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1.  A Lower Degree of PBMC L1 Methylation in Women with Lower Folate Status May Explain the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Associated Higher Risk of CIN in the US Post Folic Acid Fortification Era 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e110093.
Studies in populations unexposed to folic acid (FA) fortification have demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+). However, it is unknown whether exposure to higher folate as a result of the FA fortification program has altered the association between MTHFR C677T and risk of CIN, or the mechanisms involved with such alterations. The current study investigated the following in a FA fortified population: 1) The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of CIN 2+; 2) The modifying effects of plasma folate concentrations on this association; and 3) The modifying effects of plasma folate on the association between the polymorphism and degree of methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s), in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA, a documented biomarker of CIN risk.
The study included 457 US women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases) or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors for CIN.
The 677CT/TT MTHFR genotypes were not associated with the risk of CIN 2+. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate, however, were more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 2.41, P = 0.030). Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate were less likely to have a higher degree of PBMC L1 methylation compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 0.28, P = 0.017).
This study provides the first evidence that the MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation increases the risk of CIN 2+ in women in the US post-FA fortification era. Thus, even in the post-FA fortification era, not all women have adequate folate status to overcome MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of L1 methylation.
PMCID: PMC4193871  PMID: 25302494
2.  A Lower Degree of PBMC L1 Methylation Is Associated with Excess Body Weight and Higher HOMA-IR in the Presence of Lower Concentrations of Plasma Folate 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54544.
Identification of associations between global DNA methylation and excess body weight (EBW) and related diseases and their modifying factors are an unmet research need that may lead to decreasing DNA methylation-associated disease risks in humans. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the following; 1) Association between the degree of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) L1 methylation and folate, and indicators of EBW, 2) Association between the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and folate, and insulin resistance (IR) as indicated by a higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR).
The study population consisted of 470 child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models specified indicators of EBW (body mass index–BMI, body fat–BF and waist circumference–WC) or HOMA-IR as dependent variables and the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and circulating concentrations of folate as the independent predictor of primary interest.
Women with a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation and lower plasma folate concentrations were significantly more likely to have higher BMI, % BF or WC (OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.41–4.47, P = 0.002; OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.40–4.51, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.98, 95%  = 1.14–3.48 P = 0.0145, respectively) and higher HOMA-IR (OR = 1.78, 95% CI:1.02–3.13, P = 0.041).
Our results demonstrated that a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR, especially in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.
PMCID: PMC3554730  PMID: 23358786
3.  A higher degree of methylation of the HPV 16 E6 gene is associated with a lower likelihood of being diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 
Cancer  2010;117(5):957-963.
Even though HPV 16 is the most common HPV genotype associated with cancerous lesions of the cervix, only a fraction of HPV 16 infected women are diagnosed with pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix. Therefore, molecular changes in HPV 16 rather than infections per se may serve as better screening or diagnostic biomarkers. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether methylation status of specific regions of the HPV E6 gene promoter and enhancer is independently associated with the likelihood of being diagnosed with higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+).
The study included 75 HPV 16 positive women diagnosed with CIN 2+ or ≤ CIN 1. Pyrosequencing technology was applied to quantify methylation at 6 cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites of the HPV 16 E6 promoter and enhancer. CIN 2+ (yes/no) was the dependent variable in logistic regression models that specified the degree of methylation of the CpG sites of the HPV 16 E6 gene as the primary independent predictors. All models were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, known risk factors for cervical cancer and circulating concentrations of “cancer-protective” micronutrients.
The odds of being diagnosed with CIN 2+ was 79% lower when the degree of methylation of the HPV 16 enhancer and promoter sites were ≥9.5% (OR= 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06–0.79; P=0.02).
Results suggested that CpG methylation is independently involved in the biology of HPV-16 as well as in the development of higher grades of CIN.
PMCID: PMC3023831  PMID: 20945322
HPV 16; methylation; cervical; neoplasia
4.  Mandatory fortification with folic acid in the United States appears to have adverse effects on histone methylation in women with pre-cancer but not in women free of pre-cancer 
To evaluate whether mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid in the US is associated with changes in histone methylation in cells involved in cervical carcinogenesis.
Cervical specimens obtained before (1990 to 1992) and after mandatory folic acid fortification (2000 to 2002) were used to examine the degree of histone methylation (H3 Lys-9) by immunohistochemistry. 91 women (51 before and 40 after fortification) were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or carcinoma in situ (CIS) and sections utilized in the study also contained normal, reactive or metaplastic cervical epithelium, CIN 1 or CIN 2. 64 women (34 before and 30 after fortification) were free of CIN and these sections contained only normal or reactive cervical epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining for H3 Lys-9, its assessment in different cell or lesion types and data entry were blinded for fortification status. For each cell type or lesion category we used PROC MIXED in SAS with the specimen identifier as a random effect and the robust variance estimator to estimate age- and race-adjusted intensity score for H3 Lys-9 in the pre- and post-fortification periods.
Degree of H3 Lys-9 methylation was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in ≥CIN 2 lesions (CIN 2, CIN 3 and CIS) than in ≤CIN 1 lesions (CIN 1, normal, reactive and metaplastic), in both pre- and post-fortification CIN 3/CIS specimens. Age- and race-adjusted mean H3 Lys-9 score was significantly higher in all cell or lesion types in CIN 3/CIS specimens obtained in the post-fortification period compared to pre-fortification period (P < 0.05, all comparisons). In contrast, in specimens obtained from women free of CIN, Lys-9 methylation in normal/reactive cervical epithelium was significantly lower in post-fortification specimens than in pre-fortification specimens (P = 0.03).
Higher levels of Lys-9 methylation in ≥CIN 2 compared to ≤CIN 1 lesions suggest that higher Lys-9 methylation is associated with progression of lower grade CIN to higher grade CIN. Higher Lys-9 methylation in cervical tissues of women diagnosed with CIN 3 in the post-fortification period than in pre-fortification period suggest that fortification may adversely affect histone methylation in already initiated cells. Lower Lys-9 methylation in normal/reactive cervical cells of women free of CIN in the post-fortification period than pre-fortification on the other hand suggests that fortification is likely to protect against initiation of carcinogenic process in the cervix. These results suggest that mandatory fortification with folic acid in the US seems to have different effects on cancer depending on the stage of carcinogenesis. Because this is the first study to report folic acid fortification-associated differences in histone methylation and because of the limitations inherent to the approach we have taken to demonstrate these differences, validation of the results in other study populations or with other techniques for assessing histone methylation is necessary.
PMCID: PMC2971712  PMID: 21072283
folic acid; fortification; histone methylation; cervix
5.  Associations between Methylation of Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (PEG3), Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Invasive Cervical Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56325.
Cytology-based screening for invasive cervical cancer (ICC) lacks sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) likely to persist or progress from cases likely to resolve. Genome-wide approaches have been used to identify DNA methylation marks associated with CIN persistence or progression. However, associations between DNA methylation marks and CIN or ICC remain weak and inconsistent. Between 2008–2009, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control study among 213 Tanzania women with CIN 1/2/3 or ICC. We collected questionnaire data, biopsies, peripheral blood, cervical scrapes, Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV-1 infection status. We assessed PEG3 methylation status by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI 95%) for associations between PEG3 methylation status and CIN or ICC. After adjusting for age, gravidity, hormonal contraceptive use and HPV infection, a 5% increase in PEG3 DNA methylation was associated with increased risk for ICC (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2–2.1). HPV infection was associated with a higher risk of CIN1-3 (OR = 15.7; 95% CI 5.7–48.6) and ICC (OR = 29.5, 95% CI 6.3–38.4). Infection with high risk HPV was correlated with mean PEG3 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) methylation (r = 0.34 p<0.0001), while the correlation with low risk HPV infection was weaker (r = 0.16 p = 0.047). Although small sample size limits inference, these data support that PEG3 methylation status has potential as a molecular target for inclusion in CIN screening to improve prediction of progression.
Impact statement
We present the first evidence that aberrant methylation of the PEG3 DMR is an important co-factor in the development of Invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC), especially among women infected with high risk HPV. Our results show that a five percent increase in DNA methylation of PEG3 is associated with a 1.6-fold increase ICC risk. Suggesting PEG3 methylation status may be useful as a molecular marker for CIN screening to improve prediction of cases likely to progress.
PMCID: PMC3571954  PMID: 23418553
6.  Global DNA hypomethylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a biomarker of cancer risk 
Global DNA hypomethylation is an early molecular event in carcinogenesis. Whether methylation measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) DNA is a clinically reliable biomarker for early detection or cancer risk assessment is to be established.
From an original sample-set of 753 male and female adults(aged 64.8±7.3years),PBMCs DNA methylation was measured in 68 subjects with history of cancer at time of enrollment and 62 who developed cancer during follow-up. Age-and sex-matched controls for prevalent and incident cancer cases(n=68 and n=58,respectively)were also selected. Global DNA methylation was assessed by LC/MS. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T genotype and plasma folate concentrations were also determined for the known gene-nutrient interaction affecting DNA methylation.
Cancer subjects had significantly lower PBMCs-DNA methylation than controls [4.39(95%CIs 4.25–4.53) vs. 5.13(95%CIs 5.03–5.21)%mCyt/(mCyt+Cyt), P<0.0001]. A DNA methylation threshold of 4.74% clearly categorized cancer patients from controls so that those with DNA methylation <4.74% showed an increased prevalence of cancer than those with higher levels (91.5% vs. 19%;P <0.001). Subjects with cancer at follow-up had, already at enrollment, reduced DNA methylation compared to controls [4.34(95%CIs 4.24–4.51) vs. 5.08(95%CIs 5.05–5.22)%mCyt/(mCyt+Cyt),P<0.0001].Moreover, MTHFR677C>T genotype and folate interact for determining DNA methylation, so that MTHFR677TT carriers with low folate had the lowest DNA methylation and concordantly showed a higher prevalence of cancer history (OR=7.04,95%CIs 1.52–32.63, P=0.013).
Genomic PBMCs-DNA methylation may be a useful epigenetic biomarker for early detection and cancer risk estimation.
This study identifies a threshold for PBMCs-DNA methylation to detect cancer-affected from cancer–free subjects and an at-risk condition for cancer based on genomic DNA methylation and MTHFR677C>T-folate status.
PMCID: PMC3596466  PMID: 23300023
DNA methylation; epigenetics; cancer; biomarkers; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; MTHFR; gene-nutrient interactions; folate
7.  The Protective Association of MTHFR Polymorphism on Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is Modified by Riboflavin Status 
We previously reported that women polymorphic for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were less likely to have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or 3 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.21, 0.78, p=0.007). In the current study, we tested whether this protective association is modified by the circulating riboflavin status in the same study population.
Riboflavin status was assessed by the erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR) assay and expressed in terms of an EGR activity coefficient (EGRAC). The status of MTHFR polymorphism, riboflavin, and circulating concentrations of folate, vitamins B-12, A, E, C and total carotene were ascertained in 170 White and 265 African-American women positive for the cervical presence of high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV). Presence/absence of CIN 2 or 3 was determined histologically, and associations with risk factors were examined using multiple logistic regression. Eighty women with CIN 2 or 3 lesions were compared to 355 women without cervical lesions. Based on the median EGRAC of 1.4, women were grouped into low (> 1.4) and high (≤1.4) riboflavin status.
Women with MTHFR polymorphism and low riboflavin status were significantly less likely to have CIN 2 or 3 than the referent group of women without the polymorphism and high riboflavin status (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.92, p= 0.034). MTHFR polymorphism was not associated with CIN 2 or 3 in women with high riboflavin status (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.22, 1.19, p = 0.119), nor were any of the associations influenced by folate levels.
A further inactivation of polymorphic MTHFR by low riboflavin status and a resulting shift in the folate metabolic pathway toward DNA synthesis may explain these observations. The practical implications of this complex gene-nutrient-disease interaction will require further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2025704  PMID: 17303386
MTHFR; riboflavin; cervical; neoplasia
8.  Metabolic, hormonal and immunological associations with global DNA methylation among postmenopausal women 
Epigenetics  2012;7(9):1020-1028.
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification essential for the regulation of gene expression that has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer. Few studies have investigated the wide range of potential predictors of global DNA methylation, including biomarkers. Here, we investigated associations between DNA methylation and dietary factors, sex-steroid hormones, metabolic, lipid, inflammation, immune and one-carbon biomarkers. Data and baseline biomarker measurements were obtained from 173 overweight/obese postmenopausal women. Global DNA methylation in lymphocyte DNA was measured using the pyrosequencing assay for LINE-1 repeats. We used correlations and linear regression analyses to investigate associations between continuous data and DNA methylation, while t-tests were used for categorical data. Secondary analyses stratified by serum folate levels and multivitamin use were also conducted. There was little variability in LINE-1 methylation (66.3–79.5%). Mean LINE-1 methylation was significantly higher among women with elevated glucose levels. Mean LINE-1 methylation was also higher among women with high CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and lower among women with elevated vitamin B6, but neither reached statistical significance. In analyses stratified by folate status, DNA methylation was negatively associated with sex hormone concentrations (estrone, estradiol, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin) among women with low serum folate levels (n = 53). Conversely, among women with high serum folate levels (n = 53), DNA methylation was positively associated with several immune markers (CD4/CD8 ratio, NK1656/lymphocytes and IgA). Results from this screening suggest that global DNA methylation is generally stable, with differential associations for sex hormones and immune markers depending on one-carbon status.
PMCID: PMC3515011  PMID: 22869041
DNA methylation; epigenetics; epidemiology; folate; glucose; metabolic; immune function; inflammation; post-menopausal; sex hormones; women
9.  Clinical and Pathological Heterogeneity of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e29051.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), the immediate cervical cancer precursor, is a target of cervical cancer prevention. However, less than half of CIN3s will progress to cancer. Routine treatment of all CIN3s and the majority of CIN2s may lead to overtreatment of many lesions that would not progress. To improve our understanding of CIN3 natural history, we performed a detailed characterization of CIN3 heterogeneity in a large referral population in the US.
We examined 309 CIN3 cases in the SUCCEED, a large population-based study of women with abnormal cervical cancer screening results. Histology information for 12 individual loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) segments was evaluated for each woman. We performed case-case comparisons of CIN3s to analyze determinants of heterogeneity and screening test performance.
CIN3 cases varied substantially by size (1–10 LEEP segments) and by presentation with concomitant CIN2 and CIN1. All grades of CINs were equally distributed over the cervical surface. In half of the women, CIN3 lesions were found as multiple distinct lesions on the cervix. Women with large and solitary CIN3 lesions were more likely to be older, have longer sexual activity span, and have fewer multiple high risk HPV infections. Screening frequency, but not HPV16 positivity, was an important predictor of CIN3 size. Large CIN3 lesions were also characterized by high-grade clinical test results.
We demonstrate substantial heterogeneity in clinical and pathological presentation of CIN3 in a US population. Time since sexual debut and participation in screening were predictors of CIN3 size. We did not observe a preferential site of CIN3 on the cervical surface that could serve as a target for cervical biopsy. Cervical cancer screening procedures were more likely to detect larger CIN3s, suggesting that CIN3s detected by multiple independent diagnostic tests may represent cases with increased risk of invasion.
PMCID: PMC3258246  PMID: 22253702
10.  T-Cell Response to Human Papillomavirus Type 58 L1, E6, and E7 Peptides in Women with Cleared Infection, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, or Invasive Cancer▿  
Human papillomavirus type 58 (HPV-58) exists in a relatively high prevalence in certain parts of the world, including East Asia. This study examined the T-cell response to HPV-58 L1, E6, and E7 peptides among women with cleared infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or CIN3, or invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Peptides found to be reactive in the in vitro peptide binding assay or mouse-stimulating study were tested with a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay to detect peptide-specific responses from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from 91 HPV-58-infected women (32 with cleared infection, 16 CIN2, 15 CIN3, and 28 ICC). Four HLA-A11-restricted HPV-58 L1 peptides, located at amino acid positions 296 to 304, 327 to 335, 101 to 109, and 469 to 477, showed positive IFN-γ ELISPOT results and were mainly from women with cleared infection. Two HLA-A11-restricted E6 peptides (amino acid positions 64 to 72 and 94 to 102) and three HLA-A11-restricted E7 peptides (amino acid positions 78 to 86, 74 to 82, and 88 to 96) showed a positive response. A response to E6 and E7 peptides was mainly observed from subjects with CIN2 or above. One HLA-A2-restricted E6 peptide, located at amino acid position 99 to 107, elicited a positive response in two CIN2 subjects. One HLA-A24-restricted L1 peptide, located at amino acid position 468 to 476, also elicited a positive response in two CIN2 subjects. In summary, this study has identified a few immunogenic epitopes for HPV-58 E6 and E7 proteins. It is worthwhile to further investigate whether responses to these epitopes have a role in clearing an established cervical lesion.
PMCID: PMC2944455  PMID: 20668141
11.  Mining for viral fragments in methylation enriched sequencing data 
Most next generation sequencing experiments generate more data than is usable for the experimental set up. For example, methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) affinity purification based sequencing is often used for DNA-methylation profiling, but up to 30% of the sequenced fragments cannot be mapped uniquely to the reference genome. Here we present and evaluate a methodology for the identification of viruses in these otherwise unused paired-end MBD-seq data. Viral detection is accomplished by mapping non-reference alignable reads to a comprehensive set of viral genomes. As viruses play an important role in epigenetics and cancer development, 92 (pre)malignant and benign samples, originating from two different collections of cervical samples and related cell lines, were used in this study. These samples include primary carcinomas (n = 22), low- and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1 and CIN2/3 - n = 2/n = 30) and normal tissue (n = 20), as well as control samples (n = 17). Viruses that were detected include phages, adenoviruses, herpesviridae and HPV. HPV, which causes virtually all cervical cancers, was identified in 95% of the carcinomas, 100% of the CIN2/3 samples, both CIN1 samples and in 55% of the normal samples. Comparing the amount of mapped fragments on HPV for each HPV-infected sample yielded a significant difference between normal samples and carcinomas or CIN2/3 samples (adjusted p-values resp. <10−5, <10−5), reflecting different viral loads and/or methylation degrees in non-normal samples. Fragments originating from different HPV types could be distinguished and were independently validated by PCR-based assays in 71% of the detections. In conclusion, although limited by the a priori knowledge of viral reference genome sequences, the proposed methodology can provide a first confined but substantial insight into the presence, concentration and types of methylated viral sequences in MBD-seq data at low additional cost.
PMCID: PMC4316777
viruses; epigenomics; DNA-methylation; next generation sequencing; bioinformatics; cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; MBD-seq
12.  Prevalence and predictors of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia among HIV infected women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza-Tanzania 
Cancer of the cervix rank the second most common cause of cancer related deaths among women in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that 529, 409 new cases are diagnosed annually with a mortality rate approaching 274,883 per year. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) precedes almost all cervical cancers. The incidence rate of CIN among HIV infected women is five times higher as compared to the rate in HIV negative women. The screening for cervical dysplasia and an appropriate management in women with CIN are effective methods for preventing cervical cancer. This study was done to determine the prevalence and predictors of CIN among a HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment centre (CTC) at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC).
A cross sectional survey was undertaken among HIV infected women aged 18 years and above attending at BMC CTC clinic between February and March 2013. Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) was used as the screening method for detection of CIN. Socio-demographic, reproductive and clinical information was obtained from participants and the blood was collected for CD4 lymphocyte count. Cervical punch biopsy for histological examination was performed for those who had VIA positive test. Data were entered and analyzed using STATA Version 12.0 soft ware.
A total number of 95 (26.8%) participants had positive VIA test among three hundred and fifty-five (355) HIV infected women. Histology results showed; 4(4.2%) were normal, 26 (27.4%) had an inflammatory lesion, 58(61.1%) had CIN and 7(7.3%) had invasive cervical cancer. CIN was found to be associated with a history of multiple sexual partners (P<0.001), a history of genital warts (P<0.001), and a history of STI (P = 0.010).
The Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is a problem among HIV infected women. A history of multiple sexual partners, a history of genital warts, a history STI and a low baseline CD4 T lymphocyte were significant predictors for CIN. Screening for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is recommended for all women with HIV.
PMCID: PMC3833176  PMID: 24228805
Cervical intraepithelial Neoplasia; HIV; Mwanza
13.  Case–control study of HLA-G promoter methylation status, HPV infection and cervical neoplasia in Curitiba, Brazil: a pilot analysis 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:618.
The causal association between persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer has been established, but the mechanisms that favor HPV persistence in cervical cells are still unknown. The diminished capability of the immune system to control and resolve HPV infection is one of several hypotheses. The tolerogenic protein HLA-G has shown aberrant expression in a variety of cancers, which has been suggested as a mechanism for tumor escape from immunosurveillance. In the present study we evaluate the role of epigenetic modification (promoter de-methylation) of the HLA-G gene on susceptibility to HPV infection and development of high-grade cervical lesions.
A case–control study was carried out in Curitiba, Brazil, between February and June 2010. A total of 789 women aged 15–47 years were recruited: 510 controls with normal cervical cytology, and 279 cases with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2, N = 150) or grade 3 (CIN3, N = 129). All women were administered a questionnaire by interview, which collected information on demographic and lifestyle factors, and a cervical sample was collected. HPV DNA detection was performed by GP5+/GP6+ primer-mediated PCR. HPV-positive samples were genotyped by multiplex PCR. A pilot analysis of HLA-G promoter methylation was carried out in a subset of the study population (96 cases and 76 controls) by pyrosequencing. HLA-G methylation and HPV infection status of cases and controls were compared, and confounding factors were computed by t Student and non-parametric Wilcoxon tests. Comparison of HLA-G methylation between cases and controls was assessed by the Bonferroni correction. The association of HLA-G methylation with CIN2/3 was evaluated by logistic regression.
HPV prevalence was 19.6% in controls and 94.3% in CIN2/3 cases. HPV16, 31, 33, 35 and 18 were the most prevalent types. Methylation analysis of seven CpGs in the HLA-G promoter did not reveal any spontaneous de-methylation events in CIN2/3 cases (mean proportion of methylation: 75.8%) with respect to controls (mean 73.7%; odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.96, 1.07).
This study did not support the hypothesis that spontaneous de-methylation events in the HLA-G promoter play a primary role in promoting escape from immunosurveillance in the development of precancerous cervical lesions.
PMCID: PMC3545901  PMID: 23265140
HPV; Cervical cancer; HLA-G; Methylation
14.  The borderline cervical smear: colposcopic and biopsy outcome 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(6):439-444.
Aims—To review the outcome of women referred with smears showing borderline nuclear change (BNC), and to determine any differences in outcome if BNC was persistent, preceded by dyskaryosis, or followed treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In addition, to determine criteria that might permit delineation of a BNC subtype, predictive of CIN.
Methods—The records of 178 women referred for colposcopy in 1993, with last smear showing BNC, were obtained from our laboratory database. The cytology, colposcopy, and biopsy follow up for a five year period were also obtained. The patients were divided into three categories according to their smear status before the last referral borderline smear: category 1, persistent BNC (n = 39); category 2, BNC preceded by dyskaryotic smears (n = 100); and category 3, BNC after treatment for CIN (n = 39). The referral borderline smears were reviewed on cases with negative outcome and those with a biopsy diagnosis of CIN2 and CIN3.
Results—In 50 women (28%) no biopsy was deemed necessary after colposcopic assessment. The biopsy results in the remaining 128 (72%) women were as follows: normal in 18 (10%), koilocytosis in 12 (7%), CIN1 in 45 (25%), CIN2 in 32 (18%), and CIN3 in 21 (12%) women. High grade lesions (CIN2, CIN3) were seen on biopsy in 14 of 39, 33 of 100, and six of 39 cases in category 1, category 2, and category 3, respectively. Blind review of the referral borderline smears from 53 women with a biopsy diagnosis of high grade lesions (32 CIN2, 21 CIN3) confirmed they were borderline in 23, upgraded them to mild dyskaryosis in 15, and found that 14 cases of isolated moderate or severe dyskaryotic cells had been missed originally. The borderline change was in mature squamous cells in five of 23 and in immature metaplastic epithelium in 18 of 23 cases. After smear review in 68 women with negative outcome, 36 smears were reclassified as negative in keeping with inflammation and atrophy, three were considered unsatisfactory, one was upgraded to CIN1, and 28 were confirmed as BNC. Of the latter, 25 of 28 were in mature squamous cells. The five year follow up on women with negative colposcopy (n = 50), negative loop excision of transformation zone (LETZ) (n = 18), and LETZ with koilocytosis (n = 12) showed subsequent high grade CIN on LETZ in 16, 0, and two patients, respectively.
Conclusions—On referral of women for colposcopy with last smear showing BNC, the outcome was high grade CIN in over 30% of cases, irrespective of whether the borderline smear was preceded by another borderline smear or by a dyskaryotic smear. In contrast, in those referred because of BNC after treatment of CIN, high grade CIN was seen less frequently (15% of cases). Furthermore, in cases that necessitated loop excisions, high grade CIN was seen in 41%. This study also showed that BNC associated with inflammation or atrophy, or BNC in mature squamous cells, appears to have lower predictive value for CIN than those cases where BNC is associated with immature metaplastic epithelium. The use of terms such as "BNC favour reactive" for the former and "BNC favour dyskaryosis" for the latter is recommended, together with follow up by cytology and colposcopy, respectively.
Key Words: borderline nuclear abnormality • cervical cytology
PMCID: PMC1731202  PMID: 10911801
15.  Risk Factors for Persistent Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grades 1 and 2 Managed by Watchful Waiting 
This study examines risk factors for persistent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) testing predicts persistent lesions.
Materials and Methods
Women with histologically diagnosed CIN 1 or CIN 2 (n = 206) were followed every 3 months without treatment. HPV genotyping, plasma levels of ascorbic acid, and red blood cell folate were obtained. Cervical biopsy at 12 months determined the presence of CIN. Relative risk (RR) was estimated by log-linked binomial regression models.
At 12 months, 70% of CIN 1 versus 54% of CIN 2 lesions spontaneously regressed (p< 0.001). Levels of folate or ascorbic acid were not associated with persistent CIN at 12 months. Compared to HPV negative women, those with multiple HPV types (RRs ranged from 1.68 to 2.17 at each follow-up visit) or high-risk types (RRs range = 1.74 to 2.09) were at increased risk for persistent CIN; women with HPV 16/18 had the highest risk (RRs range = 1.91 to 2.21). Persistent infection with a high-risk type was also associated with persistent CIN (RRs range = 1.50 – 2.35). Typing for high-risk HPVs at 6 months only had a sensitivity of 46% in predicting persistence of any lesions at 12 months.
Spontaneous regression of CIN 1 and CIN 2 occurs frequently within 12 months. HPV infection is the major risk factor for persistent CIN. However, HPV testing cannot reliably predict persistence of any lesion.
PMCID: PMC3652877  PMID: 21811178
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; human papillomavirus
16.  Stress Management Effects on Perceived Stress and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Low-Income HIV Infected Women 
Journal of psychosomatic research  2008;65(4):389-401.
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is greatly increased in women infected with sexually transmitted Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) and who are co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Factors associated with promotion of HPV to CIN in these women include degree of immunosuppression and preventable behavioral factors such as tobacco smoking and psychological stress. Interventions such as cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) decrease stress and modulate disease activity in HIV-infected men though effects have not been established in HIV-infected women. This study examined the effects of CBSM on life stress and CIN in HIV+ minority women.
Participants were 39 HIV+ African American, Caribbean and Hispanic women with a recent history of an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Participants underwent colposcopic examination, psychosocial interview, and peripheral venous blood draw at study entry and 9 months after being randomly assigned to either a 10-week CBSM group intervention (n = 21) or a one-day CBSM workshop (n = 18).
Women assigned to the 10-week CBSM intervention reported decreased perceived life stress and had significantly lower odds of CIN over a 9-month follow-up, independent of CIN at study entry, HPV type, CD4+CD3+ cell count, HIV viral load, and tobacco smoking. Women free of CIN at follow-up reported decreases in perceived stress over time while those with CIN reported increases in perceived stress over the same period.
Although preliminary these findings suggest that stress management decreases perceived life stress and may decrease the odds of CIN in women with HIV and HPV.
PMCID: PMC2610810  PMID: 18805249
HIV; HPV; Cervical cancer; Stress; Stress Management
17.  Tumour suppressor gene methylation and cervical cell folate concentration are determinants of high-risk human papillomavirus persistence: a nested case control study 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):803.
Persistent infection with one or more high-risk human papillomavirus [HR-HPV] types increases the risk of intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. A nested case–control study was conducted to investigate the importance of cervical cell folate concentration and tumour suppressor gene methylation as risk factors for HR-HPV persistence.
Cervical cell samples from 955 women with HR-HPV infection and normal, borderline or mild dyskaryosis were retrieved from the archive of a population-based screening trial. Women were classified as cases or controls, reflecting the presence or absence [respectively] of any HR-HPV infection at a follow-up clinic at least 6 months from baseline. Cervical cell folate concentration and promoter methylation of five tumour suppressor genes were measured in independent samples from cases and controls.
A higher cervical cell folate concentration [P = 0.015] was an independent predictor of infection at follow-up, together with infection with HPV-16 or infection with multiple HR-HPV types. Methylation of the tumour suppressor gene DAPK was associated with a 2.64-fold [95% CI, 1.35-5.17] increased likelihood of HPV infection whilst CDH1 methylation was associated with a 0.53-fold [95% CI, 0.331-0.844] likelihood of HR-HPV infection at follow-up. When considering women with normal or abnormal cytology, the predictive effect of higher cervical cell folate was only seen in women with mild cytology [P = 0.021]; similarly the effect of DAPK methylation was seen in women with mild or borderline cytology [P < 0.05].
Higher cervical cell folate concentration and promoter methylation of the tumour suppressor gene, DAPK, in women with cervical cell dyskaryosis, are associated with increased risk of HR-HPV persistence.
PMCID: PMC4232685  PMID: 25367268
Folate; DAPK methylation; HPV persistence; Cervical cancer
18.  A shift to a peripheral Th2-type cytokine pattern during the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer becomes manifest in CIN III lesions 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2005;58(10):1096-1100.
Background: A shifted balance between T helper 1 (Th1)-type and Th2-type cytokines has been hypothesised in cervical dysplasia
Aims: To evaluate possible deregulation of the cytokine network by estimating the expression of peripheral cytokines in different stages of cervical disease and in relation to the presence or absence of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV).
Methods: Twenty one HR-HPV positive women with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II–III) and 12 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma formed the study groups. Two control groups consisted of 10 HR-HPV positive and 11 HR-HPV negative women without CIN. Differences in leucocyte subgroups were evaluated by a differential leucocyte count. Plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), TNFα receptors TNFRI and TNFRII, interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays.
Results: Leucocyte counts in patients with CIN III and carcinoma were significantly higher than in controls. Plasma IFNγ concentrations were significantly lower in patients with CIN III and carcinoma than in women with CIN II or controls. Plasma concentrations of IL-12, IL-2, IL-4, and TNFα did not differ significantly between groups, but significantly lower plasma concentrations of TNFRII were found in CIN III and carcinoma compared with CIN II. IL-10 was detected with increased frequency in the plasma of patients with CIN III and carcinoma.
Conclusions: These results indicate that a shift to a Th2-type cytokine pattern during the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer occurs in women with CIN III lesions.
PMCID: PMC1770745  PMID: 16189158
cervical dysplasia; peripheral cytokines; high risk human papillomavirus
19.  Credentialing of DNA methylation assays for human genes as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk HPV positive women 
Gynecologic Oncology  2014;132(3):709-714.
Testing for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is increasing; however due to limitations in specificity there remains a need for better triage tests. Research efforts have focused recently on methylation of human genes which show promise as diagnostic classifiers.
Methylation of 26 genes: APC, CADM1, CCND2, CDH13, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, DAPK1, DPYS, EDNRB, EPB41L3, ESR1, GSTP1, HIN1, JAM3, LMX1, MAL, MDR1, PAX1, PTGS2, RARB, RASSF1, SLIT2, SOX1, SPARC, TERT and TWIST1 was measured by pyrosequencing in cytology specimens from a pilot set of women with normal or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) histology. Six genes were selected for testing in Predictors 1, a colposcopy referral study comprising 799 women. The three genes EPB41L3, DPYS and MAL were further tested in a second colposcopy referral study, Predictors 2, comprising 884 women.
The six genes selected from the pilot: EPB41L3, EDNRB, LMX1, DPYS, MAL and CADM1 showed significantly elevated methylation in CIN2 and CIN3 (CIN2/3) versus ≤CIN1 in Predictors 1 (p < 0.01). Highest methylation was observed in cancer tissues. EPB41L3 methylation was the best single classifier of CIN2/3 in both HR-HPV positive (p < 0.0001) and negative samples (p = 0.02). Logistic regression modeling showed that other genes did not add significantly to EPB41L3 and in Predictors 2, its classifier value was validated with AUC 0.69 (95% CI 0.65–0.73).
Several methylated genes show promise for detecting CIN2/3 of which EPB41L3 seems the best. Methylated human gene biomarkers used in combination may be clinically useful for triage of women with HR-HPV infections.
•Methylation of 26 human genes assessed by pyrosequencing in 40 cytology specimens•Several methylated genes show promise for detecting CIN2/3.•EBP41L3 shows reproducible biomarker potential in high risk HPV positive women.
PMCID: PMC3989115  PMID: 24508839
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; Human gene methylation; EPB41L3; Diagnostic biomarker
20.  Methylation of HPV16 genome CpG sites is associated with cervix precancer and cancer 
Gynecologic oncology  2011;121(1):59-63.
Invasive cervix cancer (ICC) is the second most common malignant tumor in women. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) causes more than 50% of all ICC and is a major cause of cervix intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). DNA methylation is a covalent modification predominantly occurring at CpG dinucleotides. Such epigenetic modifications are associated with changes in DNA-protein interactions and gene activation. This study examined the association of viral and host genomic methylation patterns and cervix neoplasia.
Exfoliated cervical lavage samples positive for HPV16 from women with and without cytomorphic changes of infection (n=46), CIN2 (n=12), and CIN3+ (n=27) were used to interrogate the methylation patterns of the HPV16 L1 gene and upstream regulatory region (URR), five host nuclear genes (TERT, RARB, DAPK1, MAL, and CADM1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). DNA isolated from exfoliated cervicovaginal cells was treated with bisulfite, specific regions of the viral and host genome were PCR amplified and CpG methylation was quantified using EpiTYPER and pyrosequencing.
Methylation at 14 of the tested CpG sites within the HPV16 L1 region were significantly higher in CIN3+ compared to HPV16 genomes from women without CIN3+. In contrast, only 2 out of 16 CpG sites in HPV16 URR, 5/5 in TERT, 1/4 in DAPK1 and 1/3 mtDNA, and 2/5 in RARB were associated with increased methylation in CIN3+.
These results indicate that increased methylation of CpG sites in the HPV16 L1 ORF is associated with CIN3+ and thus, may constitute a potential biomarker for precancerous and cancerous cervix disease.
PMCID: PMC3062667  PMID: 21306759
cervical cancer; human papillomavirus; methylation
21.  Methylation of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Genome and Risk of Cervical Precancer in a Costa Rican Population 
Previous studies have suggested an association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) genome methylation and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (ie, cervical precancer) and cancer, but the results have been inconsistent.
We designed a case–control study within a large prospective cohort of women who underwent multiple screenings for cervical cancer in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Diagnostic specimens were collected at the time of CIN3 diagnosis (n = 30 case subjects) and persistent HPV16 infection (persistence; n = 35 case subjects), prediagnostic specimens at the first HPV16-positive screening visit (n = 20 CIN3 case subjects; n = 35 persistence case subjects), and control specimens from women with infection clearance within 2 years (n = 34 control subjects). DNA extracted from specimens (cervical cells) was analyzed for methylation levels at 67 CpG sites throughout the HPV16 genome using pyrosequencing. Benjamini–Hochberg method was used to account for multiple testing. Associations between methylation levels and risk of CIN3 or persistence were assessed using logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Increased methylation in diagnostic vs control specimens at nine CpG sites, three in each L1, L2, and E2/E4 genomic regions, was associated with an increased risk of CIN3 (third tertile [high] vs first and second tertiles combined [low], OR = 3.29 [95% CI = 1.16 to 9.34] to 11.12 [95% CI = 2.29 to 76.80]) and persistence. High methylation at three of these CpG sites was associated with a much higher risk when combined compared with low methylation at these sites (OR = 52, 95% CI = 4.0 to 670). In prediagnostic vs control specimens, increased methylation at a CpG site (nucleotide position 4261) in L2 was associated with an increased risk of CIN3.
In this HPV16-infected cohort, increased methylation of CpG sites within the HPV16 genome before diagnosis and at the time of diagnosis was associated with cervical precancer.
PMCID: PMC3317880  PMID: 22448030
22.  Methylation-mediated transcriptional repression of microRNAs during cervical carcinogenesis 
Epigenetics  2013;8(2):220-228.
Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is common and biologically relevant in cervical carcinogenesis and appears only partly related to chromosomal changes. We recently identified 32 miRNAs showing decreased expression in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinomas not associated with a chromosomal loss, 6 of which were located within a CpG island. This study aimed to investigate to what extent these miRNAs are subject to DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional repression in cervical carcinogenesis.
Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis on a cell line panel representing different stages of human papillomavirus (HPV) induced transformation revealed an increase in methylation of hsa-miR-149, -203 and -375 with progression to malignancy, whereas expression of these miRNAs was restored upon treatment with a demethylating agent. All three miRNAs showed significantly increased levels of methylation in cervical carcinomas, whereas methylation levels of hsa-miR-203 and -375 were also significantly increased in high-grade CIN. A pilot analysis showed that increased hsa-miR-203 methylation was also detectable in HPV-positive cervical scrapes of women with high-grade CIN compared with controls. Similar to recent findings on hsa-miR-375, ectopic expression of hsa-miR-203 in cervical cancer cells decreased both the proliferation rate and anchorage independent growth. We found evidence for methylation-mediated transcriptional repression of hsa-miR-149, -203 and -375 in cervical cancer. Methylation of the latter two was already apparent in precancerous lesions and represent functionally relevant events in HPV-mediated transformation. Increased hsa-miR-203 methylation was detectable in scrapes of women with high-grade CIN, indicating that methylated miRNAs may provide putative markers to assess the presence of (pre)cancerous lesions.
PMCID: PMC3592908  PMID: 23324622
microRNA; squamous cell carcinoma; DNA methylation; CIN lesion; HPV; MSP
23.  Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies hypermethylated biomarkers in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 
Epigenetics  2012;7(11):1268-1278.
Epigenetic modifications, such as aberrant DNA promoter methylation, are frequently observed in cervical cancer. Identification of hypermethylated regions allowing discrimination between normal cervical epithelium and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), or worse, may improve current cervical cancer population-based screening programs. In this study, the DNA methylome of high-grade CIN lesions was studied using genome-wide DNA methylation screening to identify potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) combined with DNA microarray was used to compare DNA methylation profiles of epithelial cells derived from high-grade CIN lesions with normal cervical epithelium. Hypermethylated differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified. Validation of nine selected DMRs using BSP and MSP in cervical tissue revealed methylation in 63.2–94.7% high-grade CIN and in 59.3–100% cervical carcinomas. QMSP for the two most significant high-grade CIN-specific methylation markers was conducted exploring test performance in a large series of cervical scrapings. Frequency and relative level of methylation were significantly different between normal and cancer samples. Clinical validation of both markers in cervical scrapings from patients with an abnormal cervical smear confirmed that frequency and relative level of methylation were related with increasing severity of the underlying CIN lesion and that ROC analysis was discriminative. These markers represent the COL25A1 and KATNAL2 and their observed increased methylation upon progression could intimate the regulatory role in carcinogenesis. In conclusion, our newly identified hypermethylated DMRs represent specific DNA methylation patterns in high-grade CIN lesions and are candidate biomarkers for early detection.
PMCID: PMC3499328  PMID: 23018867
cervical precancerous lesion; DNA methylation; MeDIP-chip; cervical scraping
24.  Completeness of excision and follow up cytology in patients treated with loop excision biopsy 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2000;53(3):191-196.
Aims—To assess the relation between the grade and the status of follow up cytology, the completeness of loop excision biopsies with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and the findings at follow up cytology, as well as the differences between complete and incomplete exclusion, using the odds ratio. Treatment failure was assessed.
Methods—1600 women with CIN (290 CIN1, 304 CIN2, 1006 CIN3) were followed for a minimum of six months and a maximum of 10 years. A database was created and comparisons performed. The mean age of the patients was 37 years.
Results—Excision was complete in over 84% of loops. Residual disease and recurrence of high grade dyskaryosis was more common in women with CIN 3 than CIN 2 or 1. No high grade dyskaryosis was seen in the fifth follow up smear in patients with CIN 1 and CIN 2. Residual, recurrent, and persistent disease was most common in patients with incompletely excised CIN at ectocervical and endocervical margins and deep margins of resection than in patients with completely excised CIN. The odds ratios were significantly higher in the women who had incomplete excision of CIN at ectocervical, endocervical, both ecto- and endocervical, and deep margins of resection compared with those with apparent complete excision of CIN lesions. One patient developed invasive squamous cell carcinoma 44 months after loop excision which showed CIN 3 invading endocervical crypts and extending to both ectocervical and endocervical margins of resection.
Conclusions—At long term follow up, patients with CIN who have residual disease are at increased risk of persistent disease and should therefore be followed up regularly with cytology and colposcopy. The findings support national policy of returning women with treated CIN of any grade to normal recall after five years except for cases of CIN3 where excision was incomplete or equivocal. In these cases follow up with annual smear for 10 years is recommended.
Key Words: cervical cytology • cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
PMCID: PMC1731153  PMID: 10823137
25.  Pooled Analysis of a Self-Sampling HPV DNA Test as a Cervical Cancer Primary Screening Method 
Worldwide, one-seventh of cervical cancers occur in China, which lacks a national screening program. By evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of self-collected cervicovaginal specimens tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA (Self-HPV testing) in China, we sought to determine whether Self-HPV testing may serve as a primary cervical cancer screening method in low-resource settings.
We compiled individual patient data from five population-based cervical cancer–screening studies in China. Participants (n = 13 140) received Self-HPV testing, physician-collected cervical specimens for HPV testing (Physician-HPV testing), liquid-based cytology (LBC), and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Screen-positive women underwent colposcopy and confirmatory biopsy. We analyzed the accuracies of pooled Self-HPV testing, Physician-HPV testing, VIA, and LBC to detect biopsy-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+) and CIN3+. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Of 13 004 women included in the analysis, 507 (3.9%) were diagnosed as CIN2+, 273 (2.1%) as CIN3+, and 37 (0.3%) with cervical cancer. Self-HPV testing had 86.2% sensitivity and 80.7% specificity for detecting CIN2+ and 86.1% sensitivity and 79.5% specificity for detecting CIN3+. VIA had statistically significantly lower sensitivity for detecting CIN2+ (50.3%) and CIN3+ (55.7%) and higher specificity for detecting CIN2+ (87.4%) and CIN3+ (86.9%) (all P values < .001) than Self-HPV testing, LBC had lower sensitivity for detecting CIN2+ (80.7%, P = .015), similar sensitivity for detecting CIN3+ (89.0%, P = .341), and higher specificity for detecting CIN2+ (94.0%, P < .001) and CIN3+ (92.8%, P < .001) than Self-HPV testing. Physician-HPV testing was more sensitive for detecting CIN2+ (97.0%) and CIN3+ (97.8%) but similarly specific for detecting CIN2+ (82.7%) and CIN3+ (81.3%) (all P values <.001) than Self-HPV testing.
The sensitivity of Self-HPV testing compared favorably with that of LBC and was superior to the sensitivity of VIA. Self-HPV testing may complement current screening programs by increasing population coverage in settings that do not have easy access to comprehensive cytology-based screening.
PMCID: PMC3274511  PMID: 22271765

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