The catabolic pathways for butyrate, acetate, succinate, and ethanol formation by the Reiter strain of Treponema phagedenis were investigated. Enzyme activities were demonstrated for glucose catabolism to pyruvate by the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. Butyrate formation from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) does not generate ATP by substrate level phosphorylation and involves NAD+-dependent 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase and NAD(P)+-independent butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activities. Butyrate is formed from butyryl-CoA in a CoA transphorase reaction. Phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase activities convert acetyl-CoA to acetate. An NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase participates in ethanol formation; however, the manner in which acetyl-CoA is reduced to acetaldehyde is unclear. A membrane-associated fumarate reductase was found which utilized reduced ferredoxin or flavin nucleotides as physiological electron donors. Additional electron carriers may also be involved in electron transfer for fumarate reduction. Strains of Treponema denticola, T. vincentii, and T. minutum utilized fumarate without succinate formation, whereas strains of T. phagedenis and T. refringens formed succinate from exogenously supplied fumarate.
The production of ethanol from xylose by ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 was improved by adding various medium supplements (acetate, pyruvate, and acetaldehyde) that prolonged the growth phase by increasing cell yield and volumetric productivity (approximately twofold). Although added pyruvate and acetaldehyde were rapidly metabolized, the benefit of these additives continued throughout fermentation. Both additives increased the levels of extracellular acetate through different mechanisms. Since acetate can be reversibly converted to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase, the increase in cell yield caused by each of the three supplements is proposed to result from an increase in the pool of acetyl-CoA. A similar benefit was obtained by inactivation of acetate kinase (ackA), reducing the production of acetate (and ATP) and sparing acetyl-CoA for biosynthetic needs. Inactivation of native E. coli alcohol-aldehyde dehydrogenase (adhE), which uses acetyl-CoA as an electron acceptor, had no beneficial effect on growth, which was consistent with a minor role for this enzyme during ethanol production. Growth of KO11 on xylose appears to be limited by the partitioning of carbon skeletons into biosynthesis rather than the level of ATP. Changes in acetyl-CoA production and consumption provide a useful approach to modulate carbon partitioning. Together, these results demonstrate that xylose fermentation to ethanol can be improved in KO11 by redirecting small amounts of pyruvate away from fermentation products and into biosynthesis. Though negligible with respect to ethanol yield, these small changes in carbon partitioning reduced the time required to complete the fermentation of 9.1% xylose in 1% corn steep liquor medium from over 96 h to less than 72 h.
The flow of carbon metabolites between cellular compartments is an essential feature of fungal metabolism. During growth on ethanol, acetate, or fatty acids, acetyl units must enter the mitochondrion for metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) in the cytoplasm is essential for the biosynthetic reactions and for protein acetylation. Acetyl-CoA is produced in the cytoplasm by acetyl-CoA synthetase during growth on acetate and ethanol while β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-CoA in peroxisomes. The acetyl-carnitine shuttle in which acetyl-CoA is reversibly converted to acetyl-carnitine by carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT) enzymes is important for intracellular transport of acetyl units. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, a cytoplasmic CAT, encoded by facC, is essential for growth on sources of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA while a second CAT, encoded by the acuJ gene, is essential for growth on fatty acids as well as acetate. We have shown that AcuJ contains an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS) and is localized to both peroxisomes and mitochondria, independent of the carbon source. Mislocalization of AcuJ to the cytoplasm does not result in loss of growth on acetate but prevents growth on fatty acids. Therefore, while mitochondrial AcuJ is essential for the transfer of acetyl units to mitochondria, peroxisomal localization is required only for transfer from peroxisomes to mitochondria. Peroxisomal AcuJ was not required for the import of acetyl-CoA into peroxisomes for conversion to malate by malate synthase (MLS), and export of acetyl-CoA from peroxisomes to the cytoplasm was found to be independent of FacC when MLS was mislocalized to the cytoplasm.
Eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs, EC 1.2.1), which oxidize aldehydes into carboxylic acids, have been classified into more than 20 families. In mammals, Family 2 ALDHs detoxify acetaldehyde. It has been hypothesized that plant Family 2 ALDHs oxidize acetaldehyde generated via ethanolic fermentation, producing acetate for acetyl-CoA biosynthesis via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), similar to the yeast pathway termed the "pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) bypass". Evidence for this pathway in plants has been obtained from pollen.
To test for the presence of the PDH bypass in the sporophytic tissue of plants, Arabidopsis plants homozygous for mutant alleles of all three Family 2 ALDH genes were fed with 14C-ethanol along with wild type controls. Comparisons of the incorporation rates of 14C-ethanol into fatty acids in mutants and wild type controls provided direct evidence for the presence of the PDH bypass in sporophytic tissue. Among the three Family 2 ALDHs, one of the two mitochondrial ALDHs (ALDH2B4) appears to be the primary contributor to this pathway. Surprisingly, single, double and triple ALDH mutants of Arabidopsis did not exhibit detectable phenotypes, even though a Family 2 ALDH gene is required for normal anther development in maize.
The PDH bypass is active in sporophytic tissue of plants. Blocking this pathway via triple ALDH mutants does not uncover obvious visible phenotypes.
Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is the central intermediate of the pathways required to metabolize nonfermentable carbon sources. Three such pathways, i.e., gluconeogenesis, the glyoxylate cycle, and β-oxidation, are required for full virulence in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. These processes are compartmentalized in the cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxosomes, necessitating transport of intermediates across intracellular membranes. Acetyl-CoA is trafficked in the form of acetate by the carnitine shuttle, and we hypothesized that the enzymes that convert acetyl-CoA to/from acetate, i.e., acetyl-CoA hydrolase (ACH1) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS1 and ACS2), would regulate alternative carbon utilization and virulence. We show that C. albicans strains depleted for ACS2 are unviable in the presence of most carbon sources, including glucose, acetate, and ethanol; these strains metabolize only fatty acids and glycerol, a substantially more severe phenotype than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acs2 mutants. In contrast, deletion of ACS1 confers no phenotype, though it is highly induced in the presence of fatty acids, perhaps explaining why acs2 mutants can utilize fatty acids. Strains lacking ACH1 have a mild growth defect on some carbon sources but are fully virulent in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Both ACH1 and ACS2 complement mutations in their S. cerevisiae homolog. Together, these results show that acetyl-CoA metabolism and transport are critical for growth of C. albicans on a wide variety of nutrients. Furthermore, the phenotypic differences between mutations in these highly conserved genes in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans support recent findings that significant functional divergence exists even in fundamental metabolic pathways between these related yeasts.
During batch growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus on benzoate-acetate mixtures, benzoate was the preferred substrate, with acetate consumption being delayed until the rate of benzoate consumption had diminished. This effect was attributed to a transcriptional control of the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase, an enzyme necessary for the entry of acetate into the central metabolic pathways, rather than to a biochemical modulation of the activity of this enzyme. Analysis of a 2.4-kb mRNA transcript hybridizing with the A. eutrophus acoE gene confirmed this repression effect. In a benzoate-limited chemostat culture, derepression was observed, with no increase in the level of expression following an acetate pulse. Benzoate itself was not the signal triggering the repression of acetyl-CoA synthetase. This role was played by catechol, which transiently accumulated in the medium when high specific rates of benzoate consumption were reached. The lack of rapid inactivation of the functional acetyl-CoA synthetase after synthesis has been stopped enables A. eutrophus to retain the capacity to metabolize acetate for prolonged periods while conserving minimal protein expenditure.
Acetate-1-14C was added to anaerobic glucose-fermenting cultures of Escherichia coli and Aerobacter cloacae. In the E. coli culture, lactate formation occurred late in the fermentation, when the rate of production of formate and acetate had decreased. The occurrence of acetate label in the lactate indicated formation of pyruvate from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and formate. In the A. cloacae cultures, substantial amounts of acetate label were found in the 2,3-butanediol formed. Evidence is presented that the label could have entered the diol only by conversion of formate and acetyl-CoA into pyruvate. The observed levels of radioactivity in the diol indicated that during diol formation the reaction yielding formate and acetyl-CoA from pyruvate CoA was operating close to equilibrium. The shift in metabolism from formation of acetate, ethyl alcohol, and formate to the formation of butanediol or lactate appears to be due basically to an approach to equilibrium of the pyruvate-splitting reaction, whatever the induction mechanism by which the shift is implemented.
Lead poisoning is a potential factor in brain damage, neurochemical dysfunction and severe behavioral problems. Considering this effect, our study was carried out to investigate the effects of wormwood to restore enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation and behavioral changes induced by lead.
Thirty Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group): three groups exposed to 750 ppm of lead acetate in the drinking water for 11 weeks and two groups as control. Aqueous wormwood extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to intoxicated (Pb(-)+A.AB) and control groups (A.AB) for four supplemental weeks. Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AchE), monoamine oxidase (MAO) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level were determined in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male rats and the grooming and locomotors activity were defined in all groups.
The intoxicated group (Pb) has a significantly increased TBARS value compared with the control in all regions (P < 0.05) and, after treatment with the wormwood extract, a significant reduction was noted. The enzyme activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the Pb group compared with the control, essentially for the hippocampus (AchE: -57%, MAO: -41%) and the striatum (AchE: -43%, MAO: -51%). After wormwood extract administration, the AchE and MAO activity were significantly increased in all brain regions compared with the Pb group (P < 0.05). The behavioral test (locomotors and grooming test) indicates a significant hyperactivity in the Pb group compared with the control group. After treatment with wormwood extract, the Pb(-)+A.Ab indicates a lower activity compared with Pb.
These data suggest that wormwood extract may play a very useful role in reduction of the neurotoxicological damage induced by lead.
Acetylcholinesterase; behavioral test; brain region; lead acetate; lipid peroxidation; monoamine oxidase
In Methanothrix soehngenii, acetate is activated to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by an acetyl-CoA synthetase. Cell extracts contained high activities of adenylate kinase and pyrophosphatase, but no activities of a pyrophosphate:AMP and pyrophosphate:ADP phosphotransferase, indicating that the activation of 1 acetate in Methanothrix requires 2 ATP. Acetyl-CoA synthetase was purified 22-fold in four steps to apparent homogeneity. The native molecular mass of the enzyme from M. soehngenii estimated by gel filtration was 148 kilodaltons (kDa). The enzyme was composed of two subunits with a molecular mass of 73 kDa in an alpha 2 oligomeric structure. The acetyl-CoA synthetase constituted up to 4% of the soluble cell protein. At the optimum pH of 8.5, the Vmax was 55 mumol of acetyl-CoA formed per min per mg of protein. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed a Km of 0.86 mM for acetate and 48 microM for coenzyme A. With varying amounts of ATP, weak sigmoidal kinetic was observed. The Hill plot gave a slope of 1.58 +/- 0.12, suggesting two interacting substrate sites for the ATP. The kinetic properties of the acetyl-CoA synthetase can explain the high affinity for acetate of Methanothrix soehngenii.
Histone acetylation in single cell eukaryotes relies on acetyl-CoA synthetase enzymes that utilize acetate to produce acetyl-CoA. Metazoans, however, use glucose as their main carbon source and have exposure to only low concentrations of extracellular acetate. We show that histone acetylation in mammalian cells is dependent on ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), the enzyme that converts glucose-derived citrate into acetyl-CoA. We find that ACL is required for increases in histone acetylation in response to growth factor stimulation and during differentiation, and that glucose availability can impact histone acetylation in an ACL-dependent manner. Together, these findings suggest that ACL activity is required to link growth-factor-induced increases in nutrient metabolism to the regulation of histone acetylation and gene expression.
On the basis of enzyme activities detected in extracts of Selenomonas ruminantium HD4 grown in glucose-limited continuous culture, at a slow (0.11 h-1) and a fast (0.52 h-1) dilution rate, a pathway of glucose catabolism to lactate, acetate, succinate, and propionate was constructed. Glucose was catabolized to phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) via the Emden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway. PEP was converted to either pyruvate (via pyruvate kinase) or oxalacetate (via PEP carboxykinase). Pyruvate was reduced to L-lactate via a NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase or oxidatively decarboxylated to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and CO2 by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Acetyl-CoA was apparently converted in a single enzymatic step to acetate and CoA, with concomitant formation of 1 molecule of ATP; since acetyl-phosphate was not an intermediate, the enzyme catalyzing this reaction was identified as acetate thiokinase. Oxalacetate was converted to succinate via the activities of malate dehydrogenase, fumarase and a membrane-bound fumarate reductase. Succinate was then excreted or decarboxylated to propionate via a membrane-bound methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Pyruvate kinase was inhibited by Pi and activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. PEP carboxykinase activity was found to be 0.054 mumol min-1 mg of protein-1 at a dilution rate of 0.11 h-1 but could not be detected in extracts of cells grown at a dilution rate of 0.52 h-1. Several potential sites for energy conservation exist in S. ruminantium HD4, including pyruvate kinase, acetate thiokinase, PEP carboxykinase, fumarate reductase, and methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Possession of these five sites for energy conservation may explain the high yields reported here (56 to 78 mg of cells [dry weight] mol of glucose-1) for S. ruminantium HD4 grown in glucose-limited continuous culture.
Biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) requires a five-step process using pantothenate and cysteine in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. CoA contains a thiol (SH) group, which reacts with carboxylic acid to form thioesters, giving rise to acyl-activated CoAs such as acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is essential for energy metabolism and protein acetylation, and, in higher eukaryotes, for the production of neurotransmitters. We isolated a novel S. pombe temperature-sensitive strain ppc1-537 mutated in the catalytic region of phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (designated Ppc1), which is essential for CoA synthesis. The mutant becomes auxotrophic to pantothenate at permissive temperature, displaying greatly decreased levels of CoA, acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation. Moreover, ppc1-537 mutant cells failed to restore proliferation from quiescence. Ppc1 is thus the product of a super-housekeeping gene. The ppc1-537 mutant showed combined synthetic lethal defects with five of six histone deacetylase mutants, whereas sir2 deletion exceptionally rescued the ppc1-537 phenotype. In synchronous cultures, ppc1-537 cells can proceed to the S phase, but lose viability during mitosis failing in sister centromere/kinetochore segregation and nuclear division. Additionally, double-strand break repair is defective in the ppc1-537 mutant, producing fragile broken DNA, probably owing to diminished histone acetylation. The CoA-supported metabolism thus controls the state of chromosome DNA.
acetyl-CoA; pantothenate; phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase; lipid droplet; centromere/kinetochore
Pyruvate decarboxylase-negative (Pdc−) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae require small amounts of ethanol or acetate to sustain aerobic, glucose-limited growth. This nutritional requirement has been proposed to originate from (i) a need for cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) for lipid and lysine biosynthesis and (ii) an inability to export mitochondrial acetyl-CoA to the cytosol. To test this hypothesis and to eliminate the C2 requirement of Pdc− S. cerevisiae, we attempted to introduce an alternative pathway for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. The addition of l-carnitine to growth media did not restore growth of a Pdc− strain on glucose, indicating that the C2 requirement was not solely due to the inability of S. cerevisiae to synthesize this compound. The S. cerevisiae GLY1 gene encodes threonine aldolase (EC 18.104.22.168), which catalyzes the cleavage of threonine to glycine and acetaldehyde. Overexpression of GLY1 enabled a Pdc− strain to grow under conditions of carbon limitation in chemostat cultures on glucose as the sole carbon source, indicating that acetaldehyde formed by threonine aldolase served as a precursor for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA. Fractionation studies revealed a cytosolic localization of threonine aldolase. The absence of glycine in these cultures indicates that all glycine produced by threonine aldolase was either dissimilated or assimilated. These results confirm the involvement of pyruvate decarboxylase in cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. The Pdc− GLY1 overexpressing strain was still glucose sensitive with respect to growth in batch cultivations. Like any other Pdc− strain, it failed to grow on excess glucose in batch cultures and excreted pyruvate when transferred from glucose limitation to glucose excess.
Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase and acetate kinase were localized within the soluble portion of Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids, and no appreciable activity was found elsewhere in the nodule. The presence of each acetate-activating enzyme was confirmed by separation of the two enzyme activities on a hydroxylapatite column, by substrate dependence of each enzyme in both the forward and reverse directions, by substrate specificity, by inhibition patterns, and also by identification of the reaction products by C18 reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Phosphotransacetylase activity, found in the soluble portion of the bacteroid, was dependent on the presence of potassium and was inhibited by added sodium. The greatest acetyl-CoA hydrolase activity was found in the root nodule cytosol, although appreciable activity also was found within the bacteroids. The combined specific activities of acetyl-CoA synthetase and acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase were approximate to that of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, thus providing B. japonicum with sufficient capacity to generate acetyl-CoA.
Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.
The roles of the enzyme which forms 5-hydroxy-4-ketohexanoate (HKH) and of related enzymes in the metabolism of ethanol were studied in Saccharomyces oviformis WH92 and its mutants, which grew poorly or not at all on ethanol. The strains, which did not grow on ethanol, did not form HKH from α-ketoglutarate and acetaldehyde enzymatically and were also devoid of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Acetaldehyde inhibited the activity of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. These mutants did not grow on acetate since they had no acetyl-CoA synthetase activity. The relationship of the formation of HKH with the metabolism of ethanol is discussed.
Propionic and methylmalonic acidemia are both known to be associated with hyperammonemia. Rats injected with 10 or 20 mmol/kg of propionate or 20 mmol/kg of methylmalonate, along with 1.5 g/kg of a mixture of amino acids, developed severe hyperammonemia, whereas rats administered the same dosages of acetate did not. In vitro, neither propionyl nor methylmalonyl CoA affected the activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I, ornithine transcarbamylase, nor the activation constant (KA) of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I for N-acetyl glutamate. Furthermore, rats injected with propionate showed no alteration of liver amino acid concentrations, which could explain impaired ureagenesis. Animals injected with methylmalonate showed an increase in both citrulline and aspartate, suggesting that argininosuccinic acid synthetase may also have been inhibited. Liver ATP levels were unchanged. Citrullinogenesis, measured in intact mitochondria from livers of injected animals, was reduced 20-25% by 20 mmol/kg of propionate or methylmalonate (compared with acetate). This effect was attributable to an impairment in the normal rise of liver N-acetyl glutamate content after amino acid injection. Thus, carbamyl phosphate synthetase I activation was reduced. Liver levels of acetyl CoA and free CoA were reduced. Levels of unidentified acyl CoA derivatives rose, presumably reflecting the accumulation of propionyl and methylmalonyl CoA. Thus, the principal mechanism for hyperammonemia induced by these acids is depletion of liver N-acetyl glutamate, which is in turn attributable to depletion of acetyl CoA and/or competitive inhibition by propionyl and methylmalonyl CoA of N-acetyl glutamate synthetase. Injection of methylmalonate may also have an additional inhibitory effect on argininosuccinic acid synthetase.
Extracts from human platelets contain the enzymes of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. The pattern of incorporation of acetate-1-14C into fatty acids by intact platelets indicates that these enzymes function in platelets. The level of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase activity in extracts of platelets from normal subjects is 0.036 ±0.01 mμmole of malonyl-CoA formed per min per mg of protein and that of fatty acid synthetase is 0.075 ±0.016 mμmole of malonyl-CoA utilized per min per mg of protein. Thus, platelets are the only formed elements of the blood capable of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The capacity of platelets to synthesize fatty acids is similar to human liver based on enzyme activity per milligram of soluble protein.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was purified 16-fold from platelet extracts, and this partially purified enzyme was compared to enzyme from rat liver. The two enzymes were similar with respect to requirements, substrate affinities, pH profile of activity, inhibition by malonyl-CoA, and aggregation in the presence of citrate. Thus, while fatty acid synthesis may serve a different function in platelets than in liver, the properties of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from these tissues are alike.
The levels of the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were significantly higher in platelets from splenectomized subjects than in controls. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase levels were 0.086 ±0.027 mμmole of malonyl-CoA formed per min per mg of protein, and fatty acid synthetase levels were 0.151 ±0.039 mμmole of malonyl-CoA utilized per min per mg of protein. These changes in the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis occurred promptly after splenectomy with peak values being reached within 7-10 days.
In the search for the mechanism by which hyperammonemia complicates propionic and methylmalonic acidemia the effects of a series of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives were studied on the activity of N-acetylglutamate synthetase in rat liver mitochondria using acetyl-CoA as substrate. Propionyl-CoA was found to be a competitive inhibitor. The inhibition constant of 0.71 mM is in the range of concentrations of propionate found in the serum of patients with propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. Propionyl-CoA was also found to be a substrate for N-acetylglutamate synthetase, forming N-propionylglutamate. This compound was a weak activator of rat liver carbamoylphosphate synthetase; the activation constant was 1.1 mM as compared with 0.12 mM for N-acetylglutamate. A decreased level of N-acetylglutamate in liver mitochondria that would follow inhibition of N-acetylglutamate synthetase by propionyl-CoA would be expected to lead to hyperammonemia. Methylmalonyl-CoA, tiglyl-CoA, and isovaleryl-CoA at a concentration of 3 mM caused 30-70% inhibition of N-acetylglutamate synthetase. 3the latter two compounds are readily detoxified by the formation of N-acylglycine conjugates in liver, which may prevent large accumulations and could explain why hyperammonemia is not characteristic of patients with beta-ketothiolase deficiency or isovaleric acidemia in whom these compounds would be expected to be elevated.
Escherichia coli mutants [coaA16(Fr); Fr indicates feedback resistance] were isolated which possessed a pantothenate kinase activity that was refractory to feedback inhibition by coenzyme A (CoA). Strains harboring this mutation had CoA levels that were significantly elevated compared with strains containing the wild-type kinase and also overproduced both intra- and extracellular 4'-phosphopantetheine. The origin of 4'-phosphopantetheine was investigated by using strain SJ135 [panD delta(aroP-aceEF)], in which synthesis of acetyl-CoA was dependent on the addition of an acetate growth supplement. Rapid degradation of CoA to 4'-phosphopantetheine was triggered by the conversion of acetyl-CoA to CoA following the removal of acetate from the media. CoA hydrolysis under these conditions appeared not to involve acyl carrier protein prosthetic group turnover since [acyl carrier protein] phosphodiesterase was inhibited equally well by acetyl-CoA or CoA. These data support the view that the total cellular CoA content is controlled by modulation of biosynthesis at the pantothenate kinase step and by degradation of CoA to 4'-phosphopantetheine.
Bacterial acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase (AceCS), an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, is activated by sirtuin-mediated deacetylation. Two recent studies show that this mechanism of regulation is also crucial for mammalian AceCS activity, indicating that control of metabolism at the step of converting acetate to acetyl-CoA is conserved. These findings highlight a metabolic regulatory network controlled by sirtuins that has implications for the mechanisms of calorie restriction and modulation of mammalian lifespan.
Heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, thioureas and their copper, nickel, and cobalt complexes were shown to
be potent hypolipidemic agents in male Sprague Dawley rats at 8 mg/kg/day, orally. These agents lowered
the activity of rat hepatic rate limiting enzymes for the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides. The effects
of these agnets on cytoplasmic ATP-dependent citrate lyase, acetyl CoA synthetase and HMG-CoA
reductase activities were reduced by a magnitude to explain the reduction of serum cholesterol levels
afforded by the compounds. The reduction of acetyl CoA carboxylase, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate synthetase and phosphotidylate phosphohydrolase activities caused by the derivatives is of sufficient magnitude to
explain the observed reduction in serum triglycerides after administration of the agents.
Acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) is a central metabolite in carbon and energy metabolism and in the biosynthesis of cellular molecules. A source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA is essential for the production of fatty acids and sterols and for protein acetylation, including histone acetylation in the nucleus. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans acetyl-CoA is produced from acetate by cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, while in plants and animals acetyl-CoA is derived from citrate via ATP-citrate lyase. In the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans, tandem divergently transcribed genes (aclA and aclB) encode the subunits of ATP-citrate lyase, and we have deleted these genes. Growth is greatly diminished on carbon sources that do not result in cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as glucose and proline, while growth is not affected on carbon sources that result in the production of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA, such as acetate and ethanol. Addition of acetate restores growth on glucose or proline, and this is dependent on facA, which encodes cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA synthetase, but not on the regulatory gene facB. Transcription of aclA and aclB is repressed by growth on acetate or ethanol. Loss of ATP-citrate lyase results in severe developmental effects, with the production of asexual spores (conidia) being greatly reduced and a complete absence of sexual development. This is in contrast to Sordaria macrospora, in which fruiting body formation is initiated but maturation is defective in an ATP-citrate lyase mutant. Addition of acetate does not repair these defects, indicating a specific requirement for high levels of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA during differentiation. Complementation in heterokaryons between aclA and aclB deletions for all phenotypes indicates that the tandem gene arrangement is not essential.
Rapid tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol appears to be an important factor in the development of alcoholism. Here, we investigated the involvement of amygdaloid histone deacetylases (HDAC)-induced epigenetic changes in rapid ethanol tolerance (RET).
RET in rats was induced by two ethanol injections administered 24 hrs apart. Both ethanol-tolerant and control rats were treated with the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. HDAC activity, histone (H3 & H4) acetylation, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the amygdala of these rats were also measured.
A single ethanol exposure was able to produce an anxiolytic response, inhibit amygdaloid HDAC activity, and increase both histone acetylation and NPY expression (mRNA and protein levels) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) and medial nucleus of amygdala (MeA) of rats. In contrast, two exposures of the same dose of ethanol (24 hrs apart) neither elicited a similar anxiolytic response nor modulated HDAC activity, histone acetylation, or NPY expression in the amygdala. However, exposure to a higher dose of ethanol on the second day was able to produce an anxiolytic response and also inhibit amygdaloid HDAC activity. TSA treatment caused the reversal of RET by inhibiting HDAC activity thereby increasing histone acetylation and NPY expression in the CeA and MeA.
Cellular tolerance to the initial acute ethanol-induced inhibition of HDAC activity and the subsequent up-regulation of histone acetylation and NPY expression in the amygdala may be involved in the mechanisms underlying rapid tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol.
Amygdala; anxiety; HDAC; histone acetylation; neuropeptide Y; rapid ethanol tolerance
Previous model-based analysis of the metabolic network of Geobacter sulfurreducens suggested the existence of several redundant pathways. Here, we identified eight sets of redundant pathways that included redundancy for the assimilation of acetate, and for the conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. These equivalent pathways and two other sub-optimal pathways were studied using 5 single-gene deletion mutants in those pathways for the evaluation of the predictive capacity of the model. The growth phenotypes of these mutants were studied under 12 different conditions of electron donor and acceptor availability. The comparison of the model predictions with the resulting experimental phenotypes indicated that pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase is the only activity able to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA. However, the results and the modeling showed that the two acetate activation pathways present are not only active, but needed due to the additional role of the acetyl-CoA transferase in the TCA cycle, probably reflecting the adaptation of these bacteria to acetate utilization. In other cases, the data reconciliation suggested additional capacity constraints that were confirmed with biochemical assays. The results demonstrate the need to experimentally verify the activity of key enzymes when developing in silico models of microbial physiology based on sequence-based reconstruction of metabolic networks.
Geobacter sulfurreducens is a member of the Geobacteraceae family of micro-organisms that breathe metals and have a unique mode of metabolism. Stimulation of the activity of this species in the environment has been shown to result in the removal of radioactive contaminants in groundwater. Similarly, the respiration of these micro-organisms also has been linked to electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell. Both the rate of electricity generation and the efficiency of ground water clean-up can be enhanced through the improved understanding of the growth and metabolism of Geobacteraceae. In order to better understand the growth and metabolism of this organism, we had constructed a large-scale mathematical model of the metabolic network of this organism. Using this model, we identified reaction alternates that sustain metabolism in the event of gene deletions. We then experimentally confirmed the role of these metabolic reactions through gene deletion mutants and biochemical assays and improved the predictive ability of the mathematical model. Such an integrated computational and experimental approach can be used to study the activity and function of metabolic network in a rapid manner for other poorly characterized organisms of environmental relevance.