In Ayurveda although there is no such terminology like hypertension but still this work is an approach to establish relationship between Hypertension & vitiated functioning of three governing forces of our body i.e. Tridosha and to treat Hypertension on Ayurvedic principles. The logic behind such correlation is based on the fact that, like other physiological processes, B.P. too is normal phenomenon of our body which is governed by Tridosha. After going through modern pathogenesis of primary hypertension and its symptomology, in present study it has been correlated with Vata Kaphaja Vikara with Rasavaha, Raktavaha and Manovahi Srotas as the seat of disease. Looking at its pathogenesis, the term Uccha Vyan Bala (exaggerated physiological functioning of Vyan Vayu leading to increase contractility of heart & blood vessels) can be coined for hypertension.
Subjective criteria Headache, Palpitation, Vertigo, Dyspnoea on walks and Fatigue. Objective criteria BP value recorded by sphygmomanometer in supine position. Final assessment of results; Subjective assessment 75 to 100% disappearance of symptoms effectively cured. 50 to 74% disappearance of symptoms well cured. 25 to 49% disappearance of symptoms fairly cured. 0 to 24% disappearance of symptoms poorly cured. Objective assessment Patient showing reduction in BP by 10mmHg Poorly cured; Patient showing reduction in BP between 11 to 20mmHg Fairly cured; Patient showing reduction in BP between 21 to 30 mmHg Well cured; Patient showing reduction in BP by more than 30 mmHg Effectively cured. Research methodology Type of study-Single blinded comparative study. Study site IPD and OPD department of Shubhdeep ayurved medical college, Indore (MP). Sample size 50 patients divided randomly into two equal groups. Group A given trial drug whereas Group B given control drug. Drug dosage and vehicle 1 capsule twice daily with lukewarm water after meals. Duration of treatment one month (examined at weekly intervals.) Dietary advice to strictly restrict the daily intake of Amla, Lavana, Guru & Vidahi diet.
70% Patients found to be hypertensive were above 40 years of age. 60% Patients were fond of salty & spicy diet. Out of 50 patients 30 patients (60%) belongs to service class. Out of 50 patients 35 patients (70%) were male. Regarding prevalence of symptoms, Dyspnoea on routine work was found in 82%, Headache & palpitation in 80%, Vertigo in 78% & Fatigue in 66% patients.
As per classical texts, Vata predominant diseases are caused due to vitiation of Vata due to emaciation (Dhatu Kshaya) & obstruction (Marg avarodha). Hypertension seems to be Vata predominant disease due to obstruction. Reason being that, Lavana is Vata Shamak, & should therefore decrease Blood pressure but on contrary it increases B.P. Similarly increase in weight leads to greater chances of High Blood pressure. Above discussion favours that Hypertension can be considered Vata predominant disease due to Marg avarodha by Kapha Dosha and Pitta Dosha in Anubandh. Finally it can be concluded that the drug under study has shown enthusiastic results in reducing the overall value of blood pressure. 64% patients got effectively cured, 24% got well cured and 12% got fairly cured. Regarding symptomatic relief, out of 25 patients 8 showed more than 75% relief, 9 showed more than 50% relief, 7 showed more than 25% relief and only 1 patient showed less than 25% relief in overall symptoms. No significant side effects have been reported in any subject.
Tridoshas viz Vata, Pitta, and Kapha are responsible for health and disease depending on their normalcy and disequilibrium state. Improper usage of foods and drinks along with abnormal activities manifests diseases of respective Doshik predominance. Sira (vein) is the synonym of Srotas, keeping this in mind, Vatavaha Sira is correlated with Vatavaha Srotas, Pittavaha Sira with Pittavaha Srotas, Kaphavaha Sira with Kaphavaha Srotas, and Sarvavaha Sira with Sarvavaha Srotas. The purpose of detail understanding of Doshavaha Srotas is essential to understand the role of Doshas in the manifestation of diseases. One can easily predict by observing the color changes in particular area to be able to predict the predominance of Doshas in that area. Manifestation of a disease occurs in the body as a result of the defective Srotas favoring the Dosha–Dushya conglomeration. Hence, any defect in the Srotas must be corrected quickly for the restoration of normal health. Present article emphasis on the proper understanding of Doshavaha Srotas in a systematic manner to understand its root, causative factors, signs and symptoms, and diseases produced due to their vitiation.
Kapha; nanatmaja vikara; pitta; Sarvavaha Srotas; sira; vata
Tubal blockage is one of the most important factors for female infertility. This condition is not described in Ayurvedic classics, as the fallopian tube itself is not mentioned directly there. The present study is an effort to understand the disease according to Ayurvedic principles. Correlating fallopian tubes with the Artavavaha (Artava-bija-vaha) Srotas, its block is compared with the Sanga Srotodushti of this Srotas. Charak's opinion that the diseases are innumerable and newly discovered ones should be understood in terms of Prakriti, Adhishthana, Linga, and Aayatana, is followed, to describe this disease. An effort has been made to evaluate the role of all the three Doshas in producing blockage, with classification of the disease done as per the Dasha Roganika.
Artavadiushti; Asrigdara; Bandhyatva; Rati-janya Vikara; Tubal blockage; Yonivyapada; Infertility
Ayurveda has given prime importance to Mutravaha srotas (urinary system) and Srotogata Vikaras (urinary disorders). Being a system responsible for homeostasis of fluids in the body it also detoxifies the body by eliminating certain waste products through urine. When diseased, people produce symptoms such as, increased or decreased urine production, painful maturition, formation of stones, and thereby obstructed micturition, increased frequency of micturition, and so on. There are many herbs with varied actions specifically aimed at mitigating urinary system disorders. Drugs such as Jambu, Amrasthi, and the like, reduce the increased flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutrasangrahaneeya, whereas, drugs like Ikshu, Kustha, and so on, increase the flow of urine, and hence, are considered as Mutravirechaneeya. There are drugs like Padma, Utpala, and so on, which impart normal color to the urine and are known as Mutravirajaneeya dravyas. Asmarighna dravyas break down the calculi and remove them through the urine. These dravyas, when used under proper direction, help in relieving the pain and apathy caused by the disease.
Ashmarighna dravya; Mutrasangrahaneeya dravya; Mutravirajaneeya dravya; Mutravirechaneeya dravya; urinary system; herbs
Incidence of epilepsy is 0.3 to 0.5% in different populations throughout the world, and the prevalence of epilepsy has been estimated at 5 to 10 persons per 1000. Scanning of the Ayurvedic classics reveals that 90% of the formulations mentioned to have action on sajnavaha srotas are ghrita-based formulations. Ghrita because of its yogavahi guna, incorporates the qualities of the drugs added to it without losing its own qualities. In the present study Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita and saptavartita Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita have been selected, to prove their anticonvulsant activity experimentally on albino mice, by the chemoshock method. The observations recorded have been analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's test, statistically. Saptavartita Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita has shown better anticonvulsant activity in comparison to Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita.
Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita; Clonus; Seizures; Convulsion; Pentylenetetrazol; Sneha Kalpana
Background—Patients with long standing diabetes
mellitus frequently have upper gut dysmotility. Gastroparesis has been
well studied, whereas detailed data on duodenal motor function are limited.
Aims—To characterise postprandial
duodenal chyme transport in such patients.
impedance measurement, recently introduced as a novel technique for
investigation of chyme transport, was used to study postprandial
duodenal chyme flow in 10 patients with long standing insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus with gastroparesis, and 10 healthy volunteers.
Results—Four distinct transport patterns of
chyme, termed bolus transport events (BTEs), were found in both groups
and could be characterised as: short distance propulsive; simple long
distance propulsive; retrograde; and complex long distance propulsive. Diabetic patients had significantly lower numbers of propulsive BTEs
(p<0.01), and higher proportions of retrograde BTEs and complex long
distance BTEs (p<0.05) than control subjects, whereas the proportion
of simple long distance BTEs was significantly lower (p<0.05). The
mean propagation velocities of the BTEs were similar in both groups.
Conclusion—Abnormal postprandial duodenal chyme
transport was found in patients with long standing insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus. This is characterised by transport disorganisation
and may result in disturbed chyme clearance.
diabetic gastroparesis syndrome; postprandial chyme
transport; intraluminal impedance measurement
Hemiplegia is a prevalent and disabling neurological disorder, which arises from multiple etiologies like Systemic Hypertension, Injuries, Tumors, Embolism and other vascular occlusions of the brain. It is well explained in Ayurveda as Pakshaghata one of the kevala vata vyadhis, resulting when Vatakopa affects the Siras (vascular structures) and Snayus (Tendons and Ligaments) of any one half of the body characterized by paralysis of the affected half of the body, face and impaired movements of joints and extremities. In modern science, the lesion and clinical symptoms stands classified in accordance with the site of infarction of the brain. Hemiplegia Pakshaghata however today, currently challenges the clinicians warranting a comprehensive and effective medication. Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations have been found to have therapeutic efficacy for Hemiplegia. This study aims to determine the clinical efficacy of Danadanayanadi Kasayam, Ksheerabala Avarthi and Ekangavir Ras towards restoring the normalcy in Pakshaghata.
15 patients in the age group of 30 70 with Pakshaghata were randomly selected and administered Danadanayanadi Kasayam, Ksheerabala Avarthi and Ekangavir Ras for a period of 6 - 8 weeks. The clinical progress of the patients was observed daily. The gradual recovery from the clinical symptoms was observed and documented.
The patients administered with the trial drugs portrayed a marked recovery from the inability to move the arms and legs, stiffness, incoherent speech, deviation of mouth, hyperreflexia, poor concentration, confusions and impaired functions of the sensory organs.
It is extrapolated and fortified from the observations that Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations viz. Danadanayanadi Kasayam, Ksheerabala Avarthi and Ekangavir Ras undoubtedly has the efficacy of treating Hemiplegia and helps in the recovery from ailment.
Ayurveda is the ancient (before 2500 b.c.) Indian system of health care and longevity. It involves a holistic view of man, his health, and illness. Ayurvedic treatment of a disease consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. Medicinal preparations are invariably complex mixtures, based mostly on plant products. Around 1,250 plants are currently used in various Ayurvedic preparations. Many Indian medicinal plants have come under scientific scrutiny since the middle of the nineteenth century, although in a sporadic fashion. The first significant contribution from Ayurvedic materia medica came with the isolation of the hypertensive alkaloid from the sarpagandha plant (Rouwolfia serpentina), valued in Ayurveda for the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, and insanity. This was the first important ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants. With the gradual coming of age of chemistry and biology, disciplines central to the study of biologic activities of natural products, many Ayurvedic plants have been reinvestigated. Our work on Commiphora wightti gum-resin, valued in Ayurveda for correcting lipid disorders, has been described in some detail; based on these investigations, a modern antihyperlipoproteinemic drug is on the market in India and some other countries. There has also been concordance for a few other Ayurvedic crude drugs such as Asparagus racemosus, Cedrus deodara, and Psoralea corylifolia.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), according to modern medicine, and Aamavata according to Ayurveda, has an etiological and clinical relationship. Aamavata is a disease complex of which RA is a part. A comparative study of the pathophysiology of this disease by both systems reveals that modern medicine has investigated the mechanism of inflammation and has developed an offense strategy to control it. Ayurveda follows a defense strategy and it focuses its search on the etiological process, where disequilibrium at a higher level of physiology affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing an immune response that results in inflammation. Understanding the pathophysiology of both systems will help the treating physician to institute a dual treatment plan of modern medicine's offense strategy and Ayurvedic medicine's defense strategy at appropriate stages of the disease. Studying the pathophsiology of the two systems also gives insight into the genetic and epigenetic phenomenon in the treatment of disease and opens the doors for groundbreaking research.
Aama; Aamavata; defense; epigenetics; genetics; offense; symbiohealth
The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer.
Tamaka Shvasa is a type of Shvasa Roga associated with difficulty in breathing as a result of which the patient prefers to sit in bed to get relief from his discomfort. Movement of air through Pranavaha Srotas is hampered in this disease resulting in the cry of organ heading toward complete failure for want of air. Tamaka Shvasa is well known for its episodic and chronic course which comes under the life-threatening disease. It is analogous to bronchial asthma due to similarity in symptoms, pathogenesis, onset, causes, and precipitating factors. In this study, 40 patients of Tamaka Shvasa were registered and randomly divided into two groups, out of which 31 patients completed the treatment. In Group A, Shvasahara Leha (5 g twice a day) was given for 2 months, while in Group B Vasa Haritaki Avaleha (5 g twice a day) was given for 2 months and follow-up was done for one month in both groups. The effects of therapy in both groups were assessed by a specially prepared proforma. Diagnosis was done by adult asthma diagnosis questionnaire and differential diagnosis with COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) was done by differential diagnosis questionnaire as both these conditions are overlapping. The results of the study indicate that the Vasa Haritaki Avaleha provided better relief than Shvasahara Leha in Tamaka Shvasa.
Bronchial asthma; Shvasahara Leha; Tamaka Shvasa; Vasa Haritaki Avaleha
Khat chewing, though a tradition followed majorly in African countries, has of late spread widely across the globe due to faster transport systems and advanced preservation techniques. Many complications such as psychosis, arterial hypertension, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction have been reported in connection to khat abuse. We present a case of a young man who presented with acute onset left-sided weakness. He was a known khat addict for over three decades. A diagnosis of left hemiplegia due to right middle cerebral artery infarction was established. Detailed evaluation revealed no significant underlying cause for stroke. Since the main central nervous system effects of khat are comparable with those of amphetamines and there are established reports of stroke in amphetamine abuse, the former was assumed to be the etiological factor. The patient was discontinued from taking khat and was managed conservatively. The subject showed significant recovery with no further complications or similar episodes during follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of stroke associated with khat. Since the management is essentially conservative, a vigilant history eliciting of khat abuse in prevalent countries would cut down unnecessary healthcare costs.
Amphetamine-like; khat; stroke
This paper considers the relevance to Ayurvedic education of Mimansa, one of the six “orthodox” systems of ancient Indian philosophy, which, like Ayurveda, regard the Vedas as supremely authoritative. At the postgraduate level, Mimansa assists the study of Ayurveda because it provides a system of resolving possible conflicts between statements in the texts of the Veda, which can also be applied to Ayurveda, when its own methodology of interpretation given in Tantrayukti falls short. Indeed, certain commentaries on the Ayurvedic texts are suggestive of the Mimansa perspective. The article provides illustrations of this from the courses taught at the Institute of Research in Ayurvedic Medicine, Jnana Prabhodini, indicating some details of the courses taught, and recounting feedback from the students. These show that a course in Mimansa has a useful role to play in encouraging students’ independent reading of the Ayurvedic texts and in maturing their own interpretations of sections that seem obscure.
Ayurveda; darshanas; education; Mimansa; pedagogy
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.
Ayurveda; dietary factors; geriatric age group; hypertension
Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensional simulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field for examining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show that hydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism rather than convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to be caused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water in cathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction plus electro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important to model the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux was closely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivity of the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell.
Micro flow channel; Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell; Anode; Cathode; Electrochemical Reaction; Ion conductivity; Electro-osmotic drag
TransportDB () is a comprehensive database resource of information on cytoplasmic membrane transporters and outer membrane channels in organisms whose complete genome sequences are available. The complete set of membrane transport systems and outer membrane channels of each organism are annotated based on a series of experimental and bioinformatic evidence and classified into different types and families according to their mode of transport, bioenergetics, molecular phylogeny and substrate specificities. User-friendly web interfaces are designed for easy access, query and download of the data. Features of the TransportDB website include text-based and BLAST search tools against known transporter and outer membrane channel proteins; comparison of transporter and outer membrane channel contents from different organisms; known 3D structures of transporters, and phylogenetic trees of transporter families. On individual protein pages, users can find detailed functional annotation, supporting bioinformatic evidence, protein/DNA sequences, publications and cross-referenced external online resource links. TransportDB has now been in existence for over 10 years and continues to be regularly updated with new evidence and data from newly sequenced genomes, as well as having new features added periodically.
Excitation-contraction coupling in the cardiac myocyte is mediated by a number of highly integrated mechanisms of intracellular Ca2+ transport. The complexity and integrative nature of heart cell electrophysiology and Ca2+-cycling has led to an evolution of computational models that have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of heart function. An important emerging theme in systems biology is that the detailed nature of local signaling events, such as those that occur in the cardiac dyad, have important consequences at higher biological scales. Multi-scale modeling techniques have revealed many mechanistic links between micro-scale events, such as Ca2+ binding to a channel protein, and macro-scale phenomena, such as excitation-contraction coupling gain. Here we review experimentally based multi-scale computational models of excitation-contraction coupling and the insights that have been gained through their application.
cardiac myocyte; excitation-contraction coupling; Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release; multi-scale modeling; computational modeling
Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Individuals with hypertension are at an increased risk for stroke, heart disease, and kidney failure. Although the etiology of essential hypertension has a genetic component, lifestyle factors such as diet play an important role. Insulin resistance is a common feature of hypertension in both humans and animal models affecting glucose and lipid metabolism producing excess aldehydes including methylglyoxal. These aldehydes react with proteins to form conjugates called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This alters protein structure and function and can affect vascular and immune cells leading to their activation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. AGEs also act via receptors for advanced glycation end products on these cells altering the function of antioxidant and metabolic enzymes, and ion channels. This results in an increase in cytosolic free calcium, decrease in nitric oxide, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, peripheral vascular resistance, and infiltration of vascular and kidney tissue with inflammatory cells leading to hypertension. Supplementation with dietary antioxidants including vitamins C, E, or B6, thiols such as cysteine and lipoic acid, have been shown to lower blood pressure and plasma inflammatory cytokines in animal models and humans with essential hypertension. A well-balanced diet rich in antioxidants that includes vegetables, fruits, low fat dairy products, low salt, and includes whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts, lowers blood pressure and vascular inflammation. These antioxidants may achieve their antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory effects by reducing AGEs and improving insulin resistance and associated alterations. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants may be a beneficial, inexpensive, front-line alterative treatment modality for hypertension.
Hypertension; immune system; insulin resistance; advanced glycation end products; receptors for advanced glycation end products; renin-angiotensin system; oxidative stress; renal damage; inflammatory cytokines; T cells; macrophages; dietary antioxidants
Two K(+)-selective channels in neonatal rat atrial cells activated by lipophilic compounds have been characterized in detail. The arachidonic acid-stimulated channel (IK.AA) had a slope conductance of 124 +/- 17 pS at +30 mV in symmetrical 140 mM potassium and a mean open time of approximately 1 ms, and was relatively voltage independent. IK.AA activity was reversibly increased by lowering pH to 6.0. Arachidonic acid was most effective in activating this channel, although a number of lipophilic compounds resulted in activation. Surprisingly, choline, a polar molecule, also activated the channel. A second K+ channel was activated by 10 microM phosphatidylcholine applied to the intracellular surface of inside-out atrial patches. This channel (IK.PC) had a slope conductance of 60 +/- 6 pS at +40 mV and a mean open time of approximately 0.6 ms, and was also relatively voltage independent. Fatty acids are probably monomeric in the membrane under the conditions of our recording; thus detergent effects are unlikely. Since a number of compounds including fatty acids and prostaglandins activated these two channels, an indirect, channel-specific mechanism may account for activation of these two cardiac K+ channels.
Diabetes Mellitus (Madhumeha) is a well-known clinical syndrome since antiquity. First time the role of Diet in the prevention, etiology and treatment of Diabetes was mentioned in Ayurveda under the heading of Prameha and Madumeha. Caraka Samhita, Susruta Samhita and other Ayurvedic classics have appropriate descriptions on the role of diet, habits and life style in Prameha and Madhumeha, which is akin to Diabetes. Recent modern (contemporary) Researches and statistics support these descriptions. Aim of this article is to alarm people regarding role of diet and lifestyle in Diabetes through Ayurvedic approach and contemporary scientific correlation with support of clinical and statistical data.
This report describes a new approach for fabricating micro-channels within three-dimensional electrospun constructs. These key features serve to mimic the fascicular architecture and fibrous extracellular matrix found in native nerve. Both electrospun fibers and multi-channeled structure nerve guides have become areas of increasing interest for their beneficial roles in nerve repair. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a guide that incorporates both. Multiple parallel channels provide a greater number of defined paths and increased surface area compared to cylindrical guides. Additionally, the fibrous nature of electrospun fibers permits better mass transport than solid-walled constructs. The flexible fabrication scheme allows tailoring of nerve guide parameters such as channel diameters ranging from 33-176μm and various wall thicknesses. Channel and fiber structures were assessed by optical and electron microscope images. Geometric calculations estimated a porosity of over 85% for these guides with 16% or less from the channels. In vitro culture with Schwann cells demonstrated cellular infiltration into channels with restricted migration between fibers. Finally, cell proliferation and survival throughout the guide indicates that this design warrants future in vivo examination.
Nerve guide; topographical guidance; nerve regeneration; polycaprolactone; electrospinning; Schwann cell
We investigate a immunoassay biosensor that employs a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to detect the specific binding reaction of the (Human IgG1)-(Anti-Human IgG1) protein pair under physiological conditions. In addition to experiments, a three dimensional time domain finite element method (FEM) was used to perform simulations for the biomolecular binding reaction in microfluidic channels. In particular, we discuss the unsteady convective diffusion in the transportation tube, which conveys the buffer solution containing the analyte molecules into the micro-channel where the QCM sensor lies. It is found that the distribution of the analyte concentration in the tube is strongly affected by the flow field, yielding large discrepancies between the simulations and experimental results. Our analysis shows that the conventional assumption of the analyte concentration in the inlet of the micro-channel being uniform and constant in time is inadequate. In addition, we also show that the commonly used procedure in kinetic analysis for estimating binding rate constants from the experimental data would underestimate these rate constants due to neglected diffusion processes from the inlet to the reaction surface. A calibration procedure is proposed to supplement the basic kinetic analysis, thus yielding better consistency with experiments.
biosensor; Quartz Crystal Microbalance; Finite Element Method (FEM); basic kinetic analysis; human IgG1
Materials and Methods:
The study was performed on prospective donors who reported to the Department of Transfusion Medicine. Individuals deferred due to hypertension contributed the study population. They were compared with age and sex matched donor controls. Demographic details were recorded in a proforma. On identification of a hypertensive individual, consequent two comparable donors were taken as controls with a total of 50 hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive status of the subjects were assessed based on the criteria formulated by the WHO-ISH and US Seventh Joint National Committee report on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure.
About 0.95% of healthy blood donors had undetected hypertension. Mean age at detection of hypertension in the study group was 35.44 ± 7.69 years. Higher BMI was observed in the hypertensive group compared to normotensive control group with P value significant at 0.0001.
About 1% of healthy individuals were found to have undetected hypertension. Though the study was not designed to determine the prevalence of hypertension in the region, it is a rough estimate of the proportion of undetected hypertension in the local population as donors are considered as representative of healthy population.
Blood donation; hypertension; high ferritin and hematocrit
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is driven by diverse pathogenic etiologies. Owing to their pleiotropic actions, microRNA (miRNA) are potential candidates for coordinated regulation of these disease stimuli.
Methods and Results
Using a network biology approach, we identify miRNA associated with multiple pathogenic pathways central to PH. Specifically, microRNA-21 (miR-21) is predicted as a PH-modifying miRNA, regulating targets integral to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Rho/Rho kinase signaling as well as functional pathways associated with hypoxia, inflammation, and genetic haplo insufficiency of the BMP Receptor Type 2 (BMPRII). To validate these predictions, we have found that hypoxia and BMPRII signaling independently up-regulate miR-21 in cultured pulmonary arterial endothelial cells. In a reciprocal feedback loop, miR-21 down-regulates BMPRII expression. Furthermore, miR-21 directly represses RhoB expression and Rho kinase activity, inducing molecular changes consistent with decreased angiogenesis and vasodilation. In vivo, miR-21 is up-regulated in pulmonary tissue from several rodent models of PH and in humans with PH. Upon induction of disease in miR-21-null mice, RhoB expression and Rho-kinase activity are increased, accompanied by exaggerated manifestations of PH.
A network-based bioinformatic approach coupled with confirmatory in vivo data delineates a central regulatory role for miR-21 in PH. Furthermore, this study highlights the unique utility of network biology for identifying disease-modifying miRNA in PH.
Pulmonary Heart Disease; microRNA; Network Biology; Molecular Biology; Vasculature
This paper reports on an investigation of mass transport of blood cells at micro-scale stenosis where local strain-rate micro-gradients trigger platelet aggregation. Using a microfluidic flow focusing platform we investigate the blood flow streams that principally contribute to platelet aggregation under shear micro-gradient conditions. We demonstrate that relatively thin surface streams located at the channel wall are the primary contributor of platelets to the developing aggregate under shear gradient conditions. Furthermore we delineate a role for red blood cell hydrodynamic lift forces in driving enhanced advection of platelets to the stenosis wall and surface of developing aggregates. We show that this novel microfluidic platform can be effectively used to study the role of mass transport phenomena driving platelet recruitment and aggregate formation and believe that this approach will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying shear-gradient dependent discoid platelet aggregation in the context of cardiovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndromes and ischemic stroke.