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1.  Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic in US- and Indian-Manufactured Ayurvedic Medicines Sold via the Internet 
Context
Lead, mercury, and arsenic have been detected in a substantial proportion of Indian-manufactured traditional Ayurvedic medicines. Metals may be present due to the practice of rasa shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals, and gems). Whether toxic metals are present in both US- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines is unknown.
Objectives
To determine the prevalence of Ayurvedic medicines available via the Internet containing detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic and to compare the prevalence of toxic metals in US- vs Indian-manufactured medicines and between rasa shastra and non–rasa shastra medicines.
Design
A search using 5 Internet search engines and the search terms Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine identified 25 Web sites offering traditional Ayurvedic herbs, formulas, or ingredients commonly used in Ayurveda, indicated for oral use, and available for sale. From 673 identified products, 230 Ayurvedic medicines were randomly selected for purchase in August–October 2005. Country of manufacturer/Web site supplier, rasa shastra status, and claims of Good Manufacturing Practices were recorded. Metal concentrations were measured using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.
Main Outcome Measures
Prevalence of medicines with detectable toxic metals in the entire sample and stratified by country of manufacture and rasa shastra status.
Results
One hundred ninety-three of the 230 requested medicines were received and analyzed. The prevalence of metal-containing products was 20.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2%–27.1%). The prevalence of metals in US-manufactured products was 21.7% (95% CI, 14.6%–30.4%) compared with 19.5% (95% CI, 11.3%–30.1%) in Indian products (P=.86). Rasa shastra compared with non–rasa shastra medicines had a greater prevalence of metals (40.6% vs 17.1%; P=.007) and higher median concentrations of lead (11.5 μg/g vs 7.0 μg/g; P=.03) and mercury (20 800 μg/g vs 34.5 μg/g; P=.04). Among the metal-containing products, 95% were sold by US Web sites and 75% claimed Good Manufacturing Practices. All metal-containing products exceeded 1 or more standards for acceptable daily intake of toxic metals.
Conclusion
One-fifth of both US-manufactured and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines purchased via the Internet contain detectable lead, mercury, or arsenic.
doi:10.1001/jama.300.8.915
PMCID: PMC2755247  PMID: 18728265
2.  Comparative study on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by two different methods 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):62-72.
Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva (bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-chemical properties.
PMCID: PMC3530270  PMID: 23284208
Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra; Traditional Puta; Kasisa Bhasma
3.  Critical review on the pharmaceutical vistas of Lauha Kalpas (Iron formulations) 
Iron is one among the major metals present in the earth's crust and is essential for sound sustenance of human body. Its deficiency leads to various health ailments. Contemporary medicine advises iron supplements in iron deficiency anemia. Ayurvedic classics also quote significant information about administration of iron. Lauha Kalpas are the unique compound herbo-mineral formulations where iron (Lauha) is used as a major ingredient. Relevant literature (Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Charaka Samhita, Rasendra Sara Samgraha etc.) reviewed to gather information about Lauha Kalpas. Critical analysis of these Lauha Kalpas reveals that ancient seers administered iron in a better acceptable form. Unlike popular understanding these are not only Khalviya preparations; but Churna (powders), Avaleha (confectionaries), Rasakriya (solidified decoctions), and Putapaka (incinerated) form of preparations are also found. Apart from solid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms mentioned in classics are very much useful. Unfortunately most of the formulations are not found in the market. Hence Pharmaceutical firms may bring these unique dosage forms in to the market to supply the healthcare needs of the community. It is interesting that iron preparations are used in Ayurveda in different medical conditions apart from anemia (Pandu). This leaves a scope for further researches on different dosage forms of iron and their indications.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.93944
PMCID: PMC3326790  PMID: 22529676
Ayurveda; Bhasma; Hematinics; Iron; Lauha Kalpa; pharmaceutics; Rasaushadhi
4.  Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of a Marketed Herbomineral Formulation: Naga Bhasma 
In the practice of Ayurveda, where herbomineral formulations are said to be made biocompatible through specific processes like Shodhana and Marana, the western medical science on the contrary has raised the safety concerns of these formulations in the recent past. In the present study, comparative physico-chemical analysis of Naga bhasma, a herbo-mineral preparation having a reputation of miraculous drug commonly used to treat several health disorders, was carried out using five marketed formulations through analytical methods like differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray difraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and also subjected for particle size analysis and estimation of trace and heavy metals to access the safety of these formulation. The results revealed variable observations regarding particle size, metal form and content of lead. The presence of free lead in five different formulations indicated towards the possible risk of severe side effects to the consumer. Present findings certainly put doubt over the safety of this formulation but at the same time, variation in the results with all five formulations also indicated that these formulations were not prepared as per the mentioned Ayurvedic text. Hence, enforcement of strict regulatory guidelines is strongly warranted before launching into the market. Further, a series of biological studies need to be conducted before taking any final verdict on the safety of this formulation.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.110598
PMCID: PMC3687923  PMID: 23798779
Herbo-mineral preparations; Naga bhasma; physico-chemical evaluation; quality control
5.  Vajikarana: Treatment of sexual dysfunctions based on Indian concepts 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(Suppl 2):S273-S276.
Vajikarana or Vrishya chikitsa is a one of eight major specialty of the Ashtanga Ayurveda. This subject is concerned with aphrodisiacs, virility and improving health of progeny. As per Charak Samhita, by proper use of these formulations, one becomes endowed with good physique, potency, strength, and complexion and sexually exhilarated and sexually potent. This in turn is helpful in many common sexual dysfunctions, including Infertility, Premature Ejaculation and Erectile dysfunction. The therapy is preceded by living in strict compliance with the directions mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, various methods of body cleansing and other non-medicinal strategies like sexual health promoting conduct, behavior and diet. Certain individualized herbal and herbo-mineral combinations are administered as per the nature of a person according to the Ayurveda. Many limitations need to be considered before considering the use of theses therapy like lack of scientific studies, possibilities of adulteration in the herbal and herbo-mineral combinations available in market and possibilities of unexpected side-effects etc., The article calls upon initiating research in this area so that claims of ancient Ayurvedic texts could be substantiated and vajikaran therapy may be utilized by modern medicine.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105550
PMCID: PMC3705695  PMID: 23858267
Aphrodisiac; sexual functioning improvement; vajikaran
6.  Physicochemical characterization of an Iron based Indian traditional medicine: Mandura Bhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):52-57.
Ayurveda is a unique system of medicine which uses metals and minerals in the form of bhasma (fine powder obtained through calcinations). Mandura is one of such mineral having various therapeutic uses. An effort has been made in the present study to characterize raw and processed Mandura using sophisticated analytical tools as a step forward to standardization. Mandura bhasma was prepared following references of Ayurvedic classics. To assure the quality of the prepared bhasma, Rasa Shastra quality control tests like rekhapurnatvam (particles enter into furrows of human hand), varitara (floating of product particles on water), irreversible etc., were used. Bhasma fulfilling these tests was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. This revealed that raw Mandura contained Fe2Si04, and Mandura bhasma contained Fe2O3 and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the grains in Mandura bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of sizes 200-300 nm as compared to the raw Mandura, which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of sizes 10-2 microns. It may be concluded that this conversion of raw Mandura, a complex compound, into a mixture of simple compounds having nano-sized particles is due to the particular process of calcination employed.
PMCID: PMC3530268  PMID: 23284206
Mandura bhasma; X-ray diffraction; Scanning electron microscopy
7.  Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis) 
Ayu  2012;33(1):102-109.
At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found significant in Gr. III and non-significant in Gr. I and Gr. II.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100324
PMCID: PMC3456846  PMID: 23049193
Argyreia nervosa; Caesalpinia bonduc; fever; filariasis; lymphadenitis; lymphangitis; lymphedema; Shlipada
8.  Seekership, Spirituality and Self-Discovery: Ayurveda Trainees in Britain 
This paper examines the backgrounds and motivations of persons trained or training as Ayurvedic practitioners at two London-based institutions offering Ayurveda programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It draws upon in-depth interviews with individuals at various stages of their training and practice in order to examine the paths that bring them to Ayurveda, their motivations for undergoing training, and the ways in which they apply their knowledge of Ayurveda during and after their training period. The findings here corroborate what other scholars have demonstrated in the case of Asian traditions like Yoga and Ayurveda in the West; these traditions have inevitably undergone shifts in meaning by virtue of their assimilation into the Western, in this case British, holistic health milieu. Most significant in Ayurveda's case is the shift away from a preoccupation with remedial medicine (the bedrock of mainstream Ayurveda in modern South Asia), to a focus on self-knowledge and self-empowerment as a path to ‘holistic healing’ (understood to address mental and spiritual, not just physical, wellbeing). Even though the Ayurvedic curriculum transmitted at the educational institutions in London is based largely on that taught at Ayurveda colleges in India, the completely different orientations and dispositions of students in Britain (as compared to their South Asian counterparts) ensures that the Ayurveda they go on to apply and practise is radically different – this is ‘spiritualised’ Ayurveda, in radical contrast to the ‘biomedicalised’ version obtaining in modern mainstream South Asian contexts.
doi:10.1163/157342009X12526658783691
PMCID: PMC2898496  PMID: 20617123
Ayurveda; New Age; subjectivisation; spiritualisation; biomedicalisation; seekership; healing; holism; self-discovery; authenticity
9.  Standard manufacturing procedure of Rajata Bhasma 
Ayu  2011;32(4):566-571.
Rasa Shastra is a branch of Ayurveda which deals with the processing of minerals and metals having therapeutic importance. Rajata comes under the group of metals having high therapeutic value. Minerals and metals are mostly used in the form of Bhasma. During the medieval period Rasacharyas extensively worked and developed a number of processing methods for a single drug. They all are standard manufacturing procedures (SMP) which ensure the quality, safety, efficacy and reproducibility of the product. Earlier Ayurvedic physicians were producing medicines by themselves according to their need. Now a day, due to commercialization of Ayurvedic medicines and ignorance of classical methods, quality of drugs has deteriorated. Presently, the demand of Ayurvedic drugs in the global market is increasing day by day. Hence it is the need of time to develop SMP for Ayurvedic products for global acceptability. This paper aims at providing SMP for the manufacture of Rajata Bhasma and also attempts to study the effect of Shodhana process on Rajata. Rajata was obtained from the local market of Varanasi. Rajata Bhasma was prepared and it was observed that during the preparation of Rajata Bhasma, use of Muffle Furnace instead of conventional Puta is more advantageous due to better temperature control. Use of mercury and sulphur together acts as best medium in the preparation of Rajata Bhasma.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.96135
PMCID: PMC3361937  PMID: 22661856
Bhavana; Marana; Rajata; Rajata sindura; Shodhana
10.  OA01.46. Effect of LAS-02, a cancero-static compound on p53 levels in cases of different types of cancers 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S46.
Purpose:
Cancer is one of the life threatening diseases spreading worldwide now a days. Oncogenes on one hand are well known to be activated by proto-oncogenes and are suppressed by tumor suppressor genes (TSG). There are different strategies for targeting to the regulation of tumor suppression gene. P53 is a most targeted gene that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as tumor suppression to maintain the integrity of DNA.
Method:
In the present study p53 was used as a parameter to evaluate the efficacy of a new herbo-mineral compound LAS02 a cancero-static compound formulated by Lavanya Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre Lucknow, in different type of malignancies such as breast cancer, bone marrow, hepatic, ovarian, head & neck carcinoma. The serum samples were taken from the cancer patients at Lavanya Ayurvedic hospital and was tested by solid phase sandwich enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA).
Result:
The main p53 valves before treatment more found to be 4.76 U/ml however, after treatment with our new herbo-mineral drug, the mean values of post treated p53 values were found to be significantly raised to 35.94 U/ml, which signifies the efficacy of treatment of LAS02 in enhancing the expression of p53 gene in different types of cancers.
Conclusion:
p53 protein is a guard of DNA and helps in enhancing repair of the damage of DNA done by cancerous pathology.
PMCID: PMC3800925
11.  Shelf-life evaluation of Rasayana Churna: A preliminary study 
Ayu  2014;35(2):184-186.
Background:
Concept of Saviryta Avadhi (shelf-life) of Ayurvedic dosage forms is well-defined in classics of Ayurveda. Information on this is scattered in initial classics of Ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, but focused well after 13th Century AD in texts such as Vangasena Samhita, Sharangadhara Samhita and Yogaratnakara. Though the concepts have a strong background; considering the pharmaceutical development, a need is felt to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms.
Aim:
To evaluate shelf-life of two samples of Rasayana Churna.
Materials and Methods:
Raw material was procured from The Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University and authenticated at Pharmacognosy Laboratory. Individual drugs were powdered and blended in specified ratio to obtain Rasayana Churna (RC). RC was levigated with decoction of Amalaki, Guduchi and Gokshura to prepare Bhavita Rasayana Churna (BRC). Both the samples were subjected to accelerated stability studies by following standard guidelines.
Results:
Both the samples are bitter and astringent with characteristic odor. RC is creamish brown in colour, while BRC is dark blackish brown. These Organoleptic characters were unchanged till the 6th month of study. On comparision, BRC is found to be more stable than RC.
Conclusion:
This signifies that, Bhavana not only incorporates additional therapeutic attributes, but also helpful in increasing shelf-life.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.146247
PMCID: PMC4279326  PMID: 25558165
Accelerated stability; Bhavana; Churna; Rasayana; Saviryta Avadhi; shelf-life
12.  Clinical evaluation of Vṛṣya effect of Pūga Khaṇḍa on sexual health and seminal parameters 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):134-138.
Background:
Due to changes in life-style, the human beings are losing their Vṛṣyatā (virility). Bio-medicine hasn’t been able to address this challenge. Hence, we see that many people seek the help of herbal medicines to get relief. In view of the above, it becomes necessary to provide potent formulations to address this ailment.
Objectives:
The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Pūga Khaṇḍa on seminal parameters and sexual health.
Materials and Methods:
Pūga Khaṇḍa has been mentioned as Vṛṣya (aphrodisiac) in the 30th chapter of Bhaiśajyaratnāvalī. A simple-randomised, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study comparing this Pūga Khaṇḍa preparation with a placebo was conducted in 52 patients attending O.P.D. of Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana of Muniyal Institute of Ayurveda Medical Sciences, Manipal. An elaborative case taking Proforma was specially designed for this purpose incorporating all aspects of the disease in the Ayurvedic parlance. Both groups received either Pūga Khaṇḍa or placebo, in empty stomach in the early morning with water, as per the randomisation plan for a period of 45 days. Patients were followed-upto 4 weeks, 43 patients (84%) had completed the trial and no adverse effects were reported. The assessment was done on the basis of changes in seminal parameters and sexual health parameters.
Results:
A varying degree of improvement was observed in sexual parameters viz. duration of coitus (P<0.001), frequency of coitus (P<0.01), Sexual desire (P<0.05), penile erection (P<0.01), A significant improvement was seen in duration of coitus (P< 0.001) in the group treated by Pūga Khaṇḍa.
Conclusion:
The trial drug Pūga Khaṇḍa was superior to placebo in reducing the mean sign and symptom score of seminal parameters and sexual health.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122995
PMCID: PMC3902532  PMID: 24501440
Klaibya; Puga Khanda; seminal parameters; sexual parameters; Vrushya
13.  Pharmaceutical standardization of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma 
Ayu  2012;33(1):136-142.
Shukti is an important component of Sudha Varga, which is considered as the latest class in the field of Rasa Shastra. Two types of Shukti have been mentioned in Rasa Shastra texts i.e. Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukti according to the availability. In present study, an attempt has been made to develop a standard manufacturing procedure (SMP) of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma. Five batches of Jala Shukti Bhasma and Mukta Shukti Bhasma were prepared and standardization was attempted by maintaining batch manufacturing records of individual batches. During pharmaceutical procedures like Shodhana, Bhavana, Marana, etc. due care of temperature, its duration, percentage of weight gain or loss and the cost factor of the end product, etc. were considered. The average weight loss observed was 12.08 g i.e. 2.42% and 14.62 g i.e. 2.92% during Jala Shukti and Mukta Shukiti Shodhana respectively. Average weight loss found was 38.94 g i.e. 7.79% in Jala Shukti Bhasma while in Mukta Shukti Bhasma, it was 35.24 g i.e. 7.05%. At the end of the pharmaceutical procedure, it was found that Mukta Shukti Bhasma is 2.8 times costlier than Jala Shukti Bhasma.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100331
PMCID: PMC3456852  PMID: 23049199
Bhasma; Jala Shukti; Marana; Mukta Shukti; Shodhana
14.  Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine 
Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal's derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don’t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s). Particle size (1-2 μ) reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.
doi:10.4103/2231-4040.126980
PMCID: PMC3960793  PMID: 24696811
Ayurveda; bhasma; marna; nano-particle; shodhna; standardization
15.  Pharmaceutical study of Yashadabhasma 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;31(3):90-94.
Background:
Rasashastra is a branch which deals with the pharmaceutics of Rasaoushadhis. Bhasmas are one among such Rasaoushadhis which are known for their low doses and fast action. A verse from Rasaratnasamuchchaya says that the bhasma prepared by using Mercury as media is of best quality.
Materials and Methods:
Following this principle, Yashadabhasma (Zinc calx) was prepared by subjecting it to Samanya shodhana (general purification method for all metals), Vishesha shodhana (specific putification method for Zinc), Jarana (roasting) and Marana (incineration) with Parada(Mercury) as a media under Gajaputa (classical heating system with 1000 cowdung cakes).
Results and Conclusion:
Yellow colored Yashadabhasma which passed all the classical bhasmaparikshas (tests for properly prepared calx) was obtained after two putas. The bhasma did not pass Nishchandratva(free from shining particles) test after 1stputa but was passed after giving it 2ndputa.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.103181
PMCID: PMC3530344  PMID: 23284213
Bhasmapariksha; Gajaputa; Marana; Yashadabhasma
16.  Concept of Satkaaryavaada in Darshana and its application in Ayurveda 
Ayu  2013;34(2):143-146.
Ayurveda is a Sarvaparishada Shastra which means this system of medicine is related to all its scriptures, takes into account even the mutually divergent views expressed in various philosophical systems so far as they do not oppose the Ayurvedic concepts. The most nearest allied branch of Ayurveda is the Darshana Shastra (philosophical texts). There are similarities of some concepts of Ayurveda and Darshana Shastra, but as the Prayojana (aim) of both Shastra are different, they have been advocated in a different way. One such concept taken by Saankhya Darshana is “Satkaaryavaada,” which is mentioned in respect to Srishti (evolution of universe). This theory is taken as it is in Ayurveda but applied in different manner.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.119666
PMCID: PMC3821241  PMID: 24250121
Ayurveda; Darshana; Saankhya; Sarvaparishada; Satkaaryavaada
17.  Physicochemical characterization of Ayurvedic bhasma (Swarna makshika bhasma): An approach to standardization 
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda. The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it withit with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS2, and SM bhasma contains Fe2O3, FeS2, CuS and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.64409
PMCID: PMC2924988  PMID: 20814520
Scanning electron microscope; Swarna makshika bhasma; X-ray diffraction
18.  Bioaccessibility of lead and arsenic in traditional Indian medicines 
The Science of the total environment  2011;409(21):4545-4552.
Arsenic and lead have been found in a number of traditional Ayurvedic medicines, and the practice of Rasa Shastra (combining herbs with metals, minerals and gems), or plant ingredients that contain these elements, may be possible sources. To obtain an estimate of arsenic and lead solubility in the human gastrointestinal tract, bioaccessibility of the two elements was measured in 42 medicines, using a physiologically-based extraction test. The test consisted of a gastric phase at pH 1.8 containing organic acids, pepsin and salt, followed by an intestinal phase, at pH 7 and containing bile and pancreatin. Arsenic speciation was measured in a subset of samples that had sufficiently high arsenic concentrations for the X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis used. Bioaccessible lead was found in 76% of samples, with a large range of bioaccessibility results, but only 29% of samples had bioaccessible arsenic. Lead bioaccessibility was high (close to 100%) in a medicine (Mahayograj Guggulu) that had been compounded with bhasmas (calcined minerals), including naga (lead) bhasma. For the samples in which arsenic speciation was measured, bioaccessible arsenic was correlated with the sum of As(V)–O and As(III)–O and negatively correlated with As–S. These results suggest that the bioaccessible species in the samples had been oxidized from assumed As–S raw medicinal ingredients (realgar, As4S4, added to naga (lead) bhasma and As(III)–S species in plants). Consumption at recommended doses of all medicines with bioaccessibile lead or arsenic would lead to the exceedance of at least one standard for acceptable daily intake of toxic elements.
doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.059
PMCID: PMC3224858  PMID: 21864885
Arsenic; Lead; Bioaccessibility; Ayurvedic; Speciation; Risk
19.  OA01.48. Prativish chincha ras in the management of Dhatura poising 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S48.
Purpose:
Dhatura is an important deliriant poison grouped under sthavara upavisha and phalavisha. It affects the Central Nervous system. Dhatura is important ingredient of large number of medicinal formulations. In the Ayurvedic text,, Basavarajeeyam, Chincha Rasa (Tamarind) has been described to be possessing antidote action to counter toxicity of Dhatura. This study attempts to establish the activity and mechanism of action of chincha rasa against toxic effects of Dhatura by means of chemical analysis.
Method:
1) Collection of drugs, 2) Authentication of three drugs in Govt. authorised institute, 3) i) Preparation of Chincha rasa (According to charaka), ii) Preparation of Chincha pakwa phal (According to Sharangdhar), 4) Physical and Chemical study of Dhatur seed, i) Preparation of Dhatur Churna (According to Sharangdhar) and Analytical Study of three drugs, 5) Methods of determination of an antidote.
Result:
Laboratory experiments were carried out to obtain values of specific parameters for Dhatur seeds, chincha patra ras (tamarind leafe juice) and chincha pakwa phal (ripe tamarind fruit).
Conclusion:
On the basis of observations and results found in chemical study and reported literature, the study came with the following conclusions. 1) The chincha patra rasa and Chincha pakwa phal rasa both contain Hordenine which has the antibacterial activity and stimulates the central nervous system providing relief from unquenchable thirst, muttering and delirium (indistinct and inaudible words unsteady gait) 2) Because of tannins, Chinchapatra ras and Chincha pakwaphal ras have astringent property, which counteract the toxic symptoms of Dhatur like dermatitis, rash and exfoliation of the skin. 3) Because of glycosides and tannins, chincha patra rasa and chincha pakwaphal have diuretic property which counteract the toxic symptoms of dhatura like urinary retention and inability to pass urine. 4) The tartaric acid present in chincha patra ras and chincha pakwaphal ras causes gastric irritation and thus induces vomiting. 5) Chincha patra ras and Chincha pakwa phal ras have flavonoids (Vit. P. and Citrin) which strengthens the blood vessels and lowers blood pressure and works as anti-inflammatoryagent. 6) The Chincha patra ras and Chincha pakwa phal ras have vit. ‘C’ which lead the blood circulation towards the heart which prevent the cardiac arrest produced in the Dhatura poisoning. 7) Chincha patra ras aqueous extract 1% and 10% has the pH of 5.91 and 5.45 and the pH of chincha pakwa phal ras aqueous extract of 1% and 10% has pH of 4.72 and 4.50. Both are acidic but the pH of Dhatura in aqueous extract of 1% is 8.19 and 8.00. Therefore, they neurtralize each other and reduce the toxic effect of dhatura. Similarly, the action of chincha rasa can be explained through the concepts of Ayurveda.
PMCID: PMC3800927
20.  PA02.03. Pharmaceutical standardization of Ropya raj rasa 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S48.
Purpose:
New drug discovery is the need of the hour as we see considerable increase in the number and nature of diseases. Though Ayurveda, the ancient science of medicine, has number of unique formulations in its armory. These formulations in the Rasashastra texts which are said to be possessing very high therapeutic values but are not manufactured by any pharmaceutical industries due to lack of SOP and SMP regarding the pharmaceutical procedures. Ropya Raj Rasa is one such formulation which has ambiguity regarding its ingredients, pharmaceutical procedure and the final product. At the same time it has been mentioned highly effective in Bhagandara. Hence with an objective to find out answers to this ambiguity regarding pharmaceutical procedure of Ropya Raj Rasa.
Method:
The present study was conducted where in all available meanings for “Rasendra ” and “Mlechhakshara” were considered and used for preparation. Totally six different combinations were formulated for “Rasendra” and “Mlechhakshara” meaning. At the end of the study, the optimum temperature required for the formulation, the accurate combination of “Rasendra” and “Mlechhakshara”, the drugs to be taken in the name of “Rasendra” and “Mlechhakshara” were concluded as a part of pharmaceutical standardization.
Result:
Out of six combinations, one with the Hingula and Navasadara demonstrated the signs of completion as mentioned in the text “Bhramati Taravata on Dhamana”.
Conclusion:
Samples containing Somala did not demonstrate the sign of completion. Thus it would be rational to conclude that with the reference Rasendra is Hingula and Mlechhakshara is Navasadara.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123864
PMCID: PMC4147519
21.  In Vivo Effects Of Traditional Ayurvedic Formulations in Drosophila melanogaster Model Relate with Therapeutic Applications 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37113.
Background
Ayurveda represents the traditional medicine system of India. Since mechanistic details of therapy in terms of current biology are not available in Ayurvedic literature, modern scientific studies are necessary to understand its major concepts and procedures. It is necessary to examine effects of the whole Ayurvedic formulations rather than their “active” components as is done in most current studies.
Methods
We tested two different categories of formulations, a Rasayana (Amalaki Rasayana or AR, an herbal derivative) and a Bhasma (Rasa-Sindoor or RS, an organo-metallic derivative of mercury), for effects on longevity, development, fecundity, stress-tolerance, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) levels of Drosophila melanogaster using at least 200 larvae or flies for each assay.
Results
A 0.5% (weight/volume) supplement of AR or RS affected life-history and other physiological traits in distinct ways. While the size of salivary glands, hnRNP levels in larval tissues, and thermotolerance of larvae/adult flies improved significantly following feeding either of the two formulations, the median life span and starvation resistance improved only with AR. Feeding on AR or RS supplemented food improved fecundity differently. Feeding of larvae and adults with AR increased the fecundity while the same with RS had opposite effect. On the contrary, feeding larvae on normal food and adults on AR supplement had no effect on fecundity but a comparable regime of feeding on RS-supplemented food improved fecundity. RS feeding did not cause heavy metal toxicity.
Conclusions
The present study with two Ayurvedic formulations reveals formulation-specific effects on several parameters of the fly's life, which seem to generally agree with their recommended human usages in Ayurvedic practices. Thus, Drosophila, with its very rich genetic tools and well-worked-out developmental pathways promises to be a very good model for examining the cellular and molecular bases of the effects of different Ayurvedic formulations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037113
PMCID: PMC3351451  PMID: 22606337
22.  Intellectual property rights and patents in perspective of Ayurveda 
Ayu  2012;33(1):20-26.
Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100298
PMCID: PMC3456857  PMID: 23049179
Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals; cosmaceuticals; IPR; nutraceuticals; product patent; TKDL
23.  Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward ayurvedic medicine use among allopathic resident doctors: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital in India 
Context:
Ayurveda is most commonly practiced form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in India. There are very few studies showing the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of allopathic doctors about Ayurvedic drugs and its use.
Aims:
The study was initiated to assess KAP toward Ayurvedic medicine use among allopathic resident doctors.
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional and prospective study.
Materials and Methods:
After obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethics Committee, allopathic resident doctors from clinical departments were approached personally. They were given pre-formed validated questionnaire to assess KAP toward Ayurvedic medicine use.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Descriptive statistics.
Results:
Allopathic residents had little knowledge about basic concepts of Ayurveda, that is, ‘panchakarma’ and ‘tridosha’. Majority residents (99%) had no opportunity to learn basics of Ayurveda, but 67% residents prescribed Ayurvedic medicines to patients. However, many residents (76%) mentioned that cross practice should not be allowed due to lack of knowledge. One resident knew that cross-practice was not allowed by law. The commonly prescribed proprietary Ayurvedic medicines were Liv-52 (39%), Shatavari (13%), Cystone (12%) and common ailments for which these medicines prescribed were liver disorders (34%), arthritis (18%), cough and cold (13%), kidney stones (11%), and piles (10%). Nearly 76% residents felt incorporation of Ayurveda with modern medicine would attract more patients and at the same time most residents (92%) agreed that Ayurvedic medicines need scientific testing before use. Though 50% of the residents agreed for voluntary training in Ayurveda, 80% denied compulsory training. Nearly 63% residents recommended Ayurveda among all CAMs. Most of residents heard of Ayurveda from their colleagues.
Conclusions:
This study reveals that allopathic resident doctors had little knowledge about Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine use but engaged in prescription of Ayurvedic medicines. So some interventions should be taken to increase the knowledge and awareness of allopathic resident doctors about Ayurvedic medicine use.
doi:10.4103/2229-3485.115380
PMCID: PMC3757582  PMID: 24010059
Allopathy; Ayurveda; cross-practice; knowledge; attitude; and practices study; residents
24.  Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of Ayuvedic formulations 
Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine. The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, particularly as some medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayurvedic formulations. The World Health Organisation therefore persuaded the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to implement a pharmacovigilance program for Ayurveda, as a means to ensuring the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. After a year of due diligence, the pharmacovigilance program was launched nationally on 29 September 2008. Since that time, Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicines have been monitored according to the provisions of a protocol prepared by the National Pharmacovigilance Resource Centre, IPGTRA, Jamnagar, and approved by Department of AYUSH. The program was reviewed, first, on 21st January 2009 by the National Pharmaco-vigilance Consultative Committee for ASU drugs (NPCC-ASU), and again, on 15 Feburary, 2010, when an evaluation meeting effectively rubber stamped the program. Among the outcomes of these meetings were several suggestions of measures to improve the program’s efficiency. Recent developments include the constitution of pharmacovigilance centers at all Ayurveda Teaching institutes and research centers.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.74427
PMCID: PMC3117316  PMID: 21731371
Adverse drug reaction; Awareness; Ayurvedic medicine; Pharmacovigilance; Safety
25.  19A. Practical Strategies for Integrating Ayurvedic Therapies Into the Integrative Medicine Clinical Encounter 
Focus Area: Experiential Workshop
The 3 Ayurvedic clinicians presenting this experiential session have delivered Ayurvedic medicine in diverse settings, including: a conventional managed care network using a group clinic format; with research participants at an academic medicine center; and in private practice. The 3 presenting Ayurvedic clinicians have approximately 50 years' combined experience practicing Ayurvedic medicine and have developed strategies for overcoming logistical and cultural challenges in working with patients. Ayurveda can be accessed for both acute and chronic conditions and includes multitarget therapies tailored to the unique constitution/imbalance profile of each patient, while accounting for any biomedical diagnoses. The focus of Ayurveda goes beyond symptom alleviation to the identification of the root cause of the imbalance and eventual resolution of the disorder. Ayurveda has a primary focus on modification of the diet and daily routine of the individual in an effort to create sustainable lifestyle change to promote overall health and prevent comorbid conditions. Ayurvedic clinicians also use herbal supplements, medicated oils, and hands-on manual therapies, as well as detoxification and rejuvenation therapies, to enhance healing holistically and synergistically and to create a state of durable well-being.
The presenters of this workshop will focus on 3 key areas of Ayurvedic clinical practice: (1) Ayurvedic diet, daily routine, and yoga therapy (JR); (2) herbal therapies and home detoxification regimens (CE); and (3) manual therapies and Ayurvedic acupressure points (PV). Participants in the workshop will have the opportunity to (1) sample some simple medicinal teas and experience Ayurvedic dietary theory according to food qualities; (2) experience the effects of simple Ayurvedic breathing techniques and therapeutic yoga poses; and (3) participate in a basic demonstration of Ayurvedic manual therapies and acupressure.
doi:10.7453/gahmj.2013.097CP.S19A
PMCID: PMC3875039

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