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1.  In Vitro Assessment of Antioxidant, Phytochemical and Nutritional Properties of Extracts from the Leaves of Ocimum Gratissimum (Linn) 
The antioxidant, phytochemical and nutritional properties of acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn) were investigated to evaluate the therapeutic and nutritional potential of the leaves of this plant. The antioxidant of the plant extracts were assessed against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. The extracts exhibited DPPH and ABTS.+ radical scavenging activities, which was comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponin, steroids, cardiacglycoside, flavonoid, terpenoids and phenol. The proximate analysis confirms that the leaves contain appreciable amount of ash, crude protein, lipids, fibre and carbohydrates. The macro and micro elements and constituents revealed that the leaves contain significant amount of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, copper, nitrogen, and manganese. This study shows that the leaf can be used as a therapeutic agent and justifies its application in folkloric medicine.
PMCID: PMC3847418  PMID: 24311838
Ocimum gratissimum; oxidative stress; polyphenolic; proximate composition; therapeutic activity
2.  Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;27(4):1-8.
Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India.
PMCID: PMC3330865  PMID: 22557280
3.  Evaluation of the diuretic activity of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) leaves in mice 
Background
In the Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaves of Ajuga remota B. (Local name, Armagusa) is used in the treatment of hypertension. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of the aqueous and 80% methanol extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota in mice after acute oral administration.
Methods
Adult mice were administered orally either aqueous (250 mg/kg, AA250; 500 mg/kg, AA500 and 1000 mg/kg, AA1000) or 80% methanol (250 mg/kg, AM250; 500 mg/kg, AM500 and 750 mg/kg, AM750) extract. Urine output and electrolyte contents were then quantified up to 5 h and compared with those administered with furosemide 10 mg/kg (F10) and distilled water (CON).
Results
The larger dose of 80% methanol extract produced significant diuresis (p < 0.01), while the aqueous extract had shown diuresis both at the middle (p < 0.01) and higher (p < 0.01) doses by the end of the fifth hour compared to CON mice. Regarding electrolyte excretion, larger doses of both extracts had increased natriuresis (p < 0.001 for AA1000 and p < 0.01 for AM1000), while the effect on kaliuresis were smaller when compared with the standard, suggesting the plant could possibly have a potassium-sparing effect. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and cardiac glycosides, which might account for the diuretic activity.
Conclusions
The results indicate that the plant is endowed with significant diuretic activity at various doses, providing evidence for its folkloric use. The major components like flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and alkaloids found in the plant might have contributed to the observed diuretic activity.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-135
PMCID: PMC3997187  PMID: 24720845
Furosemide; Diuretics; Ajuga remota; Natriuresis; Kaliuresis
4.  Secondary Metabolites from Plants Inhibiting ABC Transporters and Reversing Resistance of Cancer Cells and Microbes to Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Agents 
Fungal, bacterial, and cancer cells can develop resistance against antifungal, antibacterial, or anticancer agents. Mechanisms of resistance are complex and often multifactorial. Mechanisms include: (1) Activation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, which pump out lipophilic compounds that have entered a cell, (2) Activation of cytochrome p450 oxidases which can oxidize lipophilic agents to make them more hydrophilic and accessible for conjugation reaction with glucuronic acid, sulfate, or amino acids, and (3) Activation of glutathione transferase, which can conjugate xenobiotics. This review summarizes the evidence that secondary metabolites (SM) of plants, such as alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids can interfere with ABC transporters in cancer cells, parasites, bacteria, and fungi. Among the active natural products several lipophilic terpenoids [monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes (including saponins), steroids (including cardiac glycosides), and tetraterpenes] but also some alkaloids (isoquinoline, protoberberine, quinoline, indole, monoterpene indole, and steroidal alkaloids) function probably as competitive inhibitors of P-gp, multiple resistance-associated protein 1, and Breast cancer resistance protein in cancer cells, or efflux pumps in bacteria (NorA) and fungi. More polar phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins, chalcones, xanthones, stilbenes, anthocyanins, tannins, anthraquinones, and naphthoquinones) directly inhibit proteins forming several hydrogen and ionic bonds and thus disturbing the 3D structure of the transporters. The natural products may be interesting in medicine or agriculture as they can enhance the activity of active chemotherapeutics or pesticides or even reverse multidrug resistance, at least partially, of adapted and resistant cells. If these SM are applied in combination with a cytotoxic or antimicrobial agent, they may reverse resistance in a synergistic fashion.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00130
PMCID: PMC3332394  PMID: 22536197
ABC transporter; P-gp; MDR; MRP1; secondary metabolites; review
5.  A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:546.
Background
The decoction of the aerial parts of Rhynchosia recinosa (A.Rich.) Bak. [Fabaceae] is used in combination with the stem barks of Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Excell. [Celastraceae] Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich [Fabaceae] and Lannea schimperi (Hochst.)Engl. [Anacardiaceae] as a traditional remedy for managing peptic ulcers. However, the safety and efficacy of this polyherbal preparation has not been evaluated. This study reports on the phytochemical profile and some biological activities of the individual plant extracts and a combination of extracts of the five plants.
Methods
A mixture of 80% ethanol extracts of R. recinosa, O. insignis, M. senegalensis, E. abyssinica and L. schimperi at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body wt were evaluated for ability to protect Sprague Dawley rats from gastric ulceration by an ethanol-HCl mixture. Cytoprotective effect was assessed by comparison with a negative control group given 1% tween 80 in normal saline and a positive control group given 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. The individual extracts and their combinations were also tested for antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (NCTC 8385), Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolate), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate) using the microdilution method. In addition the extracts were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity and acute toxicity in mice. Phytochemical tests were done using standard methods to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids in the individual plant extracts and in the mixed extract of the five plants.
Results
The combined ethanolic extracts of the 5 plants caused a dose-dependent protection against ethanol/HCl induced ulceration of rat gastric mucosa, reaching 81.7% mean protection as compared to 87.5% protection by 40 mg/kg body wt pantoprazole. Both the individual plant extracts and the mixed extracts of 5 plants exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against four G-ve bacteria. Despite Ozoroa insignis being toxic to mice at doses above 1000 mg/kg body wt, the other plant extracts and the combined extract of the 5 plants were tolerated by mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt. The brine shrimp test results showed the same pattern of toxicity with Ozoroa insignis being the most toxic (LC50 = 10.63 μg/ml). Phytochemical tests showed that the combined extract of the five plants contained tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant activity.
Conclusion
The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-546
PMCID: PMC3532137  PMID: 23031266
Ozoroa insignis; Maytenus senegalensis; Entada abyssinica; Lannea schimperi; Gastroprotection; Toxicity
6.  Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai) 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2013;7(14):157-169.
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.120517
PMCID: PMC3841994  PMID: 24347924
5,4’- Dimethoxy-3’- prenylbiochanin-7-O-β-D-galactoside; 7-hydroxy eudesmanolide; Koṭṭaikkarantai; Munditika churna; Veezhi Ennai
7.  Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots 
Objective
To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia).
Methods
Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard.
Results
Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms.
Conclusions
The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60202-1
PMCID: PMC3819490  PMID: 24144125
Antioxidant; Antimicrobial; Analgesic; DPPH; Phytochemical screening
8.  Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant Activity, Fatty Acids Composition, and Functional Group Analysis of Heliotropium bacciferum 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:829076.
Heliotropium bacciferum is paramount in medicinal perspective and belongs to Boraginaceae family. The crude and numerous fractions of leaves, stem, and roots of the plant were investigated for phytochemical analysis and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractions of the plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenols. The antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity of various extracts of the Heliotropium bacciferum was resolute against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with the avail of UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The stock solution (1000 mg/mL) and then several dilutions (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/mL) of the crude and fractions were prepared. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. The plant leaves (52.59 ± 0.84 to 90.74 ± 1.00), stem (50.19 ± 0.92 to 89.42 ± 1.10), and roots extracts (49.19 ± 0.52 to 90.01 ± 1.02) divulged magnificent antioxidant activities. For the ascertainment of the fatty acid constituents a gas chromatograph hyphenated to mass spectrometer was used. The essential fatty acids for growth maintenance such as linoleic acid (65.70%), eicosadienoic acid (15.12%), oleic acid (8.72%), and palmitic acid (8.14%) were found in high percentage. The infrared spectra of all extracts of the plant were recorded by IR Prestige-21 FTIR model.
doi:10.1155/2014/829076
PMCID: PMC4247971  PMID: 25489605
9.  Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites 
Pharmacognosy Research  2014;6(3):234-239.
Background:
Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential.
Objective:
The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques.
Materials and Methods:
Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening.
Results:
Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively.
Conclusion:
The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.132601
PMCID: PMC4080504  PMID: 25002804
High-pressure liquid chromatography; High performance thin layer chromatography; Polyalthia longifolia; Rutin; Thin layer chromatography
10.  Assessment of In vivo antioxidant properties of Dacryodes edulis and Ficus exasperata as anti-malaria plants 
Objective
To evaluate the phytochemical profile and potential anti-oxidant properties of Dacryodes edulis and Ficus exasperata.
Methods
Six groups of Albino rats were intoxicated with tetrachloromethane (CCl4) for 2 d, prior to 7 d administration of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg ethanol extracts of plants and three control remidies which is Tween 80 (placebo), CCl4 (negative control) and vitamin E (positive control). Tissue homogenates were employed in assessing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances expressed as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities.
Results
Phytochemical profiling of the plants showed the presence of reducing sugars, flavonoids, saponins and tannins, except alkaloids and terpenoids in F. exasperata and cardiac glycosides in D. edulis. Generally, significantly different values (P<0.05) were recorded for blood than for liver homogenates. Elevated MDA levels were observed for the CCl4 treated group (negative control). However, lower MDA levels comparable to vitamin E (positive control) were recorded for all D. edulis and the 200 mg/kg F. exasperata pre-treatments. CAT levels were significantly (P<0.05) raised in the 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg pretreatments for blood and the 200 mg/kg pretreatments for liver, than for Vit E. CCl4 reduced GSH levels were reversed significantly (P<0.05) in blood by D. edulis and by the 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg F. exasperata pretreatments in blood and liver tissues. The mean dose-dependent analysis shows increasing fall in MDA levels with dosage.
Conclusions
The plant extracts exhibited dose-dependent oxidative stress suppressive action. This may justify their use for the traditional preparation of anti-malarial remedies.
doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(13)60072-9
PMCID: PMC4027312
In vivo; Anti-oxidant; Anti-malaria; Dacryodes edulis; Ficus exasperate
11.  Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of leaf and root parts of the medicinal herb, Hypochaeris radicata L. for in vitro antioxidant activities 
Objective
To analyse qualitative and quantitative phytochemical and evaluate in vitro antioxidant properties of various alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaf and root parts of Hypochaeris radicata.
Methods
Preliminary phytochemical analysis for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and triterpenoids and quantitative phytochemical analysis for alkaloids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins and ascorbic acid were made by following standard procedures. In vitro antioxidant properties were evaluated by assessing DPPH•, NO• and ABTS•+, radical scavenging abilities and assaying the reducing power, β-carotene and antihemolytic activities by adapting standard methods.
Results
The quantitative phytochemical analysis of this species exhibited the presence of alkaloids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, tannins, saponins and ascorbic acid in considerable quantity. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the species, Hypochaeris radicata clearly demonstrated that both the leaf and root parts have prominent antioxidant properties.
Conclusions
From this study, it can be concluded that the species is effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant.
doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1030
PMCID: PMC4025295  PMID: 25183112
Hypochaeris radicata; Phytochemical analysis; In vitro antioxidant activities
12.  Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria 
This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms.
PMCID: PMC3976444  PMID: 24711746
coliforms; Jatropha curcas; phytochemicals; surface waters
13.  Antioxidant and phytochemical properties of Carpobrotus edulis (L.) bolus leaf used for the management of common infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Eastern Cape Province 
Background
Carpobrotus edulis (Mesembryanthemaceae), also known as igcukuma in Xhosa language is a medicinal plant used by the traditional healers to treat common infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Based on this information, we researched on the plant phytoconstituents, as well as its inhibitory effect using aqueous and three different organic solvent extracts in order to justify its therapeutic usage.
Methods
Antioxidant activity of the extracts were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric reducing power, Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods.
Results
Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the four solvent extracts revealed a high percentage of phenolics (55.7 ± 0.404%) in the acetone extract, with appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins (86.9 ± 0.005%) and alkaloids (4.5 ± 0.057%) in the aqueous extract, while tannin (48.9 ± 0.28%) and saponin (4.5 ± 0.262%) were major constituents of the ethanol extract. Flavonoids (0.12 ± 0.05%) and flavonols (0.12 ± 0.05%) were found at higher level in the hexane extract in comparison with the other extracts. The leaf extracts demonstrated strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, with the exception of water and ethanol extracts. IC50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extract against DPPH, ABTS, and NO were 0.018 and 0.016; 0.020 and 0.022; 0.05 and 0.023 mg/ml, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent.
Conclusion
The inhibitory effect of the extracts on free radicals may justify the traditional use of this plant in the management of common diseases in HIV/AIDs patients in Eastern Cape Province. Overall, both aqueous and ethanol were found to be the best solvents for antioxidant activity in C. edulis leaves.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-215
PMCID: PMC3528461  PMID: 23140206
Carpobrotus edulis; Solvent extraction; Antioxidant; Free radicals; Phytoconstituents
14.  Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. 
Objective
To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus.
Methods
The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined.
Results
Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g).
Conclusion
Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60174-4
PMCID: PMC3793162
Nymphaea stellata; Phytochemical; Antioxidant; Scavenging; Free radicals; DPPH; Nitric oxide; Lipid peroxidation; Phenols; Flavonoids
15.  Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch: A Review of Its Ethnobotany, Pharmacology, and Phytochemistry 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:401213.
Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β-amyrin, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.
doi:10.1155/2014/401213
PMCID: PMC4052053  PMID: 24949441
16.  Blechnum Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent 
Background
Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn.
Methods
Five solvent fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of B. orientale through successive partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals. Cytotoxic activity was tested against four cancer cell lines and a non-malignant cell using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also conducted.
Results
The ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 8.6-13.0 μg/ml) and cytotoxic activity towards human colon cancer cell HT-29 (IC50 27.5-42.8 μg/ml). The three extracts were also effective against all Gram-positive bacteria tested: Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Stapylococcus epidermidis(minimum inhibitory concentration MIC 15.6-250 μg/ml; minimum bactericidal concentration MBC 15.6-250 μg/ml). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed highest total phenolic content (675-804 mg gallic acid equivalent/g).
Conclusions
The results indicate that this fern is a potential candidate to be used as an antioxidant agent, for colon cancer therapy and for treatment of MRSA infections and other MSSA/Gram-positive bacterial infectious diseases.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-15
PMCID: PMC2881084  PMID: 20429956
17.  GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC 
Pharmacognosy Research  2014;6(1):58-61.
Background:
The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC.
Objective:
The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata.
Materials and Methods:
Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II.
Results:
The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition.
Conclusion:
From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.122919
PMCID: PMC3897010  PMID: 24497744
GC-MS analysis; Lactuca runcinata; phytochemical screening; whole plant methanol extract
18.  Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus 
Biological Research  2014;47(1):57.
Background
Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex), chloroform (Ir.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc), aqueous (Ir.Aq) and saponins (Ir.Sp) in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina) respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI) and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI) while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps.
Results
Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively.
Conclusions
It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities, thus providing pharmacological basis for ethnomedicinal uses of this plant.
doi:10.1186/0717-6287-47-57
PMCID: PMC4237743  PMID: 25418691
Isodon rugosus; Cytotoxicity; Phytotoxicity; Brine shrimps
19.  Trichilia Monadelpha Bark Extracts Inhibit Carrageenan-Induced Foot-Oedema in the 7-Day Old Chick and the Oedema Associated With Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats 
Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Meliaceae) bark extract is used in African traditional medicine for the management of various disease conditions including inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous (TWE), alcoholic (TAE) and petroleum ether extract (TPEE) of T. monadelpha using the 7-day old chick-carrageenan footpad oedema (acute inflammation) and the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (chronic inflammation). TWE and TPEE significantly inhibited the chick-carrageenan footpad oedema with maximal inhibitions of 57.79±3.92 and 63.83±12 respectively, but TAE did not. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac and dexamethasone) inhibited the chick-carrageenan-induced footpad oedema, with maximal inhibitions of 64.92±2.03 and 71.85±15.34 respectively. Furthermore, all the extracts and the reference anti-inflammatory agents (diclofenac, dexamethasone, methotrexate) inhibited the inflammatory oedema associated with adjuvant arthritis with maximal inhibitions of 64.41±5.56, 57.04±8.57, 62.18±2.56%, for TWE, TAE and TPEE respectively and 80.28±5.79, 85.75±2.96, 74.68±3.03% for diclofenac, dexamethasone and methotrexate respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant bark confirmed the presence of a large array of plant constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids, all of which may be potential sources of phyto-antiinflammatory agents. In conclusion, our work suggests that T. monadelpha is a potential source of antiinflammatory agents.
PMCID: PMC3744209  PMID: 23983314
Antiinflammatory; Arthritis; Trichilia monadelpha; chick-carrageenan; phyto-antiinflammatory
20.  In Vitro Phytochemical, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Activities of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:269793.
Adiantum capillus veneris is a medicinally essential plant used for the treatment of diverse infectious diseases. The study of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and medically important fungi is of immense significance. Extracts from the leaves, stems, and roots of Adiantum capillus veneris were extracted with water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane and screened for their antimicrobial activity against ten MDR bacterial strains and five fungal strains isolated from clinical and water samples. Ash, moisture, and extractive values were determined according to standard protocols. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy) studies were performed on different phytochemicals isolated from the extracts of Adiantum capillus Veneris. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, and reducing sugars. Water, methanol, and ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and roots showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against most of the MDR bacterial and fungal strains. This study concluded that extracts of Adiantum capillus veneris have valuable phytochemicals and significant activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and medically important fungal strains.
doi:10.1155/2014/269793
PMCID: PMC3925560  PMID: 24592156
21.  Antioxidants, Phytochemicals, and Cytotoxicity Studies on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Seeds 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:410184.
In recent years, the utilization of certain medicinal plants as therapeutic agents has drastically increased. Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl is frequently used in traditional medicine. The present investigation was undertaken with the purpose of developing pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Nutritional values such as ash, fiber, protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents were investigated, and phytochemical screenings with different reagents showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponin glycosides, phenolic compounds, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Our results also revealed that the water fraction had the highest antioxidant activity compared to the methanol extract and other fractions. The methanol and the fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of P. macrocarpa seeds were also investigated for their cytotoxic effects on selected human cancer cells lines (MCF-7, HT-29, MDA-MB231, Ca Ski, and SKOV-3) and a normal human fibroblast lung cell line (MRC-5). Information from this study can be applied for future pharmacological and therapeutic evaluations of the species, and may assist in the standardization for quality, purity, and sample identification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic effect of the crude and fractionated extracts of P. macrocarpa seeds on selected cells lines.
doi:10.1155/2014/410184
PMCID: PMC3985173  PMID: 24818141
22.  Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia lancifolia 
Garcinia lancifolia (Clusiaceae) is an unexplored medicinal plant used as stomachic, diuretic and its fruit is used to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. The acidic fruits are used to prepare juice, pickle and curries. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts of G. lancifolia leaf, stem and fruit revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The high phenolic content was observed in the methanol extract of leaf followed by methanol extract of stem and dichloromethane extract of leaf. The G. lancifolia fruit juice exhibited high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extract of fruit pulp was also very effective against Gram-positive bacteria when compared with Gram-negative bacteria. The radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was highest in fruit juice followed by methanol extract of leaf and stem. All extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in the antioxidant activity.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.106075
PMCID: PMC3574540  PMID: 23439879
Antibacterial activity; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity; Garcinia lancifolia; phenolic content; phytochemicals
23.  Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):4-9.
Background:
The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic.
Aims:
This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different.
Results:
C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control.
Conclusion:
Costus afer may be hepatotoxic but non-toxic to the kidney.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134554
PMCID: PMC4140021  PMID: 25161323
Biomarkers; kidney; liver; organ toxicity; phytomedicine
24.  Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L 
Background
The aim of this study was to screen various solvent extracts of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla to display potent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations.
Material and methods
A detailed study was performed on the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla (TLM) and its derived fractions {n-hexane (TLH), chloroform (TLC) ethyl acetate (TLE) n-butanol (TLB) and residual aqueous fraction (TLA)} by in vitro chemical analyses and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injuries (lipid peroxidation and glutathione contents) in male Sprague-Dawley rat. The total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of all the fractions were also determined. TLM was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents.
Results
The total phenolic contents (TPC) (121.9±3.1 mg GAE/g extract) of TLM while total flavonoid contents (TFC) of TLE (60.9 ±2.2 mg RTE/g extract) were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Phytochemical screening of TLM revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. The EC50 values based on the DPPH (41.0±1 μg/ml), ABTS (10.0±0.9 μg/ml) and phosphomolybdate (10.7±2 μg/ml) for TLB, hydroxyl radicals (8.0±1 μg/ml) for TLC, superoxide radicals (57.0±0.3 μg/ml) for TLM and hydrogen peroxide radicals (68.0±2 μg/ml) for TLE were generally lower showing potential antioxidant properties. A significant but marginal positive correlation was found between TPC and EC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl, phosphomolybdate and ABTS, whereas another weak and positive correlation was determined between TFC and EC50 values for superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Results of in vivo experiment revealed that administration of CCl4 caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) while decrease in GSH contents of liver. In contrast, TLM (200 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) co-treatment effectively prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status.
Conclusion
Data from present results revealed that Torilis leptophylla act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activity.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-221
PMCID: PMC3524761  PMID: 23153304
Torilis leptophylla; DPPH; Antioxidant; Oxidative stress; TBARS
25.  Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq 
Objective
To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa.
Methods
The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant.
Results
The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities.
Conclusions
Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60204-9
PMCID: PMC3609248  PMID: 23569880
Schotia latifolia; Free radicals; Phytochemical; Antioxidant activity; Oxidative stress; Natural antioxidant; Reducing power; Phenolics; Flavonoids; Scavenging activity; Polyphenol

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