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1.  Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content 
Ayu  2011;32(3):402-407.
Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.
PMCID: PMC3326892  PMID: 22529660
Ardraka swarasa; brucine; kanji; kupeelu; shodhana; strychnine
2.  Comparative physico-chemical profile of Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.) seeds processed through water and Nimbu Swarasa (lemon juice) 
Ayu  2013;34(4):411-416.
Gunja (Abrus precatorius Linn.), known as Indian liquorice, is reputed as one of the world's most deadly but most beautiful seed belonging to the family Fabaceae, characterised under the Upavisha (semi-poisonous drugs) and used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Gunja only after proper Shodhana (purification procedures) in different media such as Godugdha (cow's milk), Kanji (sour gruel), etc., Apart from the classical methods, some traditional practitioners use Nimbu Swarasa for the Shodhana of Gunja seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to carry out Shodhana of Gunja seeds using Nimbu Swarasa and water. This study revealed differences in physico-chemical parameters of purified samples, in comparison to raw drugs.
PMCID: PMC3968706  PMID: 24696580
Abrin; Abrus precatorius; Gunja; Nimbu Swarasa; Shodhana
3.  Effect of Purificatory Measures Through Cow's Urine and Milk on Strychnine and Brucine Content of Kupeelu (Strychnos Nuxvomica Linn.) Seeds 
Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.
PMCID: PMC3746529  PMID: 23983327
Kupeelu; Strychnos nuxvomica; Shodhana; strychnine; Ayurveda; brucine; Cow's milk; Cow's urine
4.  A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):73-75.
Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.
PMCID: PMC3530271  PMID: 23284209
Kupeelu; Kanji; anti-inflammatory; purification; Shodhana; purificatory procedure
5.  Process Standardization of Rasamanikya 
Ayu  2010;31(1):7-11.
Rasamanikya is a famous drug, frequently used by Ayurvedic physicians for Vata-Kaphaja diseases like Shwasa, Kasa and Kushtha (Skin disorders). Various methods of preparation have been found described in Rasa classics. Generally it is prepared by Shuddha Haratala which is kept between two thin transparent Abharaka Patra (mica sheets) in small scale and in sharava for large scale, heated up to desired level. There are so many methods and different liquid media have been found described for Shodhana of Haratala. Therefore the methods of preparation of Rasamanikya and Shodhana process of Haratala have been validated through various experiments. Tankana-treated Haratala (T. Treated) is found best for Shodhana process and final product too i.e. Rasamanikya in terms of pharmaceutical standards i.e. Ruby in colour, along with reproducibility of fixed quality.
PMCID: PMC3215326  PMID: 22131676
Shodhana; Validation; T-Treated Haratala
6.  PA01.12. Evaluations of role of vishesha shodhana of metals with specific reference to tamra shodhana 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S61.
In this research work, an effort was made to observe effects of Samanya Shodhanottara Vishesha Shodhana and only Vishesha Shodhana upon Tamra.
Methods described in Rasatangini were followed to perform Samanya as well as Vishesha Shodhana. The study was carried out in two parts. In first part, actual process of Shodhana by various methods was performed and six samples were prepared. In second part, analysis of Ashodhita and Shodhita Taamra (Samanya Shodhanottara Vishesha Shodhit as well as only Vishesh Shodhita) was carried out. For this purpose, following parameters of analysis were considered- Change in physical characteristics of copper foils pre and post Shodhana, Change in weight of copper foils pre and post Shodhana, Pattern of XRPD for each sample, Percentage of copper in each sample by ICP AES, Change in electrical conductivity of each sample.
After Samanya Shodhana, the previous shine of copper was totally lost and it had crumpled appearance. Overall, Changes in tenacity of metal were also observed. The hardness went on decreasing and brittleness went on increasing. Steady fall in weight of Tamra was observed after each Shodhana. The XRPD samples of all the samples of Shodhita Tamra showed presence of copper and copper oxides in them. However, the peak positions and intensities of them were varying. There was marked decline in electrical conductivity post Shodhana.
It appeared from this study that Vishesha Shodhana of metals if preceded by their Samanya Shodhana produces better results. This time tested exercise certainly brings about significant changes in metallic properties of metals. Performing only Vishesha Shodhana or only Samanya Shodhana is not adequate.
PMCID: PMC3800942
Ancient Science of Life  1986;6(1):47-48.
Ayurvedic preparations claim on their label only the quantity of crude drugs and not the quantity of active ingredients present therein. So work was taken up to find the percentage of strychnine and brucine from Ayurvedic pills of Nux vomica powder by TLC spectrophotometric analysis, which study has not been reported earlier. However, the literature survey only revealed the following work.
PMCID: PMC3331393  PMID: 22557548
8.  Evaluation of toxicity of ‘Vatsanabha’ (Aconitum ferox, Ranunculaceae) Before and After Shodhana 
Ayurvedic preparations contain toxic elements like heavy metals and other chemicals exceeding their permissible limits. Ayurvedic method of detoxification of such products involves Shodhana. Hence, in present paper it has been decided to replace Ayurvedic Shodhana process by chemical purification method and to study the benefits and/or drawbacks of the traditional Ayurvedic Shodhana process. Crude aconite root, Ayurvedic Shodhana treated aconite root and chemical Shodhana treated aconite root samples were evaluated for toxicity and changes by animal studies and thin layer chromatography (TLC) respectively. The results of the toxicity study suggest that the modified method of Shodhana is less efficient as compared to the traditional Ayurvedic Shodhana process. TLC studies have shown that pseudoaconitine and aconitine were converted into far less toxic substances like veratroyl pseudoaconine and benzoylaconine respectively only in traditional Ayurvedic Shodhana.
PMCID: PMC3758080  PMID: 24023444
Aconitine; Shodhana; Toxicity
9.  A comparative study on the traditional Indian Shodhana and Chinese processing methods for aconite roots by characterization and determination of the major components 
Aconitum is an indispensable entity of the traditional medicine therapy in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in spite of its known fatal toxicity characteristics. The prolonged use of this drug, irrespective of its known lethal effects, is governed by the practice of effective detoxification processes that have been used for decades. However, the processing methods of Ayurveda and TCM are different, and no comparative study has been carried out to evaluate their differences.
The objective of the present study was to carry out comparative chemical profiling of the roots of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall, A. carmichaelii Debx., and A. kusnezoffii Reichb. after application of two detoxification methods used in Ayurveda and one method used in TCM .
Analysis of the processed samples was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). The results obtained in the study demonstrate that all three processing methods used in Ayurveda and TCM effectively extract the diester diterpenoid alkaloids and led to their conversion into monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. The efficiency of the processes in reduction of toxic alkaloid contents can be stated as: Processing with water > Shodhana with cow milk > Shodhana with cow urine. The analysis method was validated as per ICH-Q2R1 guidelines and all the parameters were found to comply with the recommendations stated in the guidelines.
There have been no reports till date, to compare the processing methods used in Ayurveda with the methods used in TCM for detoxification of aconite roots. Our study demonstrates that, these methods used in both the traditional systems of medicine, efficiently detoxify the aconite roots. Amongst the three selected procedures, the TCM method of decoction with water is the most efficient. Through experimental evidences, we prove the conversion of toxic diester diterpenoid alkaloids to relatively safer monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. Thus, this study demonstrates that comparative study on the traditional experiences accumulated in different medical systems is useful for expanding their respective applications.
PMCID: PMC4015782  PMID: 24156713
Aconitum heterophyllum wall; A. carmichaelii Debx; A. kusnezoffii Reichb; Ranunculaceae; Detoxification; Ayurveda; Traditional Chinese medicine; UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS; Diester diterpenoid alkaloids
10.  Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Tamra Bhasma (Incinerated Copper) prepared from Ashodhita (Unpurified) and Shodhita (Purified) Tamra in Rats 
The use of metals in traditional medicines is very often seen as matter of concern these days, especially the Bhasma preparations which are always under stringent observations for containing highly reactive inorganic elements such as lead, mercury, arsenic and others. One of the Bhasma extensively used in routine Ayurvedic practice is Tamra (copper) bhasma. If it is not prepared properly or Shodhana procedure is not done properly, it acts as a poison. To indicate its toxic potential, Ashtamahadoshas (eight major ill effects) have been quoted in classics and due emphasis have been given to its Shodhana procedure. In the present study, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita and Ashodhita Tamra was subjected to oral toxicity study to ascertain the role of Shodhana process on safety profile of Tamra bhasma on subchronic administration to albino rats. Both the samples were administered to rats for 45 consecutive days at the doses of 5.5, 27.5, and 55 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed on 46th day and parameters like hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathology of various organs were studied. Results showed that Tamra bhasma prepared from Ashodhita Tamra has pathological implications on different hematological, serum biochemical and cytoarchitecture of different organs even at therapeutic dose level (5.5 mg/kg). Whereas, Tamra bhasma prepared from Shodhita Tamra is safe even at five-fold to therapeutic equivalent doses (27.5 mg/kg). These observations emphasize the role of Shodhana and importance of dose in expression of toxicity of the medicinal preparations.
PMCID: PMC3783753  PMID: 24082351
Amrutikarana; copper; herbomineral formulation; LD50; Marana; Shodhana
11.  Simultaneous HPTLC determination of strychnine and brucine in strychnos nux-vomica seed 
A simple, sensitive, and specific thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine in the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica.
Materials and Methods:
The method involved simultaneous estimation of strychnine and brucine after resolving it by high performance TLC (HPTLC) on silica gel plate with chloroform–methanol–formic acid (8.5:1.5:0.4 v/v/v) as the mobile phase.
The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for precision (interday, intraday, intersystem), robustness, accuracy, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation. The relationship between the concentration of standard solutions and the peak response was linear within the concentration range of 50–1000 ng/spot for strychnine and 100–1000 ng/spot for brucine. The method precision was found to be 0.58–2.47 (% relative standard deviation [RSD]) and 0.36–2.22 (% RSD) for strychnine and brucine, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery studies conducted at three different concentration levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 100.75% for strychnine and 100.52% for brucine, respectively.
The HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of strychnine and brucine was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate and can be used for routine analysis and quality control of raw material of S. nux-vomica and several unani and ayurvedic formulations containing this as an ingredient.
PMCID: PMC3341717  PMID: 22557924
HPTLC; method development; strychnine; brucine; validation
12.  Anticonvulsant activity of raw and classically processed Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.) rhizomes 
Ayu  2012;33(1):119-122.
The rhizome of Vacha (Acorus calamus) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as epilepsy, headache, eye disorders, insomnia, loss of memory, etc. Previous studies demonstrated that Vacha rhizome is having significant anticonvulsant activity against various induced seizures models in experimental animals. Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India has advocated Shodhana (purificatory procedures) to be done prior to its use. In the present study a comparative anticonvulsant activity of raw and Shodhita (classically processed) Vacha rhizomes were screened against Maximal Electro Shock (MES) seizure model to assess the effect of classical purificatory procedure on pharmacological action of Vacha. Phenytoin was used as standard antiepileptic drug for comparison. Pretreatment with both raw and classically processed Vacha samples exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity by decreasing the duration of tonic extensor phase. Further classically processed Vacha statistically decreased the duration of convulsion and stupor phases of MES-induced seizures. The results obtained from the present study clearly confirmed the anticonvulsant activity of raw Vacha and subjecting to classical Shodhana procedure did not alter the efficacy of Vacha rhizomes instead it enhanced the activity profile of the Vacha.
PMCID: PMC3456849  PMID: 23049196
Acorus calamus; anticonvulsant; epilepsy; phenytoin; shodhana; vacha
13.  Effective detoxification of Abrus precatorius Linn. seeds by Shodhana 
Ayurveda, which is one of the traditional systems of medicine of India, reports the seeds of Abrus precatorius (family: Fabaceae) can be used therapeutically after shodhana process, which removes the toxin. The main objective was to scientifically study the shodhana process by evaluating the safety and efficacy of A. precatorius seeds. Aqueous extract (A1) and detoxified extract (A2) of the seeds were prepared by a process described in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method was developed for the two extracts using different solvent systems. Identical spots were obtained in A1 with reference values (Rf) 0.27, 0.47, and 0.79, whereas A2 showed the absence of spot having Rf value 0.47, which could possibly be the toxin found in the intact seed. A1 and A2 were evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The acute toxicity studies for A1 and A2 revealed that A1 was toxic, whereas A2 was safe at the dose of 2 g/kg. Absence of toxicity in the detoxified extract suggests removal of toxic material in processed seeds. The results obtained for hair growth activity of both the extracts were comparable to that of the standard. However, A2 showed better results in comparison to A1. Thus, the shodhana process described in Ayurveda helps in removing the toxin, while retaining the efficacy at the same time. The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance.
PMCID: PMC3737451  PMID: 23930039
Abrin; acute toxicity; alopecia; Gunja seeds
14.  Effect of Shodhana Treatment on Chronic Toxicity and Recovery of Aconite 
Toxicology International  2012;19(1):35-41.
Aconite is one of the poisonous plants used therapeutically in practice of Ayurveda after proper treatment called as ‘Shodhana’. To determine the effect of Shodhana treatment on chronic toxicity and to assess the effect of recovery period after chronic toxicity of aconite. Raw aconite (RV), urine treated aconite (SM), and milk treated aconite (SD) were administered in 6.25 mg/kg dose in Charles Foster strain albino rats for 90 days for chronic toxicity. Six rats from each were kept for another 30 days without test drugs treatment to observe recovery from chronic toxicity. RV was found to be highly toxic in chronic exposure, SM had no apparent toxicity, but SD had mild toxicity in kidney. The toxicities of RV and SD were reversible, but sudden withdrawal of SM caused adverse effects, suggestive of tapering withdrawal. Shodhana treatments remove toxic effects from raw aconite. Chronic toxicity of aconite is reversible. Confirmed the arrangement of abstract
PMCID: PMC3339243  PMID: 22736901
Aconitum chasmanthum; cow's urine; cow's milk; recovery; shodhana
15.  Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract 
Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification).
The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification.
Materials and Methods:
Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract.
The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium.
Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting its therapeutic potential.
PMCID: PMC4204285  PMID: 25336846
Abrin; Abrus precatorius; anti-inflammatory; detoxification; Gunja seeds; shodhana
16.  Use of Strychnos Nux-Vomica (Azraqi) Seeds in Unani System of Medicine: Role of Detoxification 
Some plants used in Unani system of medicine are toxic, even deadly poisonous. The drugs having such plants as their components are detoxified before they are dispensed to the patients. One such drug, capsule Hudar, has Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Azraqi) seeds as one of its components and is very effectively used to elevate blood pressure. Ancient manuscripts describe many methods of its detoxification. It has been found that the detoxification processes studied reduce the strychnine content, as determined either by using uv-vis spectrophotometer or HPLC, present in Strychnos nux vomica seeds which is responsible for Strychnos nux vomica toxicity. The decrease in strychnine amount was best when the seeds were immersed for detoxification in excess of water for 5 days, in milk for 2 days followed by their boiling in milk. Strychnine in small amounts has been reported to give subjective feeling of stimulation
PMCID: PMC3005396  PMID: 21731158
Strychnos nux vomica; detoxification; Unani medicine
17.  Pharmaceutical study of Yashadabhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;31(3):90-94.
Rasashastra is a branch which deals with the pharmaceutics of Rasaoushadhis. Bhasmas are one among such Rasaoushadhis which are known for their low doses and fast action. A verse from Rasaratnasamuchchaya says that the bhasma prepared by using Mercury as media is of best quality.
Materials and Methods:
Following this principle, Yashadabhasma (Zinc calx) was prepared by subjecting it to Samanya shodhana (general purification method for all metals), Vishesha shodhana (specific putification method for Zinc), Jarana (roasting) and Marana (incineration) with Parada(Mercury) as a media under Gajaputa (classical heating system with 1000 cowdung cakes).
Results and Conclusion:
Yellow colored Yashadabhasma which passed all the classical bhasmaparikshas (tests for properly prepared calx) was obtained after two putas. The bhasma did not pass Nishchandratva(free from shining particles) test after 1stputa but was passed after giving it 2ndputa.
PMCID: PMC3530344  PMID: 23284213
Bhasmapariksha; Gajaputa; Marana; Yashadabhasma
18.  Evaluation of the effect of conventionally prepared swarna makshika bhasma on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals 
Swarna makshika (chalcopyrite) bhasma (SMB) has been used for different therapeutic purposes since long in Ayurveda. The present study is conducted to evaluate the effect of conventionally prepared SMB on different bio-chemical parameters in experimental animals, for providing scientific data base for its logical use in clinical practice. The genuine SMB was prepared by following classical techniques of shodhana and marana most commonly used by different Ayurvedic drug manufacturers. Shodhana was done by roasting raw swarna makshika with lemon juice for three days and marana was performed by 11 putas. The experimental animals (rats) were divided into two groups. SMB mixed with diluted honey was administered orally in therapeutic dose to Group SMB and diluted honey only was administered to vehicle control Group, for 30 days. The blood samples were collected twice, after 15 days and after 30 days of drug administration and different biochemical investigations were done. Biochemical parameters were chosen based on references from Ayurvedic classics and contemporary medicine. It was observed that Hb% was found significantly increased and LDL and VLDL were found significantly decreased in Group SMB when compared with vehicle control group. This experimental data will help the clinician for the logical use of SMB in different disease conditions with findings like low Hb% and high LDL, VLDL levels.
PMCID: PMC3255449  PMID: 22253508
Bio-chemical parameters; makshika bhasma; marana; puta; shodhana
19.  Pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma 
Ayu  2010;31(3):387-390.
In the present research paper, the work done on pharmaceutical study of Lauha Bhasma conducted in the Department of Rasa Shastra under the postgraduate research programme is being presented. The pharmaceutical processing of Lauha Bhasma was performed by following samanya shodhana, vishesha shodhana and marana of Lauha. Under the process of marana, three specific pharmaceutical techniques were followed, viz. bhanupaka, sthalipaka and putapaka. During the putapaka process, an electric muffle furnace (EMF) was used. The temperature of puta was studied in two batches, viz. in Batch I, a temperature of 800°C was maintained whereas in Batch II, a temperature of 600°C was maintained. The purpose behind selecting two temperatures was to validate the process of marana of Lauha and to determine an ideal temperature for the preparation of Lauha Bhasma in EMF. It is found that after 20 puta at a temperature of 600°C, the Lauha Bhasma was prepared properly. The entire characteristic of Lauha Bhasma, like “pakwa jambu phala varna,” varitar, etc. was attained at 600°. At a temperature of 800°C, the process could not be carried out smoothly. The pellets turned very hard and brassy yellow in color. The desired color was attained only after decreasing the temperature in further puta.
PMCID: PMC3221077  PMID: 22131745
Ayurveda; electric muffle furnace; Lauha; marana; puta; shodhana
20.  Comparative study on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by two different methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):62-72.
Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva (bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-chemical properties.
PMCID: PMC3530270  PMID: 23284208
Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra; Traditional Puta; Kasisa Bhasma
21.  Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity 
Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed.
Materials and Methods:
Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard.
Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected.
S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals.
PMCID: PMC3371563  PMID: 22707864
Antidiabetic activity; alloxan; extract; kuchla
24.  Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit 
Ayu  2012;33(2):270-273.
Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.
PMCID: PMC3611655  PMID: 23559802
Bhallataka; bhilawanol; blisters; dermatitis; Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; urushiol
25.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Rajata Bhasma 
Ayu  2011;32(4):566-571.
Rasa Shastra is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the processing of minerals and metals having therapeutic importance. Rajata comes under the group of metals having high therapeutic value. Minerals and metals are mostly used in the form of Bhasma. During the medieval period Rasacharyas extensively worked and developed a number of processing methods for a single drug. They all are standard manufacturing procedures (SMP) which ensure the quality, safety, efficacy and reproducibility of the product. Earlier Ayurvedic physicians were producing medicines by themselves according to their need. Now a day, due to commercialization of Ayurvedic medicines and ignorance of classical methods, quality of drugs has deteriorated. Presently, the demand of Ayurvedic drugs in the global market is increasing day by day. Hence it is the need of time to develop SMP for Ayurvedic products for global acceptability. This paper aims at providing SMP for the manufacture of Rajata Bhasma and also attempts to study the effect of Shodhana process on Rajata. Rajata was obtained from the local market of Varanasi. Rajata Bhasma was prepared and it was observed that during the preparation of Rajata Bhasma, use of Muffle Furnace instead of conventional Puta is more advantageous due to better temperature control. Use of mercury and sulphur together acts as best medium in the preparation of Rajata Bhasma.
PMCID: PMC3361937  PMID: 22661856
Bhavana; Marana; Rajata; Rajata sindura; Shodhana

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