This paper depicts e paraphernalia of an alchemist who believed in imitating creation and generating a soul thereby. The magic wands of creation are a compass and a triangular carpenter's square. They can produce the dual natured soul Ruh or Spirit symbolized as Cock and Nafs of “the soul” as snake: The real creative energy by nature is ultrasonic energy, characterizing the word of command of the creator. Ultrasonic energy can be produced by fiddle which is depicted also as such a producer. Thus all the elements necessary to imitate creation have been depicted here.
Galen's three souls incorporate previously existing ideas of soul. Soul is matter – cum – energy. As matter it is airlike, the finest by nature and as movement, like sound, the form of energy most subtle of its kind. Creator is depicted with Creation as the Cosmic egg and snake as Cosmic soul and the syllable Om, as the word incorporating creative energy. Om as humming sound is symbolized by Bees which produce such sound.
The availability of the recently completed Streptomyces coelicolor genome sequence provides a link between the folklore of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds to underlying biochemical, molecular genetic and evolutionary principles.
The world's most creative producers of natural pharmaceutical compounds are soil-dwelling bacteria classified as Streptomyces. The availability of the recently completed Streptomyces coelicolor genome sequence provides a link between the folklore of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds to underlying biochemical, molecular genetic and evolutionary principles.
Prime Matter is matter-cum-energy. The first substance identified as such was lead. When gently heated it becomes red and redness means soul or energy so that lead was potentially red or soul-like and as such dual natured. Mercury also becomes red and can return to white metal. It was thus dual natured and was the second substance recognized as Prime Matter. First lead alone and then lead and mercury were considered as the source of all metals.
This paper investigates John Dee’s relationship with two kinds of alchemist: the authorities whose works he read, and the contemporary practitioners with whom he exchanged texts and ideas. Both strands coincide in the reception of works attributed to the famous English alchemist, George Ripley (d. c. 1490). Dee’s keen interest in Ripley appears from the number of transcriptions he made of ‘Ripleian’ writings, including the Bosome book, a manuscript discovered in 1574 and believed to have been written in Ripley’s own hand. In 1583, Dee and his associate Edward Kelley left England for East Central Europe, taking with them a proportion of Dee’s vast library, including alchemical books—the contents of which would soon pique the interest of continental practitioners. Kelley used Ripley’s works, including the Bosome book, not only as sources of practical information, but as a means of furthering his own relationships with colleagues and patrons: transactions that in turn influenced Ripley’s posthumous continental reception. The resulting circulation of texts allows us to trace, with unusual precision, the spread of English alchemical ideas in the Holy Roman Empire from the late sixteenth century.
John Dee; Edward Kelley; George Ripley; Alchemy; Rudolf II; Prague; Manuscript circulation
In China the antecedent of alchemy is represented by the god of longevity emerging from the peach. The first synthetic drug, Kim-Yeh, red colloidal gold, signified gold-cum -herbal juice. Kim-Yeh=Kimiya (Arabic) =chemeia (Greek). Translated this gave Chrusozomion=Gold Ferment, specifying the drug. Rasayana was translated as Chumeia, herbal juice-incorporate and signified the art alchemy. Chemeia was Chinese and Chumeia, Indian. Originally each signified both, a drug of longevity and the art, alchemy. Finally the art of making red gold was misunderstood as the art of making gold itself
Understanding the creative process is essential for realizing human potential. Over the past four decades, the author has explored this subject through his brain-inspired drawings, paintings, symbolic sculptures, and experimental art installations that present myriad impressions of human creativity. These impressionistic artworks interpret rather than illustrate the complexities of the creative process. They draw insights from empirical studies that correlate how human beings create, learn, remember, innovate, and communicate. In addition to offering fresh aesthetic experiences, this metaphorical art raises fundamental questions concerning the deep connections between the brain and its creations. The author describes his artworks as embodiments of everyday observations about the neuropsychology of creativity, and its all-purpose applications for stimulating and accelerating innovation.
ArtScience; creativity; discovery; invention; innovation
The author presents in this article many evidence to prove that the cross is a symbol of soul.
The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905–1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an “flash of insight” is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients’ experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients’ experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience.
Caring science; phenomenological philosophy; phenomenological research; Løgstrup
Perrow's models of organizational technologies provide a framework for analyzing clinical work processes and identifying the management structures and informatics tools to support each model. From this perspective, health care is a mixed model in which knowledge workers require flexible management and a variety of informatics tools. A Venn diagram representing the content of clinical decisions shows that uncertainties in the components of clinical decisions largely determine which type of clinical work process is in play at a given moment. By reducing uncertainties in clinical decisions, informatics tools can support the appropriate implementation of knowledge and free clinicians to use their creativity where patients require new or unique interventions.
Outside health care, information technologies have made possible breakthrough strategies for business success that would otherwise have been impossible. Can health informatics work similar magic and help health care agencies fulfill their social mission while establishing sound business practices? One way to do this would be through personalized health care. Extensive data collected from patients could be aggregated and analyzed to support better decisions for the care of individual patients as well as provide projections of the need for health services for strategic and tactical planning. By making excellent care for each patient possible, reducing the “inventory” of little-needed services, and targeting resources to population needs, informatics can offer a route to the “promised land” of adequate resources and high-quality care.
To examine the relationship between cardiac self-efficacy and health status, including symptom burden, physical limitation, quality of life, and overall health among outpatients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that lower self-efficacy would predict worse health status, independent of CHD severity and depression.
We performed a cross-sectional study of 1024 outpatients with CHD, who were recruited between 2000 and 2002 for the Heart and Soul Study. We administered a validated measure of cardiac self-efficacy, assessed cardiac function using exercise treadmill testing with stress echocardiography, and measured depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Health status outcomes (symptom burden, physical limitation, and quality of life) were assessed using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, and overall health was measured as fair or poor (versus good, very good, or excellent).
After adjustment for CHD severity and depressive symptoms, each standard deviation (4.5-point) decrease in self-efficacy score was independently associated with greater symptom burden (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, p = .001), greater physical limitation (OR = 1.8, p < .0001), worse quality of life (OR = 1.6, p < .0001), and worse overall health (OR = 1.9, p < .0001). Depressive symptoms and poor treadmill exercise capacity were also associated with poor health status, but left ventricular ejection fraction and ischemia were not.
Among patients with CHD, low cardiac self-efficacy is associated with poor health status, independent of CHD severity and depressive symptoms. Further study should examine if self-efficacy constitutes a useful target for cardiovascular disease management interventions.
self-efficacy; health status; heart disease; epidemiology
Cystatin C, an alternative serum measure of kidney function, is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than creatinine or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We hypothesized that serum cystatin C concentration would have a stronger more linear association with cardiovascular functional status than creatinine-based measures in outpatients with established coronary heart disease (CHD).
We measured serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, and eGFR in 906 outpatients with established CHD. We examined the association of these 3 measures of kidney function with treadmill exercise capacity (metabolic equivalent tasks achieved) and heart rate recovery (HRR) between peak and 1 minute after exercise by using linear and logistic regression.
Higher cystatin C concentrations were associated linearly with worse treadmill exercise capacity and HRR. The proportion of participants with poor exercise capacity (metabolic equivalent tasks achieved < 5) was 45% (99 of 222 participants) among those with cystatin C levels in the highest quartile (>1.30 mg/L) compared with 12% (29 of 241 participants) among those with cystatin C levels in the lowest quartile (<0.92 mg/L; adjusted odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 6.5; P = 0.001). The proportion of participants with poor HRR (<16 beats/min) was 42% (92 of 214 participants) among those with cystatin C levels in the highest quartile compared with 16% (37 of 238 participants) among those with cystatin C levels in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 4.0; P = 0.01). The lowest quartile of eGFR (<61.8 mL/min [<1.03 mL/s]) was associated with decreased exercise capacity and prolonged HRR, but no difference was observed across the upper 3 quartiles of eGFR.
In patients with established CHD, cystatin C concentrations are associated linearly with worse exercise capacity and HRR. Cystatin C detects an association of impaired kidney function with decreased HRR and exercise capacity that is not fully captured using creatinine-based measurements.
Coronary artery disease; cystatin C; creatinine; renal function; exercise capacity; heart rate recovery
Whether the integration of genetic/omic technologies in sports contexts will facilitate player success, promote player safety, or spur genetic discrimination depends largely upon the game rules established by those currently designing genomic sports medicine programs. The integration has already begun, but there is not yet a playbook for best practices. Thus far discussions have focused largely on whether the integration would occur and how to prevent the integration from occurring, rather than how it could occur in such a way that maximizes benefits, minimizes risks, and avoids the exacerbation of racial disparities. Previous empirical research has identified members of the personal genomics industry offering sports-related DNA tests, and previous legal research has explored the impact of collective bargaining in professional sports as it relates to the employment protections of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). Building upon that research and upon participant observations with specific sports-related DNA tests purchased from four direct-to-consumer companies in 2011 and broader personal genomics (PGx) services, this anthropological, legal, and ethical (ALE) discussion highlights fundamental issues that must be addressed by those developing personal genomic sports medicine programs, either independently or through collaborations with commercial providers. For example, the vulnerability of student-athletes creates a number of issues that require careful, deliberate consideration. More broadly, however, this ALE discussion highlights potential sports-related implications (that ultimately might mitigate or, conversely, exacerbate racial disparities among athletes) of whole exome/genome sequencing conducted by biomedical researchers and clinicians for non-sports purposes. For example, the possibility that exome/genome sequencing of individuals who are considered to be non-patients, asymptomatic, normal, etc. will reveal the presence of variants of unknown significance in any one of the genes associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), long QT syndrome (LQTS), Marfan’s syndrome, and other conditions is not inconsequential, and how this information is reported, interpreted, and used may ultimately prevent the individual from participation in competitive sports. Due to the distribution of genetic diversity that reflects our evolutionary and demographic history (including the discernible effects of restricted gene flow and genetic drift associated with cultural constructs of race) and in recognition of previous policies for “leveling” the playing field in competitive sports based on “natural” athletic abilities, preliminary recommendations are provided to discourage genetic segregation of sports and to develop best practice guidelines for genomic sports medicine programs that will facilitate player success, promote player safety, and avoid genetic discrimination within and beyond the program.
Legal issues; Personal genomics; Athletes; Sports; GINA; ELSI; Discrimination; Privacy; Sports medicine; Genetic screening
The study of creativity is characterized by a variety of key questions, such as the nature of the creative process, whether there are multiple types of creativity, the relationship between high levels of creativity (“Big C”) and everyday creativity (“little c”), and the neural basis of creativity. Herein we examine the question of the relationship between creativity in the arts and the sciences, and use functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the neural basis of creativity in a group of “Big C” individuals from both domains using a word association protocol. The findings give no support for the notion that the artists and scientists represent “two cultures. ” Rather, they suggest that very gifted artists and scientists have association cortices that respond in similar ways. Both groups display a preponderance of activation in brain circuits involved in higher-order socioaffective processing and Random Episodic Silent Thought /the default mode.
creativity; neuroimaging; fMR; REST; default network; association cortex
Innocent heart murmurs can be identified and distinguished from organic murmurs using only clinical skills. Pulmonary flow murmurs may be differentiated from those of atrial septal defect or pulmonary stenosis by the behavior of the second heart sound, parasternal vibratory murmurs from ventricular septal defect, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation by their length and radiation, venous hums from patent ductus arteriosus by maneuvers designed to obliterate the hum, and supraclavicular arterial murmurs from carotid artery bruit, aortic stenosis and coarctation by similar maneuvers and blood pressure recordings. The article outlines the points of differentiation in order to arrive at a firm diagnosis and obviate concern and unnecessary referrals.
As students at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, the student authors were given the opportunity to develop their own creative projects which would be used to teach future medical students. They chose their own topics, planned and researched their projects, and then implemented the projects in interactive digital Adobe Flash files. In the first project they created interactive case-based radiology teaching files. In the second project they integrated photographic images into the existing illustrative anatomy files. Students in subsequent years have learned from these files on computers both at home and in the school's anatomy lab. The experience of creating the files served as an opportunity for hands-on learning for the student authors, both of the material and of the practice of teaching. In this paper they describe why they undertook these projects, what exactly they did, and the impact their creation had on them. The projects demonstrate that student-driven educational materials are both possible and beneficial. Furthermore, their experience has allowed them to conclude that faculty at other medical schools should consider providing students with opportunities to develop their own creative projects that contribute to the curriculum.
creative project; teaching; anatomy; radiology; medical school curriculum
A broadly accepted definition of creativity refers to the production of something both novel and useful within a given social context. Studies of patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders and neuroimaging studies of healthy controls have each drawn attention to frontal and temporal lobe contributions to creativity. Based on previous magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy studies demonstrating relationships between cognitive ability and concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), a common neurometabolite, we hypothesized that NAA assessed in gray and white matter (from a supraventricular slab) would relate to laboratory measures of creativity. MR imaging and divergent thinking measures were obtained in a cohort of 56 healthy controls. Independent judges ranked the creative products of each participant, from which a “Composite Creativity Index” (CCI) was created. Different patterns of correlations between NAA and CCI were found in higher verbal ability versus lower verbal ability participants, providing neurobiological support for a critical “threshold” regarding the relationship between intelligence and creativity. To our knowledge, this is the first report assessing the relationship between brain chemistry and creative cognition, as measured with divergent thinking, in a cohort comprised exclusively of normal, healthy participants.
This study explored the focus on youth in Catholic and Evangelical Pentecostal discussions about and responses to HIV and AIDS in Brazil. Key informant, oral history, and in-depth interviews revealed a disconnect between young people’s views of themselves as leaders in their religious institutions’ responses to HIV and other social problems and adult religious leaders’ views of youth as vulnerable and in need of being saved. Religious leaders presented young people as institutional commodities, emphasizing their symbolic value as signs of the health and future of their churches. We explore the unofficial exchange between religious institutions and young people, who benefited from the leadership opportunities and communities provided by their churches and youth groups.We discuss the political economy of youth in religious institutions’ responses to HIV and AIDS within the context of Brazil’s high levels of religious mobility as well as the broader, global commodification of spirituality and religion.
Brazil; HIV/AIDS; policy; religion; youth; ethnography
Creativity and its link with mental health have always been much speculated about. However there have been a handful of methodologically sound studies to clearly establish the relationship between creativity and mental health. The objective of the study therefore was to examine the psychiatric morbidity stress profile, coping skills and personality profile in creative versus non-creative populations. Forty writers, 40 musicians and 40 controls chosen after randomization, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria constituted the sample of the study. All the subjects were administered GHQ-28; SCAN for all GHQ positives (and 10% of GHQ-ves), Perceived stress scale and coping check list and NEO-FFI. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 11.0 version. Pearson's correlation, Chi-square and ANOVA one-way tests were used. The present study corroborated the findings of earlier studies in 70's and 80's that there was no difference between creative and non-creative groups in terms of mental illness and stress profile. The writers differed significantly from the other two groups on religious and faith domain of coping skills. The two creative groups had similar personality characteristics and scored significantly high on all dimensions compared to the non-creative group.
Creativity; mental health; writers; musicians
The relationship between intelligence and creativity has been subject to empirical research for decades. Nevertheless, there is yet no consensus on how these constructs are related. One of the most prominent notions concerning the interplay between intelligence and creativity is the threshold hypothesis, which assumes that above-average intelligence represents a necessary condition for high-level creativity. While earlier research mostly supported the threshold hypothesis, it has come under fire in recent investigations. The threshold hypothesis is commonly investigated by splitting a sample at a given threshold (e.g., at 120 IQ points) and estimating separate correlations for lower and upper IQ ranges. However, there is no compelling reason why the threshold should be fixed at an IQ of 120, and to date, no attempts have been made to detect the threshold empirically. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between intelligence and different indicators of creative potential and of creative achievement by means of segmented regression analysis in a sample of 297 participants. Segmented regression allows for the detection of a threshold in continuous data by means of iterative computational algorithms. We found thresholds only for measures of creative potential but not for creative achievement. For the former the thresholds varied as a function of criteria: When investigating a liberal criterion of ideational originality (i.e., two original ideas), a threshold was detected at around 100 IQ points. In contrast, a threshold of 120 IQ points emerged when the criterion was more demanding (i.e., many original ideas). Moreover, an IQ of around 85 IQ points was found to form the threshold for a purely quantitative measure of creative potential (i.e., ideational fluency). These results confirm the threshold hypothesis for qualitative indicators of creative potential and may explain some of the observed discrepancies in previous research. In addition, we obtained evidence that once the intelligence threshold is met, personality factors become more predictive for creativity. On the contrary, no threshold was found for creative achievement, i.e. creative achievement benefits from higher intelligence even at fairly high levels of intellectual ability.
•We investigate the threshold hypothesis on the relationship of intelligence and creativity.•Segmented regression analysis is used for empirical detection of the IQ breakpoint.•Threshold hypothesis is confirmed for different indicators of creative potential.•IQ thresholds are higher for more demanding measures of creative potential.•Intelligence reflects a necessary but not sufficient condition for high creative potential.
Threshold hypothesis; Intelligence; Creativity; Segmented regression; Breakpoint detection
The Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant funds a variety of disparate programs in health promotion and disease prevention. Many of these programs were funded by categorical grants to the States prior to the creation of this block grant in 1981. This block grant allows States to set priorities among the different programs by shifting their funding allocations. In addition, there is considerable opportunity to use these funds creatively in shaping the content of their programs. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health's experience with this block grant is reviewed, showing the grant's critical importance in the department's statewide disease prevention efforts. In order to maximize public health impact, the department has shifted its funding allocations based on explicit criteria. These criteria represent a model that may have widespread applicability for other State health departments.
Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered.
The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy).
The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities.
Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.
infants; music; language; singing; speech; emotion; attention