A sensitive, rapid, reverse phase HPLC method is reported for analysis of Triphala Curna using gallic acid, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid as markers. Validation data for the method has been provided. Unlike methods of recovery testing adopted for synthetic chemicals, a modified approach has been presented here for a formulation like Triphala Curna having three myrobalans in its composition. Data has been provided to demonstrate applicability of the method developed to assess the variation in the Triphala Curna preparations.
Triphala Curna (TC); gallic acid; chebulagic acid; chebulinic acid; myrobalans
Talisadya churna was prepared by pounding the individual ingredients in mortar and pestle and mixie. The Curna prepared by pounding the ingredients in mortar and pestle showed higher exhaustive extraction in hexane and solubility in alcohol. The Curna prepared by grinding the ingredients in mixie showed less acid insoluble content, high volatile matter, water soluble matter, and exhaustive extraction in chloroform. Thin layer silica gel chromatography and test of organic functional groups did not show any difference in the Tulisadya curna prepared by either method.
Effect of packing material on the stability of four Ayurvedic drugs viz., Hingvatsaka Curna, Brahmi ghrta, Dasamula Kvatha Curna and Ajamodarka have been studied by distributing the drugs in different containers by observing the physical and biological changes. The study revealed that Hingvatsaka Curna keeps well for at least 6 month, Ajamodarka is stable for minimum period of six months when stored in glass bottle exposed to light. Dasamula K vatha Curna showed the presence of insects at the completion of three months. In the second month itself Brahmi ghrta becomes rancid on storing in glass and amber colored bottles.
Container effect; Hingvatsaka Curna; Brahmi ghrta; Dasamula Kvatha Curna; Ajamodarka
Chronic renal failure (CRF) refers to an irreversible deterioration in renal function, which develops over a period of years. This initially manifests only as a biochemical abnormality. CRF is considered when glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 ml/min. The conventional approach of management includes dialysis and renal transplantation, which are not affordable by Indian population mainly due to economic reasons. Therefore, exploration of a safe and alternative therapy is needed, which proves to be helpful in reducing the requirement of dialysis and in postponing the renal transplantation. A clinical study of 100 patients of CRF was conducted at OPD and IPD of PD Patel Ayurved Hospital, Nadiad. They were given Niruha basti of Punarnavadi kvatha daily with oral medicaments including Goksuradi guggulu, Rasayana churna, and Varunadi kvatha for 1 month period. The patients of CRF, having diabetic nephropathy as a cause, were excluded since a separate study for diabetic nephropathy is being conducted. Results were analyzed statistically using the “t” test. The symptoms and signs, serum creatinine, blood urea, urine albumin level were reduced, which were found to be statistically highly significant on “t” test.
Ayurveda; chronic renal failure; Niruha basti
In view of the potential anti-anxiety and anti–depressant activity of the Rasayana Vajikarna drugs, a combined Rasayana Vajikarna schedule has been clinically tried in a series of patients of Depression Neurosis. The tratment consisted of a dose of Asvagandha Curna at bed time and a dose of Kapikacchu Curna at morning continued for 8 weeks. The treatment showed significant clinical recovery in these cases in the form of a notable reduction in the level of clinical anxiety and depression.
A number of preparations are available in Ayurved for treatment of anemia and iron deficiency. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of some of them. Six most commonly used Ayurvedic iron containing preparations (Navayasa Curna, Punarnavadi Mandura, Dhatri Lauha, Pradarantaka Lauha, Sarva-Juara-Hara Lauha and Vrihat Yakrdari Lauha) were given in a dose of 250 mg b.d. for 30 days to six groups of iron deficient anemic patients; each group consisting of 20 patients. A control group was given Allopathic preparation—Irex-12, (containing—ferrous fumarate, vitamin C, folic acid and vitamin B12); 1 capsule daily for 30 days for comparison. All hematological and iron parameters were determined before and after completion of treatment. The results showed that there was statistically significant rise (p<0.001) in all of them—Hb, PCV, TRBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC and plasma iron, percent saturation and plasma ferritin. Total iron binding capacity decreased significantly (p<0.001). The response of most of Ayurvedic preparations was better than Allopathic preparation and there was no side effect as observed with iron salts The Hb regeneration rate was 0.10 g/dl/day for Allopathic preparation; while it was above this value for all Ayurvedic preparations exceptPradarantaka Lauha which was least effective.Sarva-Juara-Hara Lauha was the drug of choice as Hb regeneration with it was highest 0.16 g/dl/day. Upon analysis of Ayurvedic drugs, these results were found to be consistent and correlated with iron content of the preparation.
Ayurvedic preparations; Iron deficiency; Anemia; Hematological parameters; Iron parameters
Triphala Mashi is an ayurvedic formulation that was prepared in our lab. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of both Triphala and Triphala Mashi were used, to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Comparative phytochemical profile of Triphala and Triphala Mashi was done by preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Antimicrobial activity includes isolation of pathogens from clinical samples, its characterization, testing its multiple drug resistance against standard antibiotics and antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of both Triphala and Triphala Mashi against these organisms by using agar gel diffusion method. Triphala Mashi containing phenolic compounds, tannins exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity in relation to Triphala against all the microorganisms tested. It inhibits the dose-dependent growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, it appears that Triphala Mashi has non-specific antimicrobial activity.
antimicrobial activity; clinical sample and Tannin; Triphala; Triphala Mashi
Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Triphala churnam were carried out. The churnam of triphala consists of equal quantities of deseeded fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is exclusively used in more than 200 drug formulations in Indian system of Medicine. The present study involved the pharmacognostical evaluation of Triphala, in which morphological and powder microscopical characters were established. In addition, physico-chemical parameters such as ash values viz, total ash (10.21± 0.42), acid insoluble ash (2.54 ± 0.06), water-soluble ash (5.46±0.24) and sulphated ash (13.12 ± 0.63), extractive values viz, alcohol soluble extractive (11.20±0.18)) and water-soluble extractive (52.56±2.04), fluorescent analysis and microchmical tests were determined. The preliminary phytochemical study revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugar and tannins in aqueous extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins in alcoholic extract. This standardization would be very much helpful for the identification of Triphala churnam to differentiate from other powdered sources.
Quality control of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) used clinically is becoming a challenge and has limited the development of TCM due to the high variability in concentration levels of active ingredients and markers as well as the lack of well-established criteria. Using Shengmai injection, which is a well-established TCM, as an example, we developed an integrated profiling approach that simultaneously captures the entire spectrum of ingredients and quantitatively determines the levels of seven key ingredients in the TCM product. A multivariate statistical model was constructed to establish a “seven-marker-” based quality standard that qualified the majority of samples in this study. This newly developed strategy showed that a panel of key ingredients or markers in the TCM product were relatively consistent within a statistically acceptable range. Therefore, this metabolomics-based approach will complement the current quality control standard using the concentration of several key ingredients or their total content and help improve the consistency and clinic efficacy of TCM products.
In clinical practice, Guna which are to be with Bhisak are mainly the Paradi Gunas which can also be called as Miscellaneous Gunas. As rightly quoted by Acarya Caraka, for getting success in the treatment Paradi Gunas are the best. The Sutra quotes “Sidhyupaya Cikitsayam” which means that Cikitsa i. e. Dhatusamya will be done mainly with the help of Paradi Gunas. Thus in this study an attempt was made to know the comparative effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana alone and Samyukta effect in Kaphaja Kasa. Three groups were made for proper evaluation of the therapy. In Group-A Haritaki Tablet 2 gm/ twice a day (500 mg tablet × 4), In Group-B Saindava Lavana Curna 2 gm/ twice a day and in Group-C Haritaki + Saindhava lavana Tablet 4 gm/twice a day (500 mg tablet × 8) was given. Results were assessed after 7 days with the help of a specially prepared proforma. The hematological, Urine and Stool investigations were carried out. In subjective and objective criterias, significant results were found in Group-C as compared to Group-A and Group-B. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the combined (Samyoga) effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana is much efficient than the single drug therapy.
Guna; Haritaki; Paradi Guna; Saindhava lavana; Samyoga
Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.
Aging; Brahma rasayana; chromosomal aberrations; genotoxicity; sperm abnormalities
Background. Searching for drugs or herbal formulations to improve the immunity of HIV/AIDS positive people is an important issue for researchers in this field. Triphala, a Thai herbal formulation, is reported to have immunomodulatory effects in mice. However, it has not yet been investigated for immunostimulatory and side effects in healthy human volunteers. Objective. To evaluate the immunostimulatory and side effects of Triphala in a clinical phase I study. Materials and Methods. All volunteers took Triphala, 3 capsules per day for 2 weeks. Complete physical examination, routine laboratory analysis, and immunological studies were performed before ingestion and after initial meeting for 4 consecutive weeks. Results. We found that Triphala demonstrated significant immunostimulatory effects on cytotoxic T cells (CD3−CD8+) and natural killer cells (CD16+CD56+). Both of them increased significantly when compared with those of the control samples. However, no significant change in cytokine secretion was detected. All volunteers were healthy and showed no adverse effects throughout the duration of the study. Conclusion. Triphala has significant immunostimulatory effects on cellular immune response, especially cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. Increases in the absolute number of these cells may provide a novel adjuvant therapy for HIV/AIDS positive people in terms of immunological improvement.
Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated.
The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5 g or 8 mg / day) for two months and 24 h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities.
The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05). On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg / kg body weight) or MMS (125 mg / kg body weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) to that of the control group. The treatment of BR for 60 days and single dose of EMS or MMS on day 61, resulted in significant (p <0.05) reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in comparison to EMS or MMS treatment alone, indicating a protective effect of BR. Constitutive base excision repair capacity was also increased in BR treated animals.
The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life.
DNA damage and repair; Anti clastogenicity; Rasayana
‘HAB-E-BUKHAR’ – a compound drug formulation in Unani System of medicine has been analysed. The microscopic method of identification of few of its ingredients (Sath-e-gulu, Thabasheer); Quantitative analysis of Quinine sulphate, other physio-chemical contents and the T.L.C. of the drug have also been reported here.
In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for determination of the components in an Ayurvedic herbal prescription, Rasayana Churna. One-hundred-and-twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened in the RAPD analysis to identify three Ayurvedic medicines, dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia, dried fruit of Emblica officinalis and dried fruit of Tribulus terestris, the Ayurvedic prescription. Primer OPC-6 simultaneously generated three distinct amplicons, each specific to one component. The marker with 600 bp is specific to Tinospora cordifolia; the marker 500 bp is specific to Emblica officinalis and the remaining marker >1000 bp was present in Tribulus terestris. Presence of three herbal medicines was determined when RAPD reaction with OPC-6 was performed. The technique was proved to contribute to the identification of components in Ayurvedic herbal preparation and thus helping to serve as a complementary tool for quality control.
DNA fingerprinting; herbal medicine; RAPD; standardization
Herbal combination of Itrifal Saghir (triphala) has been widely used in traditional medicine. And brings health benefits such as antioxidant effect and scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide radicals activity and substantiated in traditional medicine a anti-obesity.
Material and method
In this study we aimed to assess the efficacy of this herbal medicinal on reduction of weight and body mass index (BMI) of simple obese subjects in comparison with placebo. Obese subjects aged between 16 and 60 years were selected for 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a parallel design. Subjects were randomly assigned to take 5 grams of either the Itrifal Saghir (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31), 2 times daily for 12 weeks. Measures of body weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), were assessed at baseline and once every four weeks during the 12 week treatment period. The safety was evaluated by means of measuring the liver and kidney function. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as [fasting insulin (μU/mL) × fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5].
Compared to placebo group, in treatment group the mean difference of effective weight loss was 4.82Kg (CI95% 3.52 - 6.11, ρ < 0.001), the mean of decrease in waist circumference was 4.01 cm (CI 95% 2.13 - 5.90, ρ < 0.001), and the mean decrease in hip circumference was 3. 21 cm (CI 95% 1.96 - 4.45, ρ < 0.001) in treated subjects. No adverse effects or significant changes in liver and kidney function tests were observed in both placebo and treated groups.
Itrifal Saghir appears to produce a positive effect on weight loss in obese subjects.
Obesity; Itrifal Saghir; Traditional Iranian medicine; Randomized trial; Terminalia chebula; Terminalia bellerica; Emblica officinalis; Triphala
Management of functional gastrointestinal disorders is hindered by both poor efficacy and adverse effects of traditional pharmacological therapy. Herbal medicine may be an attractive alternative based on the perception of its “natural” approach and low risk of side effects; however, the lack of standardization of drug components has limited the ability to perform rigorous clinical studies in Western countries. Japanese herbal medicine (JHM) is a standardized form of herbal medicine with regards to the quality and quantities of ingredients. While extensively studied and widely used in Asia, there is a paucity of data upon which physicians in other parts of the world may draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicine for gastrointestinal disorders.
To summarize the most recent developments in JHM for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders.
Animal and human studies were systematically reviewed to identify published data of JHM used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The herbal components of JHM were examined. Results describing the physiological and clinical effects of JHM were abstracted, with an emphasis on functional gastrointestinal disorders.
JHM are associated with a variety of beneficial physiological on the gastrointestinal system. Patient-based clinical outcomes are improved in several conditions. Rikkunnshi-to reduces symptoms and reverses physiological abnormalities associated with functional dyspepsia, while Dai-Kenchu-to improves symptoms of post-operative ileus and constipation in children.
This updated summary of JHM in the field of gastrointestinal disorders illustrates the potential for herbal medication to serve a valuable role in the management of patients with functional disorders.
In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory.
The present study was conducted on 2½-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were further divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n = 8 for each dose). After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze) and passive avoidance tests. Subsequently, these rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed, and the amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Basolateral amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length) were quantified. These data were compared with the data from the age-matched control rats.
The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. Furthermore, a significant increase in dendritic length and the number of dendritic branching points was observed along the length of the dendrites of the basolateral amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Bacopa monniera (BM) for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks).
We conclude that constituents present in Bacopa monniera extract have neuronal dendritic growth-stimulating properties.
Bacopa monniera; spatial learning; passive avoidance; amygdaloid neurons; dendritic arborization; memory
We report preliminary results from an ongoing series of experiments on lifespan extension by appropriately modified Ayurvedic rasayanas in animal models. Here data are presented indicating lifespan extensions of 51–55% (up to 70–95% in the pilot experiment) in a standard strain of Drosophila melanogaster (Oregon-K) using a standard rasayana (Ayurvedic herbal formulation for life-extension) suitably adapted for insects. In a first experiment, two groups of 20 unmated D. melanogaster strain Oregon-K kept at 22°C received either rasayana or standard yeast diet; days of death were recorded. Another experiment investigated possible sex differences; equal sized (N = 30) groups of similar males, females, and controls were compared. Life lengths of all controls were in the strain's usual range: in Experiment 1, control life lengths were minimum 40 to maximum 53 days; experimental group figures were 81–91 days; groups were completely separated, experimental group minimum life length being 28 days more than control group maximum life length, i.e., about 2.5 full distribution widths – a sign test for the null hypothesis yields p < 2–20, i.e., 10–6 as maximum p. Experiment 2 found no differences between life lengths of males and females; but the maximum life length of 30 controls (60 days in males and 66 days in females) was once again far shorter than the minimum life length of the 60 in the two experimental groups, strengthening the findings of Experiment 1. Despite group sizes being relatively small, results are conclusive: the rasayanas in question increase D. melanogaster strain Oregon-K life length. The complexity of the formulation suggests that multiple mechanisms are involved – worth further investigation.
Ayurveda; rasayana; D. melanogaster; longevity
Traditional Dai Medicine (TDM) is one of the four major ethnomedicine of China. In 2007 a group of experts produced a set of seven Dai medical textbooks on this subject. The first two were selected as the main data source to analyse well recognized prescriptions.
To quantify patterns of prescriptions, common ingredients, indications and usages of TDM.
A relational database linking the prescriptions, ingredients, herb names, indications, and usages was set up. Frequency of pattern of combination and common ingredients were tabulated.
A total of 200 prescriptions and 402 herbs were compiled. Prescriptions based on "wind" disorders, a detoxification theory that most commonly deals with symptoms of digestive system diseases, accounted for over one third of all prescriptions. The major methods of preparations mostly used roots and whole herbs.
The information extracted from the relational database may be useful for understanding symptomatic treatments. Antidote and detoxification theory deserves further research.
Traditional Dai medicine; Dai medical textbooks; Dai prescription
Triphala is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat variety of diseases; however its mechanism of action remains unexplored. This study elucidates the molecular mechanism of Triphala against human pancreatic cancer in the cellular and in vivo model.
Growth-inhibitory effects of Triphala were evaluated in Capan-2, BxPC-3 and HPDE-6 cells by Sulphoradamine-B assay. Apoptosis was determined by cell death assay and western blotting. Triphala was administered orally to nude mice implanted with Capan-2 xenograft. Tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.
Exposure of Capan-2 cells to the aqueous extract of Triphala for 24 h resulted in the significant decrease in the survival of cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 μg/ml. Triphala-mediated reduced cell survival correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Triphala-induced apoptosis was linked with phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and ERK at Thr-202/Tyr-204 in Capan-2 cells. Above mentioned effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS generation. Pretreatment of cells with pifithrin-α or U0126, specific inhibitors of p53 or MEK-1/2, significantly attenuated Triphala-induced apoptosis. Moreover, NAC or U0126 pretreatment significantly attenuated Triphala-induced p53 transcriptional activity. Similarly, Triphala induced apoptosis in another pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 by activating ERK. On the other hand, Triphala failed to induce apoptosis or activate ERK or p53 in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE-6) cells. Further, oral administration of 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg Triphala in PBS, 5 days/week significantly suppressed the growth of Capan-2 pancreatic tumor-xenograft. Reduced tumor-growth in Triphala fed mice was due to increased apoptosis in the tumors cells, which was associated with increased activation of p53 and ERK.
Our preclinical studies demonstrate that Triphala is effective in inhibiting the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in both cellular and in vivo model. Our data also suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of Triphala is mediated by the activation of ERK and p53 and shows potential for the treatment and/or prevention of human pancreatic cancer.
As international scientific collaboration increases, there is a growing requirement for research data to be comparable among countries. Despite the importance of medication and dietary supplement data in research, there are no international standards for the collection and storage of these data. In the absence of such standards, we needed to adopt a strategy for classification and coding of medications and dietary supplements to meet demands of our multi-national study.
Given the inter-country variations in nomenclature that characterize prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, traditional herbal medicines, and dietary supplements, we adopted RxNorm as a data standard for medication data, and developed an independent system that extends this standard and allows for flexible and scalable data collection for dietary supplements.
RxNorm was implemented in May 2005 and as of July 2006, coverage has been 99%, at the level of active ingredients, of all the medications reported in our study. Development of a dietary supplement database began in August 2005, and has thus far coded some 1200 dietary supplements and 650 infant formula products and forms from the four countries in our study.
The methods we have used to collect, store, and manage medication and dietary supplement data serve as interim solutions until international standards are developed. It is hoped that such standards will ultimately emerge, and that our strategy and data model will be of value in other research environments in the immediate future.
medications; dietary supplements; data standardization; data management; epidemiological methods; clinical research
Triphala is categorized as rejuvenator and traditionally been used in various gastric disorders including intestinal inflammation. The aim of present study was to examine the comparative gastroprotective effects of Triphala formulations against experimental gastric ulcer in rats to substantiate its traditional claim. Gastric ulcer was induced by water immersion plus stress-induced ulcers in rats. The drug effects were assessed by studying macroscopic gross injury and stomach tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala unequal formulation and Chinnodbhavadi kwath showed significant antiulcer activity and this is evident from reduction of ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical levels and concomitantly raised levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Though similar kind of activity was observed in Triphala equal formulation the magnitude was much less. Further, Chinnodbhavadi kwath significantly increased the glutathione and ATPase level but Triphala equal formulation significantly increased glutathione level only. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that among the three formulations studied, Chinnodbhavadi kwath and Triphala unequal formulations provides significant protection in gastric ulcer as compared to Triphala equal formulation.
Chinnodbhavadi kwath; gastroprotection; rejuvenator; Triphala
In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers. Due to the lack of systematic occupational hygiene analyses and workplace exposure data, it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma and other respiratory effects. Currently, there is a need for systematic evaluation of cleaning products ingredients and their exposures in the workplace. The objectives of this work were to: a) identify cleaning products' ingredients of concern with respect to respiratory and skin irritation and sensitization; and b) assess the potential for inhalation and dermal exposures to these ingredients during common cleaning tasks.
We prioritized ingredients of concern in cleaning products commonly used in several hospitals in Massachusetts. Methods included workplace interviews, reviews of product Materials Safety Data Sheets and the scientific literature on adverse health effects to humans, reviews of physico-chemical properties of cleaning ingredients, and occupational hygiene observational analyses. Furthermore, the potential for exposure in the workplace was assessed by conducting qualitative assessment of airborne exposures and semi-quantitative assessment of dermal exposures.
Cleaning products used for common cleaning tasks were mixtures of many chemicals, including respiratory and dermal irritants and sensitizers. Examples of ingredients of concern include quaternary ammonium compounds, 2-butoxyethanol, and ethanolamines. Cleaning workers are at risk of acute and chronic inhalation exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOC) vapors and aerosols generated from product spraying, and dermal exposures mostly through hands.
Cleaning products are mixtures of many chemical ingredients that may impact workers' health through air and dermal exposures. Because cleaning exposures are a function of product formulations and product application procedures, a combination of product evaluation with workplace exposure assessment is critical in developing strategies for protecting workers from cleaning hazards. Our task based assessment methods allowed classification of tasks in different exposure categories, a strategy that can be employed by epidemiological investigations related to cleaning. The methods presented here can be used by occupational and environmental health practitioners to identify intervention strategies.
Nearly 60–70% of the child Indian population suffers from dental caries. Mouth rinsing is the most cost effective method of preventing dental caries. 'Triphala' has been a classic Ayurveda remedy, probably the best known among all Ayurvedic compounds. This study was conducted on 1501 students in the age group of 8-12 years with the aim of determining the effect of Triphala mouthwash on prevention of dental caries (manifest caries) as well as incipient carious lesions, and also comparing the effect of Triphala and chlorhexidine mouthwashes. The incipient caries was recorded at 3, 6, 9 months intervals and manifest caries at 9 months interval. No significant increase in the DMFS scores was found at the end of 9 months. Also, there was no significant increase in the incipient caries score towards the conclusion of the study. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the Triphala and the chlorhexidine mouthwashes.
Dental caries; Triphala