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1.  A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE FRACTIONS OF SOMA 
Ancient Science of Life  1990;9(4):207-208.
Soma was originally Sauma as the Sanskrit form of the Avesta name Haoma. It is a loan word from the Chinese term, Hao-Ma, fire coloured hempior fibrous items like hemp and also coloured yellow with a tinge of brown. The Aryans as hunters took its juice as anti-fatigue drink. It was extolled as panacea and even as drink of longevity. The plant and its stalks were crushed between stones to produce juice. There arose different fractions and these have been given in a regular chart here.
PMCID: PMC3331339  PMID: 22557699
2.  Interactions of Carbon Dioxide and Food Odours in Drosophila: Olfactory Hedonics and Sensory Neuron Properties 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56361.
Behavioural responses of animals to volatiles in their environment are generally dependent on context. Most natural odours are mixtures of components that can each induce different behaviours when presented on their own. We have investigated how a complex of two olfactory stimuli is evaluated by Drosophila flies in a free-flying two-trap choice assay and how these stimuli are encoded in olfactory receptor neurons. We first observed that volatiles from apple cider vinegar attracted flies while carbon dioxide (CO2) was avoided, confirming their inherent positive and negative values. In contradiction with previous results obtained from walking flies in a four-field olfactometer, in the present assay the addition of CO2 to vinegar increased rather than decreased the attractiveness of vinegar. This effect was female-specific even though males and females responded similarly to CO2 and vinegar on their own. To test whether the female-specific behavioural response to the mixture correlated with a sexual dimorphism at the peripheral level we recorded from olfactory receptor neurons stimulated with vinegar, CO2 and their combination. Responses to vinegar were obtained from three neuron classes, two of them housed with the CO2-responsive neuron in ab1 sensilla. Sensitivity of these neurons to both CO2 and vinegar per se did not differ between males and females and responses from female neurons did not change when CO2 and vinegar were presented simultaneously. We also found that CO2-sensitive neurons are particularly well adapted to respond rapidly to small concentration changes irrespective of background CO2 levels. The ability to encode temporal properties of stimulations differs considerably between CO2- and vinegar-sensitive neurons. These properties may have important implications for in-flight navigation when rapid responses to fragmented odour plumes are crucial to locate odour sources. However, the flies’ sex-specific response to the CO2-vinegar combination and the context-dependent hedonics most likely originate from central rather than peripheral processing.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056361
PMCID: PMC3574157  PMID: 23457557
3.  CHINESE ORIGIN OF THE WORDS CANE AND SUGAR CANDY IN ENGLISH AND OF KHAND IN HINDUSTANI 
Ancient Science of Life  1982;1(4):239.
Cane and Candy are traceable to two Chinese words both pronounced Kan. One word means Cane or pole when Kan finally became cane in English. The other word Kan means sweet. Then there is the Chinese word Dih which means Drops when Kan-Dih became Candy and means Sweet Drops. Sugar crystals would be like sand in size. Candy of the size of drops. While Misri of small stones, the term Kan-Dih entered Arabic as Qan-D and Sanskrit as Khan - Da and Hindustan as Khan–D.
PMCID: PMC3336687  PMID: 22556499
4.  Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm 
Background
At present, there is no effective vaccine or other approved product for the prevention of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. It has been reported that women in resource-poor communities use vaginally applied citrus juices as topical microbicides. These easily accessible food products have historically been applied to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of these substances using an established topical microbicide testing algorithm. Freshly squeezed lemon and lime juice and household vinegar were tested in their original state or in pH neutralized form for efficacy and cytotoxicity in the CCR5-tropic cell-free entry and cell-associated transmission assays, CXCR4-tropic entry and fusion assays, and in a human PBMC-based anti-HIV-1 assay. These products were also tested for their effect on viability of cervico-vaginal cell lines, human cervical explant tissues, and beneficial Lactobacillus species.
Results
Natural lime and lemon juice and household vinegar demonstrated anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity in transformed cell lines. Neutralization of the products reduced both anti-HIV-1 activity and cytotoxicity, resulting in a low therapeutic window for both acidic and neutralized formulations. For the natural juices and vinegar, the IC50 was ≤ 3.5 (0.8-3.5)% and the TC50 ≤ 6.3 (1.0-6.3)%. All three liquid products inhibited viability of beneficial Lactobacillus species associated with vaginal health. Comparison of three different toxicity endpoints in the cervical HeLa cell line revealed that all three products affected membrane integrity, cytosolic enzyme release, and dehydrogenase enzyme activity in living cells. The juices and vinegar also exerted strong cytotoxicity in cervico-vaginal cell lines, mainly due to their acidic pH. In human cervical explant tissues, treatment with 5% lemon or lime juice or 6% vinegar induced toxicity similar to application of 100 μg/ml nonoxynol-9, and exposure to 10% lime juice caused tissue damage comparable to treatment with 5% Triton-X-100.
Conclusions
Lemon and lime juice and household vinegar do not fulfill the safety criteria mandated for a topical microbicide. As a result of their unphysiological formulation for the vaginal tract, they exhibit cytotoxicity to human cell lines, human vaginal tissues, and beneficial vaginal Lactobacillus species.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-7-22
PMCID: PMC2913913  PMID: 20618951
5.  Characterizing and Authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO Vinegars Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) Technology 
Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)  2014;14(2):3528-3542.
This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) “Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles” wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400–2,500 nm in both cases) and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380–1,700 nm). A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity), and alcohol content), and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars.
doi:10.3390/s140203528
PMCID: PMC3958243  PMID: 24561402
NIR spectroscopy; wine vinegar; quality parameters; authentication
6.  Antioxidant effects of pineapple vinegar in reversing of paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice 
Chinese Medicine  2015;10:3.
Background
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) was demonstrated to be hepatoprotective. This study aims to investigate the reversing effects of pineapple vinegar on paracetamol-induced liver damage in murine model.
Methods
Pineapple juice was fermented via anaerobic and aerobic fermentation to produce pineapple vinegar. Male BALB/c mice (n = 70) were separated into 7 treatment groups (n = 10). Pineapple vinegar (0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW) and synthetic vinegar were used to treat paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice. The hepatoprotective effects were determined by serum biochemistry profiles (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and triglyceride (TG)), liver antioxidant levels (ferric-reducing ability plasma (FRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and reduced glutathione assays (GSH)) and histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The effects were further evaluated by the expression levels of iNOS, NF-κB, and cytochrome P450 2E1 by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Vinegar samples were also tested for in vitro antioxidant (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total phenolic content (TPC)). Soluble phenolic acid contents in the samples were identified by HPLC.
Results
Pineapple vinegar contained 169.67 ± 0.05 μg GAE/mL of TPC, with 862.61 ± 4.38 μg/mL gallic acid as the main component. Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, including AST (P = 0.008), ALT (P = 0.006), ALP (P= 0.002), and TG (P = 0.006) after 7 days of paracetamol treatment. Liver antioxidant levels such as hepatic glutathione (P = 0.003), SOD (P < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (P = 0.002) and FRAP (P <0.001) were restored after the treatment. Pineapple vinegar reduced the expressions of iNOS (P = 0.003) and NF-kB (P = 0.003) and the level of NO (P = 0.003) significantly. Pineapple vinegar also downregulated liver cytochrome P450 protein expression.
Conclusions
Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, restored liver antioxidant levels, reduced inflammatory factor expressions, and down regulated liver cytochrome P450 protein expression in paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice.
doi:10.1186/s13020-015-0030-4
PMCID: PMC4333164
7.  Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2011;5(9):73-81.
Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word “Tamar-I-hind,” meaning date of India. Its name “Amlika” in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.79102
PMCID: PMC3210002  PMID: 22096321
Antidiabetic; antioxidant; antimicrobial; antiinflammatory; hepatoprotective; Tamarindus indica
8.  CONCEPT OF CANCER IN AYURVEDA 
Ancient Science of Life  1982;1(3):172-176.
The knowledge and management of the disease, cancer was not unknown to the ancient surgeons of India. Though the Sanskrit equivalent for this word is not found in Ayurvedic literature, diseases having the signs and symptoms similar to those of Cancer are discussed in various contexts. The present paper expounds those diseases with possible interpretations in modern system of medicine
PMCID: PMC3336678  PMID: 22556485
9.  Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits 
Background
Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it.
Methods
The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol), %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose), %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose). After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors.
Results
Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar.
Conclusion
This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.
doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-10
PMCID: PMC2837006  PMID: 20109192
10.  Evolution of Rhinology 
Summary
The study of the nose is as old as civilisation. Various conditions affecting its structure and function has been documented in Edwin Smith Papyrus in hieroglyphic script, an Egyptian writing system of the mid −4th Millennium BC.The major contribution for the complete reconstruction of the nose originated in India by Sushruta in around 600 BC. Writing in Sanskrit in the form of verses he described in detail the technique of total reconstruction, which is still being practiced today as Indian Rhinoplasty. This surgical reconstruction paved the way to modern plastic surgery in Europe and United States in 18th century. Sushruta contributed not only to the plastic surgery of the nose, but described entire philosophy of Head and Neck and other surgery as well. Other notable contributors were Greek physicians, Hippocrate and Galen, and at the birth of the Christianity, Celsus wrote eight books of medical encyclopaedia, which described various conditions affecting nose.
Septal and Sinus surgery, in comparison to rhinoplasty did not develop until 17th century. Septal surgery began with total septectomy, sub mucous resection by Killian & Freer in early 20th century and later septoplasty by Cottle in middle of 20th century.
Sinus surgery probably originated in Egypt, where instruments were used to remove brain through the ethmoid sinuses as part of the mummification process. In 18th century, empyema of the maxillary sinus was drained through the tooth socket or anterior wall of the sinus, which lead to the evolution of radical procedures of removal of mucous membrane and inferior meatal antrostomy. In the late 20th century, improved understanding of the mucociliary mechanism described by Prof. Messerklinger and Nasal Endoscopy described by Prof. Draf with the development of fibre optics and CT imaging, heralded a new era, which evolved in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. New technology further enhanced the scope of endoscope being used “around and beyond” the nose.
doi:10.1007/s12070-008-0050-9
PMCID: PMC3450513  PMID: 23120515
11.  The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects 
Nutrition Journal  2008;7:12.
Background
Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar) in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar) on gastric emptying rate (GER), postprandial blood glucose and satiety.
Methods
Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose <6.1 mmol/l or plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l as an inclusion criterion. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of the various meals. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose was measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal.
Results
The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher (<0.05) satiety than the wholemeal wheat bread and white wheat bread with vinegar and the reference bread. Wheat fiber present in the wholemeal wheat bread, or the presence of wheat kernels per se, did not affect the postprandial blood glucose or GER significantly compared with white wheat bread, neither did the addition of vinegar to white bread affect these variables. There was no correlation found between the satiety with antral areas or GER
Conclusion
The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response.
Trial registration
NTR1116
doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-12
PMCID: PMC2383922  PMID: 18439313
12.  Relevance of Vṛkṣāyurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):60-70.
Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of Vṛkṣāyurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review Vṛkṣāyurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of Vṛkṣāyurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to Vṛkṣāyurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like Kṛṣi-Parāśara and Vṛkṣāyurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in Vṛkṣāyurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134613
PMCID: PMC4140025  PMID: 25161333
Nursery technique; seedlings; traditional agriculture; Vṛkṣāyurveda
13.  PA02.24. Importance of microscopic techniques for the identification/authentication of herbal medicines 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S69.
Acceptance of Ayurveda is increasing in the society because of disclosure of its strong fundamental concepts and holistic approach. As a result, demand of Ayurvedic medicines are increasing day by day which results in the unprecedented requirement and depletion of raw materials, especially those of herbal origin. This depletion of herbs along with ignorance of herbal drug collectors from wild sources causes adulteration of drugs. Misinterpretation of Sanskrit slokas from classical texts also plays an important role. Adulteration of raw materials adversely affects the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic preparations. Therefore standardization and documentation is essential to ensure the genunity of ayurvedic drugs. Identification and Authentication of medicinal plants are normally done by different methods like organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic and chemical characters. Among them, microscopic techniques are one of the most important methods. The present work reveals the various microscopic characters to determine their authentication, genuity etc.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123892
PMCID: PMC4147542
14.  Chinese translation of strengths and difficulties questionnaire requires urgent review before field trials for validity and reliability 
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire for children and teenagers aged 3 to 16 years. It is available in 66 languages, and gaining more popularity world wide. Chinese translation of SDQ is available and has been used in clinical practice and research. We undertook the exercise to back-translate the current Chinese translation and it showed a number of differences compared to the original English SDQ. The differences and concerns include: (1) the flow and grammar of Chinese translation as well as wrongly written Chinese characters; (2) translated words that have deviated from the original meaning; (3) significant numbers of wording that are somewhat different from the original English version; (4) addition of auxiliary verbs that do not exist in original English version; and (5) the current Chinese SDQ is a general questionnaire for all age groups that does not observe the differences of wording that exist in the English versions.
An accurate translated Chinese version is important for researchers, clinicians and educators who work in the Chinese communities. There is an urgent need to review the translation of the Chinese SDQ version before more studies use it in the field.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-2-23
PMCID: PMC2533285  PMID: 18706095
15.  Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study 
BMC Gastroenterology  2007;7:46.
Background
Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients.
Methods
Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2.
Results
The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control.
Trial registration number
ISRCTN33841495.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-7-46
PMCID: PMC2245945  PMID: 18093343
16.  A Common Construction Pattern of English Words and Chinese Characters 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74515.
Rankings are ubiquitous around the world. Here I investigate spatial ranking patterns of English Words and Chinese Characters, and reveal a common construction pattern related to phase separation. In detail, I analyze a list of different words in the English language, and find that the frequency of the number of letters per word linearly or nonlinearly decays over its rank in the frequency table. I interpret the linearly decaying area as a linear phase that covers 96.4% words, which is in sharp contrast to a nonlinear phase (representing the nonlinearly decaying area) that covers the remaining 3.6% words. Amazingly, the phase separation phenomenon with the same two percentages of 96.4% and 3.6% holds also for the relation between strokes and characters in the Chinese language although English and Chinese are two distinctly different language systems. The common construction pattern originates from the log-normal distributions of frequencies of words or characters, which can be understood by the joint effect of both the Weber-Fechner law in psychophysics and the principle of maximum entropy in information theory.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074515
PMCID: PMC3759465  PMID: 24023946
17.  Do Chinese Readers Follow the National Standard Rules for Word Segmentation during Reading? 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e55440.
We conducted a preliminary study to examine whether Chinese readers’ spontaneous word segmentation processing is consistent with the national standard rules of word segmentation based on the Contemporary Chinese language word segmentation specification for information processing (CCLWSSIP). Participants were asked to segment Chinese sentences into individual words according to their prior knowledge of words. The results showed that Chinese readers did not follow the segmentation rules of the CCLWSSIP, and their word segmentation processing was influenced by the syntactic categories of consecutive words. In many cases, the participants did not consider the auxiliary words, adverbs, adjectives, nouns, verbs, numerals and quantifiers as single word units. Generally, Chinese readers tended to combine function words with content words to form single word units, indicating they were inclined to chunk single words into large information units during word segmentation. Additionally, the “overextension of monosyllable words” hypothesis was tested and it might need to be corrected to some degree, implying that word length have an implicit influence on Chinese readers’ segmentation processing. Implications of these results for models of word recognition and eye movement control are discussed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055440
PMCID: PMC3568123  PMID: 23408981
18.  Balsamic Vinegar Improves High Fat-Induced Beta Cell Dysfunction via Beta Cell ABCA1 
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal  2012;36(4):275-279.
Background
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of balsamic vinegar on β-cell dysfunction.
Methods
In this study, 28-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were fed a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) and were provided with tap water or dilute balsamic vinegar for 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests and histopathological analyses were performed thereafter.
Results
In rats fed both the both chow diet and the HFD, the rats given balsamic vinegar showed increased insulin staining in islets compared with tap water administered rats. Balsamic vinegar administration also increased β-cell ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) expression in islets and decreased cholesterol levels.
Conclusion
These findings provide the first evidence for an anti-diabetic effect of balsamic vinegar through improvement of β-cell function via increasing β-cell ABCA1 expression.
doi:10.4093/dmj.2012.36.4.275
PMCID: PMC3428415  PMID: 22950058
Balsamic vinegar; Islets; Insulin; ABCA1; Diet, high-fat
19.  The Medieval Origins of the Concept of Hypertension 
Despite the well-known history of hypertension research in the modern era, like many other cardiovascular concepts, main points in the medieval concept of this disease and its early management methods remain obscure. This article attempts to make a brief review on the medieval origin of the concept of this disease from the Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni (?-983 AD). This article has reviewed the chapter of “Fi al-Imtela” (About the Fullness) from the Hidβyat al-Muta’allimin fi al-Tibb (The Students' Handbook of Medicine) of Al-Akhawayni.
The definition, symptoms and treatments presented for the Imtela are compared with the current knowledge on hypertension. Akhawayni believed that Imtela could result from the excessive amount of blood within the blood vessels. It can manifest with symptoms including the presence of a pulsus magnus, sleepiness, weakness, dyspnea, facial blushing, engorgement of the vessels, thick urine, vascular rupture, and hemorrhagic stroke. He also suggested some ways to manage al-Imtela'. These include recommendations of changes in lifestyle (staying away from anger and sexual intercourse) and dietary program for patients (avoiding the consumption of wine, meat, and pastries, reducing the volume of food in a meal, maintaining a low-energy diet and the dietary usage of spinach and vinegar). Al-Akhawayni's description of “Imtela,” despite of its numerous differences with current knowledge of hypertension, can be considered as medieval origin of the concept of hypertension.
doi:10.4103/1995-705X.144807
PMCID: PMC4268622  PMID: 25538828
Al-Akhawayni; hypertension; Islamic golden age; medieval history; Traditional Persian Medicine
20.  Use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction in the last 10 years: A Scopus-based literature analysis☆ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(36):2944-2951.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify global research trends in the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction.
DATA RETRIEVAL:
We performed a bibliometric analysis of studies on the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction published during 2002–2011, retrieved from Scopus, using the key words of acupuncture and cerebral infarction or ischemic stroke.
SELECTION CRITERIA:
Inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed articles on the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction indexed in Scopus and published between 2002 and 2011; types of publications were original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material, and news items. Exclusion criteria: articles that required manual searching or telephone access; documents that were not published in the public domain; and corrected papers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
(a) Annual publication output; (b) language of publication; (c) type of publication; (d) key words of publication; (e) publication by research field; (f) publication by journal; (g) publication by country and institution; (h) publication by author; (i) most-cited papers between 2002 and 2006; and (j) most-cited papers between 2007 and 2011.
RESULTS:
A total of 160 publications on the use of acupuncture to treat cerebral infarction from 2002–2011 were retrieved from Scopus. The number of publications increased gradually over the 10-year study period; most were written in Chinese or English. Articles and reviews constituted the major types. The most frequent key word used was acupuncture. The most prolific journals in this area were Zhongguo Zhen Jiu and the Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. Of the 160 publications retrieved, half came from Chinese authors and institutions. Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was the most prolific research institute. Two papers were cited 30 times; they were published in 2002 and 2009, respectively.
CONCLUSION:
In the field of neuroscience, there is little literature on acupuncture for cerebral infarction. The most-cited papers were cited 30 times in the past 3 years. We believe that, with advances in the study of mechanisms in neurobiology, research on acupuncture will also advance and will become the concern of more scholars.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.36.013
PMCID: PMC4190954  PMID: 25317148
acupuncture; cerebral infarction; ischemic stroke; cerebral ischemia; hemiplegia; collateral circulation; blood flow; glial cell; Scopus; neural regeneration
21.  A Novel Bacterium Associated with Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease 
PLoS Pathogens  2006;2(4):e28.
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disease of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system causing defective production of toxic oxygen metabolites, impaired bacterial and fungal killing, and recurrent life-threatening infections. We identified a novel gram-negative rod in excised lymph nodes from a patient with CGD. Gram-negative rods grew on charcoal-yeast extract, but conventional tests could not identify it. The best 50 matches of the 16S rRNA (using BLAST) were all members of the family Acetobacteraceae, with the closest match being Gluconobacter sacchari. Patient serum showed specific band recognition in whole lysate immunoblot. We used mouse models of CGD to determine whether this organism was a genuine CGD pathogen. Intraperitoneal injection of gp91phox −/− (X-linked) and p47 phox −/− (autosomal recessive) mice with this bacterium led to larger burdens of organism recovered from knockout compared with wild-type mice. Knockout mouse lymph nodes had histopathology that was similar to that seen in our patient. We recovered organisms with 16S rRNA sequence identical to the patient's original isolate from the infected mice. We identified a novel gram-negative rod from a patient with CGD. To confirm its pathogenicity, we demonstrated specific immune reaction by high titer antibody, showed that it was able to cause similar disease when introduced into CGD, but not wild-type mice, and we recovered the same organism from pathologic lesions in these mice. Therefore, we have fulfilled Koch's postulates for a new pathogen. This is the first reported case of invasive human disease caused by any of the Acetobacteraceae. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis shows this organism to be a new genus and species for which we propose the name Granulobacter bethesdensis.
Synopsis
As new bacteria continue to be discovered every year, it is inevitable that some of them will be found to cause human disease. The authors describe the isolation and characterization of a new bacterium, grown from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). In this genetic disease, one of the main lines of defense against infection, the neutrophil, has a discrete defect in the generation of superoxide, leading to recurrent infections with a narrow spectrum of bacteria and fungi. This new organism was cultured from lymph nodes that had been inflamed for several months. To prove that this new bacterium was indeed a pathogen, Greenberg and colleagues measured specific antibody response in the patient: they inoculated CGD mice with this organism and reproduced the appearance of the human infection; they recovered the organism in pure growth from infected mouse spleens.
This new bacterium belongs to the family Acetobacteraceae, bacteria that are found widely in the environment. They have a variety of industrial uses, such as the production of vinegar, but have never been reported to cause invasive human disease. Disease-causing organisms remain to be discovered. The researchers outline some of the steps that can be taken to verify the pathogenicity of novel organisms.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0020028
PMCID: PMC1435791  PMID: 16617373
22.  Eye movement guidance in Chinese reading: Is there a preferred viewing location? 
Vision research  2011;51(10):1146-1156.
In this study, we examined eye movement guidance in Chinese reading. We embedded either a 2-character word or a 4-character word in the same sentence frame, and observed the eye movements of Chinese readers when they read these sentences. We found that when all saccades into the target words were considered that readers eyes tended to land near the beginning of the word. However, we also found that Chinese readers’ eyes landed at the center of words when they made only a single fixation on a word, and that they landed at the beginning of a word when they made more than one fixation on a word. However, simulations that we carried out suggest that these findings can’t be taken to unambiguously argue for word-based saccade targeting in Chinese reading. We discuss alternative accounts of eye guidance in Chinese reading and suggest that eye movement target planning for Chinese readers might involve a combination of character-based and word-based targeting contingent on word segmentation processes.
doi:10.1016/j.visres.2011.03.004
PMCID: PMC3119713  PMID: 21402094
Eye movements; reading; Chinese reading
23.  Changes in Major Peanut Allergens Under Different pH Conditions 
Regional dietary habits and cooking methods affect the prevalence of specific food allergies; therefore, we determined the effects of various pH conditions on major peanut allergens. Peanut kernels were soaked overnight in commercial vinegar (pH 2.3) or acetic acid solutions at pH 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0. Protein extracts from the sera of seven patients with peanut-specific IgE levels >15 kUA/L were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunolabeling. A densitometer was used to quantify and compare the allergenicity of each protein. The density of Ara h 1 was reduced by treatment with pH 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0 acetic acid, or commercial vinegar. Ara h 2 remained largely unchanged after treatment with pH 5.0 acetic acid, and was decreased following treatment with pH 1.0, 2.3, or 3.0 acetic acid. Ara h 3 and Ara h 6 appeared as a thick band after treatment with pH 1.0 acetic acid and commercial vinegar. IgE-binding intensities to Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 were significantly reduced after treatment with pH 1.0 acetic acid or commercial vinegar. These data suggest that treatment with acetic acid at various pH values affects peanut allergenicity and may explain the low prevalence of peanut allergy in Korea.
doi:10.4168/aair.2012.4.3.157
PMCID: PMC3328733  PMID: 22548209
Acetic acid; allergens; Ara h 1 allergen; Ara h 2 allergen; Ara h 3 allergen; peanuts
24.  Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:394671.
The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties.
doi:10.1155/2014/394671
PMCID: PMC3918346  PMID: 24574887
25.  Acetic Acid, the Active Component of Vinegar, Is an Effective Tuberculocidal Disinfectant 
mBio  2014;5(2):e00013-14.
ABSTRACT
Effective and economical mycobactericidal disinfectants are needed to kill both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-M. tuberculosis mycobacteria. We found that acetic acid (vinegar) efficiently kills M. tuberculosis after 30 min of exposure to a 6% acetic acid solution. The activity is not due to pH alone, and propionic acid also appears to be bactericidal. M. bolletii and M. massiliense nontuberculous mycobacteria were more resistant, although a 30-min exposure to 10% acetic acid resulted in at least a 6-log10 reduction of viable bacteria. Acetic acid (vinegar) is an effective mycobactericidal disinfectant that should also be active against most other bacteria. These findings are consistent with and extend the results of studies performed in the early and mid-20th century on the disinfectant capacity of organic acids.
IMPORTANCE  Mycobacteria are best known for causing tuberculosis and leprosy, but infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria are an increasing problem after surgical or cosmetic procedures or in the lungs of cystic fibrosis and immunosuppressed patients. Killing mycobacteria is important because Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains can be multidrug resistant and therefore potentially fatal biohazards, and environmental mycobacteria must be thoroughly eliminated from surgical implements and respiratory equipment. Currently used mycobactericidal disinfectants can be toxic, unstable, and expensive. We fortuitously found that acetic acid kills mycobacteria and then showed that it is an effective mycobactericidal agent, even against the very resistant, clinically important Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Vinegar has been used for thousands of years as a common disinfectant, and if it can kill mycobacteria, the most disinfectant-resistant bacteria, it may prove to be a broadly effective, economical biocide with potential usefulness in health care settings and laboratories, especially in resource-poor countries.
IMPORTANCE 
Mycobacteria are best known for causing tuberculosis and leprosy, but infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria are an increasing problem after surgical or cosmetic procedures or in the lungs of cystic fibrosis and immunosuppressed patients. Killing mycobacteria is important because Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains can be multidrug resistant and therefore potentially fatal biohazards, and environmental mycobacteria must be thoroughly eliminated from surgical implements and respiratory equipment. Currently used mycobactericidal disinfectants can be toxic, unstable, and expensive. We fortuitously found that acetic acid kills mycobacteria and then showed that it is an effective mycobactericidal agent, even against the very resistant, clinically important Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Vinegar has been used for thousands of years as a common disinfectant, and if it can kill mycobacteria, the most disinfectant-resistant bacteria, it may prove to be a broadly effective, economical biocide with potential usefulness in health care settings and laboratories, especially in resource-poor countries.
doi:10.1128/mBio.00013-14
PMCID: PMC3940030  PMID: 24570366

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