Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have great potential as a cell replacement therapy for spinal cord injury. However, poor control over transplant cell differentiation and survival remain major obstacles. In this study, we asked whether dibutyryl cyclic-AMP (dbcAMP), which was shown to induce up to 85% in vitro differentiation of NSPCs into neurons would enhance survival of transplanted NSPCs through prolonged exposure either in vitro or in vivo through the controlled release of dbcAMP encapsulated within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and embedded within chitosan guidance channels. NSPCs, seeded in fibrin scaffolds within the channels, differentiated in vitro to betaIII-tubulin positive neurons by immunostaining and mRNA expression, in response to dbcAMP released from PLGA microspheres. After transplantation in spinal cord injured rats, the survival and differentiation of NSPCs was evaluated. Untreated NSPCs, NSPCs transplanted with dbcAMP-releasing microspheres, and NSPCs pre-differentiated with dbcAMP for 4 days in vitro were transplanted after rat spinal cord transection and assessed 2 and 6 weeks later. Interestingly, NSPC survival was highest in the dbcAMP pre-treated group, having approximately 80% survival at both time points, which is remarkable given that stem cell transplantation often results in less than 1% survival at similar times. Importantly, dbcAMP pre-treatment also resulted in the greatest number of in vivo NSPCs differentiated into neurons (37±4%), followed by dbcAMP-microsphere treated NSPCs (27±14%) and untreated NSPCs (15±7%). The reverse trend was observed for NSPC-derived oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with these populations being highest in untreated NSPCs. This combination strategy of stem cell-loaded chitosan channels implanted in a fully transected spinal cord resulted in extensive axonal regeneration into the injury site, with improved functional recovery after 6 weeks in animals implanted with pre-differentiated stem cells in chitosan channels.
The transected rat thoracic (T9/10) spinal cord model is a platform for quantitatively compa0ring biodegradable polymer scaffolds. Schwann cell-loaded scaffolds constructed from poly (lactic co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), poly(ε-caprolactone fumarate) (PCLF), oligo(polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) hydrogel or positively charged OPF (OPF+) hydrogel were implanted into the model. We demonstrated that the mechanical properties (3-point bending and stiffness) of OPF and OPF+ hydrogels closely resembled rat spinal cord. After one month, tissues were harvested and analyzed by morphometry of neurofilament-stained sections at rostral, midlevel, and caudal scaffold. All polymers supported axonal growth. Significantly higher numbers of axons were found in PCLF (P < 0.01) and OPF+ (P < 0.05) groups, compared to that of the PLGA group. OPF+ polymers showed more centrally distributed axonal regeneration within the channels while other polymers (PLGA, PCLF and OPF) tended to show more evenly dispersed axons within the channels. The centralized distribution was associated with significantly more axons regenerating (P < 0.05). Volume of scar and cyst rostral and caudal to the implanted scaffold was measured and compared. There were significantly smaller cyst volumes in PLGA compared to PCLF groups. The model provides a quantitative basis for assessing individual and combined tissue engineering strategies.
OPF; PLGA; PCLF; axon regeneration; spinal cord injury; Schwann cell
Yeastlike cells of Mucor racemosus grown under 100% CO2 underwent morphogenesis to hyphae after exposure to air. The addition of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) to yeastlike cultures inhibited this morphogenesis in media containing 2% glucose. The maintenance of uniformly spherical, budding cells required 1 mM dbcAMP in a defined medium containing Casamino Acids, and 3 mM dbcAMP in a medium containing yeast extract and peptone. At these concentrations, dbcAMP also induced yeastlike development in young aerobic hyphae grown in media containing 2% glucose. Removal of dbcAMP resulted in hyphal development. The endogenous cyclic AMP (cAMP) content of yeastlike cultures was measured after a shift from CO2 to air. A fourfold decrease in intracellular cAMP preceded the appearance of hyphal germ tubes. These results indicate that cAMP plays a role in the control of morphogenesis in Mucor racemosus.
Exposure of CHO-K1 cells in vitro to dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3',5'- monophosphate (DBcAMP) plus testololactone produces a rapid, reversible antagonism of ligand-induced collection of initially dispersed concanavalin A (Con A) binding sites into a caplike mass. Morphologically, as Con A capping occurs, the cells become less spread and then round completely. With prolonged Con A exposure, cells cultured in either the absence or the presence of DBcAMP plus testololactone cap and round. Capping is blocked by cold treatment and respiratory inhibitors. Colcemid at concentrations greater than 1 muM promotes both Con A capping and cell rounding. Cytochalasin B at similar concentrations inhibits both capping and cell rounding. Treatment of cells with Con A has little effect on intracellular cAMP concentration. Possible mechanisms by which cAMP may modulate the movement of Con A binding sites are discussed.
We examined the effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) on the intracellular Ca2+ release in both the intact and skinned arterial smooth muscle. The amount of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was estimated indirectly by caffeine-induced contraction of the skinned preparation and directly by caffeine-stimulated 45Ca efflux from the previously labeled skinned preparation. The norepinephrine-induced release contraction was markedly enhanced by dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) and reduced by propranolol. The stimulatory effect of dbcAMP was best observed when the muscle was exposed to 10(-5) M dbcAMP and 2 X 10(-6) M norepinephrine was used to induce the release contraction. 10(-5) M cAMP had no effect on the Ca2+-induced contraction or on the pCa- tension relationship in the skinned preparation. This concentration of cAMP increased Ca2+ uptake into the SR of the skinned preparation when the Ca2+ in the SR was first depleted. 10(-5) M cAMP stimulated Ca2+- induced Ca2+ release from the SR after optimal Ca2+ accumulation by the SR. The results indicate that the stimulatory effect of cAMP on the norepinephrine-induced release contraction could be due to enhancement of the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from the SR in arterial smooth muscle.
This work investigated the delivery of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with or without the growth factor transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), from biodegradable hydrogel composites on the repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model. Three formulations of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogel composites containing gelatin microparticles (GMPs) and MSCs were implanted in osteochondral defects, including (1) OPF/GMP hydrogel composites; (2) OPF/GMP hydrogel composites encapsulating MSCs; and (3) OPF hydrogel composites containing TGF-β1 loaded GMPs and MSCs. At 12 weeks, the quality of new tissue formed in chondral and subchondral regions of defects was evaluated based on subjective and quantitative histological analysis. OPF hydrogel composites were partially degraded and the defects were filled with newly formed tissue at 12 weeks with no sign of persistent inflammation. With the implantation of scaffolds alone, newly formed chondral tissue had an appearance of hyaline cartilage with zonal organization and intense staining for glycosaminoglycans, while in the subchondral region hypertrophic cartilage with some extent of bone formation was often observed. The addition of MSCs, especially with TGF-β1 loaded GMPs, facilitated subchondral bone formation, as evidenced by more trabecular bone appearance. However, the delivery of MSCs with or without TGF-β1 at the dosage investigated did not improve cartilage morphology. While OPF-based hydrogel composites supported osteochondral tissue generation, further investigations are necessary to elucidate the effects of MSC seeding density and differentiation stage on new tissue formation and regeneration.
cartilage tissue engineering; mesenchymal stem cells; hydrogel composites; osteochondral defects
The relation between myocardial tissue cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation was assessed in the isolated perfused rat heart by measurement of ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and vulnerable period duration (VP). Exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) reduced VFT and increased VP by a concentration-related action whereas exogenous cAMP did not. Theophylline (1.0 mmol/liter) increased the tissue content of cAMP by 58% (P < 0.001) and caused a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve to DBcAMP. An effect of cAMP on VFT and VP could be shown in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibition by theophylline. β-1-Adrenergic receptor blockade with atenolol did not alter the concentration-response curve for VFT when DBcAMP was administered. Epinephrine (100 nmol/liter to 1 μmol/liter) also increased vulnerability to VF; this effect was accompanied by a concentration-related increase in tissue cAMP, but inconsistent changes in tissue ATP, phosphocreatine and potassium. The concentration-response curve of VFT to epinephrine was shifted leftward by theophylline and rightward by atenolol.
The increases in vulnerability to fibrillation in the isolated perfused rat heart, in response to DBcAMP, theophylline or epinephrine, could be related more closely to changes of tissue cAMP than to effects on tissue high energy phosphates or potassium. The effect of epinephrine and theophylline on vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation is mediated via alterations in the intracellular level of cAMP in the isolated perfused rat heart.
The activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase has been found to be the predominant mode by which cyclic AMP (cAMP) leads to alterations of a large variety of cellular functions. The activation of the kinase results in the release of the catalytic subunit which as the free enzyme possesses phosphotransferase activity for a variety of specific protein substrates. Using a sensitive and specific cytofluorometric technique we monitored the appearance of free catalytic subunit in Reuber H35 hepatoma cells in culture after incubation with N6-1'-O- dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (DBcAMP), 8-bromoadenosine-3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcAMP), and glucagon. The cytochemical method employs the heat-stable inhibitor of the free catalytic subunit which has been conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (F:PKI) and was validated as described in the companion paper (Fletcher and Byus. 1982. J. Cell Biol. 93:719-726). Here we studied the temporal and spatial kinetics of the free catalytic subunit following activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by increasing concentrations of DBcAMP,8-BrcAMP, and glucagon. Under similar conditions protein kinase activation was also assessed biochemically in H35 cell supernatants by assaying the protein kinase activity ratio. Incubation of the hepatoma cells with DBcAMP (0.1 mM) led to an increase in the activity ratio from 0.2 in control cultures to a value of nearly 1.0 within a 1- to 2-h period. During this same period using the F:PKI probe, a significant increase in cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence indicative of the release of the free catalytic subunit was coincidentally observed. In contrast to the rapid appearance of catalytic subunit in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cell within 5-15 min of the addition of DBcAMP, discernible nucleoplasmic fluorescence did not occur until after 1 h. H35 cell cultures incubated with 8-BrcAMP (0.01-1.0 mM) exhibited a more rapid activation of the protein kinase measured cytochemically compared to the cells treated with DBcAMP. Cultures incubated with 8-BrcAMP had significantly increased cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence compared to unstimulated cells within 1 min of the addition of the analogue and reached a maximal level within 15 min. By employing a microspectrophotometer a distinct dose-dependent increase in cellular fluorescence (i.e., free catalytic subunit) was observed as the concentration of 8-BrcAMP was increased from 0.01 to 1.0 mM at 1, 5, 15, and 60 min following stimulation. The addition of glucagon (10(-6) M) to the culture also led to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase as determined by an increase in the activity ratio. This increase was paralleled throughout the incubation period by a marked elevation in cytoplasmic and nucleolar fluorescence. The results reported herein suggest that both cyclic nucleotide analogues and a polypeptide hormone lead to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in similar intracellular compartments in Reuber H35 hepatoma cells...
Both dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) and cholera toxin promote the formation and elongation of processes of cultivated Greene hamster melanoma cells. The formation and maintenance of these processes, which contain many microtubules, are sensitive to colcemid and vinblastine. Tubulin was measured by [3H]colchicine binding and by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found that DBcAMP or cholera toxin increases the ratio of polymerized to unpolymerized tubulin but not the total amount of tubulin per cell. The sum of the lengths of microtubules per unit area was significantly greater in cells treated with DBcAMP than in control cells. Our findings support the hypothesis that cyclic AMP promotes the elongation of cell processes by stimulating the assembly of microtubules from existing tubulin.
The ability of N6, O2'-dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) to regulate a number of metabolic events in four lines of cultured rat hepatomas has been examined. Although dexamethasone induces tyrosine transaminase in all four lines, DBcAMP induces this enzyme normally only in H35 cells. A slight increase in transaminase activity was seen with MH1C1 cells and HTC cells, but no effect was detectable in RLC cells. In contrast, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity is increased by both agents in H35 and MH1C1 cells, but neither had any effect in HTC or RLC cells. DBcAMP caused a rapid inhibition of the growth rate and DNA synthesis and an increase in protein content in both H35 and MH1C1 cells but not in HTC or RLC cells. The effect of DBcAMP on DNA synthesis in MH1C1 cells could be reversed by deoxycytidine as is also the case with H35 cells. The resistance of HTC and RLC cells to DBcAMP was not due to reduced uptake or deacylation as judged by studies with [3H]DBcAMP. The cyclic nucleotide appears to enter the cells by passive diffusion as the intracellular concentration approaches that in the medium within 30–60 min. Possible explanations for the differential responses observed are discussed.
The goal of this study was to develop a polymeric carrier for delivery of anti-tumor drugs and sustained release of these agents in order to optimize anti-tumor activity while minimizing systemic effects. We used oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogels modified with small negatively charged molecules, sodium methacrylate (SMA), for delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). SMA at different concentrations was incorporated into the OPF hydrogel with a photo-crosslinking method. The resulting hydrogels exhibited sensitivity to the pH and ionic strength of the surrounding environment. Our results revealed that DOX was bound to the negatively charged hydrogel through electrostatic interaction and was released in a timely fashion with an ion exchange mechanism. Release kinetics of DOX was directly correlated to the concentration of SMA in the hydrogel formulations. Anti-tumor activity of the released DOX was assessed using a human osteosarcoma cell line. Our data revealed that DOX released from the modified, charged hydrogels remained biologically active and had the capability to kill cancer cells. In contrast, control groups of unmodified OPF hydrogels with or without DOX did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using SMA-modified OPF hydrogels as a potential carrier for chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatments.
The effects of ACTH, its o-nitrophenyl sulfenyl derivative (NPS-ACTH) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbc AMP) on the ultrastructural morphology of adrenocortical cells of adult rats in monolayer culture have been investigated. NPS-ACTH, which has previously been shown to stimulate steroidogenesis but not cAMP synthesis in adrenal cells, induced the same characteristic transformation of mitochondrial architecture as produced by ACTH or high concentrations of dbcAMP. All three agents caused the disappearance of electron-opaque granules present in the mitochondria of unstimulated cells. It was found that these granules could be extracted with EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate). These results are discussed in the light of the known importance of calcium ions in the actions of ACTH.
Interactions of adenosine 3':5'-cyclicmonophosphate (cAMP) andN6,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) with alipid layer composed of monoolein-basedpreparation and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) wereinvestigated by small-angle X-raydiffraction (SAXD) and Raman spectroscopy.The reversed hexagonal (HII)MO/DOPC/H2O phase of 65:15:20 wt.%composition was selected as a referencesystem. SAXD revealed that entrapment (atthe expense of water) of 3 wt.% cAMP intothe reference system did not change thepolymorphic form and structural parametersof the phase. The same content of dbcAMPinduced the transition from the HIIphase to the reversed bicontinuous cubicphase of space group Ia3d. Thistransition is explained by the increase oflipid head-group area due to thepenetration of the acylated adenine groupof dbcAMP into the polar/apolar region oflipid layer. The conclusion is supported byRaman spectroscopy, showing thedisruption/weakening of hydrogen bonding inthe MO/DOPC-based matrix at the N1- andN3-sites of the dbcAMP adenine ring. Asdistinct from dbcAMP, cAMP remains mostlyin the water channels of the HIIphase, although the phosphate residue ofnucleotide interacts with the quaternaryammonium group of DOPC. Both nucleotidesincrease the population of gaucheisomers in the DOPC choline group.
Cyclic AMP; dibutyryl cyclic AMP; dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine; liquid-crystalline phases; monoolein; Raman spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Liver injury accompanied by apoptosis of hepatocytes was provoked in mice by an intravenous injection of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α (rTNF-α) (1.0 µg/kg) together with an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-gal) (500 mg/kg). Injection of various doses of dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) protected mice from TNF-α/D-gal-induced liver injury as assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, histological examination and DNA fragmentation. DBcAMP significantly enhanced the Hsp70 expression in the hepatocytes of D-gal/TNF-α-injected mice in close correlation with supression of liver injury. DBcAMP induced Hsp70 expression in the hepatocyte in vitro. These results suggest that increase in Hsp70 expression by DBcAMP is involved in protective mechanisms by DBcAMP against TNF-α-induced liver injury in D-gal-sensitized mice.
Oligo (polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) hydrogel has been employed in musculoskeletal tissue engineering for photo-encapsulation of chondrocytes and as a matrix for marrow stromal cells differentiation. In this study, we have studied the application of OPF hydrogel for co-encapsulation of DNA and bone cells and examined whether co-encapsulation can enhance gene transfer by maintaining the DNA within the cellular microenvironment. Our results showed that plasmid DNA encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP), co-encapsulated with bone tumor cells, was capable of transfecting the cells and the transfected tumor cells continuously expressed GFP protein over the time course of study (21 days). Furthermore, we have examined the co-encapsulation of estrogen receptor (ER) encoding plasmid DNA and human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) that lack endogenous ER. Our results show that the transfected cells responded to estrogen as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and estrogen response element (ERE)-directed luciferase enzyme activities increased with estrogen-treatment. Taken together, these studies show that OPF hydrogel could be further explored for targeted gene delivery in bone and other tissues encapsulated within the hydrogels.
Bone tissue engineering; DNA delivery, Hydrogel; Osteoblast, Estrogen receptor
A site located between -2782 and -2729 of the human prointerleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene functions as a strong lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive enhancer independent of the previously identified enhancer located between -2896 and -2846 (F. Shirakawa, K. Saito, C.A. Bonagura, D.L. Galson, M. J. Fenton, A. C. Webb, and P. E. Auron, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:1332-1344, 1993). Although these two enhancers appear to function cooperatively in the native sequence context, they function independently as LPS-responsive elements upon removal of an interposed silencer sequence. The new enhancer is not induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) alone but is superinduced by costimulation with LPS-dbcAMP. This pattern of induction depends upon the nature of the sequence, a composite NF-IL6-cAMP response element (CRE) binding site. This pseudosymmetrical sequence is shown to contrast with a classical symmetric CRE which responds to dbcAMP but not LPS. DNA binding studies using in vivo nuclear extract, recombinant proteins, and specific antibodies show that LPS induces the formation of two different complexes at the enhancer: (i) an NF-IL6-CREB heterodimer and (ii) a heterodimer consisting of NF-IL6 and a non-CREB, CRE-binding protein. Cotransfection studies using NF-IL6 and CREB expression vectors show that NF-IL6 transactivates the enhancer in the presence of LPS, whereas CREB acts either positively or negatively, depending upon its cAMP-regulated phosphorylation state. Our data demonstrate that the newly identified enhancer is a specialized LPS-responsive sequence which can be modulated by cAMP as a result of the involvement of NF-IL6-CRE-binding protein heterodimers.
In this study, an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) was investigated as a carrier of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). 10K OPF hydrogels were used to encapsulate mESCs. The cell differentiation in vitro over 14 days was determined via immunohistochemical examination. Then, mESCs encapsulated in OPF hydrogels were injected into the left ventricular wall of a rat myocardial infarction model. Detailed histological analysis and echocardiography were used to determine the structural and functional consequences after 4 weeks of transplantation. With ascorbic acid induction, mESCs could differentiate into cardiomyocytes and other cell types in all three lineages in the OPF hydrogel. After transplantation, both the 24h-cell retention and 4-week graft size were significantly greater in the OPF + ESC group than that of the PBS + ESC group (p<0.01). Four weeks after transplantation, OPF hydrogel alone significantly reduced the infarct size and collagen deposition and improved the cardiac function. The heart function and revascularization improved significantly, while the infarct size and fibrotic area decreased significantly in the OPF + ESC group compared with that of the PBS +ESC group, OPF group and PBS group (p<0.01). All treatments had significantly reduced MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels compared to the PBS control group, and the OPF + ESC group decreased most by Western blotting. Transplanted mESCs expressed cardiovascular markers. This study suggest the potential of a method for heart regeneration involving oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for stem cell encapsulation and transplantation.
cardiac tissue engineering; injectable hydrogels; cell encapsulation; embryonic stem cell; myocardial infarction
Autologous nerve grafts are currently the best option for the treatment of segmental peripheral nerve defects. However, autografts have several drawbacks including size mismatch and loss of sensation in the donor nerve’s sensory distribution. In this work, we have investigated the development of a synthetic hydrogel that contains positive charge for use as a substrate for nerve cell attachment and neurite outgrowth in culture. We have demonstrated that modification of oligo-(polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) with a positively charged monomer improves primary sensory rat neuron attachment and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Positively charged hydrogels also supported attachment of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants that contain sensory neurons, Schwann cells and neuronal support cells. Furthermore, charged hydrogels were analyzed for the appearance of myelinated structures in a co-culture containing DRG neurons and Schwann cells. DRGs and Schwann cells remained viable on charged hydrogels for a time period of three weeks and neurites extended from the DRGs. Sudan black staining revealed that neurites emerging from DRGs were accompanied by migrating Schwann cells. These findings suggest that charged OPF hydrogels are capable of sustaining both primary nerve cells and the neural support cells that are critical for regeneration.
hydrogel; nerve regeneration; Schwann cells; scaffold
The respective roles of neurofilaments (NFs), microtubules (MTs), and the microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) MAP 1B and tau on neurite outgrowth and stabilization were probed by the intracellular delivery of specific antisera into transiently permeabilized NB2a/d1 cells during treatment with dbcAMP. Intracellular delivery of antisera specific for the low (NF-L), middle (NF-M), or extensively phosphorylated high (NF-H) molecular weight subunits did not prevent initial neurite elaboration, nor did it induce retraction of existing neurites elaborated by cells that had been previously treated for 1 d with dbcAMP. By contrast, intracellular delivery of antisera directed against tubulin reduced the percentage of cells with neurites at both these time points. Intracellular delivery of anti-NF-L and anti-NF-M antisera did not induce retraction in cells treated with dbcAMP for 3 d. However, intracellular delivery of antisera directed against extensively phosphorylated NF-H, MAP1B, tau, or tubulin induced similar levels of neurite retraction at this time. Intracellular delivery of monoclonal antibodies (RT97 or SMI-31) directed against phosphorylated NF-H induced neurite retraction in cell treated with dbcAMP for 3 d; a monoclonal antibody (SMI-32) directed against nonphosphorylated NF-H did not induce neurite retraction at this time. By contrast, none of the above antisera induced retraction of neurites in cells treated with dbcAMP for 7 d. Neurites develop resistance to retraction by colchicine, first detectable in some neurites after 3 d and in the majority of neurites after 7 d of dbcAMP treatment. We therefore examined whether or not colchicine resistance was compromised by intracellular delivery of the above antisera. Colchicine treatment resulted in rapid neurite retraction after intracellular delivery of antisera directed against extensively phosphorylated NF-H, MAP1B, or tau into cells that had previously been treated with dbcAMP for 7 d. By contrast, colchicine resistance was not compromised by the intracellular delivery of antisera directed against NF-L, NF-M, or tubulin. These findings support previous studies indicating that MT polymerization mediates certain aspects of axonal neurite outgrowth and suggest that NFs do not directly participate in these events. These findings further suggest that NFs function in stabilization of the axonal cytoskeleton, apparently by interactions among NFs and MTs that are mediated by NF-H and MAPs.
To inform future efforts in tendon/ligament tissue engineering, our laboratory has developed a well-controlled model system with the ability to alter both external tensile loading parameters and local biochemical cues to better understand marrow stromal cell differentiation in response to both stimuli concurrently. In particular, the synthetic, poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel material oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) has been explored as a cell carrier for this system. This biomaterial can be tailored to present covalently incorporated bioactive moieties and can be loaded in our custom cyclic tensile bioreactor for up to 28 days with no loss of material integrity. Human marrow stromal cells encapsulated in these OPF hydrogels were cultured (21 days) under cyclic tensile strain (10%, 1 Hz, 3 h of strain followed by 3 h without) or at 0% strain. No difference was observed in cell number due to mechanical stimulation or across time (n = 4), with cells remaining viable (n = 4) through 21 days. Cyclic strain significantly upregulated all tendon/ligament fibroblastic genes examined (collagen I, collagen III, and tenascin-C) by day 21 (n ≥ 6), whereas genes for other pathways (osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic) did not increase. After 21 days, the presence of collagen I and tenascin-C was observed via immunostaining (n = 2). This study demonstrates the utility of this hydrogel/bioreactor system as a versatile, yet well-controlled, model environment to study marrow stromal cell differentiation toward the tendon/ligament phenotype under a variety of conditions.
In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo biologic activity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) released from four sustained delivery vehicles for bone regeneration. BMP-2 was incorporated in 1) a gelatin hydrogel, 2) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres embedded in a gelatin hydrogel, 3) microspheres embedded in a poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) scaffold and 4) microspheres embedded in a PPF scaffold surrounded by a gelatin hydrogel. A fraction of the incorporated BMP-2 was radiolabeled with 125I to determine its in vitro and in vivo release profiles. The release and bioactivity of BMP-2 were tested weekly over a period of 12 weeks in preosteoblast W20-17 cell line culture and in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. Outcome parameters for in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the released BMP-2 were alkaline phosphatase (AP) induction and bone formation, respectively. The four implant types showed different in vitro release profiles over the 12-week period, which changed significantly upon implantation. The AP induction by BMP-2 released from gelatin implants showed a loss in bioactivity after 6 weeks in culture, while the BMP-2 released from the other implants continued to show bioactivity over the full 12-week period. Micro-CT and histological analysis of the delivery vehicles after 6 weeks of implantation showed significantly more bone in the microsphere/PPF scaffold composites (implant 3, p < 0.02). After 12 weeks, the amount of newly formed bone in the microsphere/PPF scaffolds remained significantly higher than in the gelatin and microsphere/gelatin hydrogels (p < 0.001), however there was no statistical difference compared to the microsphere/PPF/gelatin composite. Overall, the results from this study show that BMP-2 could be incorporated into various bone tissue engineering composites for sustained release over a prolonged period of time with retention of bioactivity.
Our present work characterized the role of hormone-mediated signal transduction pathways in regulating hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Cholera toxin, dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP), and glucagon inhibited GSH synthesis in cultured hepatocytes by 25-43%. Cellular cAMP levels exhibited a lower threshold for stimulation of the GSH efflux than inhibition of its synthesis. The effect of DBcAMP was independent of the type of sulfur amino acid precursor and cellular ATP levels and unassociated with increased GSH mixed disulfide formation or altered GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio. In liver cytosols, addition of DBcAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibited GSH synthesis from substrates (cysteine, ATP, glutamate, and glycine) by approximately 20% which was prevented by the A-kinase inhibitor. However, if only substrates of the second step in GSH synthesis were used (gamma-glutamylcysteine, glycine, and ATP), DBcAMP and A-kinase exerted no inhibitory effect. Phenylephrine, vasopressin, and phorbol ester also inhibited GSH synthesis in cultured cells by approximately 20%, and depleted cell GSH independent of the type of sulfur amino acid precursor. Cellular cysteine level was unchanged despite the significant fall in GSH after glucagon or phenylephrine treatment. Pretreatment with either staurosporine, C-kinase inhibitor, or calmidazolium, a calmodulin inhibitor, partially prevented but, together, completely prevented the inhibitory effect of phenylephrine. The same combination had no effect on the inhibitory effect of glucagon. The effects of hormones were confirmed in both the intact perfused liver and after in vivo administration. Thus, two classes of hormones acting through distinct signal transduction pathways may down-regulate hepatic GSH synthesis by phosphorylation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.
High levels of the neuron-specific protein kinase C substrate, B-50 (= GAP43), are present in neurites and growth cones during neuronal development and regeneration. This suggests a hitherto nonelucidated role of this protein in neurite outgrowth. Comparable high levels of B- 50 arise in the pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line during neurite formation. To get insight in the putative growth-associated function of B-50, we compared its ultrastructural localization in naive PC12 cells with its distribution in nerve growth factor (NGF)- or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)-treated PC12 cells. B-50 immunogold labeling of cryosections of untreated PC12 cells is mainly associated with lysosomal structures, including multivesicular bodies, secondary lysosomes, and Golgi apparatus. The plasma membrane is virtually devoid of label. However, after 48-h NGF treatment of the cells, B-50 immunoreactivity is most pronounced on the plasma membrane. Highest B- 50 immunoreactivity is observed on plasma membranes surrounding sprouting microvilli, lamellipodia, and filopodia. Outgrowing neurites are scattered with B-50 labeling, which is partially associated with chromaffin granules. In NGF-differentiated PC12 cells, B-50 immunoreactivity is, as in untreated cells, also associated with organelles of the lysosomal family and Golgi stacks. B-50 distribution in dbcAMP-differentiated cells closely resembles that in NGF-treated cells. The altered distribution of B-50 immunoreactivity induced by differentiating agents indicates a shift of the B-50 protein towards the plasma membrane. This translocation accompanies the acquisition of neuronal features of PC12 cells and points to a neurite growth- associated role for B-50, performed at the plasma membrane at the site of protrusion.
An injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) and gelatin microparticles (MPs) has been investigated as a cell and growth factor carrier for cartilage tissue engineering applications. In this study, hydrogel composites with different swelling ratios were prepared by crosslinking OPF macromers with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) repeating units of varying molecular weights from 1,000 ~ 35,000. Rabbit marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MPs loaded with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were encapsulated in the hydrogel composites in order to examine the effect of the swelling ratio of the hydrogel composites on the chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated rabbit marrow MSCs both in the presence and absence of TGF-β1. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel composites increased as the PEG molecular weight in the OPF macromers increased. Chondrocyte-specific genes were expressed at higher levels in groups containing TGF-β1-loaded MPs and varied with the swelling ratio of the hydrogel composites. OPF hydrogel composites with PEG repeating units of molecular weight 35,000 and 10,000 with TGF-β1-loaded MPs exhibited a 159 ± 95 and a 89 ± 31 fold increase in type II collagen gene expression at day 28, respectively, while OPF hydrogel composites with PEG repeating units of molecular weight 3,000 and 1,000 with TGF-β1-loaded MPs showed a 27 ± 10 and a 17 ± 7 fold increase in type II collagen gene expression, respectively, as compared to the composites with blank MPs at day 0. The results indicate that chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated rabbit marrow MSCs within OPF hydrogel composites could be affected by their swelling ratio, thus suggesting the potential of OPF composite hydrogels as part of a novel strategy for controlling the differentiation of stem cells.
injectable hydrogels; crosslinking; marrow mesenchymal stem cells; gelatin microparticles; TGF-β1; chondrogenic differentiation; cartilage tissue engineering
As a test of the hypothesis that cyclic nucleotides play a role in the regulation of retinomotor movements and disc shedding in the photoreceptor-pigment epithelial complex, we have used an in vitro eyecup preparation that sustains both disc shedding and cone retinomotor movements, Eyecups were prepared in white light from animals in which both shedding and cone movement had been blocked by 4 d of constant-light treatment. In eyecups incubated for 3 h in light, disc shedding was negligible and cones remained in the light-adapted (contracted) position. In eyecups incubated in darkness, however, a massive shedding response (dominated by rod photoreceptors) was induced, and at the same time cone photoreceptors elongated to their dark-adapted position. In eyecups incubated in light dbcAMP promoted cone elongation and thus mimicked darkness; the dbcAMP effect was potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitors papaverine and 3- isobutylmethylxanthine. In eyecups incubated in darkness, on the other hand, both phosphodiesterase inhibitors and dbcAMP reduced the phagosome content of the pigment epithelium. The effects of dbcAMP on the cone elongation and rod shedding appear to be specific in that dbcGMP, adenosine, and adenosine 5'-monophosphate had no significant effect. Our results suggest that cAMP plays a role in the regulation of both retinomotor movements and disc shedding.