Theobjective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL)(Nyctaginaceae) leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin.
Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration.
The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively.
The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory potential.
Anti-inflammatory activity; aqueous extract; Mirabilis jalapa; paw edema
This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. in various animal experimental models.
Materials and Methods:
Ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan, mediator-induced rat paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by yeast-induced pyrexia model.
Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of rat paw edema. The ethyl acetate extract showed significant antipyretic activity in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia in rats throughout the observation period of 4 h.
This study shows that ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. has significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.
Inflammation; pyrexia; Vitex leucoxylon
This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v) injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy's hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy's hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o). These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.
Murraya koenigii; Analgesic; anti-inflammatory; paw licking
In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the stem bark of the plant was assessed in mice using the tail-flick method while carrageenan, histamine and dextran induced paw oedema was used to study the antiinflammatory effects in rats. The MEDC exhibited significant (p<0.01) analgesic effects comparable to the reference drug diclofenac sodium. MEDC also was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory potential against carrageenan, histamine and dextran induced rat paw edema. The methanol extract (25 and 50 mg / kg body weight) exhibited significant (p<0.01) activity against all phlogistic agents used in a dose dependent manner. All these effects were compared with reference drug phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg body weight).
Diospyros cordifolia; analgesic; anti-inflammatory
Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.
Materials and Methods:
Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg.
The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P < 0.001). The maximum analgesic effect was observed at 120 min at the dose of 100 mg/kg (i.p.) and was comparable to that of standard analgin (150 mg/kg) and the percentage of edema inhibition effect was 46.4% and 77% for 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg (i.p) respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg).
Ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract.
Analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity; Bauhinia purpurea Linn; eddy's hot plate
Aims and objectives:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) in experimental acute and chronic inflammatory animal models.
Materials and Methods:
Aqueous extract of root bark of Bilwa was prepared and tested for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats weighing 150-280 grams. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 each; one group served as control and other two groups received indomethacin and Bilwa orally 1 hour prior to experimentation. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was studied using the acute (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and chronic (Cotton pellet induced granuloma) animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as Percent inhibition (PI). Statistical analysis was performed using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The PI with indomethacin and Bilwa in carrageenan induced paw edema were 52.7% and 46% and in cotton pellet induced granuloma were 24.7% and 9.2% respectively. Indomethacin showed highly significant anti-inflammatory activity in both the models. However, Bilwa showed highly significant activity in acute model and but a trend of anti-inflammatory activity in chronic model studied.
As Bilwa showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the models studied, it can be a promising anti-inflammatory agent.
Aegle marmelos; anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; granuloma; edema
Cochlopermum tinctorium A. Rich. (Cochlospermaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant in the West Africa sub-region for the management of various conditions including pain and inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we report the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous methanol leaf (20–80 mg/kg), root (7.5–30 mg/kg), and root bark (20–80 mg/kg) extracts of the plant. The analgesic potentials of the extracts were studied using acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.The extracts significantly and dose dependently inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. However, the highest protection against writhing was produced by aqueous methanol leaf extract at the dose of 80 mg/kg (96.65%) which even was greater than that of the standard agent, ketoprofen (82.30%). The extracts did not significantly increase mean latency of response in the hot plate test. However, aqueous methanol root bark extract at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mean latency of pain response. While the extracts of the root and root bark extracts of the plant afforded non dose-dependent protection against carrageenan-induced edema, the aqueous methanol leaf extract significantly and dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced hind paw edema at the end of the third hour.The present study suggests that the aqueous methanol leaf, root, and root bark extracts of Cochlopermum tinctorium possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities which lend some credence to the ethnomedical claim of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.
Analgesia; anti-inflammation; Cochlopermum tinctorium; hot plate; edema; writhing
The latex of the wild growing plant Calotropis procera
produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes upon
accidental exposure. On local administration it elicits an intense
inflammatory response due to the release of histamine and
prostaglandins that is associated with hyperalgesia. In the
present study we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and
antinociceptive activity of oxytocin and melatonin against rat
paw edema induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera and
compared it with that against carrageenan-induced paw edema.
Aqueous extract of DL of C procera or carrageenan (1%)
was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the
paw volume was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 24 hours. The
associated hyperalgesic response and functional impairment were
also evaluated concomitantly by dorsal flexion pain test, motility
test, and stair climbing ability test. The inhibitory effect of
oxytocin and melatonin on edema formation and hyperalgesic
response was compared with dexamethasone. DL-induced edema
formation was maximum at 2 hours and was associated with decreased
pain threshold and functional impairment. Treatment with melatonin
significantly attenuated the edematous response while both
oxytocin and melatonin increased the pain threshold and improved
functional parameters. Both oxytocin and melatonin significantly
inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema.
Oxytocin was found to be as effective as melatonin in ameliorating
the hyperalgesic response. However, it was found to be less
effective than melatonin in attenuating edema formation.
This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg−1 for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of paw and ear edemas in rats. In the analgesic and antipyretic tests, the extract has shown a significant inhibition of writhes and hyperpyrexia with all the doses used when compared to the untreated control group. These results clearly show the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of the methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.
Lepidagathis anobrya; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; antipyretic; acute toxicity
The aqueous and methanol extracts from the dry bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera L. var sativa (Dioscoreaceae)—evaluated orally at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg against pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, pressure and against inflammation induced by carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and formalin in mice and rats, showed a dose dependant inhibition of pain and inflammation with a maximum effect of 56.38%, 73.06% and 42.79% produced by the aqueous extract, respectively on pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and pressure while the methanol extract at the same dose respectively inhibited these models of pain by 62.70%, 84.54% and 47.70%. The oral administration of aqueous and methanol extracts caused significant anti-inflammatory activity on paw oedema induced by histamine, serotonin and formalin. The present results show that the bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera var sativa possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities may results from the inhibition of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins. Thus, the analgesic activity of the bulbils of Dioscorea bulbifera may be at least partially linked to its anti-inflammatory activity.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.
Albizia lebbeck; anti-inflammatory activity; Avaleha
Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties.
Alocasia indica Schott; antioxidant; antinociceptive; anti-inflammatory; ascorbic acid; diclofenac
In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy’s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o) significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer’s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.
Mimusops elengi; antiinflammatory; analgesic; antipyretic; carrageenan
This study investigated possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the methanol extract of Ficus pumila (FPMeOH). Analgesic effects were evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results showed FPMeOH decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathological analyses. FPMeOH significantly decreased the volume of paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan. Histopathologically, FPMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. This study indicated anti-inflammatory mechanism of FPMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, FPMeOH also decreased the level of inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. HPLC fingerprint was established and the contents of three active ingredients, rutin, luteolin, and apigenin, were quantitatively determined. This study provided evidence for the classical treatment of Ficus pumila in inflammatory diseases.
Ayurvedic polyherbal formulations are widely prescribed for a wide range of inflammatory conditions, yet, despite widespread use, there has been no systematic documentation of their safety and efficacy.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of Ajmodadi churna (AJM) in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and air pouch inflammation models were used for the study.
The extracts showed significant antiinflammatory activity, reducing paw edema volume by 0.417 ± 0.097 and 0.379 ± 0.049, respectively. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, AJM reduced total leukocyte count by 73.09 ± 7.13 and 62.17 ± 10.53, granulocyte count by 69.48 ± 5.44 and 63.33 ± 4.13, and myeloperoxidase activity by 14.84 ± 0.91 and 18.44 ± 3.18, respectively, compared to controls.
Discussion and Conclusion:
AJM significantly reduced paw edema, during the second phase of edema development. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, AJM inhibited cellular infiltration into the air pouch fluid. We conclude that AJM is an effective candidate for prevention or treatment of acute inflammation
Ajmodadi churna; granulocyte count; myeloperoxidase activity; paw edema; total leukocyte count
The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of trifluoperazine (TFP) on carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema in intact and adrenalectomized (ADX). TFP (0.2 and 8 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally just before the intraplantar injection of 0.1 ml of 0.5% carrageenan solution. After four hours, paw edema was assessed by calculating the paw volume changes and extravasations of Evans blue dye as inflammatory indicators. In both ADX and control groups, administration of TFP reduced inflammatory parameters (paw volume and tissue content of Evans blue dye) in inflamed paw. Our findings suggest that TFP can effectively reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema in both ADX and control rats. Therefore, anti-inflammatory effect of these drugs does not need the adrenal gland activity.
Paw edema; trifluoperazine; adrenalectomy; carrageenan; inflammation
The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo potential of ethanolic extracts of Glycine max (L.) Merr. (SoRiTae) and Rhynchosia nulubilis (Yak-Kong) seeds as natural anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory agents. To assess the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential, the ethanolic extracts of SoRiTae and Yak-Kong seeds were tested in arachidonic acid-induced ear edema, carrageenan induced paw edema, formalin-induced licking time, acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation in mice. The administration of ethanolic extracts of SoRiTae and Yak-Kong seeds evoked a significant effect of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to standards aminopyrine and indomethacin. The ear edema, paw edema, paw licking time, pain and writhes in mice were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) as compared to the control. The results obtained in this study indicate that both SoRiTae and Yak-Kong soybeans possesses potential anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.
Glycine max; Rhynchosia nulubilis; anti-inflammatory activity; anti-nociceptive activity
Tabebuia avellanedae is a tree from the Bignoniaceae family. Commonly know as "pau d'arco" in Brazil, its inner bark is used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplasic and diuretic at the Brazilian northeast. A validation of the plant usage has not been previously performed.
Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark were measured by nociceptive experimental models in mice. A rat paw edema test induced by carrageenan (1%) was also performed in rats to access the plant's antiedematogenic effect. The inner bark aqueous extract, administered via oral in three different concentration, namely 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid (0.6% in water, i.p.) by 49.9%, 63.7% and 43.8%, respectively. The aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) reduced formalin (1%) effects only at the second phase of the experiment by 49.3% and 53.7%, respectively. Naloxone (5 mg/Kg, i.p.) was not able to revert the extract effect, however caffeine (10 mg/Kg, i.p.) reverted its effect by 19.8% at the second phase of the formalin test. The aqueous extract (200 mg/Kg, p.o.) inhibited edema by 12.9% when we used the rat paw edema model. The acute toxicity was low in mice.
The T. avellanedae inner bark aqueous extract presented antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities at the used models, with a possible antinociceptive effect associated to the adenosine system.
Plumeria acuminata belonging to the family Apocynaceae is commonly known as 'perungalli' in Tamil and is widely distributed throughout the Southern parts of India. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. The plant material is widely used as a purgative, remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky juice is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism. The bark has been reported to be useful in hard tumors, diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of leaves of Plumeria acuminata on carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw oedema models.
Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g were used. In acute model carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin models were used to induce inflammation in rat hind paw and cotton pellet-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. In each model four groups of six animals were used. In all the models Group I served as control (0.9% normal saline, 5 mlkg-1 b.w) and group IV as standard (Indomethacin 10 mgkg-1 b.w). Group II and III received extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mgkg-1 b.w respectively.
The methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w) exhibited maximum antiinflammatory effect i.e., 30.51, 47.06, 34.48 and 32.50% (P < 0.001) at the end of 3 h with carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin respectively. Administration of MEPA (500 mgkg-1 b.w) and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w) significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 45.06 and 51.57% respectively. The effect produced by the extract was comparable to that of indomethacin a prototype of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent.
The results obtained in this study indicated that the methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata possess potent antiinflammatory activity in both acute and chronic models.
Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae) is a hardy plant widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent and used for treatment of a wide spectrum of health disorders in traditional and folk medicine, some of which have been experimentally validated. In present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of V. negundo in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the probable mechanism of anti-inflammatory action.
Materials and Methods:
Paw edema was produced by injecting 1% solution of carrageenan, and the paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. V. negundo leaf oil was extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and administered by a trans-dermal route to Wistar rats and the percentage of inhibition of inflammation was observed using a Plethysmometer by comparing a compound aerosol-based formulation with 1 mg diclofinac diethylamine BP and 7 mg methyl salicylate IP/kg body weight served as a standard drug whereas paraffin oil served as the placebo group. After withdrawing of blood, serum was separated and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities were measured by the enzyme immuno assay (EIA) method by using a COX inhibitor screening assay kit.
Results and Discussion:
V. negundo leaf oil significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema as compared to the placebo group (paraffin oil) and 1 mg diclofinac diethylamine BP and 7 mg methyl salicylate IP showed the maximum inhibition of paw edema as compared to the V. negundo leaf oil treated group and the control group. Also in the present study V. negundo leaf oil showed significantly (P < 0.05) inhibits COX-1 pathways rather than COX-2 pathways as compared to the V. negundo leaf oil treated group.
It is suggested that the V. negundo leaf oil is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and acts via inhibition of COX-2 without much interfering COX-1 pathways.
Anti-inflammatory; cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors; Vitex negundo
Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit1 has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation.
Taxus baccata; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-rheumatic; Carrageenan
To study analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a methanolic extract (ME) of Argyreia speciosa (AS) root powder.
Materials and Methods:
The study was carried out using male albino mice (20-25 gm) and male wistar rats (100-150gm). The ME was prepared using soxhlet extraction process. The effect of ME of A. speciosa was investigated for analgesic activity using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction, tail immersion method and hot plate method. The anti-inflammatory activity of ME of AS roots was studied using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.
The ME of A. speciosa root was used in pain and inflammation models. The analgesic activity of AS at the dose of (30,100, and 300 mg/kg p.o) showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in acetic acid-induced writhing, whereas ME of A. speciosa at the dose of (100, 300 mg/kg p.o) showed significant (P<0.01) increase in latency to tail flick in tail immersion method and elevated mean basal reaction time in hot plate method. The ME of the A. speciosa at doses (30, 100, and 300mg/kg) showed significant (P < 0.01) inhibition of carrageenan induced hind paw edema in rats.
The ME of A. speciosa showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in mice and rat.
Argyreia speciosa; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; methanolic extracts
Aims of the present study were to investigate effects of Balanophora spicata (BS) on antinociception and anti-inflammation both in vivo and in vitro. Crude extract of BS inhibited vascular permeability induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and PGE2, but not by PAF. Furthermore, BS crude extract, different layers (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water layer), and lupeol acetate had significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing response, formalin-induced licking behavior, carrageenan-, and serotonin-induced paw edema. The n-hexane layer had the most effective potency among all layers (IC50: 67.33 mg/kg on writhing response; IC50s: 34.2 mg/kg and 21.29 mg/kg on the early phase and late phase of formalin test, resp.). Additionally, lupeol acetate which was isolated from the n-hexane layer of BS effectively inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response (IC50: 28.32 mg/kg), formalin-induced licking behavior (IC50: 20.95 mg/kg), NO production (IC50: 4.102 μM), iNOS expression (IC50: 5.35 μM), and COX2 expression (IC50: 5.13 μM) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, BS has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects which may be partially due to the inhibition of changes in vascular permeability induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and PGE2 and the attenuation of iNOS and COX-2 expression.
Natural products isolated from plant sources have been demonstrated as potential candidates against several ailments. The scientific investigations on the underlying principles of phytotherapy can pave way for the convergence of traditional medicines and modern science and technologies.
Quercetin 3-O-(2′′-acetyl)-glucoside obtained from ethyl acetate fraction of Cleome viscosa is studied against inflammatory of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema ( in vivo) and microbial activity on ( in vitro). The structure of the glycoside is confirmed by means of hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, attached proton test, and mass spectrum. The flavonoid glycoside showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema ( in vivo) and anti-microbial activity ( in vitro) on Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) and Escherichia coli (gram negative). The anti-inflammatory effect of the flavonoid glycoside may be due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Selective toxicity with flavonoid glycoside towards the gram-positive bacteria was found on S. aureus.
The present study reveals the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of an isolated quercetin 3-O-(2′′-acetyl)-glucoside from a natural source ( C. viscosa).
Cleome viscosa; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-microbial; Rat paw edema; Flavonoid glycoside
Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats.