World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders.
Methods and Results
A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year.
Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the rapidly expanding Brazilian primary health system should be strengthened. This strategy might become a model for poorly resourced and highly populated developing countries.
To examine sociodemographic associations of transitions from alcohol use to disorders and of remission from disorders in metropolitan China.
Design and Setting
Face-to-face interviewing by trained lay-interviewers on a multi-staged, clustered sample from the general population of Beijing and Shanghai, P.R.C.
5,201 adults aged 18-70 years and with household registration.
World Mental Health version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
Lifetime prevalence estimates for alcohol use, regular use (at least 12 drinks in a year), DSM-IV abuse and dependence with abuse were 65.4%, 39.5% (60.4% of ever-drinkers), 4.6% (11.6% of regular users) and 0.9% (20.4% of lifetime alcohol abusers) respectively. These estimates were higher among respondents from the recent cohort. 64.3% and 36.9% respondents with a history of lifetime abuse and dependence had remitted respectively. The number of sociodemographic associations for the onset of each transitional stage decreased from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Onset of ever-use was more common in respondents who were male, 18-50 years of age, with middle education level, and never married, but less common among the previously married and students. First onset of regular use among those with ever-use was more common in respondents who were male, less than 50 years of age and never married, but less common in students. Being male and less than 50 years of age was associated with more alcohol abusers among regular users.
This study was the first to reveal in a Chinese population that qualitatively different risk factors might operate during the different stages of progression from alcohol use to disorders. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences in order to guide prevention programs.
alcohol; abuse; dependence; remission; transitions; China
To estimate the general and racial-ethnic specific cumulative probability of remission from nicotine alcohol cannabis or cocaine dependence, and to identify predictors of remission across substances.
Data were collected from structured diagnostic interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV version.
The 2001–2002 NESARC surveyed a nationally representative sample from USA adults (n=43,093) selected in a three-stage sampling design.
The subsamples of individuals with lifetime DSM-IV diagnosis of dependence on nicotine (n=6,937), alcohol (n=4,781), cannabis (n=530) and cocaine (n=408).
Cumulative probability estimates of dependence remission for the general population and across racial-ethnic groups. Hazard ratios for remission from dependence.
Lifetime cumulative probability estimates of dependence remission were 83.7% for nicotine, 90.6% for alcohol, 97.2% for cannabis, and 99.2% for cocaine. Half of the cases of nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine dependence remitted approximately 26, 14, 6 and 5 years after dependence onset, respectively. Males, Blacks and individuals with diagnosis of personality disorders and history of substance use comorbidity exhibited lower hazards of remission for at least two substances.
A significant proportion of individuals with dependence on nicotine, alcohol, cannabis or cocaine achieve remission at some point in their lifetime, although the probability and time to remission varies by substance and racial-ethnic group. Several predictors of remission are shared by at least two substances, suggesting that the processes of remission overlap. The lower rates of remission of individuals with comorbid personality or substance use disorders highlight the need of providing coordinated psychiatric and substance abuse interventions.
Familial influences on remission from alcohol use disorder (AUD) have been studied using family history of AUD rather than family history of remission. The current study used a remission phenotype in a twin sample to examine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to remission
The sample comprised 6183 twins with an average age of 30 years from the Australian Twin Registry. Lifetime history of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms and symptom recency were assessed with a structured telephone interview. AUD was defined broadly and narrowly as history of two or more or three or more abuse or dependence symptoms. Remission was defined as absence of symptoms at time of interview among individuals with lifetime AUD. Standard bivariate genetic analyses were conducted to derive estimates of genetic and environmental influences on AUD and remission
Environmental influences alone accounted for remission in males and for 89% of influences on remission in females, with 11% due to genetic influences shared with AUD, which decreased the likelihood of remission. For women, more than 80% of influences on remission were distinct from influences on AUD, and environmental influences were from individual experiences only. For men, just over 50% of influences on remission were distinct from those on AUD, and the influence of environments shared with the co-twin were substantial. The results for the broad and narrow phenotypes were similar
The current study establishes young adult remission as a phenotype distinct from AUD and highlights the importance of environmental influences on remission
Alcohol dependence; alcohol use disorder; remission; twins
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in women and men in Brazil, but the trends for the death ratios for ischemic heart disease and stroke in women and men remain unknown.
In this study, the trends for the death ratios among women and men who were over 30 years of age were analyzed from 1980 to 2005. Data were collected for both the Brazilian population and the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Estimates of the population size and data for mortality were then obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health. The risk for death was adjusted using a direct method.
Death rates due to cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and stroke have declined in both Brazil and the metropolitan region of São Paulo. A linear regression analysis revealed a similar trend for ischemic heart disease and demonstrated a male/female ratio of 1.653 ± 0.001 (r = 0.228; p = 0.262) in Brazil and 1.763 ± 0.008 (r = 0.863; p<0.001) in São Paulo. Comparisons between the slopes of the linear regressions showed an increased ischemic heart disease ratio in men/women in São Paulo in comparison to those in Brazil (p<0.0001). The linear regression showed an increasing trend for the male/female stroke ratio of 1.252 ± 0.004 (r = 0.776; p<0.0001) in Brazil and 1.331 ± 0.006 (r = 0.580; p = 0.002) in São Paulo. Comparisons between the regressions for the stroke ratio were similar for men/women in São Paulo compared to Brazil (p = 0.244).
We observed an increased trend in the ratio for ischemic heart disease death in men compared to women. Improvements in the control of risk factors and treatments for both men and women are mandatory to reduce the number of ischemic heart disease‐related deaths in Brazil.
Brain Ischemia; Myocardial Ischemia; Mortality; São Paulo; Brazil
Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2) to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians.
A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male) aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire.
Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P < 0.05 for both). Logistic regression analysis revealed that overweight was associated with more computer usage, parental encouragement to be active, and light soft drink consumption after controlling for differences in sex, age, and parental education (P < 0.05 for all). Conversely, overweight was associated with less active transport to school, eating before sleep, and consumption of breakfast, full-sugar soft drinks, fried food and confectionery (P < 0.05 for all).
Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.
Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).
To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001).
Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors might guide the implementation of interventions to improve mental health and quality of life in LMIC urban centers.
Up to 50% of bipolar disorder (BD) patients present a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol use disorders (AUD). BD patients with comorbid AUD, even when in remission from the AUD, have a poorer outcome and functional impairment than patients with BD alone. The neurobiological abnormalities that potentially characterize this severe subgroup of BD patients are unknown. Our goal was to investigate gray matter (GM) volume abnormalities in BD I patients with comorbid AUD. Twenty-one BD-AUD patients, 21 BD-nonAUD BD patients, and 25 healthy controls (HC), matched by age, gender, and handedness were studied. The BD-AUD patients were in remission from AUD on average for 6.8 years. 3D SPGR MRIs (TR=25 ms, TE=5 ms, slice thickness=1.5 mm) were acquired from all subjects using a 1.5 T GE Signa Imaging System. We used an optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol to compare GM volumes among the groups. BD-AUD patients presented smaller GM volumes in the left medial frontal and the right anterior cingulate gyri compared to BD-nonAUD patients. BDnon-AUD patients did not present GM volume differences compared to HC. These findings provide evidence for an effect of comorbid AUD on regional brain structure of BD I patients and warrant further research on neurobiological aspects of this prevalent and severe comorbidity.
Bipolar disorder; alcoholism; comorbidity; physiopathology; cerebral cortex; magnetic resonance imaging
Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Substance and Alcohol Use Disorders (SUDs and AUDs is very high. The literature suggests a negative synergy between BPD and SUDs, which may impact an individual’s ability to achieve and maintain remission of either disorder in the face of the other.
We examined lifetime and current (past year) BPD symptom counts in three gender- and age-comparable groups: short-term abstinent alcoholics (STA, 6–15 weeks abstinent), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTA, more than 18 months abstinent), and non-substance-abusing controls (NSAC). Abstinent individuals were recruited primarily from mutual-help recovery networks and about half had comorbid drug dependence. BPD symptoms were obtained using the SCID-II, followed up with questions regarding currency, but did not require that BPD symptoms represent persistent or pervasive behavior such as would meet criteria for BPD diagnosis. Thus our study dealt only with BPD symptoms, not BPD diagnoses.
Alcoholics had more lifetime and current symptoms for most all BPD criteria than NSAC. In general, STA and LTA did not differ in BPD symptoms, except for a group-by-gender effect for both lifetime and current anger-associated symptoms and for lifetime abandonment-avoidance symptoms. For these cases, there were much higher symptom counts for STA women vs. men, with comparable symptom counts for LTA women vs. men.
Our results suggest for the most part that BPD symptoms do not prevent the maintenance of recovery in AUD and SUD individuals who have established at least six weeks abstinence within the mutual-help recovery network – in fact the presence of BPD symptoms is the norm. However, we did find difficulty in establishing longer-term abstinence in women with anger-associated symptoms and abandonment avoidance symptoms.
Personality Disorder; chronic alcoholism; psychiatric comorbidity
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem worldwide. In Brazil, approximately 100,000 patients (January 2012) receive renal replacement therapy. Nevertheless, data on dialysis incidence in the Brazilian population are scarce. This study aims to analyze the incidence of patients starting dialysis therapy in São Paulo City, the largest Brazilian metropolis.
This cohort study analyzed data from 9,994 patients starting hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis funded by the Brazilian Public Health System during a 5-year period (2007–2011). Patient data for this study (recorded as electronic files) were obtained from the São Paulo City's Dialysis Regulatory Bureau, which regulates the allocation of patients requiring dialytic therapy.
The dialysis incidence rates were 178, 174, 170, 185 and 188 per million population for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively. The incidence rates increased with age. Hypertension and diabetes were the main etiologies diagnosed. Hemodialysis was the chosen dialysis modality in the majority of patients (92.6%), whereas the percentage of patients referred for peritoneal dialysis decreased from 10.1% to 5.5%.
The incidence of patients starting renal replacement therapy from 2007–2011 in São Paulo was stable but higher than the projected incidence for the entire country. The authors emphasize the need for further studies of the incidence of dialysis in the Brazilian population and for the creation of a Brazilian registry of dialysis patients, which would be a valuable tool for developing healthcare policies and renal replacement therapy strategies.
Chronic Kidney Disease; Dialysis Incidence; Renal Replacement Therapy; Brazil
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently co-occur with and exacerbate schizophrenia, yet the specific relationships between schizophrenia symptoms and alcohol use remain unclear.
PANSS scores were correlated with measures of alcohol and other substance use in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and AUDs entering a trial of monitored naltrexone treatment. Data were analyzed from the first 80 participants; 55% had schizophrenia and 45% had schizoaffective disorder. All had AUDs; 95% had alcohol dependence and 5% alcohol abuse; 34% also had cannabis abuse/dependence and 31% cocaine abuse/dependence.
PANSS Negative scores were inversely correlated with Addiction Severity Index alcohol composite score, alcohol craving, quality of alcohol “high” (euphoria), and with frequency of cannabis use. An exploratory analysis indicated that the negative symptoms that may most strongly correlate with less alcohol use, craving or euphoria were passive/apathetic social withdrawal, blunted affect, difficulty in abstract thinking, and stereotyped thinking. Higher PANSS Composite scores, indicating the predominance of positive over negative PANSS symptoms, correlated with more alcohol craving and cannabis use. Higher PANSS General scores were associated with more alcohol craving.
These findings extend previous reports of the association of negative schizophrenia symptoms with less alcohol and substance use to patients with AUDs and indicate that this relationship also includes less alcohol craving and less alcohol euphoria. The findings may also provide some initial evidence that specific negative symptoms may be key to these relationships.
schizophrenia; alcohol; PANSS; negative symptom; positive symptom; naltrexone; craving
To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD, i.e., alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States.
Data came from a large representative sample of the United States population. Face-to-face interviews of 43,093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001–2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders, and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule—DSM-IV Version.
Lifetime prevalence of comorbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence (OR=2.8) and alcohol abuse (OR=1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic, and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling, and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of comorbid cases, but comorbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Comorbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with comorbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking.
Comorbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional comorbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this comorbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention.
Whether lifetime abstainer’s antisocial behavior are maladjusted or well-adjusted is unresolved. The aim of this study was to compare abstainers (defined as persons with no lifetime use of alcohol and other drugs and non-engagement in antisocial or delinquent behavior) with non-abstainers across a range of sociodemographic and mental health characteristics in the United States.
Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews (N = 43,093) using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV) were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001 and 2002.
The prevalence of abstaining was 11%. Abstainers were significantly more likely to be female, Asian and African-American, born outside the U.S., and less likely to be unemployed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that abstainers were significantly less likely to evidence lifetime mood, anxiety, or personality disorder compared to non-abstainers.
Findings indicate that abstainers are not maladapted and are comparatively more functional than non-abstainers.
Abstainers; delinquency; alcohol; drug use; externalizing behaviors
In adults, myelination injury is associated with alcoholism. Maturation of the corpus callosum is prominent during adolescence. We hypothesized that subjects with adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders (AUD; defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV alcohol dependence or abuse) would have myelination mircostructural differences compared to controls.
Adolescent subjects (25 males, 7 females) with an AUD (16.9 ± 1.2 years), who were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs and had co-morbid mental disorders, and 28 sociodemographically similar healthy controls (17 males, 11 females; 15.9 ± 1.1 years) underwent a 3.0 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging scan.
Measures of rostral body fractional anisotropy (FA) were higher in the AUD group than in the control group. Compared to controls, mean diffusivity (MD) was lower, while FA was higher, in the AUD group in the isthmus region. Anterior corpus callosum mircostructural development differed in adolescents with AUD, as age was positively (not negatively) associated with rostrum MD and age was negatively (not positively) associated with rostrum FA. There were sex by group interactions in that control females had higher posterior midbody FA when com pared to female adolescents with AUD.
Lower MD and higher FA values in the AUD group suggest pre-morbid vulnerability for accelerated prefrontal and temporo-parietal myelin maturation that may enhance the risk for adolescent AUD. Significant (and opposite to developmentally expected) correlations were seen between anterior corpus callosum MD and FA measures and age in the AUD group, suggesting neurotoxic effects of alcohol on adolescent corpus callosum microstructure. As seen in adults, female adolescents with AUD may be especially vulnerable to corpus callosum mircostructural injury. Further diffusion tensor imaging studies of corpus callosum maturation in children at familial risk for alcoholism, and in those with AUD, need to be done to elucidate these mechanisms.
Alcohol Use Disorders; Alcohol Abuse or Dependence; Diffusion Tensor Imaging; Adolescence; Corpus Callosum
Little is known about the sociodemographic correlates and health effects associated with lifetime alcohol misuse in community resident elderly in Brazil.
Data came from a representative sample of 6961 residents aged 60+ in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The structured interview included a five-item lifetime alcohol use questionnaire addressing abuse and dependence, and enquiry regarding sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and social support, and health conditions.
Of the sample, 10.6% (25.3% men, 2.9% women) endorsed at least one lifetime alcohol misuse question. Controlled analyses comparing a gradient of alcohol misuse (none, one, more than one item endorsed), found that men, people age 60–69 (compared to older persons), and tobacco users were more likely to endorse alcohol misuse items. Persons reporting lower income, and of nonWhite race/ethnicity did not differ from their comparison groups with respect to endorsing one item, but they were more likely to endorse two or more items. Endorsing more than one item was associated with impaired activities of daily living, the presence of respiratory problems and psychiatric disorder, but was protective against vascular conditions.
Major lifetime alcohol misuse (defined as endorsing more than one of five items reflecting alcohol abuse or dependence) is more common in certain sociodemographic groups (men, younger elderly, lower income, nonWhites). With the exception of vascular conditions, it is associated with smoking, poorer functional status, respiratory problems, and psychiatric disorder. Endorsing only one item has a reduced association, significant only for male gender, smoking, and psychiatric disorder.
prevalence; lifetime alcohol use; elderly; health conditions
Despite the substantial prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), prior research indicates that most people with AUDs never utilize either formal or informal treatment services. Several prior studies have examined the characteristics of individuals with AUDs who receive treatment; however, limited longitudinal data are available on the predictors of receiving AUD services in treatment-naive individuals with AUDs.
This study utilized data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to identify adults in Wave 1 who met criteria for an AUD within the last 12 months and reported no prior lifetime alcohol treatment (N=2,760). These individuals were surveyed again at Wave 2, approximately three to four years later (N=2,170). This study examined the Wave 1 demographic and psychiatric conditions that were associated with receipt of AUD treatment services between Wave 1 and Wave 2.
In multivariable analyses, use of AUD treatment services between Waves 1 and 2 was significantly more likely among those who were male, non-Caucasian, younger, had lower income, and who had health insurance. Additionally, those who met criteria for a baseline drug use disorder, anxiety disorder or a personality disorder were more likely to receive AUD treatment.
Treatment was more often utilized in those who had more severe baseline psychopathology and in those with fewer economic resources. These findings highlight the need to broaden the types of care available to individuals with AUDs to increase the appeal of AUD services.
Addictions treatment; service utilization; alcohol dependence; alcoholism
Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to 3 levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol use × AUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking.
smoking cessation; alcohol use; hazardous alcohol use; alcohol use disorders; relapse; outcome predictors
Little is known about the prevalence or correlates of DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG).
Data from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative US household survey, were used to assess lifetime gambling symptoms and PG along with other DSM-IV disorders. Age-of-onset (AOO) of each lifetime disorder was assessed retrospectively. AOO reports were used to study associations between temporally primary disorders and the subsequent risk of secondary disorders.
Most respondents (78.4%) reported lifetime gambling. Lifetime problem gambling (at least one Criterion A symptom of PG) (2.3%) and PG (0.6%) were much less common. PG was significantly associated with being young, male, and Non-Hispanic Black. People with PG reported first gambling significantly earlier than non-problem gamblers (mean age: 16.7 vs. 23.9, z = 12.7, p < .001), with gambling problems typically beginning during the mid-20s and persisting for an average of 9.4 years. During this time the largest annual gambling losses averaged $4800. Onset and persistence of PG were predicted by a variety of prior DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse-control, and substance use disorders. PG also predicted the subsequent onset of generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance dependence. Although none of the NCS-R respondents with PG ever received treatment for gambling problems, 49.0% were treated at some time for other mental disorders.
DSM-IV PG is a comparatively rare, seriously impairing, and under-treated disorder whose symptoms typically start during early adulthood and is frequently secondary to other mental or substance disorders that are associated with both PG onset and persistence.
Epidemiology; National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R); Pathological Gambling
São Paulo is the most populous Brazilian state and reports the largest number of tuberculosis cases in the country annually (over 18,500). This study included 193 isolates obtained during the 2nd Nationwide Survey on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance that was conducted in São Paulo state and 547 isolates from a laboratory based study of drug resistance that were analyzed by the Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory at the Institute Adolfo Lutz. Both studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 and sought to determine the genetic diversity and pattern of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis isolates (MTC) circulating in São Paulo. The patterns obtained from the spoligotyping analysis demonstrated that 51/740 (6.9%) of the isolates corresponded to orphan patterns and that 689 (93.1%) of the isolates distributed into 144 shared types, including 119 that matched a preexisting shared type in the SITVIT2 database and 25 that were new isolates. A total of 77/144 patterns corresponded to unique isolates, while the remaining 67 corresponded to clustered patterns (n = 612 isolates clustered into groups of 2–84 isolates each). The evolutionarily ancient PGG1 lineages (Beijing, CAS1-DEL, EAI3-IND, and PINI2) were rarely detected in São Paulo and comprised only 13/740, or 1.76%, of the total isolates; all of the remaining 727/740, or 98.24%, of the MTC isolates from São Paulo state were from the recent PGG2/3 evolutionary isolates belonging to the LAM, T, S, X, and Haarlem lineages, i.e., the Euro-American group. This study provides the first overview of circulating genotypes of M. tuberculosis in São Paulo state and demonstrates that the clustered shared types containing seven or more M. tuberculosis isolates that are spread in São Paulo state included both resistant and susceptible isolates.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Population-structure; Spoligotyping; Brazil; Database
To investigate drinking patterns and gender differences in alcohol-related problems in a Brazilian population, with an emphasis on the frequency of heavy drinking.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probability adult household sample (n = 1,464) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Alcohol intake and ICD-10 psychopathology diagnoses were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1. The analyses focused on the prevalence and determinants of 12-month non-heavy drinking, heavy episodic drinking (4-5 drinks per occasion), and heavy and frequent drinking (heavy drinking at least 3 times/week), as well as associated alcohol-related problems according to drinking patterns and gender.
Nearly 22% (32.4% women, 8.7% men) of the subjects were lifetime abstainers, 60.3% were non-heavy drinkers, and 17.5% reported heavy drinking in a 12-month period (26.3% men, 10.9% women). Subjects with the highest frequency of heavy drinking reported the most problems. Among subjects who did not engage in heavy drinking, men reported more problems than did women. A gender convergence in the amount of problems was observed when considering heavy drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinkers were twice as likely as abstainers to present lifetime depressive disorders. Lifetime nicotine dependence was associated with all drinking patterns. Heavy and frequent drinking was not restricted to young ages.
Heavy and frequent episodic drinking was strongly associated with problems in a community sample from the largest city in Latin America. Prevention policies should target this drinking pattern, independent of age or gender. These findings warrant continued research on risky drinking behavior, particularly among persistent heavy drinkers at the non-dependent level.
Alcohol; Heavy episodic drinking; Binge drinking; Epidemiology; Brazil
To examine the prevalence of chronic major depressive disorder (CMDD) and dysthymic disorder (DD), their sociodemographic correlates, patterns of 12-month and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, lifetime risk factors, psychosocial functioning, and mental health service utilization.
Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 43,093).
The 12-month and lifetime prevalence were greater for CMDD (1.5% and 3.1%) than for DD (0.5% and 0.9%). Individuals with CMDD and DD shared most sociodemographic correlates and lifetime risk factors for MDD. Individuals with CMDD and DD had almost identically high rates of Axis I and Axis II comorbid disorders. However, individuals with CMDD received higher rates of all treatment modalities than individuals with DD.
Individuals with CMDD and DD share many sociodemographic correlates, comorbidity patterns, risk factors, and course. Individuals with chronic depressive disorders, especially those with DD, continue to face substantial unmet treatment needs.
dysthymic disorder; chronicity; major depressive disorder; epidemiology
Early-onset alcohol use is associated with increased vulnerability to subsequent alcohol abuse and dependence. However, not all early-onset alcohol users develop alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Using a sample of young women from the U.S., we identify correlates that contribute to a greater likelihood of AUDs in early-onset alcohol users.
Using interview and questionnaire data on participants of the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study (MOAFTS), we examine whether measures from domains including socio-demographic, pubertal development, religiosity, educational achievement, adverse life events, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and family history and discipline were associated with development of AUDs in 1,158 women who had their first drink of alcohol prior to age 16.
Early-onset drinkers were 3.6 times more likely to meet criteria for AUDs than later onset drinkers. While univariate analyses revealed that a host of correlates were associated with likelihood of AUDs in early-onset drinkers, multivariate analyses suggested that, even after accounting for a particularly early age of onset of drinking, those with a history of physical abuse, co-twin alcohol problems, conduct disorder, regular smoking, older peers and peer substance use were considerably more likely to meet criteria for AUDs than early onset drinkers without a lifetime history of these correlates.
The progression from first drink to AUDs is complex, and while early age at first drink is a potent risk factor, other aspects of psychopathology, family history, conduct problems and peer affiliations can exacerbate or alleviate the risk of AUDs in these young female drinkers.
alcohol; early-onset; alcohol abuse/dependence; female
Burden related to major depressive disorder (MDD) derives mostly from long term occurrence of symptoms. This study aims to examine the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, patterns of 12-month and lifetime psychiatric co-morbidity, lifetime risk factors, psychosocial functioning, and mental health service utilization of CMDD compared to non-chronic major depressive disorder (NC-MDD).
Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 43,093).
The 12-month and lifetime prevalence of CMDD within the population meeting criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) was 26.5% and 24.0% respectively. Individuals reporting a chronic course of MDD were socioeconomically and educationally disadvantaged, tended to be older, report loss of spouse or history of divorce, live in rural areas, have public assistance, low self-esteem, worse overall health and more likely to report comorbidities, most importantly dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, avoidant and dependant personality disorder. Individuals with chronic MDD were more likely to report familial but not childhood onset risk factors for MDD. Those suffering CMDD were more likely to seek and receive mental health care than other forms of MDD, although took longer to start treatment.
Chronic course of MDD is related to still worse socioeconomic conditions, educational achievement, more co-morbidities and family risk factors, although other courses of MDD carried greater risk of unmet treatment.
Among a nationally representative sample of adults with an alcohol use disorder, the authors tested whether perceived stigmatization of alcoholism was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving alcohol-related services. Data were drawn from a face-to-face epidemiologic survey of 34,653 adults interviewed in 2004–2005 who were aged 20 years or older and residing in households and group quarters in the United States. Alcohol abuse/dependence was diagnosed by using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, version (AUDADIS-IV). The stigma measure used was the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale. The main outcome was lifetime intervention including professional services and 12-step groups for alcohol disorders. Individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder were less likely to utilize alcohol services if they perceived higher stigma toward individuals with alcohol disorders (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.76). Higher perceived stigma was associated with male gender (β = −0.75; P < 0.01), nonwhite compared with non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, lower income (β = 1.0; P < 0.01), education (β = 1.48; P < 0.01), and being previously married (β = 0.47; P = 0.02). Individuals reporting close contact with an alcohol-disordered individual (e.g., relative with an alcohol problem) reported lower perceived stigma (β = −1.70; P < 0.01). A link between highly stigmatized views of alcoholism and lack of services suggests that stigma reduction should be integrated into public health efforts to promote alcohol treatment.
alcohol drinking; alcoholics anonymous; alcoholism; mental disorders; psychiatric therapeutic processes; shame; therapeutics; United States
As acute ethanol exposure inhibits N-methyl--aspartate glutamate (Glu) receptors, sudden withdrawal from chronic alcohol use may lead to an increased activation of these receptors with excitotoxic effects. In the longer term, brain levels of Glu and its metabolites, such as glutamine (Gln), are likely to be chronically altered by alcohol, possibly providing a measure of overall abnormal Glu–Gln cycling. However, few studies have assessed concentrations of these metabolites in clinical populations of individuals with alcohol use disorders. Glu and Gln levels were compared in groups of 17 healthy controls and in 13 participants with alcohol dependence. Within the alcohol-dependent group, seven participants had current alcohol use disorder (AUD), and six had AUD in remission for at least 1 year (AUD-R). Neurometabolite concentrations were measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in a predominantly gray matter voxel that included the bilateral anterior cingulate gyri. Tissue segmentation provided an assessment of the proportion of gray matter in the 1H-MRS voxel. The Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC) and Form-90 were administered to all participants to quantify alcohol consequences and use. Glu level was lower and Gln level was higher in the AUD and AUD-R groups relative to the control group; creatine, choline, myo-inositol, and total N-acetyl groups, primarily N-acetylaspartate did not differ across groups. These results were not confounded by age, sex, or proportion of gray matter in the 1H-MRS voxel. Neurometabolite concentrations did not differ between AUD and AUD-R groups. Subsequent regressions in the combined clinical group, treating voxel gray matter proportion as a covariate, revealed that total score on the DrInC was positively correlated with Gln but negatively correlated with both Glu and gray matter proportion. Regression analyses, including DrInC scores and smoking variables, identified a marginal independent effect of smoking on Gln. The current findings of higher Gln and lower Glu in the combined AUD and AUD-R groups might indicate a perturbation of the Glu–Gln cycle in alcohol use disorders. The absence of differences in mean Glu and Gln between the AUD and AUD-R groups suggests that altered Glu–Gln metabolism may either predate the onset of abuse or persist during prolonged abstinence.
magnetic resonance spectroscopy; alcohol use disorders; alcoholism; glutamate; glutamine; addiction & substance abuse; alcohol & alcoholism; glutamate; biological psychiatry; magnetic resonance spectroscopy