Freeze-fracturing of Escherichia coli cells in the presence of 30% (v/v) glycerol resulted in a double cleavage of the cell envelope exposing two convex and two concave fracture faces ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) with characteristic patterns. Complementary replicas revealed the relationship of the fracture faces to their corresponding fracture planes. The inner fracture plane splits the plasma membrane at one particular level. Apparently the outer fracture plane was located in the outer part of the wall, as it was separated by a layer ([Formula: see text]) from the fractured profile (CW1) presumably corresponding to the murein layer. The outer fracture plane did alternate toward the cell periphery, exposing complementary smooth areas ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). When cells were freeze-fractured in the absence of glycerol, the outer cell surface appeared as an etching face rather than a fracture face. A schematic representation of the relative location of the different fracture faces in the E. coli cell envelope is given.
The methylases M·HaeIII and M·HpaII recognize the tetranucleotide sequences [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively, in DNA, and transfer a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 5-position of cytosine on each strand as indicated by the asterisks. Restriction endonuclease R·HaeIII does not cleave the methylated sequence [Formula: see text] but can cleave [Formula: see text] in which methylation is introduced on the unnatural external cytosine positions. Similarly, R·HpaII does not cleave [Formula: see text] but can cleave [Formula: see text].
Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.
The stimulus requirements for perceiving a face are not well defined but are presumably simple, for vivid faces can often by seen in random or natural images such as cloud or rock formations. To characterize these requirements, we measured where observers reported the impression of faces in images defined by symmetric 1/f noise. This allowed us to examine the prominence and properties of different features and their necessary configurations. In these stimuli many faces can be perceived along the vertical midline, and appear stacked at multiple scales, reminiscent of “totem poles.” In addition to symmetry, the faces in noise are invariably upright and thus reveal the inversion effects that are thought to be a defining property of configural face processing. To a large extent, seeing a face required seeing eyes, and these were largely restricted to dark regions in the images. Other features were more subordinate and showed relatively little bias in polarity. Moreover, the prominence of eyes depended primarily on their luminance contrast and showed little influence of chromatic contrast. Notably, most faces were rated as clearly defined with highly distinctive attributes, suggesting that once an image area is coded as a face it is perceptually completed consistent with this interpretation. This suggests that the requisite trigger features are sufficient to holistically “capture” the surrounding noise structure to form the facial representation. Yet despite these well articulated percepts, we show in further experiments that while a pair of dark spots added to noise images appears face-like, these impressions fail to elicit other signatures of face processing, and in particular, fail to elicit an N170 or fixation patterns typical for images of actual faces. These results suggest that very simple stimulus configurations are sufficient to invoke many aspects of holistic and configural face perception while nevertheless failing to fully engage the neural machinery of face coding, implying that that different signatures of face processing may have different stimulus requirements.
face perception; face detection; configural coding; facial features; symmetry; inversion effects; noise
Electron cryotomography (ECT) is an emerging technology that allows thin samples such as macromolecular complexes and small bacterial cells to be imaged in 3-D in a nearly native state to “molecular” (∼4 nm) resolution. As such, ECT is beginning to deliver long-awaited insight into the positions and structures of cytoskeletal ﬁlaments, cell wall elements, motility machines, chemoreceptor arrays, internal compartments, and other ultrastructures. This article describes the technique and summarizes its contributions to bacterial cell biology. For comparable recent reviews, see (Subramaniam 2005; Jensen and Briegel 2007; Murphy and Jensen 2007; Li and Jensen 2009). For reviews on the history, technical details, and broader application of electron tomography in general, see for example (Subramaniam and Milne 2004; Lucić et al. 2005; Leis et al. 2008; Midgley and Dunin-Borkowski 2009).
Electron cryotomography allows 3D imaging of intact bacteria, revealing the organization of cytoskeletal filaments, cell wall components, chemoreceptor arrays, and internal compartments.
When two different images are presented to the two eyes, we perceive alternations between seeing one image and seeing the other. Termed binocular rivalry, this visual phenomenon has been known for over a century , and has in recent years been systematically studied at both the behavioral and neural levels . Similar phenomenon has been documented in audition . Here we report the discovery of alternating olfactory percepts when two different odorants are presented to the two nostrils. This binaral rivalry involves both cortical and peripheral (olfactory receptor) adaptations. Our discovery opens up new avenues to explore the workings of the olfactory system and olfactory awareness.
There is evidence that the right hemisphere is involved in processing self-related stimuli. Previous brain imaging research has found a network of right-lateralized brain regions that preferentially respond to seeing one's own face rather than a familiar other. Given that the self is an abstract multimodal concept, we tested whether these brain regions would also discriminate the sound of one's own voice compared to a friend's voice. Participants were shown photographs of their own face and friend's face, and also listened to recordings of their own voice and a friend's voice during fMRI scanning. Consistent with previous studies, seeing one's own face activated regions in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobe and inferior occipital cortex in the right hemisphere. In addition, listening to one's voice also showed increased activity in the right IFG. These data suggest that the right IFG is concerned with processing self-related stimuli across multiple sensory modalities and that it may contribute to an abstract self-representation.
self; self-recognition; fMRI; face; voice
There has been a need since time immemorial for humankind to “see” disease in order to better understand it. Technologies that enabled the modern surgeon to “see” provided the impetus for the minimally invasive, laparoscopic revolution. Today, technologies that image disease in wavelengths other than that of visible light are available to guide the surgeon-interventionist. Of these technologies, ultrasound has the greatest potential to be of immediate benefit to surgeons of all disciplines who practice minimally invasive surgery.
Everyday contextual settings create associations that later afford generating predictions about what objects to expect in our environment. The cortical network that takes advantage of such contextual information is proposed to connect the representation of associated objects such that seeing one object (bed) will activate the visual representations of other objects sharing the same context (pillow). Given this proposal, we hypothesized that the cortical activity elicited by seeing a strong contextual object would predict the occurrence of false memories whereby one erroneously “remembers” having seen a new object that is related to a previously presented object. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging during encoding of contextually related objects, and later tested recognition memory. New objects that were contextually related to previously presented objects were more often falsely judged as “old” compared with new objects that were contextually unrelated to old objects. This phenomenon was reflected by activity in the cortical network mediating contextual processing, which provides a better understanding of how the brain represents and processes context.
In a previous paper (A. Verkleij, L. van Alphen, J. Bijvelt, and B. Lugtenberg, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 466:269-282, 1977) we have hypothesized that particles on the outer fracture face of the outer membrane ([Formula: see text]), with corresponding pits on the inner fracture face of the outer membrane ([Formula: see text]), consist of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) aggregates stabilized by divalent cations and that they might contain protein and/or phospholipid. In the present paper the roles of LPS, cations, and proteins in these [Formula: see text] particles are described more extensively, using a strain that lacks the major outer membrane proteins, b, c, and d (b− c− d−), and has a reduction in the number of [Formula: see text] particles of 75%. To study the role of divalent cations in the formation of [Formula: see text] particles, these b− c− d− cells were grown or incubated with Ca2+, Mg2+, or putrescine. The presence of Ca2+ resulted in the appearance of many [Formula: see text] particles and [Formula: see text] pits. Mg2+ and putrescine were less effective than Ca2+. Introduction of these particles was not accompanied by alterations in the relative amounts of LPS and cell envelope proteins. Ca2+ treatment of a heptoseless derivative of a b− c− d− strain did not result in morphological changes. Incubation of Ca2+-treated cells with ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the disappearance of the introduced particles as well as the release of more than 60% of the cellular LPS. These results strongly support the hypothesis that LPS is involved in the formation of [Formula: see text] particles and [Formula: see text] pits. The roles of various outer membrane proteins in the formation of [Formula: see text] particles were studied by comparing the freeze-fracture morphology of b− c− d− cells with that of cells which contain one of the outer membrane proteins b, c, d, and e or the receptor protein for bacteriophage lambda. The results showed that the presence of any of these five proteins in a b− c− d− background resulted in a large increase in the number of [Formula: see text] particles and [Formula: see text] pits, indicating that these proteins are, independent of each other, involved in the formation of [Formula: see text] particles and [Formula: see text] pits. The simplest explanation for the results is that in wild-type cells each particle consists of LPS complexed with some molecules of a single protein species, stabilized by either divalent cations or polyamines. It is hypothesized that the outer membrane of the wild-type cell contains a heterogeneous population of particles, of which 75% consists of protein b-LPS, protein c-LPS, and protein d-LPS particles. A function of these particles as aqueous pores is proposed.
This review summarizes recent ideas about the cortical circuits for seeing words, an important part of the brain system for reading. Historically, the link between the visual cortex and reading has been contentious. One influential position is that the visual cortex plays a minimal role, limited to identifying contours, and that information about these contours is delivered to cortical regions specialized for reading and language. An alternative position is that specializations for seeing words develop within the visual cortex itself. Modern neuroimaging measurements—including both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging with tractography data—support the position that circuitry for seeing the statistical regularities of word forms develops within the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, which also contains important circuitry for seeing faces, colors, and forms. The review explains new findings about the visual pathways, including visual field maps, as well as new findings about how we see words. The measurements from the two fields are in close cortical proximity, and there are good opportunities for coordinating theoretical ideas about function in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex.
reading; visual word form area; DTI; fMRI; visual field maps; retinotopy
This paper documents the cognitive strategies that led to Faraday’s first significant scientific discovery. For Faraday, discovery is essentially a matter seeing as, of substituting for the eye all possess the eye of analysis all scientists must develop. In the process of making his first significant discovery, Faraday learns to dismiss the magnetic attractions and repulsions he and others had observed; by means of systematic variations in his experimental set-up, he learns to see these motions as circular: it is the first indication that an electro-magnetic field exists. In communicating his discoveries, Faraday, of course, takes into consideration his various audiences’ varying needs and their differences in scientific competence; but whatever his audience, Faraday learns to convey what it feels like to do science, to shift from seeing to seeing as, from sight to insight.
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are emerging as a novel class of non-coding RNAs and potent gene regulators. High-throughput RNA-sequencing combined with de novo assembly promises quantity discovery of novel transcripts. However, the identification of lincRNAs from thousands of assembled transcripts is still challenging due to the difficulties of separating them from protein coding transcripts (PCTs).
We have implemented iSeeRNA, a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier for the identification of lincRNAs. iSeeRNA shows better performance compared to other software. A public available webserver for iSeeRNA is also provided for small size dataset.
iSeeRNA demonstrates high prediction accuracy and runs several magnitudes faster than other similar programs. It can be integrated into the transcriptome data analysis pipelines or run as a web server, thus offering a valuable tool for lincRNA study.
Each of our eyes normally sees a slightly different image of the world around us. The brain can combine these two images into a single coherent representation. However, when the eyes are presented with images that are sufficiently different from each other, an interesting thing happens: Rather than fusing the two images into a combined conscious percept, what transpires is a pattern of perceptual alternations where one image dominates awareness while the other is suppressed; dominance alternates between the two images, typically every few seconds. This perceptual phenomenon is known as binocular rivalry. Binocular rivalry is considered useful for studying perceptual selection and awareness in both human and animal models, because unchanging visual input to each eye leads to alternations in visual awareness and perception. To create a binocular rivalry stimulus, all that is necessary is to present each eye with a different image at the same perceived location. There are several ways of doing this, but newcomers to the field are often unsure which method would best suit their specific needs. The purpose of this article is to describe a number of inexpensive and straightforward ways to create and use binocular rivalry. We detail methods that do not require expensive specialized equipment and describe each method's advantages and disadvantages. The methods described include the use of red-blue goggles, mirror stereoscopes and prism goggles.
We found that the way people looked at images was influenced by their belief that others were looking too. If participants believed that an unseen other person was also looking at what they could see, it shifted the balance of their gaze between negative and positive images. The direction of this shift depended upon whether participants thought that later they would be compared against the other person or would be collaborating with them. Changes in the social context influenced both gaze and memory processes, and were not due just to participants' belief that they are looking at the same images, but also to the belief that they are doing the same task. We believe that the phenomenon of joint perception reveals the pervasive and subtle effect of social context upon cognitive and perceptual processes.
vision; joint action; eye movements; social cognition; situated cognition
People often consider how their behaviour will be viewed by others, and may cooperate to avoid gaining a bad reputation. Sensitivity to reputation may be elicited by subtle social cues of being watched: previous studies have shown that people behave more cooperatively when they see images of eyes rather than control images. Here, we tested whether eye images enhance cooperation in a dictator game, using the online labour market Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). In contrast to our predictions and the results of most previous studies, dictators gave away more money when they saw images of flowers rather than eye images. Donations in response to eye images were not significantly different to donations under control treatments. Dictator donations varied significantly across cultures but there was no systematic variation in responses to different image types across cultures. Unlike most previous studies, players interacting via AMT may feel truly anonymous when making decisions and, as such, may not respond to subtle social cues of being watched. Nevertheless, dictators gave away similar amounts as in previous studies, so anonymity did not erase helpfulness. We suggest that eye images might only promote cooperative behaviour in relatively public settings and that people may ignore these cues when they know their behaviour is truly anonymous.
dictator game; human cooperation; eye images; fairness; reputation; cooperative behaviour
Over the past few years, the billows of the digital trends and the exploding growth of electronic networks, such as worldwide web, global mobility networks, etc., have drastically changed our daily lifestyle. In view of the widespread applications of digital images, medical images, which are produced by a wide variety of medical appliances, are stored in digital form gradually. These digital images are very easy to be modified imperceptively by malicious intruders for illegal purposes. The well-known adage that “seeing is believing” seems not always a changeless truth. Therefore, protecting images from being altered becomes an important issue. Based on the lossless data-embedding techniques, two detection and restoration systems are proposed to cope with forgery of medical images in this paper. One of them has the ability to recover the whole blocks of the image and the other enables to recover only a particular region where a physician will be interested in, with a better visual quality. Without the need of comparing with the original image, these systems have a great advantage of detecting and locating forged parts of the image with high possibility. And then it can also restore the counterfeited parts. Furthermore, once an image is announced authentic, the original image can be derived from the stego-image losslessly. The experimental results show that the restored version of a tampered image in the first method is extremely close to the original one. As to the second method, the region of interest selected by a physician can be recovered without any loss, when it is tampered.
Tamper detection; restoring; wavelet; reversible data embedding
Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others' actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people's behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work, we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals' ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings.
action perception; action simulation; mirror neurons; brain lesion; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
Why do we feel tears well up when we see a loved one cry? Why do we wince when we see other people hurt themselves? This review addresses these questions from the perspective of embodied simulation: observing the actions and tactile sensations of others activates premotor, posterior parietal and somatosensory regions in the brain of the observer which are also active when performing similar movements and feeling similar sensations. We will show that seeing the emotions of others also recruits regions involved in experiencing similar emotions, although there does not seem to be a reliable mapping of particular emotions onto particular brain regions. Instead, emotion simulation seems to involve a mosaic of affective, motor and somatosensory components. The relative contributions of these components to a particular emotion and their interrelationship are largely unknown, although recent experimental evidence suggests that motor simulation may be a trigger for the simulation of associated feeling states. This mosaic of simulations may be necessary for generating the compelling insights we have into the feelings of others. Through their integration with, and modulation by, higher cognitive functions, they could be at the core of important social functions, including empathy, mind reading and social learning.
emotions; sensations; simulation; mirror system; empathy; social cognition
Two approaches dominate research on the lack of awareness of illness that characterizes schizophrenia. The “deficit” approach uses standardized neuropsychological batteries to identify the neural underpinnings of intact insight; the “nondeficit” approach investigates the psychological defense mechanisms that motivate denial of illness. We adopt, instead, a cognitive neuropsychological approach to model the cognitive processes which underpin insight and which might be either damaged (because of neuropathology) or not used (because of motivational forces). We conceive of these processes in terms of a metacognitive capacity “to see ourselves as others see us.” We predict that a general difficulty with adopting other mental perspectives (with “seeing the world as others do”), indexed by performance deficits on theory of mind (ToM) tasks, will impair insight in schizophrenia. Thirty schizophrenic patients (also assessed for insight) and 26 healthy controls completed a battery of ToM tasks which varied presentation modality, response mode and instruction type (picture sequencing, joke appreciation and story comprehension tasks). While patients performed more poorly than controls on all ToM tasks, impairment in patients was not concordant across tasks. ToM scores from the picture sequencing and joke appreciation tasks, and not the story comprehension task, intercorrelated significantly in patients and predicted insight. Findings support the view that insight relies upon a cognitive capacity to adopt the other perspective, which, if intact, contributes to the metacognitive capacity to reflect upon “one's own” mental health from the other perspective. Findings also suggest that the nature of perspective-taking difficulty which disrupts insight in schizophrenia is best revealed using ToM tasks with “indirect” instructions.
social cognition; anosognosia; perspective-taking; psychosis
Several new image-guidance tools and devices are being prototyped, investigated, and compared. These tools are introduced and include prototype software for image registration and fusion, thermal modeling, electromagnetic tracking, semiautomated robotic needle guidance, and multimodality imaging. The integration of treatment planning with computed tomography robot systems or electromagnetic needle-tip tracking allows for seamless, iterative, “see-and-treat,” patient-specific tumor ablation. Such automation, navigation, and visualization tools could eventually optimize radiofrequency ablation and other needle-based ablation procedures and decrease variability among operators, thus facilitating the translation of novel image-guided therapies. Much of this new technology is in use or will be available to the interventional radiologist in the near future, and this brief introduction will hopefully encourage research in this emerging area.
This article discusses the current techniques and future directions of infection imaging with particular attention to respiratory, CNS, abdominal, and postoperative infections. The agents currently in use localize to areas of infection and inflammation. An infection specific imaging agent would greatly improve the utility of scintigraphy in imaging occult infections. The superior spatial resolution of 18F-FDG PET and its lack of reliance on a functional immune system, gives this agent certain advantages over the other radiopharmaceuticals.
In respiratory infection imaging, an important advancement would be the ability to quantitatively delineate lung inflammation, allowing one to monitor the therapeutic response in a variety of conditions. Current studies suggest PET should be considered the most accurate quantitative method.
Scintigraphy has much to offer in localizing abdominal infection as well as inflammation. We may begin to see a gradual increase in the usage of FDG PET in detecting occult abdominal infections. Commonly used modalities for imaging inflammatory bowel disease are scintigraphy with 111In-oxine/99mTc-HMPAO labeled autologous white blood cells.
The literature on CNS infection imaging is relatively scarce. Few clinical studies have been performed and numerous new agents have been developed for this use with varying results. Further studies are needed to more clearly delineate the future direction of this field.
In evaluating the post-operative spine, 99mTc-ciprofloxacin SPECT was reported to be >80% sensitive in patients more than 6 months post-surgery. FDG PET has also been suggested for this purpose and may play a larger role than originally thought.
It appears PET/CT is gaining support, especially in imaging those with fever of unknown origin or nonfunctional immune systems. While an infection specific agent is lacking, the development of one would greatly advance our ability to detect, localize, and quantify infections. Overall, imaging such an agent via SPECT/CT or PET/CT will pave the way for greater clinical reliability in the localization of infection.
Macrophages contribute pivotally to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), notably to atherosclerosis. Imaging of macrophages in vivo could furnish new tools to advance evaluation of disease and therapies. Proteolytic enzymes serve as key effectors of many macrophage contributions to CVD. Therefore, intravital imaging of protease activity could aid evaluation of the progress and outcome of atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm formation, or rejection of cardiac allografts. Among the large families of proteases, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteinyl cathepsins have garnered the most interest because of their participation in extracellular matrix remodeling. These considerations have spurred the development of dedicated imaging agents for protease activity detection. Activatable fluorescent probes, radiolabeled inhibitors, and nanoparticles are currently under exploration for this purpose. While some agents and technologies may soon see clinical use, others will require further refinement. Imaging of macrophages and protease activity should provide an important adjunct to understanding pathophysiology in vivo, evaluating the effects of interventions, and ultimately aiding clinical care.
The structure of biofilms can be numerically quantified from microscopy images using structural parameters. These parameters are used in biofilm image analysis to compare biofilms, to monitor temporal variation in biofilm structure, to quantify the effects of antibiotics on biofilm structure and to determine the effects of environmental conditions on biofilm structure. It is often hypothesized that biofilms with similar structural parameter values will have similar structures; however, this hypothesis has never been tested. The main goal was to test the hypothesis that the commonly used structural parameters can characterize the differences or similarities between biofilm structures. To achieve this goal 1) biofilm image reconstruction was developed as a new tool for assessing structural parameters, 2) independent reconstructions using the same starting structural parameters were tested to see how they differed from each other, 3) the effect of the original image parameter values on reconstruction success was evaluated and 4) the effect of the number and type of the parameters on reconstruction success was evaluated. It was found that two biofilms characterized by identical commonly used structural parameter values may look different, that the number and size of clusters in the original biofilm image affect image reconstruction success and that, in general, a small set of arbitrarily selected parameters may not reveal relevant differences between biofilm structures.
biofilm; image; structure; parameters; reconstruction; quantification
The last years have shown a growing interest in research on the neural mechanisms for perceiving and understanding social interactions. Only very recently, a role for somatosensation in social perception has been suggested. Numerous studies reported vicarious responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and other areas merely when seeing others being touched. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that these vicarious somatosensory responses can be linked with inter-individual differences in empathy. However, beyond empathy other personality traits have been shown to interact with social perception and behavior. Here we tested if personality traits according to the Five-Factor-Model interact with vicarious activation in somatosensory brain regions. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which subjects viewed video clips showing simple non-painful touch to a hand and a control condition including the same visual and motion parts. Results revealed vicarious somatosensory activation when viewing the touched hand, as expected. Vicarious activation in SI showed a trend for a positive correlation with the personality trait openness to experience. Moreover, mirror-like responses in the insula were strongly correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness, suggesting links to processes of self-control. We conclude that vicarious brain responses to seen touch seem to interact with personality traits.
somatosensory cortex; personality; touch; NEO-FFI; mirror network; fMRI