition of bacteria; their functional roles, however, have been defined. We rendered mice selectively granulocytopenic with heterologous antiserum in order to ascertain the relative contributions of these two groups of cells in intrapulmonary bacterial killing. The clearance of Staphylococcus aureus was unimpaired in granulocytopenic animals, confirming the primary role of the alveolar macrophages in the killing of these organisms. In contrast, granulocytopenic animals cleared only 10.0+/-7.0% of an inoculum of Klebsiella pneumoniae compared with 33.0+/-4.0% clearance in normal animals (P < 0.02), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa proliferated to 513% of baseline levels in granulocytopenic animals, whereas normal mice cleared 26.8+/-10.6% of the inoculum. These findings indicate that circulating granulocytes play a major role in the clearance of the latter two organisms. This variation in cellular response to different bacterial species suggests that the defense of the lung against pathogenic bacteria is more complex than has been previously assumed.
PMCID: PMC371698  PMID: 6995480
17.  Immunological Responses to Candida albicans I. Mouse-Thigh Lesion as a Model for Experimental Candidiasis 
Infection and Immunity  1974;9(6):999-1002.
A mouse-thigh lesion model for experimental candidiasis is described. A standard inoculum of 5 × 108 yeast cells of Candida albicans, injected into the thigh muscle of C57BL/Ks mice, produced an easily measured thigh lesion that was self-limiting by 4 to 6 weeks, permitting a study of immunological responses to the infection. Examination of the histopathology of the lesion reveals that the cellular infiltrate is predominately granulocytic, and gives little evidence for an active, specific, cell-mediated immune response.
Images
PMCID: PMC414923  PMID: 4598258
18.  Novel Ribosomal Mutations in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Identified through Selection with the Oxazolidinones Linezolid and Torezolid (TR-700)▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(12):5265-5274.
TR-700 (torezolid), the active moiety of the novel oxazolidinone phosphate prodrug TR-701, is highly potent against gram-positive pathogens, including strains resistant to linezolid (LZD). Here we investigated the potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains ATCC 29213 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]) and ATCC 33591 (methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) to develop resistance to TR-700. The spontaneous frequencies of mutation of MSSA 29213 and MRSA 33591 resulting in reduced susceptibility to TR-700 at 2× the MIC were 1.1 × 10−10 and 1.9 × 10−10, respectively. These values are ∼16-fold lower than the corresponding LZD spontaneous mutation frequencies of both strains. Following 30 serial passages in the presence of TR-700, the MIC for MSSA 29213 remained constant (0.5 μg/ml) while increasing eightfold (0.25 to 2.0 μg/ml) for MRSA 33591. Serial passage of MSSA 29213 and MRSA 33591 in LZD resulted in 64- and 32-fold increases in LZD resistance (2 to 128 μg/ml and 1 to 32 μg/ml, respectively). Domain V 23S rRNA gene mutations (Escherichia coli numbering) found in TR-700-selected mutants included T2500A and a novel coupled T2571C/G2576T mutation, while LZD-selected mutants included G2447T, T2500A, and G2576T. We also identified mutations correlating with decreased susceptibility to TR-700 and LZD in the rplC and rplD genes, encoding the 50S ribosomal proteins L3 and L4, respectively. L3 mutations included Gly152Asp, Gly155Arg, Gly155Arg/Met169Leu, and ΔPhe127-His146. The only L4 mutation detected was Lys68Gln. TR-700 maintained a fourfold or greater potency advantage over LZD against all strains with ribosomal mutations. These data bring to light a variety of novel and less-characterized mutations associated with S. aureus resistance to oxazolidinones and demonstrate the low resistance potential of torezolid.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00871-09
PMCID: PMC2786364  PMID: 19752277
19.  Impact of Burden on Granulocyte Clearance of Bacteria in a Mouse Thigh Infection Model ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(10):4368-4372.
We wished to delineate granulocytes' impact on the clearance of different bacterial burdens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in a granulocyte-replete mouse thigh infection model. A mouse thigh model was employed. Bacterial challenges from 105 to 3 × 107 CFU (S. aureus) and from 3 × 104 to 3 × 108 CFU (P. aeruginosa) were injected into murine posterior thighs. Organism quantitation was at baseline, 2 h (Pseudomonas only), and 24 h. A Michaelis-Menten population model was fit to the data for each organism. Breakpoints for microbial containment by granulocytes were identified. Bacterial burdens exceeding that breakpoint value resulted in organism multiplication. The Michaelis-Menten model fit the data well. For P. aeruginosa, the observed-predicted plot had a regression equation that explained over 98% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). For S. aureus, this relationship explained greater than 94% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). Maximal growth rate constants, maximal population burdens, and the bacterial loads at which granulocytes killed if half-saturated were not different. The kill rate constant for P. aeruginosa was almost 10 times that of S. aureus. Bacterial kill by granulocytes is saturable. No difference between saturation points of different isolates was seen. A higher bacterial burden means an increasing reliance on chemotherapy to drive bacterial clearance.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00133-10
PMCID: PMC2944594  PMID: 20516275
20.  Pharmacodynamics of RWJ-54428 against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in a Neutropenic Mouse Thigh Infection Model▿  
RWJ-54428 (also known as MC-02,479) is a new cephalosporin with promising activity against gram-positive bacteria. The pharmacodynamics (PDs) of RWJ-54428 against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis were studied in a neutropenic mouse thigh infection model. The RWJ-54428 MICs ranged from 0.25 to 1 mg/liter. Mice with ca. 106 CFU/thigh at the initiation of therapy were treated intraperitoneally with RWJ-54428 at doses that ranged from 3 to 1,200 mg/kg of body weight/day (in 2, 3, 4, 6, or 12 divided doses) for 24 h. The maximal reductions in bacterial counts in thigh tissues at 24 h for the methicillin-resistant S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and E. faecalis strains were −2.8, −3.8, and −1.7 log10 CFU/thigh, respectively. The percentage of a 24-h dosing interval that the unbound serum RWJ-54428 concentrations exceeded the MIC (fT>MIC) was the pharmacokinetic (PK)-PD parameter that best described the efficacy of RWJ-54428. The fT>MICs for a bacteriostatic effect (no net change in the numbers of CFU/thigh over 24 h) ranged from 14 to 20% for staphylococci and streptococci; for maximal reductions in the numbers of CFU/thigh, the fT>MICs ranged from 22 to 36% for these strains. For E. faecalis, the ranges of fT>MICs for static and maximal effects were 30 to 46% and 55 to 60%, respectively. These data show that treatment with RWJ-54428 results in marked antibacterial effects in vivo, with the PK-PD parameters for efficacy being comparable to those for the efficacy of penicillins and carbapenems active against staphylococci and pneumococci.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00776-07
PMCID: PMC2223871  PMID: 17954697
21.  Effect of bacterial competition on the opsonization, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of microorganisms by granulocytes. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;49(1):219-224.
The ingestion of Escherichia coli by human granulocytes in vitro was reduced in the presence of Bacteroides fragilis or Staphylococcus aureus. This reduction of ingestion proved to be mainly attributable to the absence of opsonization of E. coli, which was due to complement consumption by B. fragilis and S. aureus. The intracellular killing of E. coli was decreased in the presence of B. fragilis and S. aureus because of consumption of complement components required for extracellular stimulation of granulocytes to kill intracellular bacteria. Decreased intracellular killing of E. coli by granulocytes containing either B. fragilis or S. aureus is due to the limited killing capacity of granulocytes. These interactions between E. coli and B. fragilis or S. aureus found for phagocytosis and intracellular killing were also observed in in vivo studies: in an experimental thigh lesion infection in mice, E. coli showed stronger proliferation after coinoculation with B. fragilis or with S. aureus than after injection of E. coli alone. These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that bacterial interactions, not only between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria but also between two species of aerobic microorganisms, compete for host defense mechanisms (i.e., opsonization, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing).
PMCID: PMC262082  PMID: 3891626
22.  Pharmacodynamic Assessment of Gatifloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae 
The pharmacodynamic parameters of peak serum drug concentration/MIC (peak/MIC) ratio and the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC ratio have been used to characterize in vivo drug exposure and its relationship to bacterial killing for the fluoroquinolones. Our study objectives were to describe the pharmacodynamic relationship between gatifloxacin exposure and outcome as assessed by bacterial density and survival in an immunocompromised murine thigh model of pneumococcal infection and to assess the relationship between drug exposure and these outcomes in an immunocompetent host. ICR mice were rendered neutropenic, and thigh infection was induced by intramuscular administration of 0.1 ml of 105 to 107 CFU of Streptococcus pneumoniae/ml. Mice received 1 to 5 mg of uranyl nitrate/kg of body weight at day −3 and were randomized to receive 10 to 80 mg of gatifloxacin/kg every 6 to 24 h orally, starting at 2 h postinoculation. Bacterial density studies were completed 24 h after initiation of therapy, and survival was assessed after 4 days of treatment. MICs for clinical isolates (n = 8) ranged from 0.25 to 1.0 μg/ml. Correlations were assessed between the change in bacterial density, as well as survival, and the AUC/MIC ratio, peak/MIC ratio, and the duration of time that serum drug concentration remained above the MIC. The best predictor of bacterial response was the AUC/MIC ratio for both outcome measures. There was greater efficacy, as measured by a decrease in log change in CFU as well as by survival data, in the immunocompetent mice compared to the immunocompromised mice. These data demonstrate (i) the appropriateness of the AUC/MIC ratio as a dynamic predictor of response to pneumococcal infection for the fluoroquinolones, (ii) that gatifloxacin AUC/MIC ratios of 30 to 40 appear to optimize bactericidal activity and survival in this model, and (iii) that immunocompetency of the host plays a role in efficacy.
doi:10.1128/AAC.45.7.2092-2097.2001
PMCID: PMC90605  PMID: 11408228
23.  Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 in Candida albicans infection in normal and granulocytopenic mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1992;60(10):4003-4008.
We administered a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) during infection with Candida albicans in normal and granulocytopenic mice. Mice were rendered granulocytopenic (less than 0.1 x 10(9) granulocytes per liter) with cyclophosphamide. Growth of C. albicans from the kidneys was significantly increased in normal mice treated with the antibody to TNF, compared with that in control mice, after 36 h (3.6 x 10(4) +/- 1.2 x 10(4) CFU per kidney versus 9.1 x 10(3) +/- 6.2 x 10(3) CFU per kidney; P less than 0.05) and after 72 h (3.7 x 10(6) +/- 2.7 x 10(6) CFU per kidney versus 2.3 x 10(4) +/- 1.3 x 10(4) CFU per kidney; P less than 0.01). In granulocytopenic mice, the antibody to TNF had no effect on the growth of C. albicans from the kidneys. Furthermore, our study showed that the cytokines TNF and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were produced in a dose-dependent manner during C. albicans infection. TNF was detectable between 6 and 60 h, with peak levels at 24 h. Both TNF and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in cyclophosphamide-treated mice than in normal mice. Heat-inactivated C. albicans induced a TNF response different from that induced by viable C. albicans, with an early peak occurring at 3 to 4 h and declining to non-detectable levels after 15 to 24 h. Peak levels of TNF obtained with heat-inactivated C. albicans were lower than those obtained with viable C. albicans. Our study demonstrates that TNF and IL-6 are produced systemically during C. albicans infection and suggests that TNF is essential for granulocyte antifungal activity in vivo.
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PMCID: PMC257429  PMID: 1398912
24.  In Vitro Activity of TR-700, the Antibacterial Moiety of the Prodrug TR-701, against Linezolid-Resistant Strains ▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2008;52(12):4442-4447.
TR-701 is the orally active prodrug of TR-700, a novel oxazolidinone that demonstrates four- to eightfold-greater activity than linezolid (LZD) against Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. In this study evaluating the in vitro sensitivity of LZD-resistant isolates, TR-700 demonstrated 8- to 16-fold-greater potency than LZD against all strains tested, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), strains of MRSA carrying the mobile cfr methyltransferase gene, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The MIC90 for TR-700 against LZD-resistant S. aureus was 2 μg/ml, demonstrating the utility of TR-700 against LZD-resistant strains. A model of TR-700 binding to 23S rRNA suggests that the increased potency of TR-700 is due to additional target site interactions and that TR-700 binding is less reliant on target residues associated with resistance to LZD.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00859-08
PMCID: PMC2592863  PMID: 18838596
25.  Pharmacodynamic Assessment of Cefprozil against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Implications for Breakpoint Determinations 
Cefprozil, an oral semisynthetic cephalosporin, is commonly utilized in the treatment of respiratory-tract infections in children. While this agent has provided acceptable clinical success over a number of years, this study was undertaken to better define its pharmacodynamic profile against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Nineteen clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were utilized in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. To simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of cefprozil in children, the renal function of mice was impaired with uranyl nitrate, and a commercially available cefprozil suspension (6 mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally every 12 h. Mice were infected with 106 to 107 CFU per thigh, and therapy was initiated 2 h later. At 0 and 24 h postinfection, thighs were harvested to determine bacterial density. Survival was assessed during 96 h of therapy. The magnitude of bacterial kill ranged from 0.5 to 4.4 log10 CFU per thigh over 24 h, and the extent of microbial eradication was dependent on the MIC. Killing of more than 2.6 log10 CFU per thigh was observed with MICs of ≤3 μg/ml, while either minimal killing or growth was detected with MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. Mortality in untreated control animals was 100%. Animals infected with strains for which the MICs were ≤2 μg/ml survived the infection, whereas MICs exceeding 2 μg/ml resulted in substantial mortality. These studies demonstrate the effectiveness of cefprozil against isolates of the pneumococcus for which the MICs are ≤2 μg/ml using a drug exposure typically observed in children. These data support a susceptibility breakpoint of ≤2 μg/ml for cefprozil.
PMCID: PMC89857  PMID: 10770764

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