Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight is a folk medicinal plant used in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of this herb are said to be successful in managing high blood glucose levels. This study is aimed at assessing the scientific appraisal of C. neilgherrensis in the course of pharmacognostical characters and phytochemical parameters, as these are not yet been done. Pharmacognostic study mainly covered the macroscopic and microscopic features of the leaves including powder microscopy, and revealed the presence of trichomes, spiral vessels etc. Phytochemical parameters such as pH, total ash value, water-soluble extract and MeOH extract values were assessed in the preliminary physicochemical screening. Qualitative analysis revealed the existence of certain chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, organic acids and saponin glycosides. The crude extract of leaves was subjected to TLC and HPTLC for the separation of components.
Curcuma neilgherrensis; HPTLC; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry; TLC
This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.
Microscopy; physicochemical and phytochemical; transverse section
Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization.
Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996.
The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc.
The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.
Oreganum vulgare Linn.; Phytochemical screening; Standardization; Traditional medicine
Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation were carried out on the stem of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. The pharmacognostic analysis revealed total ash of 9.65%, water soluble ash of 48.0%, alcohol soluble extractive value of 13.0% and acid insoluble ash of 48.0%. The quantitative and qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, and alkaloid, while triterpenoid, anthraquinone and quinone were absent. The present paper deals with the standardization of its aerial part of plant on the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species.
Naringi crenulata; stem; pharmacognostical; phytochemical
The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.
Antioxidants; Aragwadha; Cassia fistula; free radical; phenols
The macroscopical characters of the roots, physical constant values, extractive values, colour, consistency and extractive values with different solvents, behaviour on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters of liquid extracts and root powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under ultraviolet light of the powdered roots of Tragia involucrata Linn. (Fam Euphorbiaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters which will enable the future investigators for indentification of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study on different extracts of the roots were also preformed.
The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research.
Purpose: The present study is aimed to evaluate phenolic profiles, cytotoxic activity and phytochemical screening of different extracts of Drynaria quercifolia leaves. Methods: The dried and powder leaves were extracted with methanol at room temperature and the concentrated methanolic extract was fractionated by the modified Kupchan partitioning method to provide pet-ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions. Phenolic profiles were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, which results were expressed in gallic acid equivalent (mg of GAE/g of sample). Phytochemical properties of different extractives of plant materials were tested by the method of Trease and Evans. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic potential of D. quercifolia. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the potent source of different phytochemical constituents on different extractives including alkaloid, glycosides, tannin, saponins, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, triterpenes, phenols, phytosterols and carbohydrate. In the determination of phenolic profiles, different extractives showed a significant content of phenolic compounds ranging from 103.43 -132.23 mg of GAE/g of extractive. Compared to vincristine sulfate different extractives of plant materials demonstrated moderate cytotoxic potential (having LC50 of 12.45 μg/ml, 13.02 μg/ml 15.83 μg/ml, 14.95 μg/ml and 7.612 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that D. quercifolia is an excellent source of phenolic content and phytoconstitutes as well as possesses moderate cytotoxic activity.
Folin-Ciocalteau; Phytochemical properties; Brine shrimp
Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action.
Bioavailability; ethnomedicinal properties; extraction method; Ficus hispida; pharmacognosy
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Family: Lecythidaceae) is an evergreen tree with simple, alternate leaves, long pendulous racemes, dark scarlet flowers, and ellipsoid to ovoid berries containing one ovoid black seed. The present study deals with a detailed pharmacognostical study on the leaf of the crude drug, B. acutangula. Morphoanatomy of the leaf was studied using light and confocal microscopy and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Literature reveals that the phytoconstituents like tanginol, barrinic acid, and barringenic acid are present in the wood and fruits of this plant. Our preliminary phytochemical studies of the powdered leaves revealed the presence of terpenes, flavanoids, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, and glycosides. The physico-chemical, morphological, histological parameters, and High Performance-Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) profile presented in this paper may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of B. acutangula and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species and the pharmacognostic profile of the leaves presented here will assist in standardization viz., quality, purity, and sample identification.
Barringtonia acutangula; high performance thin layer chromatographic profile; pharmacognosy
Description of the root of the plant, Zizyphus mauritiana Linn. the microscopical characters of the powdered root, its behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, and the fluorescence character under ultraviolet light after treatment were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the various extracts of the root of the plant was also performed. These studies were carried out to identify this plant for further research work.
The Macroscopic character of the leaves ash values, extractive values, behaviors on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under ultra violet light after treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of ficus racemosa Linn (fam. Moraceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical studies on different extractives of the leaves were also performed. These studies will help in future for identifying this plant for further research.
The plant Passiflora foetida (grandilla) has been used mainly for asthma and various neurological disorders by the traditional medicinal practitioners of Chittor District. Since proper information regarding this plant is not available, our efforts were devoted to fix the pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetid. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf, quantitative microscopy, physical constants, behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Passiflora foetida were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids and carbohydrates.
Passiflora foetida; depression; traditional medicine
Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absence of flavonoids and Terpenoids in A. longifolia (L.)
Nees and Alkaloids in, P edulis Sims, A.longifolia (L.)
Nees, B. tinctoria Lesch and S. indicus Linn. respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India.
The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed.
Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acid, sterols, and glycosides. This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of various extracts of fresh leaves of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn experimentally by in vitro (human red blood cell membrane stabilization method) and in vivo methods (0.1 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model). Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts were screened for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts which showed, best in vitro antiinflammatory activity was screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent significant (P<0.001) reduction in paw edema when compared to the control, at all the time intervals and comparable to indomethacin (reference standard) treated group. The results of the present study demonstrate that petroleum ether and chloroform extracts possess significant (P<0.001) antiinflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves as an antiinflammatory drug.
Antiinflammatory activity; carrageenan; Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn; human red blood cells membrane; verbenaceae
The macroscopical characters of the leaves, leaf constants, physico-chemical constants, extractive values, colour, consistency, pH, extractive values with different solvents, micro chemical test, fluorescence characters of liquid extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under visible and UV light at 254mn, measurement of cell and tissues were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters for leaves of Pithecellobium, dulce Benth which will enable the future investigators for identification of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study on different extracts of the leaves were also performed.
Extracts of in vitro leaves, field leaves and seeds of the leguminous plant Lessertia frutescens were analyzed using spectrophotometric and gravimetric methods, to the effect of quantitative comparison of their phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid and saponin contents. As compared to the field leaves and seeds, saponins were found to be most abundantly represented in in vitro leaves, followed by phenolics, flavonoids and alkaloids. The extracts were also qualitatively analyzed so as to evaluate the presence of other phytochemicals of medicinal interest. This qualitative analysis indicated the presence of tannins, phlobatannins and cardiac glycosides. Having in mind the documented therapeutic use of these phytochemicals, the results of this study offer a strong rationale for further animal and clinical investigations of L. frutescens extracts.
alkaloids; flavonoids; phenolics; phytochemicals; saponins; spectrophotometry
Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs.
Amaranthus spinosus Linn.; pharmacognostic standardization; physicochemical evaluations
Present paper deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the fruits of J. curcas Linn. The 75-80 cells thick pericarp is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. Mesocarpic zone embeds non-articulated laticifers, tannin containing idioblasts and randomly distributed vascular bundles. Endocarp shows the occurrence of fibrous sclereids. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the drug powder shows the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides and tannins. Clinical evaluation of the fresh fruit juice has shown it s anti gingivitic property.
To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine.
The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated.
Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2–3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2–8 cm) long, (1.5–5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis.
It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.
Cayratia trifolia; Leaf; Microscopic; Pharmacognostic; Vitaceae; Physiochemical analysis; Preliminary testing
To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman.
The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening.
Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract.
The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.
Thymus vulgaris L.; Various crude extracts; Phytochemical screening; Soxhlet extractor; Total phenol; Flavonoids contents
The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under ultra violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powered entire plant of Cleome viscose Linn.(Capparidaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanol extract of the plant also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research.
Ethanolic extract of Naringi crenulata or liminonia crenulata leaves was investigated for Phytochemical and Antimicrobial activities. The macroscopic characteristics of leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves. Naringi crenulata were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters and preliminary phytochemical studies on ethanolic extracts of the leaves were also performed. Antimicrobial activities against two bacterial strains – Bacillus subtilis, Klebsilla pnemoniae and two fungal strains Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. among the various leaf extracts maximum antimicrobial activity was exhibited by standard antibiotic.
Naringi crenulata; Rutaceae; Phytochemical studies and Antimicrobial activities
Ethanol extract of leaves of Clerodendron phlomoidis L. subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigations showed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, saponins, phenolic compounds, proteins and flavonoids. The extract was screened for hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg, i.p.) at two dose levels, viz., 100 and 200 mg/kg. The ethanol extract at 200 mg/kg dose level exhibited significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic activity and also correction of altered biochemical parameters viz., cholesterol and triglycerides (p<0.05).
Alloxan; antidiabetic activity; Clerodendron phlomoidis; ethanol extract