Rice MADS29 has recently been reported to cause programmed cell death of maternal tissues, the nucellus, and the nucellar projection during early stages of seed development. However, analyses involving OsMADS29 protein expression domains and characterization of OsMADS29 gain-of-function and knockdown phenotypes revealed novel aspects of its function in maintaining hormone homeostasis, which may have a role in the development of embryo and plastid differentiation and starch filling in endosperm cells. The MADS29 transcripts accumulated to high levels soon after fertilization; however, protein accumulation was found to be delayed by at least 4 days. Immunolocalization studies revealed that the protein accumulated initially in the dorsal-vascular trace and the outer layers of endosperm, and subsequently in the embryo and aleurone and subaleurone layers of the endosperm. Ectopic expression of MADS29 resulted in a severely dwarfed phenotype, exhibiting elevated levels of cytokinin, thereby suggesting that cytokinin biosynthesis pathway could be one of the major targets of OsMADS29. Overexpression of OsMADS29 in heterologous BY2 cells was found to mimic the effects of exogenous application of cytokinins that causes differentiation of proplastids to starch-containing amyloplasts and activation of genes involved in the starch biosynthesis pathway. Suppression of MADS29 expression by RNAi severely affected seed set. The surviving seeds were smaller in size, with developmental abnormalities in the embryo and reduced size of endosperm cells, which also contained loosely packed starch granules. Microarray analysis of overexpression and knockdown lines exhibited altered expression of genes involved in plastid biogenesis, starch biosynthesis, cytokinin signalling and biosynthesis.
Cytokinin; embryo; endosperm; MADS box; Oryza sativa; starch; seed development.
Is there more than one pathway for cytokinin biosynthesis in Physcomitrella? Despite the apparent absence of adenylate-isopentenyltransferases, characterization of ipt1 knockout mutants points towards a second, tRNA-independent cytokinin biosynthesis pathway.
The moss Physcomitrella patens is part of an early divergent clade of land plants utilizing the plant hormone cytokinin for growth control. The rate-limiting step of cytokinin biosynthesis is mediated by isopentenyltransferases (IPTs), found in land plants either as adenylate-IPTs or as tRNA-IPTs. Although a dominant part of cytokinins in flowering plants are synthesized by adenylate-IPTs, the Physcomitrella genome only encodes homologues of tRNA-IPTs. This study therefore looked into the question of whether cytokinins in moss derive from tRNA exclusively. Targeted gene knockout of ipt1 (d|ipt1) along with localization studies revealed that the chloroplast-bound IPT1 was almost exclusively responsible for the A37 prenylation of tRNA in Physcomitrella. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based cytokinin profiling demonstrated that the total amount of all free cytokinins in tissue was almost unaffected. However, the knockout plants showed increased levels of the N
6-isopentenyladenine (iP)- and trans-zeatin (tZ)-type cytokinins, considered to provide active forms, while cis-zeatin (cZ)-type cytokinins were reduced. The data provide evidence for an additional and unexpected tRNA-independent cytokinin biosynthetic pathway in moss. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis indicates a diversification of tRNA-IPT-like genes in bryophytes probably related to additional functions.
Bryophyte; cytokinin; isopentenyladenosine; isopentenyltransferases; moss; tRNA.
Kernel weight, controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), is an important component of grain yield in maize. Cytokinins (CKs) participate in determining grain morphology and final grain yield in crops. ZmIPT2, which is expressed mainly in the basal transfer cell layer, endosperm, and embryo during maize kernel development, encodes an isopentenyl transferase (IPT) that is involved in CK biosynthesis.
The coding region of ZmIPT2 was sequenced across a panel of 175 maize inbred lines that are currently used in Chinese maize breeding programs. Only 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven haplotypes were detected among these inbred lines. Nucleotide diversity (π) within the ZmIPT2 window and coding region were 0.347 and 0.0047, respectively, and they were significantly lower than the mean nucleotide diversity value of 0.372 for maize Chromosome 2 (P < 0.01). Association mapping revealed that a single nucleotide change from cytosine (C) to thymine (T) in the ZmIPT2 coding region, which converted a proline residue into a serine residue, was significantly associated with hundred kernel weight (HKW) in three environments (P <0.05), and explained 4.76% of the total phenotypic variation. In vitro characterization suggests that the dimethylallyl diphospate (DMAPP) IPT activity of ZmIPT2-T is higher than that of ZmIPT2-C, as the amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) consumed by ZmIPT2-T were 5.48-, 2.70-, and 1.87-fold, respectively, greater than those consumed by ZmIPT2-C. The effects of artificial selection on the ZmIPT2 coding region were evaluated using Tajima’s D tests across six subgroups of Chinese maize germplasm, with the most frequent favorable allele identified in subgroup PB (Partner B).
These results showed that ZmIPT2, which is associated with kernel weight, was subjected to artificial selection during the maize breeding process. ZmIPT2-T had higher IPT activity than ZmIPT2-C, and this favorable allele for kernel weight could be used in molecular marker-assisted selection for improvement of grain yield components in Chinese maize breeding programs.
Maize; Isopentenyl transferase 2; Association mapping; Artificial selection
The life cycle of higher plants alternates between the haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte. The female gametophyte (FG), surrounded by the sporophyte, develops within the ovule and orients along the chalazal/micropylar axis. This polarity is important in cell specification and development for both the ovule and FG. Previously, cytokinin was shown to act in the sporophytic tissue to regulate FG development.1,2 In the highlighted study,3 we further showed that enriched cytokinin signaling in chalaza, the central domain of the ovule, is required for the specification of the functional megaspore, which usually occurs in the chalazal-most megaspore after meiosis. The restricted cytokinin signaling in the chalaza is achieved by localized cytokinin biosynthesis and perception. Here, we discuss the implications of this and other studies for the understanding of the role of two-component signaling in FG development and the genetic and cellular interactions between gametophytic and sporophytic cells. Further, we show that cytokinin-deficient mutants display distorted cell morphology in the inner integument and elevated mitotic activity in the maternal sporophyte. These results suggest that cytokinin negatively regulates cell proliferation in the sporophytic tissues surrounding the developing FG, consistent with previous results indicating that cytokinin deficiency causes an increase in the number of cells in the embryos and consequently an enlarged seed size.
cytokinin; two-component signaling; female gametophyte; functional megaspore; integument
Recent advances in cytokinin analysis have made it possible to measure the content of 22 cytokinin metabolites in the tissue of developing tobacco seedlings. Individual types of cytokinins in plants are interconverted to their respective forms by several enzymatic activities (5′‐AMP‐isopentenyltransferase, adenosine nucleosidase, 5′‐nucleotidase, adenosine phosphorylase, adenosine kinase, trans‐hydroxylase, zeatin reductase, β‐glucosidase, O‐glucosyl transferase, N‐glucosyl transferase, cytokinin oxidase). This paper reports modelling and measuring of the dynamics of endogenous cytokinins in tobacco plants grown on media supplemented with isopentenyl adenine (IP), zeatin (Z) and dihydrozeatin riboside (DHZR). Differences in phenotypes generated by the three cytokinins are shown and discussed, and the assumption that substrate concentration drives enzyme kinetics underpinned the construction of a simple mathematical model of cytokinin metabolism in developing seedlings. The model was tested on data obtained from liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry cytokinin measurements on tobacco seedlings grown on Murashige and Skoog agar nutrient medium, and on plants grown in the presence of IP, Z and DHZR. A close match was found between measured and simulated data, especially after a series of iterative parameter searches, in which the parameters were set to obtain the best fit with one of the data sets.
Endogenous cytokinins; zeatin; isopentenyladenine; dihydrozeatin; metabolism; mathematical simulation model; Nicotiana tabacum L.; tobacco
In maize developing seeds, transfer cells are prominently located at the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL). As the first filial cell layer, BETL is a gateway to sugars, nutrients and water from mother plant; and anchor of numerous functions such as sucrose turnover, auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis/accumulation, energy metabolism, defense response, and signaling between maternal and filial generations. Previous studies showed that basal developing endosperms of miniature1 (mn1) mutant seeds lacking the Mn1-encoded cell wall invertase II, are also deficient for hexose. Given the role of glucose as one of the key sugars in protein glycosylation and proper protein folding; we performed a comparative large scale glycoproteome profiling of total proteins of these two genotypes (mn1 mutant vs. Mn1 wild type) using 2D gel electrophoresis and glycosylation/total protein staining, followed by image analysis. Protein identification was done by LC-MS/MS. A total of 413 spots were detected; from which, 113 spots matched between the two genotypes. Of these, 45 showed >20% decrease/increase in glycosylation level and were selected for protein identification. A large number of identified proteins showed decreased glycosylation levels in mn1 developing endosperms as compared to the Mn1. Functional classification of proteins, showed mainly of post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperone activities, carbohydrate and amino acid biosynthesis/transport, and cell wall biosynthesis. These proteins and activities were related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) as a result of the low glycolsylation levels of the mutant proteins. Overall, these results provide for the first time a global glycoproteome profile of maize BETL-enriched basal endosperm to better understand their role in seed development in maize.
seed development; gene expression; sugar methabolism; transfer cells; maize
The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs) on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation.
Although cytokinins have been known for decades to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development, our knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of endogenous content of specific cytokinins remains limited.
Here, we characterized two SOB five-like (SOFL) genes, AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and showed that they acted redundantly in regulating specific cytokinin levels. Analysis of the translational fusion AtSOFL1:AtSOFL1-GUS and AtSOFL2:AtSOFL2-GUS indicated that AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2 exhibited similar expression patterns. Both proteins were predominantly expressed in the vascular tissues of developing leaves, flowers and siliques, but barely detectable in roots and stems. Overexpression of either AtSOFL1 or AtSOFL2 led to increased cytokinin content and obvious corresponding mutant phenotypes for both transgenic seedlings and adult plants. In addition, overexpression and site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the SOFL domains are necessary for AtSOFL2's overexpression phenotypes. Silencing or disrupting either AtSOFL1 or AtSOFL2 caused no obvious developmental defects. Endogenous cytokinin analysis, however, revealed that compared to the wild type control, the SOFL1-RNAi62 sofl2-1 double mutant accumulated lower levels of trans-zeatin riboside monophosphate (tZRMP) and N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenosine monophosphate (iPRMP), which are biosynthetic intermediates of bioactive cytokinins. The double mutant also displayed decreased response to exogenous cytokinin in both callus-formation and inhibition-of-hypocotyl-elongation assays.
Taken together, our data suggest that in plants AtSOFL1 and AtSOFL2 work redundantly as positive modulators in the fine-tuning of specific cytokinin levels as well as responsiveness.
Pink-pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), classified as Methylobacterium spp., are persistent colonizers of plant leaf surfaces. Reports of PPFM-plant dialogue led us to examine cytokinin production by PPFMs. Using immunoaffinity and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, we obtained 22 to 111 ng of trans-zeatin per liter from culture filtrates of four PPFM leaf isolates (from Arabidopsis, barley, maize, and soybean) and of a Methylobacterium extorquens type culture originally recovered as a soil isolate. We identified the zeatin isolated as the trans isomer by HPLC and by a radioimmunoassay in which monoclonal antibodies specific for trans-hydroxylated cytokinins were used. Smaller and variable amounts of trans-zeatin riboside were also recovered. trans-Zeatin was recovered from tRNA hydrolysates in addition to the culture filtrates, suggesting that secreted trans-zeatin resulted from tRNA turnover rather than from de novo synthesis. The product of the miaA gene is responsible for isopentenylation of a specific adenine in some tRNAs. To confirm that the secreted zeatin originated from tRNA, we mutated the miaA gene of M. extorquens by single exchange of an internal miaA fragment into the chromosomal gene. Mutant exconjugants, confirmed by PCR, did not contain zeatin in their tRNAs and did not secrete zeatin into the medium, findings which are consistent with the hypothesis that all zeatin is tRNA derived rather than synthesized de novo. In germination studies performed with heat-treated soybean seeds, cytokinin-null (miaA) mutants stimulated germination as well as wild-type bacteria. While cytokinin production may play a role in the plant-PPFM interaction, it is not responsible for stimulation of germination by PPFMs.
Background and Aims
Green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) retain high concentrations of chlorophyll in the fruit flesh, whereas in gold-fleshed kiwifruit (A. chinensis) chlorophyll is degraded to colourless catabolites during fruit development, leaving yellow carotenoids visible. The plant hormone group the cytokinins has been implicated in the delay of senescence, and so the aim of this work was to investigate the link between cytokinin levels in ripening fruit and chlorophyll de-greening.
The expression of genes related to cytokinin metabolism and signal transduction and the concentration of cytokinin metabolites were measured. The regulation of gene expression was assayed using transient activation of the promoter of STAY-GREEN2 (SGR2) by cytokinin response regulators.
While the total amount of cytokinin increased in fruit of both species during maturation and ripening, a high level of expression of two cytokinin biosynthetic gene family members, adenylate isopentenyltransferases, was only detected in green kiwifruit fruit during ripening. Additionally, high levels of O-glucosylated cytokinins were detected only in green kiwifruit, as was the expression of the gene for zeatin O-glucosyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for glucosylating cytokinin into a storage form. Season to season variation in gene expression was seen, and some de-greening of the green kiwifruit fruit occurred in the second season, suggesting environmental effects on the chlorophyll degradation pathway. Two cytokinin-related response regulators, RRA17 and RRB120, showed activity against the promoter of kiwifruit SGR2.
The results show that in kiwifruit, levels of cytokinin increase markedly during fruit ripening, and that cytokinin metabolism is differentially regulated in the fruit of the green and gold species. However, the causal factor(s) associated with the maintenance or loss of chlorophyll in kiwifruit during ripening remains obscure.
Actinidia deliciosa; A. chinensis; chlorophyll degradation; cytokinin; fruit ripening; kiwifruit; STAY-GREEN; transcription factor
Cytokinin flow from roots to shoots can serve as a long-distance signal important for root-to-shoot communication. In the past, changes in cytokinin flow from roots to shoots have been mainly attributed to changes in the rate of synthesis or breakdown in the roots. The present research tested the possibility that active uptake of cytokinin by root cells may also influence its export to shoots. To this end, we collapsed the proton gradient across root membranes using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit secondary active uptake of exogenous and endogenous cytokinins. We report the impact of CCCP on cytokinin concentrations and delivery in xylem sap and on accumulation in shoots of 7-day-old wheat plants in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinin applied as zeatin. Zeatin treatment increased the total accumulation of cytokinin in roots and shoots but the effect was smaller for the shoots. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins using zeatin-specific antibodies showed an increase in immunostaining of the cells adjacent to xylem in the roots of zeatin-treated plants. Inhibition of secondary active cytokinin uptake by CCCP application decreased cytokinin accumulation in root cells but increased both flow from the roots and accumulation in the shoots. The possible importance of secondary active uptake of cytokinins by root cells for the control of their export to the shoot is discussed.
Cytokinin; protonophore; root-to-shoot communication; secondary active uptake; Triticum durum; xylem transport; zeatin.
Salinity limits crop productivity, in part by decreasing shoot concentrations of the growth-promoting and senescence-delaying hormones cytokinins. Since constitutive cytokinin overproduction may have pleiotropic effects on plant development, two approaches assessed whether specific root-localized transgenic IPT (a key enzyme for cytokinin biosynthesis) gene expression could substantially improve tomato plant growth and yield under salinity: transient root IPT induction (HSP70::IPT) and grafting wild-type (WT) shoots onto a constitutive IPT-expressing rootstock (WT/35S::IPT). Transient root IPT induction increased root, xylem sap, and leaf bioactive cytokinin concentrations 2- to 3-fold without shoot IPT gene expression. Although IPT induction reduced root biomass (by 15%) in control (non-salinized) plants, in salinized plants (100 mM NaCl for 22 d), increased cytokinin concentrations delayed stomatal closure and leaf senescence and almost doubled shoot growth (compared with WT plants), with concomitant increases in the essential nutrient K+ (20%) and decreases in the toxic ion Na+ (by 30%) and abscisic acid (by 20–40%) concentrations in transpiring mature leaves. Similarly, WT/35S::IPT plants (scion/rootstock) grown with 75 mM NaCl for 90 d had higher fruit trans-zeatin concentrations (1.5- to 2-fold) and yielded 30% more than WT/non-transformed plants. Enhancing root cytokinin synthesis modified both shoot hormonal and ionic status, thus ameliorating salinity-induced decreases in growth and yield.
ABA; cytokinins; grafting; IPT; root zone temperature; root to shoot signalling; salinity; Solanum lycopersicum
Hormonal balances of abscisic acid-to-gibberellic acid govern the development and differentiation of the nucellar projection, the maternal organ of barley grains involved in assimilate transfer and endosperm growth.
In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains.
Assimilate transfer; barley endosperm; gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances; maternal–filial communication; nucellar projection; seg8 barley mutant.
The ligand-binding properties of the maize (Zea mays L.) cytokinin receptors ZmHK1, ZmHK2, and ZmHK3a have been characterized using cytokinin binding assays with living cells or membrane fractions. According to affinity measurements, ZmHK1 preferred N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine (iP) and had nearly equal affinities to trans-zeatin (tZ) and cis-zeatin (cZ). ZmHK2 preferred tZ and iP to cZ, while ZmHK3a preferred iP. Only ZmHK2 had a high affinity to dihydrozeatin (DZ). Analysis of subcellular fractions from leaves and roots of maize seedlings revealed specific binding of tZ in the microsome fraction but not in chloroplasts or mitochondria. In competitive binding assays with microsomes, tZ and iP were potent competitors of [3H]tZ while cZ demonstrated significantly lower affinity; adenine was almost ineffective. The binding specificities of microsomes from leaf and root cells for cytokinins were consistent with the expression pattern of the ZmHKs and our results on individual receptor properties. Aqueous two-phase partitioning and sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunological detection with monoclonal antibody showed that ZmHK1 was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This was corroborated by observations of the subcellular localization of ZmHK1 fusions with green fluorescent protein in maize protoplasts. All these data strongly suggest that at least a part of cytokinin perception occurs in the ER.
Cytokinin; endomembranes; endoplasmic reticulum; maize; microsomes; receptor; sensor histidine kinase; subcellular localization; Zea mays; zeatin
CKX genes encode cytokinin dehydrogenase enzymes (CKX), which metabolize cytokinins in plants and influence developmental processes. The genes are expressed in different tissues and organs during development; however, their exact role in barley is poorly understood. It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of HvCKX1 decreased the CKX level, especially in those organs which showed the highest expression, i.e. developing kernels and roots, leading to higher plant productivity and higher mass of the roots . The same type of RNAi construct was applied to silence HvCKX2 and analyze the function of the gene. Two cultivars of barley were transformed with the same silencing and selection cassettes by two different methods: biolistic and via Agrobacterium.
The mean Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of Golden Promise was 3.47% (±2.82). The transcript level of HvCKX2 in segregating progeny of T1 lines was decreased to 34%. The reduction of the transcript in Agrobacterium-derived plants resulted in decreased CKX activity in the developing and developed leaves as well as in 7 DAP (days after pollination) spikes. The final phenotypic effect was increased productivity of T0 plants and T1 lines. Higher productivity was the result of the higher number of seeds and higher grain yield. It was also correlated with the higher 1000 grain weight, increased (by 7.5%) height of the plants and higher (from 0.5 to 2) numbers of spikes.
The transformation efficiency of Golden Promise after biolistic transformation was more than twice as low compared to Agrobacterium. The transcript level in segregating progeny of T1 lines was decreased to 24%. Otherwise, the enzyme activity found in the leaves of the lines after biolistic transformation, especially in cv. Golden Promise, was very high, exceeding the relative level of the control lines. These unbalanced ratios of the transcript level and the activity of the CKX enzyme negatively affected kernel germination or anther development and as a consequence setting the seeds. The final phenotypic effect was the decreased productivity of T0 plants and T1 lines obtained via the biolistic silencing of HvCKX2.
The phenotypic result, which was higher productivity of silenced lines obtained via Agrobacterium, confirms the hypothesis that spatial and temporal differences in expression contributed to functional differentiation. The applicability of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for gene silencing of developmentally regulated genes, like HvCKX2, was proven. Otherwise low productivity and disturbances in plant development of biolistic-silenced lines documented the unsuitability of the method. The possible reasons are discussed.
RNAi silencing; HvCKX2; Barley; Genetic transformation; Agrobacterium; Microprojectile bombardment
We have developed a N6-dimethylallyladenine (cytokinin) dehydrogenase-based microbiosensor for real-time determination of the family of hormones known as cytokinins. Cytokinin dehydrogenase from Zea mays (ZmCKX1) was immobilised concurrently with electrodeposition of a silica gel film on the surface of a Pt microelectrode, which was further functionalized by free electron mediator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) in supporting electrolyte to give a bioactive film capable of selective oxidative cleavage of the N6- side chain of cytokinins. The rapid electron shuffling between freely diffusible DCPIP and the FAD redox group in ZmCKX1 endowed the microbiosensor with a fast response time of less than 10 s. The immobilised ZmCKX1 retained a high affinity for its preferred substrate N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenine (iP), and gave the miniaturized biosensor a large linear dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 µM, a detection limit of 3.9 nM and a high sensitivity to iP of 603.3 µAmM−1cm−2 (n = 4, R2 = 0.9999). Excellent selectivity was displayed for several other aliphatic cytokinins and their ribosides, including N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenine, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl) adenosine, cis-zeatin, trans-zeatin and trans-zeatin riboside. Aromatic cytokinins and metabolites such as cytokinin glucosides were generally poor substrates. The microbiosensors exhibited excellent stability in terms of pH and long-term storage and have been used successfully to determine low nanomolar cytokinin concentrations in tomato xylem sap exudates.
Cell number and cell division activity in rice (Oryza sativa) endosperms are possibly regulated by cytokinin levels in the endosperm and its source in the roots. This study tried to find the possible correlations among them. Six rice genotypes were grown in nutrient solution. Two patterns of endosperm cell division, synchronous and asynchronous, were observed among the genotypes based on the cell division rate of superior and inferior spikelets. Contents of zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR) were much higher than those of N6‐isopentenyladenine (iP) and N6‐isopentenyladenosine (iPR) in both endosperms and roots. Changes in Z + ZR levels in endosperms were significantly correlated with those in roots, and both were very significantly correlated with the cell division rate. Changes in iP + iPR contents in the roots were not significantly correlated with those in the endosperms and the cell division rate. When roots were treated with kinetin, endosperm cell number and grain weight were increased. Such enhancement was more significantly achieved by the root kinetin treatment than by spraying kinetin on leaves and panicles. The results suggest that the cell number and cell division activity in rice endosperms are regulated by cytokinin levels in the endosperm and that root‐derived Z + ZR play a pivotal role.
Cell division activity; cytokinin; endosperm; rice; Oryza sativa L.; root
Cytokinins are N6 substituted adenine derivatives that affect many aspects of plant growth and development, including cell division, shoot initiation and growth, leaf senescence, apical dominance, sink/source relationships, nutrient uptake, phyllotaxis, and vascular, gametophyte, and embryonic development, as well as the response to biotic and abiotic factors. Molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis have helped elucidate the mechanisms underlying the function of this phytohormone in plants. Here, we review our current understanding of cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling in Arabidopsis, the latter of which is similar to bacterial two-component phosphorelays. We discuss the perception of cytokinin by the ER-localized histidine kinase receptors, the role of the AHPs in mediating the transfer of the phosphoryl group from the receptors to the response regulators (ARRs), and finally the role of the large ARR family in cytokinin function. The identification and genetic manipulation of the genes involved in cytokinin metabolism and signaling have helped illuminate the roles of cytokinins in Arabidopsis. We discuss these diverse roles, and how other signaling pathways influence cytokinin levels and sensitivity though modulation of the expression of cytokinin signaling and metabolic genes.
Following exposure to salinity, the root/shoot ratio is increased (an important adaptive response) due to the rapid inhibition of shoot growth (which limits plant productivity) while root growth is maintained. Both processes may be regulated by changes in plant hormone concentrations. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Moneymaker) were cultivated hydroponically for 3 weeks under high salinity (100 mM NaCl) and five major plant hormones (abscisic acid, ABA; the cytokinins zeatin, Z, and zeatin-riboside, ZR; the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, IAA; and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC) were determined weekly in roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Salinity reduced shoot biomass by 50–60% and photosynthetic area by 20–25% both by decreasing leaf expansion and delaying leaf appearance, while root growth was less affected, thus increasing the root/shoot ratio. ABA and ACC concentrations strongly increased in roots, xylem sap, and leaves after 1 d (ABA) and 15 d (ACC) of salinization. By contrast, cytokinins and IAA were differentially affected in roots and shoots. Salinity dramatically decreased the Z+ZR content of the plant, and induced the conversion of ZR into Z, especially in the roots, which accounted for the relative increase of cytokinins in the roots compared to the leaf. IAA concentration was also strongly decreased in the leaves while it accumulated in the roots. Decreased cytokinin content and its transport from the root to the shoot were probably induced by the basipetal transport of auxin from the shoot to the root. The auxin/cytokinin ratio in the leaves and roots may explain both the salinity-induced decrease in shoot vigour (leaf growth and leaf number) and the shift in biomass allocation to the roots, in agreement with changes in the activity of the sink-related enzyme cell wall invertase.
Abscisic acid; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; indole-3-acetic acid; plant hormones; salt stress; sodium chloride; tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.); zeatin; zeatin-riboside
In angiosperms, the endosperm plays a crucial placenta-like role in that not only is it necessary for nurturing the embryo, but also regulating embryogenesis through complicated genetic and epigenetic interactions with other seed compartments and is the primary tissue in which genomic imprinting occurs.
We observed a gradual increase of paternal siRNA expression in the early stages of kernels and an expected 2:1 maternal to paternal ratio in 7-DAP endosperm via sequencing of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transcriptomes in developing kernels (0, 3 and 5 days after pollination (DAP)) and endosperms (7, 10 and 15 DAP) from the maize B73 and Mo17 reciprocal crosses. Additionally, 460 imprinted siRNA loci were identified in the endosperm, with the majority (456/460, 99.1%) being maternally expressed at 10 DAP. Moreover, 13 out of 29 imprinted genes harbored imprinted siRNA loci within their 2-kb flanking regions, a significant higher frequency than expected based on simulation analysis. Additionally, gene ontology terms of “response to auxin stimulus”, “response to brassinosteroid stimulus” and “regulation of gene expression” were enriched with genes harboring 10-DAP specific siRNAs, whereas those of “nutrient reservoir activity”, “protein localization to vacuole” and “secondary metabolite biosynthetic process” were enriched with genes harboring 15-DAP specific siRNAs.
A subset of siRNAs subjected to imprinted expression pattern in maize developing endosperm, and they are likely correlated with certain imprinted gene expression. Additionally, siRNAs might influence nutrient uptake and allocation processes during maize endosperm development.
siRNA; Imprinting; Maize; Endosperm; GSE52726
Cytokinins (CKs) are thought to play important roles in fruit development, especially cell division. However, the mechanisms and regulation of CK activity have not been well investigated. This study analysed CK concentrations and expression of genes involved in CK metabolism in developing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ovaries. The concentrations of CK ribosides and isopentenyladenine and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT3, SlIPT4, SlLOG6, and SlLOG8 were high at anthesis and decreased immediately afterward. In contrast, trans-zeatin concentration and the transcript levels of the CK biosynthetic genes SlIPT1, SlIPT2, SlCYP735A1, SlCYP735A2, and SlLOG2 increased after anthesis. The expression of type-A response regulator genes was high in tomato ovaries from pre-anthesis to early post-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the CK signal transduction pathway is active in the cell division phase of fruit development. This study also investigated the effect of CK application on fruit set and development. Application of a synthetic CK, N-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-N’-phenylurea (CPPU), to unpollinated tomato ovaries induced parthenocarpic fruit development. The CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits were smaller than pollinated fruits, because of reduction of pericarp cell size rather than reduced cell number. Thus, CPPU-induced parthenocarpy was attributable to the promotion of cell division, not cell expansion. Overall, the results provide evidence that CKs are involved in cell division during development of tomato fruit.
CPPU; cytokinin; fruit development; Micro-Tom; parthenocarpy; tomato
To study the effects of cytokinin O-glucosylation in monocots, maize (Zea mays L.) transformants harbouring the ZOG1 gene (encoding a zeatin O-glucosyltransferase from Phaseolus lunatus L.) under the control of the constitutive ubiquitin (Ubi) promoter were generated. The roots and leaves of the transformants had greatly increased levels of zeatin-O-glucoside. The vegetative characteristics of hemizygous and homozygous Ubi:ZOG1 plants resembled those of cytokinin-deficient plants, including shorter stature, thinner stems, narrower leaves, smaller meristems, and increased root mass and branching. Transformant leaves had a higher chlorophyll content and increased levels of active cytokinins compared with those of non-transformed sibs. The Ubi:ZOG1 plants exhibited delayed senescence when grown in the spring/summer. While hemizygous transformants had reduced tassels with fewer spikelets and normal viable pollen, homozygotes had very small tassels and feminized tassel florets, resembling tasselseed phenotypes. Such modifications of the reproductive phase were unexpected and demonstrate a link between cytokinins and sex-specific floral development in monocots.
Corn; cytokinin; plant development; tasselseed; Zea mays; zeatin O-glucosyltransferase
Auxin and cytokinin signaling participates in regulating a large spectrum of developmental and physiological processes in plants. The shoots and roots of plants have specific and sometimes even contrary responses to these hormones. Recent studies have clearly shown that establishing the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin and cytokinin response signals is central for the control of shoot apical meristem (SAM) induction in cultured tissues. However, little is known about the role of these hormones in root apical meristem (RAM) initiation. Here, we found that the expression patterns of several regulatory genes critical for RAM formation were correlated with the establishment of the embryonic root meristem during somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the early expression of the WUS-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) and WUSCHEL genes was induced and was nearly overlapped within the embryonic callus when somatic embryos (SEs) could not be identified morphologically. Their correct expression was essential for RAM and SAM initiation and embryonic shoot–root axis establishment. Furthermore, we analyzed the auxin and cytokinin response during SE initiation. Notably, cytokinin response signals were detected in specific regions that were correlated with induced WOX5 expression and subsequent SE formation. Overexpression of the ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR genes ARR7 and ARR15 (feedback repressors of cytokinin signaling), disturbed RAM initiation and SE induction. These results provide new information on auxin and cytokinin-regulated apical–basal polarity formation of shoot–root axis during somatic embryogenesis.
shoot–root axis; root apical meristem; cytokinin response; auxin response; somatic embryogenesis; Arabidopsis
The relative role of the maternal source and the filial sink in controlling the composition of maize (Zea mays L.) kernels is unclear and may be influenced by the genotype and the N supply. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of assimilate supply from the vegetative source and utilization of assimilates by the grain sink on the final composition of maize kernels. Intermated B73×Mo17 recombinant inbred lines (IBM RILs) which displayed contrasting concentrations of endosperm starch were grown in the field with deficient or sufficient N, and the source supply altered by ear truncation (45% reduction) at 15 d after pollination (DAP). The assimilate supply into the kernels was determined at 19 DAP using the agar trap technique, and the final kernel composition was measured. The influence of N supply and kernel ear position on final kernel composition was also determined for a commercial hybrid. Concentrations of kernel protein and starch could be altered by genotype or the N supply, but remained fairly constant along the length of the ear. Ear truncation also produced a range of variation in endosperm starch and protein concentrations. The C/N ratio of the assimilate supply at 19 DAP was directly related to the final kernel composition, with an inverse relationship between the concentrations of starch and protein in the mature endosperm. The accumulation of kernel starch and protein in maize is uniform along the ear, yet adaptable within genotypic limits, suggesting that kernel composition is source limited in maize.
C/N; carbon; grain; maternal; nitrogen; protein; sink; source; starch; transport
Cytokinin is an influential hormone in growth and developmental processes across many plant species. While several cytokinin-regulated genes have been well characterized in Arabidopsis, few have been identified in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here a tomato family of 11 highly related cytokinin response factor genes designated as SlCRF1–SlCRF11 (Solanum lycopersicum cytokinin response factor) are identified and characterized. SlCRFs are AP2/ERF transcription factors and generally orthologous to Arabidopsis CRF clade members (AtCRFs). Some SlCRF genes lack a direct Arabidopsis orthologue and one SlCRF has a unique protein domain arrangement not seen in any other CRF protein. Expression analysis of SlCRF1–SlCRF11 revealed differential patterns and levels across plant tissues examined (leaf, stem, root and flower). Several SlCRFs show induction by cytokinin to various degrees, similar to AtCRFs. Additionally it is shown that some SlCRFs can be regulated by other factors, including NaCl, ethylene, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. Examination of SlCRF proteins in transient Agrobacterium infiltration experiments indicates they can be nuclear localized in planta. Using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (split-yellow fluorescent protein) system, it is also shown that SlCRF proteins can interact to form homo- and heterodimers. Overall this work indicates that some SlCRFs resemble previously identified CRFs in terms of structure, expression, and cytokinin regulation. However, SlCRFs have novel CRF protein forms and responses to abiotic factors, suggesting they may have a diverse set of roles in stress and hormone regulation in tomato.
CRF; cytokinin; cytokinin response factor; SlCRF; tomato