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1.  Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia 
Objective
To evaluate anti-inflammatory potential of leaf extract of Skimmia anquetilia by in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory models.
Methods
Acute toxicity study was carried out to determine the toxicity level of different extract using acute toxic class method as described in Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines No.423. Carrageenan (1% w/w) was administered and inflammation was induced in rat paw. The leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by in-vitro human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method and in-vivo carrangeenan-induced rat paw edema method.
Results
The in-vitro membrane stabilizing test showed petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CE), ethyl acetate (EE), methanol (ME) and aqueous extracts (AE) showed 49.44%, 59.39%, 60.15%, 68.40% and 52.18 % protection, respectively as compared to control groups. The in-vivo results of CE, EE and ME showed 58.20%, 60.17% and 67.53% inhibition of inflammation after 6h administration of test drugs in albino rats. The potency of the leaf extracts of Skimmia anquetilia were compared with standard diclofenac (10 mg/kg) which showed 74.18% protection in in-vitro HRBC membrane stabilization test and 71.64% inhibition in in-vivo carrangeenan-induced rat paw edema model. The ME showed a dose dependent significant (P< 0.01) anti-inflammatory activity in human red blood cell membrane stabilization test and reduction of edema in carrageenan induced rat paw edema.
Conclusions
The present investigation has confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of Skimmia anquetilia due to presence of bioactive phytoconstitutes for the first time and provide the pharmacological evidence in favor of traditional claim of Skimmia anquetilia as an anti- inflammatory agent.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60109-9
PMCID: PMC3609364  PMID: 23569983
Skimmia anquetilia; Anti-inflammatory; Carrageenan; Diclofenac; Leaf extract; Phytochemical analysis
2.  Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(6):364-367.
Background:
Theobjective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL)(Nyctaginaceae) leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin.
Methods:
Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration.
Results:
The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively.
Conclusion:
The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory potential.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.75456
PMCID: PMC3111696  PMID: 21713140
Anti-inflammatory activity; aqueous extract; Mirabilis jalapa; paw edema
3.  Aqueous Methanol Extracts of Cochlospermum tinctorium (A. Rich) Possess Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities 
Cochlopermum tinctorium A. Rich. (Cochlospermaceae) is a commonly used medicinal plant in the West Africa sub-region for the management of various conditions including pain and inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we report the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous methanol leaf (20–80 mg/kg), root (7.5–30 mg/kg), and root bark (20–80 mg/kg) extracts of the plant. The analgesic potentials of the extracts were studied using acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.The extracts significantly and dose dependently inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. However, the highest protection against writhing was produced by aqueous methanol leaf extract at the dose of 80 mg/kg (96.65%) which even was greater than that of the standard agent, ketoprofen (82.30%). The extracts did not significantly increase mean latency of response in the hot plate test. However, aqueous methanol root bark extract at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mean latency of pain response. While the extracts of the root and root bark extracts of the plant afforded non dose-dependent protection against carrageenan-induced edema, the aqueous methanol leaf extract significantly and dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced hind paw edema at the end of the third hour.The present study suggests that the aqueous methanol leaf, root, and root bark extracts of Cochlopermum tinctorium possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities which lend some credence to the ethnomedical claim of the use of the plant in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions.
doi:10.4103/0975-1483.83774
PMCID: PMC3159279  PMID: 21897665
Analgesia; anti-inflammation; Cochlopermum tinctorium; hot plate; edema; writhing
4.  In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats 
Objective
To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats.
Methods
Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats.
Results
In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction.
Conclusions
The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.
doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(13)60073-0
PMCID: PMC4027313
Manilkara zapota; Carrageenan; Paw edema; Yeast-induced pyresis
5.  Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2009;41(2):75-79.
Objectives:
Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.
Materials and Methods:
Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg.
Results:
The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P < 0.001). The maximum analgesic effect was observed at 120 min at the dose of 100 mg/kg (i.p.) and was comparable to that of standard analgin (150 mg/kg) and the percentage of edema inhibition effect was 46.4% and 77% for 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg (i.p) respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg).
Conclusion:
Ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.51345
PMCID: PMC2841237  PMID: 20336222
Analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity; Bauhinia purpurea Linn; eddy's hot plate
6.  LEAVES EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LINN FOR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY IN ANIMAL MODELS 
This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v) injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy's hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy's hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o). These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.
PMCID: PMC3255384  PMID: 22247833
Murraya koenigii; Analgesic; anti-inflammatory; paw licking
7.  Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract 
BMC Pharmacology  2001;1:6.
Background
Tabebuia avellanedae is a tree from the Bignoniaceae family. Commonly know as "pau d'arco" in Brazil, its inner bark is used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplasic and diuretic at the Brazilian northeast. A validation of the plant usage has not been previously performed.
Results
Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark were measured by nociceptive experimental models in mice. A rat paw edema test induced by carrageenan (1%) was also performed in rats to access the plant's antiedematogenic effect. The inner bark aqueous extract, administered via oral in three different concentration, namely 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid (0.6% in water, i.p.) by 49.9%, 63.7% and 43.8%, respectively. The aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) reduced formalin (1%) effects only at the second phase of the experiment by 49.3% and 53.7%, respectively. Naloxone (5 mg/Kg, i.p.) was not able to revert the extract effect, however caffeine (10 mg/Kg, i.p.) reverted its effect by 19.8% at the second phase of the formalin test. The aqueous extract (200 mg/Kg, p.o.) inhibited edema by 12.9% when we used the rat paw edema model. The acute toxicity was low in mice.
Conclusion
The T. avellanedae inner bark aqueous extract presented antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities at the used models, with a possible antinociceptive effect associated to the adenosine system.
doi:10.1186/1471-2210-1-6
PMCID: PMC56902  PMID: 11574048
8.  Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) root 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2011;43(4):393-397.
Aims and objectives:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) in experimental acute and chronic inflammatory animal models.
Materials and Methods:
Aqueous extract of root bark of Bilwa was prepared and tested for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats weighing 150-280 grams. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 each; one group served as control and other two groups received indomethacin and Bilwa orally 1 hour prior to experimentation. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was studied using the acute (Carrageenan induced paw edema) and chronic (Cotton pellet induced granuloma) animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as Percent inhibition (PI). Statistical analysis was performed using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:
The PI with indomethacin and Bilwa in carrageenan induced paw edema were 52.7% and 46% and in cotton pellet induced granuloma were 24.7% and 9.2% respectively. Indomethacin showed highly significant anti-inflammatory activity in both the models. However, Bilwa showed highly significant activity in acute model and but a trend of anti-inflammatory activity in chronic model studied.
Conclusions:
As Bilwa showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the models studied, it can be a promising anti-inflammatory agent.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.83108
PMCID: PMC3153700  PMID: 21844992
Aegle marmelos; anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; granuloma; edema
9.  Screening of anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Vitex leucoxylon Linn 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2010;42(6):409-411.
Objective:
This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. in various animal experimental models.
Materials and Methods:
Ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan, mediator-induced rat paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by yeast-induced pyrexia model.
Results:
Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of rat paw edema. The ethyl acetate extract showed significant antipyretic activity in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia in rats throughout the observation period of 4 h.
Conclusion:
This study shows that ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. has significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.71891
PMCID: PMC2991704  PMID: 21189917
Inflammation; pyrexia; Vitex leucoxylon
10.  Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique 
Objective
To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae).
Methods
The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract.
Results
The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values.
Conclusions
The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of this Sudanese medicinal plant.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60232-X
PMCID: PMC3868790  PMID: 25182438
Tribulus terrestris; Finger print; Anti-inflammatory; Standardization; HPTLC
11.  Vitex negundo inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 inflammatory cytokine-mediated inflammation on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema 
Pharmacognosy Research  2012;4(3):134-137.
Background:
Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae) is a hardy plant widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent and used for treatment of a wide spectrum of health disorders in traditional and folk medicine, some of which have been experimentally validated. In present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of V. negundo in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the probable mechanism of anti-inflammatory action.
Materials and Methods:
Paw edema was produced by injecting 1% solution of carrageenan, and the paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. V. negundo leaf oil was extracted using a Clevenger apparatus and administered by a trans-dermal route to Wistar rats and the percentage of inhibition of inflammation was observed using a Plethysmometer by comparing a compound aerosol-based formulation with 1 mg diclofinac diethylamine BP and 7 mg methyl salicylate IP/kg body weight served as a standard drug whereas paraffin oil served as the placebo group. After withdrawing of blood, serum was separated and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities were measured by the enzyme immuno assay (EIA) method by using a COX inhibitor screening assay kit.
Results and Discussion:
V. negundo leaf oil significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema as compared to the placebo group (paraffin oil) and 1 mg diclofinac diethylamine BP and 7 mg methyl salicylate IP showed the maximum inhibition of paw edema as compared to the V. negundo leaf oil treated group and the control group. Also in the present study V. negundo leaf oil showed significantly (P < 0.05) inhibits COX-1 pathways rather than COX-2 pathways as compared to the V. negundo leaf oil treated group.
Conclusion:
It is suggested that the V. negundo leaf oil is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and acts via inhibition of COX-2 without much interfering COX-1 pathways.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.99072
PMCID: PMC3424839  PMID: 22923950
Anti-inflammatory; cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors; Vitex negundo
12.  Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity and In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Indian Mistletoe, the Hemiparasite Dendrophthoe falcate L. F. (Loranthaceae) 
Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Dendrophthoe falcata Linn. leaves which belongs to the Loranthaceae family, were evaluated through DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl -2-picryl-hydrazyl), antilipid peroxidation and nitric oxide scavenging methods to assess the antioxidant activity. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan and cotton pellet induced granuloma tests for their effect on the acute and chronic phase inflammation models in rats. It was found that the methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves demonstrates potent antioxidant activity as compared to aqueous extraction of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves for DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide scavenging activity respectively (having IC50 value 77.8, 79.36 and 86.2, 144, 87, 104). The maximum inhibition for aqueous extract of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves (30.95%) and methanolic extract of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves (23.41%) were obtained at a dose of 300 mg/Kg after 4h of drug treatment in carrageenan induced paw edema, whereas diclofenac sodium (standard drug) produced 42.85% inhibition. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma), aqueous extracts of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves and methanolic extracts of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves (at doses of 300 mg/Kg), phenylbutazone as standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 51%, 48%, 53% respectively. In addition, the total phenolic and flavonoid content of aqueous extracts of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves and methanolic extracts of Dendrophthoe falcata leaves were found to be 2.12 % w/w, 4.39 % w/w, 0.31 mg/g and 0.85 mg/g respectively. Thus the results indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Dendrophthoe falcataleaves on animal models have potent anti-inflammatory and in-vitro antioxidant effects.
PMCID: PMC3828926  PMID: 24250351
Dendrophthoe falcate; In-vitro antioxidant activity; Anti- inflammatry activity; Methanolic extracts
13.  Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(3):150-155.
Background:
Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition).
Aims:
The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents.
Settings and Design:
The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents.
Materials and Methods:
Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test.
Results:
The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used.
Conclusions:
The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.122998
PMCID: PMC3902535  PMID: 24501443
Analgesic; anti-inflammatory; Grewia asiatica; root bark
14.  Antiinflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumeria acuminata 
Backround
Plumeria acuminata belonging to the family Apocynaceae is commonly known as 'perungalli' in Tamil and is widely distributed throughout the Southern parts of India. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. The plant material is widely used as a purgative, remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky juice is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism. The bark has been reported to be useful in hard tumors, diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of leaves of Plumeria acuminata on carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw oedema models.
Methods
Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g were used. In acute model carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin models were used to induce inflammation in rat hind paw and cotton pellet-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. In each model four groups of six animals were used. In all the models Group I served as control (0.9% normal saline, 5 mlkg-1 b.w) and group IV as standard (Indomethacin 10 mgkg-1 b.w). Group II and III received extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mgkg-1 b.w respectively.
Results
The methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w) exhibited maximum antiinflammatory effect i.e., 30.51, 47.06, 34.48 and 32.50% (P < 0.001) at the end of 3 h with carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin respectively. Administration of MEPA (500 mgkg-1 b.w) and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w) significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 45.06 and 51.57% respectively. The effect produced by the extract was comparable to that of indomethacin a prototype of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent.
Conclusion
The results obtained in this study indicated that the methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata possess potent antiinflammatory activity in both acute and chronic models.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-36
PMCID: PMC1654182  PMID: 17081283
15.  Inhibition of Calotropis procera Latex-Induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia by Oxytocin and Melatonin 
Mediators of Inflammation  2005;2005(6):360-365.
The latex of the wild growing plant Calotropis procera produces inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes upon accidental exposure. On local administration it elicits an intense inflammatory response due to the release of histamine and prostaglandins that is associated with hyperalgesia. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of oxytocin and melatonin against rat paw edema induced by dried latex (DL) of C procera and compared it with that against carrageenan-induced paw edema. Aqueous extract of DL of C procera or carrageenan (1%) was injected into the subplantar surface of the rat paw and the paw volume was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 24 hours. The associated hyperalgesic response and functional impairment were also evaluated concomitantly by dorsal flexion pain test, motility test, and stair climbing ability test. The inhibitory effect of oxytocin and melatonin on edema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with dexamethasone. DL-induced edema formation was maximum at 2 hours and was associated with decreased pain threshold and functional impairment. Treatment with melatonin significantly attenuated the edematous response while both oxytocin and melatonin increased the pain threshold and improved functional parameters. Both oxytocin and melatonin significantly inhibited the hyperalgesia associated with DL-induced paw edema. Oxytocin was found to be as effective as melatonin in ameliorating the hyperalgesic response. However, it was found to be less effective than melatonin in attenuating edema formation.
doi:10.1155/MI.2005.360
PMCID: PMC1533899  PMID: 16489256
16.  Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models 
Objective: This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.
Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.
Results: The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%.
Conclusion: The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.
PMCID: PMC4075706  PMID: 25050274
Anti-inflammatory; Antinociceptive; Extract; Urtica dioica
17.  Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao 
The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from C. longepaniculatum was evaluated by three experimental models including the dimethyl benzene-induced ear edema in mice, the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat and the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. The influence of the essential oil on histological changes and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) production associated with carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was also investigated. The essential oil (0.5, 0.25, 0.13 ml/kg b.w.) showed significantly inhibition of inflammation along with a dose-dependent manner in the three experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil was occurred both in early and late phase and peaked at 4 h after carrageenan injection. The essential oil resulted in a dose dependent reduction of the paw thickness, connective tissue injury and the infiltration of inflammatory cell. The essential oil also significantly reduced the production of PGE2, histamine and 5-HT in the exudates of edema paw induced by carrageenan. Both the essential oil and indomethacin resulted relative lower percentage inhibition of histamine and 5-HT than that of PGE2 at 4 h after carrageenan injection.
PMCID: PMC4307527  PMID: 25664080
Cinnamomum longepaniculatum; essential oil; anti-inflammatory activity
18.  Anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanism of action of lupeol acetate isolated from Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel 
Background
The species Himatanthus drasticus is popularly known in Northeast Brazil as "janaguba" and belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The latex collected from its stem bark is used for several purposes including anti-inflammatory properties and presents among its bioactive constituents the pentacyclic triterpene lupeol. The objective of the present work was to study in vivo and in vitro the lupeol acetate (LA) isolated from the plant latex, in several models of inflammation.
Methods
Male Swiss mice (25-30 g, 6-24 animals per group) were administered with LA, 30 min before the test initiation. In the evaluation of analgesic activity the formalin test was used. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the following tests: paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran, and the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities. Furthermore, the effect of LA on the myeloperoxidase release (MPO, an inflammation biomarker) from human neutrophils was also determined, as well as its antioxidant potential by the DPPH assay.
Results
In the formalin test, LA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited both the 1st (neurogenic, 0-5 min) and mainly the 2nd (inflammatory, 20-25 min) phase. Naloxone completely reversed the LA effect, indicating the participation of the opioid system. LA also significantly inhibited carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edemas, as well as the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity evaluated by the carrageenan-induced pleurisia. In this model, the effect of a very low dose of LA (0.1 mg/kg) was potentiated by the same dose of pentoxifylline (PTX), a known TNF-alpha inhibitor. LA (25 and 50 μg/ml) was also very effective in inhibiting MPO released from stimulated human neutrophils, and significantly decreased the number of cells expressing iNOS activity in the paw of mice submitted to carrageenan-induced edema, suggesting a drug involvement with the NO system.
Conclusions
The anti-inflammatory effect of LA probably involves the opioid system, as indicated by the complete blockade of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Furthermore, the LA effect was potentiated by PTX (a TNF-alpha inhibitor). LA also decreased the number of iNOS cells, suggesting the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the NO system in the drug action.
doi:10.1186/1476-9255-7-60
PMCID: PMC3019217  PMID: 21167055
19.  Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark 
Objective
To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats.
Methods
In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs.
Results
All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts.
Conclusions
In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60235-4
PMCID: PMC3609229  PMID: 23569853
Rauvolfia tetraphylla; Root bark; In-vitro antibacterial activity; Inflammation; Anti-inflammatory activity
20.  Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.) 
Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties.
doi:10.4103/0975-1483.63152
PMCID: PMC3021687  PMID: 21264115
Alocasia indica Schott; antioxidant; antinociceptive; anti-inflammatory; ascorbic acid; diclofenac
21.  Anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen ethanol extract from Cistus sp. of Spanish on carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema 
Background
Bee pollen, a honeybee product, is the feed for honeybees prepared themselves by pollens collecting from plants and has been consumed as a perfect food in Europe, because it is nutritionally well balanced. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of bee pollen from Cistus sp. of Spanish origin by a method of carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, and to investigate the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action and also to elucidate components involved in bee pollen extracted with ethanol.
Methods
The bee pollen bulk, its water extract and its ethanol extract were administered orally to rats. One hour later, paw edema was produced by injecting of 1% solution of carrageenan, and paw volume was measured before and after carrageenan injection up to 5 h. The ethanol extract and water extract were measured COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities using COX inhibitor screening assay kit, and were compared for the inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The constituents of bee pollen were purified from the ethanol extract subjected to silica gel or LH-20 column chromatography. Each column chromatography fractions were further purified by repeated ODS or silica gel column chromatography.
Results
The bee pollen bulk mildly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema and the water extract showed almost no inhibitory activity, but the ethanol extract showed relatively strong inhibition of paw edema. The ethanol extract inhibited the NO production and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity, but the water extract did not affect the NO production or COX activities. Flavonoids were isolated and purified from the ethanol extract of bee pollen, and identified at least five flavonoids and their glycosides.
Conclusions
It is suggested that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent anti-inflammatory activity and its effect acts via the inhibition of NO production, besides the inhibitory activity of COX-2. Some flavonoids included in bee pollen may partly participate in some of the anti-inflammatory action. The bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-30
PMCID: PMC2906419  PMID: 20573205
22.  Effect of aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on experimental animal model for inflammation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;31(4):202-206.
Background:
Achyranthes aspera is known as Chirchita (Hindi), Apamarga (Sanskrit), Aghedi (Gujarati), Apang (Bengali), Nayurivi (Tamil), Kalalat (Malyalam) and Agadha (Marathi) in our country. It possesses valuable medicinal properties and used in treatment of cough, bronchitis and rheumatism, malarial fever, dysentery, asthma, hypertension and diabetes in Indian folklore. Present study was designed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of an aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera (AEAA).
Materials and Methods:
AEAA leaves and whole plant (i.e. Aqueous extracts of Achyranthes aspera leaves (AEAAL)/Aqueous extracts of A. aspera whole plant (AEAAW) were studied in albino mice using carrageenan induced left hind paw edema. Both extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity of the extracts was also studied using Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD guidelines 423.
Results:
Acute toxicity study confirmed toxic dose of AEAA to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids were the major constituents found in extracts. AEAA reduced the edema induced by carrageenan by 35.71-54.76% on intraperitoneally administration of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg as compared to the untreated control group. Diclofenac sodium at 10 mg/kg inhibited the edema volume by 42.85%. The results indicated that the AEAA 800 mg/kg body weight shows more significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard and untreated control respectively.
Conclusion:
Both AEAA exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity attributed to flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and triterpenoids phytoconstituents.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.107362
PMCID: PMC3644760  PMID: 23661870
Achyranthes aspera; anti-inflammatory; high Performance thin layer chromatogram HPTLC; plethysmographic method
23.  A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE 
The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a standard drug. The various extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically from 0 to 3h after injection. We have determined the anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of the bark of Ficus bengalensis with oral administration doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. Positive results for flavonoids, sterols, and triterpene, tannins and saponins compounds were investigated by phytochemical analysis. The ethanolic extract of younger plant showed a greater anti-inflammatory effect compared with the standard drug indomethacin. Present studies besides confirming anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of younger more potent than mature plant help to identify from the comparative study of the bark of Ficus bengalensis.
PMCID: PMC3979180  PMID: 24825975
Anti-inflammatory; Ficus bengalensis; Moraceae; Indomethacin
24.  Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Performance of Newly Cyclizine Derivatives on Adult Male Wistar Rats  
Cyclizine (1-benzhydryl-4-methyl-piperazine, CAS 82-92-8, CYC, I), a piperazine derivative, belongs to H1 antihistamine group of drugs that shows such pharmacological properties as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-platelet effects, similar to other H1-receptor antagonists. In this study, two new tolyl and cumene derivatives of I (1-ethyl- 4-[(p-isopropylphenyl) (p-tolyl) methyl]-piperazine, II and 1-[3, 4-dichlorophenyl]-4-[[p-isopropylphenyl] [p-tolyl] methyl]-piperazine, III) were synthesized to investigate their acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities in formalin and histamine-induced rat paw edema. In addition, the vascular permeability in formalin and histamine-induced paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema, and peritonitis due to acetic acid application into peritoneal cavity were measured. The cotton pellet-induced granuloma model was chosen for inducing chronic inflammation in rats. Findings proved reduction in formalin-induced rat paw edema and vascular permeability (acute inflammation) by I and II at 30 min after the injection. In addition, results in histamine-induced rat paw edema showed anti-inflammatory effects of all drugs started 60 min after the injection as these effects continued for a longer period by II and III comparing to I, as discussed above. In addition, the data on vascular permeability in xylene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced to peritoneal cavity confirmed that substitutions on cyclizine molecule were more effective and could decrease the vascular permeability and acute inflammation. However, the results from the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats revealed that none of the drugs (I-III) were effective to reduce the reactions and intermediates of chronic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3813157  PMID: 24250533
Cyclizine; Piperazine derivative; H1-antihistamine; Acute and chronic; Anti-inflammation
25.  Anti-inflammatory effects of Polygonum minus (Huds) extract (Lineminus™) in in-vitro enzyme assays and carrageenan induced paw edema 
Background
The study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Polygonum minus (Huds) using in vitro and in vivo approaches.
Methods
The in vitro tests used to evaluate ethanolic extract are cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), lipooxygenase (5-LOX), secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2) inhibition assay whilst the in-vivo effect was measured by the ability of aqueous extracts to reduce paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan, in rats.
Results
The ethanolic extract inhibited the activities of 5-LOX and COX-1(p < 0.05) whilst the inhibitory effect on COX-2 was only moderate. A marked inhibition of 5-LOX was observed at 30 μg/ ml. The extract did not inhibit the activity of sPLA2. The ability of the ethanolic extracts of Polygonum minus to inhibit both 5-LOX and COX, prompted a study to evaluate the effects of using an aqueous extract of Polygonum minus(LineminusTM); as this would be more suitable for future clinical testing. The anti-inhibitory activity of the aqueous extract from this plant was evaluated using a rat model where inflammation was induced in the paws by injection of λ-carrageenan. The aqueous extracts from Polygonum minus administered at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), significantly (p < 0.01) reduced paw edema induced by λ-carrageenan in the experimental model, at 4 h compared to the vehicle control. Furthermore, administration of 100 mg/kg b.w. or 300 mg/kg b.w. completely reduced inflammation of the paw 4 h after injection.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that aqueous extract of Polygonum minus possesses potent anti-inflammatory activities.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-355
PMCID: PMC4181702  PMID: 25252832
Inflammation; Polygonum minus (Huds); Paw edema; Cyclooxygenase; Lipooxygenase; Secretory phospholipase-A2

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