Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae) also known as Sonapatha is an indigenous medicinal plant widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for over thousands of years. It is an active ingredient of well-known Ayurvedic formulations such as Chyawanprash and Dasamula. Root bark of this plant has tonic and astringent properties and it is also used in rheumatism.
The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of different extracts of root bark of Oroxylum indicum against adjuvant - induced arthritis in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Male Wistar rats were used in this study. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally into the left hind paw of the rats. The paw volume, hematological, biochemical, radiographic and histopathological aspects were evaluated.
The relative percentage inhibition potential of paw volume in rats treated with various extracts of Oroxylum indicum was found to be ethyl acetate extract (67.69%) >chloroform extract (64.61%) >n-butanol extract (58.46%) respectively. The hematological parameters like RBC count, hemoglobin content showed significant increase while there was a significant decrease in total WBC count and ESR in all the groups of animals pretreated with root bark extracts. The biochemical parameters such as catalase, glutathione contents showed a significant increase while the lipid peroxide and Cathepsin-D content decreased significantly only in case of ethyl acetate pretreated rats when compared to others.
The present study suggests that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of root bark of Oroxylum indicum exhibit anti-arthritic activity. The order of activity of extracts was found to be ethyl acetate >chloroform >n-butanol respectively.
Anti-arthritic activity; biochemical parameters; Freund's complete adjuvant; histopathology; Oroxylum indicum
Shyonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.; Bignoniaceae) root bark is one of the ingredients of dashamoola (a group of 10 roots), and is used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic action in a number of compound formulations in Ayurveda.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) recommends using the stem bark instead of root bark.
Material and Methods:
An attempt has been made to study the anti-inflammatory activity of both root bark and stem bark kashaya (decoction) experimentally.
Results showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of root bark and stem bark decoction.
Anti-inflammatory; Ayurveda; dashamoola; Oroxylum indicum; shyonaka
Chonemorpha grandiflora (Syn. Chonemorpha fragrans (Apocynaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant. It is used in different preparations, such as sudarsanasavam and kumaryasavam used in Kerala Ayurvedic system. C. grandiflora is used for the treatment of fever and stomach disorders. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of steroidal alkaloids, such as chonemorphine and funtumafrine in C. grandiflora. Camptothecin, a well-known anticancer alkaloid has been detected in ethanolic extracts of stem with bark and callus cultures derived from C. grandiflora.
Callus cultures of C. grandiflora were raised on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 2, 4-D. Stem with bark and callus were used for phytochemical analysis mainly the alkaloids. Detection and identification of camptothecin was carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatography, (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
An important anticancer alkaloid, camptothecin was detected in ethanolic extracts of stem with bark and callus cultures of C. grandiflora. camptothecin content was 0.013 mg/g in stem with bark and 0.003 mg/g in callus.
This is the first report on in vivo and in vitro production of camptothecin in C. grandiflora. Camptothecin is known to occur only in six plant sources so, alternative sources for camptothecin are needed. Thus of C. grandiflora could be a new promising alternative source of camptothecin.
Apocynaceae; callus; camptothecin; Chonemorpha grandiflora
Nerium indicum [Family:Apocynaceae] is commonly known as Arali [Tam] found throughout India, and has been used in the treatment of cancer, cardiotonic, leprosy and skin diseases. Plant parts such as root, bark and leaves are used. The present study is therefore undertaken to analyse its phyto chemical constituents in solvents like Benene, Chloroform and Alcohol and to screen its antibacterial activity. The dried leaf sample is extracted with solvents by cold maceration. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Cardiac glycosides, Saponins, Tannins & Carbohydrates in all the solvents. All the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity by Disc Diffusion Method. Out of the cultures used Staphylococccus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium showed better zone of inhibition which is 10mm, 9mm & 7 mm respectively.
The present study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of different parts of Oroxylum indicum. 2,2-diphelyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging potential and reductive ability assay of methanol extract of different parts i.e. root, root bark, stem, stem bark, leaves and fruits were performed. Leaves and bark extracts exhibits highest free radical scavenging activity than bark, stem and fruit extract. Leaves extract showed maximum reductive ability and found to contain maximum amount of polyphenolic compounds. The highest free radical activity may be due to presence of polyphenolic compounds.
Free radical scavenging; Oroxylum indicum; different parts; polyphenolic compounds
Ayurvedic preparations contain toxic elements like heavy metals and other chemicals exceeding their permissible limits. Ayurvedic method of detoxification of such products involves Shodhana. Hence, in present paper it has been decided to replace Ayurvedic Shodhana process by chemical purification method and to study the benefits and/or drawbacks of the traditional Ayurvedic Shodhana process. Crude aconite root, Ayurvedic Shodhana treated aconite root and chemical Shodhana treated aconite root samples were evaluated for toxicity and changes by animal studies and thin layer chromatography (TLC) respectively. The results of the toxicity study suggest that the modified method of Shodhana is less efficient as compared to the traditional Ayurvedic Shodhana process. TLC studies have shown that pseudoaconitine and aconitine were converted into far less toxic substances like veratroyl pseudoaconine and benzoylaconine respectively only in traditional Ayurvedic Shodhana.
Aconitine; Shodhana; Toxicity
Oroxylum indicum Vent. (O. indicum) is a tree commonly called Indian trumpet tree found in tropical countries, such as India, Japan, China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia. The chemical constituents obtained from different parts of plant include baicalein-7-O-diglucoside (Oroxylin B), baicalein-7-O-glucoside, chrysin, apegenin, prunetin, sitosterol, oroxindin, biochanin-A, ellagic acid, baicalein and its 6- and 7-glucuronides, scutellarein, tetuin, antraquinone and aloe-emodin. Various parts of the plant are used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of different ailments such as cancer, diarrhea, fever, ulcer and jaundice. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated its antiinflammatory, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antioxidant, photocytotoxic, antiproliferative, antiarthritic, antimicrobial, antimutagenic and immunostimulant properties. Exhaustive literature survey reveals that there are some activities which are still not proven scientifically. This article is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review on O. indicum covering its traditional and folk medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.
Ethnomedicinal; ethnopharmacology; O. indicum; phytochemical
Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.
Botanical pharmacognosy; ethnobotany; Gmelina arborea; Gmelina asiatica; pharmacognosy; root; stem
Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases.
Cassia fistula; human pathogenic bacteria; minimum inhibitory concentration; Similipal Biosphere Reserve; TLC bioautography
Standardization of a compound Ayurvedic formulation is a critical and essential issue to be considered in assuring the therapeutic efficacy and safety and to rationalize their use in the health care. Sitopaladi churna is a reputed polyherbal formulation of Ayurveda. It is prescribed for the treatment of pleurodynia, intercostal neuralgia, cold, cough associated with bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, viral respiratory infection, and in pharyngeal and chest congestion.
The present study aimed at physico-chemical standardization of in-house and two marketed brands of Sitopaladi churna.
Materials and Methods:
In our investigation, in-house churna and two commercial brands of Sitopaladi churna were standardized based on powder microscopy, physico-chemical evaluations, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing as per standard procedures.
The set parameters were sufficient to evaluate the churna based on various physico-chemical parameters.
The data evolved can be adopted for laying down the standards for the manufacturing units of Sitopaladi churna.
High performance thin layer chromatography; physico-chemical; Sitopaladi churna; standardization
The aim of this work was to formulate Alstonia boonei dried stem bark powder into tablets by wet granulation method using acacia, gelatine and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as binders at concentrations of 1, 2, 4 and 8% w/w. The phytochemistry of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei was evaluated. The micromeritic properties of the granules prepared were studied. The tablets were evaluated using the necessary official and unofficial tests. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids were present while anthroquinones and acidcompounds were absent. Micromeritic studies showed that Alstonia boonei granules had good flowability. The formulated tablets complied with British Pharmacopoeial specification for weight uniformity, hardness (≥5 kgf) and tablet friability (<1%). For disintegration test, tablets formulated with gelatine and acacia at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4% w/w complied with Pharmacopoeial specification. However, tablets formulated with SCMC (1-8% w/w) and 8% w/w of acacia and gelatine failed the disintegration tests (Disintegration time more than 15 min).
Alstonia boonei tablets; antimalarial; micromeritic; phyllotaxy; phytochemical analysis
Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.
Ayurveda; Chincha; powder microscopy; tamarind; thin layer chromatography
Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata.
Triphala Mashi is an ayurvedic formulation that was prepared in our lab. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of both Triphala and Triphala Mashi were used, to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Comparative phytochemical profile of Triphala and Triphala Mashi was done by preliminary phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Antimicrobial activity includes isolation of pathogens from clinical samples, its characterization, testing its multiple drug resistance against standard antibiotics and antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of both Triphala and Triphala Mashi against these organisms by using agar gel diffusion method. Triphala Mashi containing phenolic compounds, tannins exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity in relation to Triphala against all the microorganisms tested. It inhibits the dose-dependent growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In conclusion, it appears that Triphala Mashi has non-specific antimicrobial activity.
antimicrobial activity; clinical sample and Tannin; Triphala; Triphala Mashi
Saraca asoca commonly known as asoka, which is considered as a sacred tree by Hindus and Buddhists possesses various medicinal uses. The stem bark of the tree is the principal constituent of several ayurvedic preparations which are widely prescribed in leucorrhoea, haematuria, menorrhagia and other diseases of the female genitourinary system. Because of destructive extraction and the absence of an organized cultivation programme, the avilbility of the crude drug is diminishing and this has resulted in the sale of adulterants. The commonly used adulterant is the bark of Polyalthia longifolia which shows some similarity with that of asoka. Studies were conducted at Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research station, Odakkali (Kerala Agricultural University) during 2001-2002 to evolve methods for differentiating the original drug from the adulterant species by anatomical biochemical and chromatographic techniques.
This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species.
Microscopy; physicochemical and phytochemical; transverse section
Crude saponin extracts of five medicinal plants used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, gout and haemorrhoids were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. These plants were the whole plant of Schwenkia americana Linn (WSA), the rhizomes of Asparagus africanus Lam (RAA), the leaves of Dichrostachys cinerea Linn (LDC), the stem bark of Ficus iteophylla Miq (BFI) and the leaves of Indigofera pulchra Willd (LIP). A modify traditional method of crude saponins extraction was used to give the following percentage yields: WSA-2.74%, RAA-3.59%, LDC-1.62%, BFI-0.81% and LIP-1.57% respectively. Thin-layer chromatography was used to identify the type of saponins present in the extracts. The acute toxicity study of the crude saponin extracts in mice gave the following intraperitoneal LD50: WSA-471.2mg/kg, RAA- 1264.9mg/kg, LDC-1264.9mg/kg, BFI-118.3mg/kg and LIP-1264.9mg/kg respectively. The anti-inflammatory study of the extracts showed statistically significant (P<0.05) decreases in the rat paw-oedema as compared to the control. The percentage inhibitions of the extracts after four hours were as follow: WSA-61%, RAA-55%, LDC-72%, BFI-66% and LIP-40% respectively. These values were found to be comparable to that of ketoprofen-63%. The study showed that the anti-inflammatory properties attributable to these plants may be due to their saponins contents.
Asparagus africanus; Dichrostachys cinerea; Ficus iteophylla; Indigofera pulchra; Schwenkia americana; Saponin; Anti-inflammatory activity; Carrageenan; TLC
In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal.
Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated.
The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67.
These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative.
Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs.
Amaranthus spinosus Linn.; pharmacognostic standardization; physicochemical evaluations
Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita is an Ayurvedic formulation, which is beneficial in the management of the side effects of Head and Neck Malignancies induced by Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy. A pharmacognostical study involving both the macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drugs of Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita and a physicochemical analysis of the finished product were carried out, to evaluate the quality of the formulation. The specific gravity of the formulation was 0.9130 and pH was 3.5. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were carried out after organizing the appropriate solvent system, in which five spots were distinguished in TLC and nine spots in HPTLC. Most of the Rf values for the spots observed were identical. The observations could be considered to be the reference standards in future studies.
Chemotherapy; high performance thin layer chromatography; radiotherapy; Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita
Folkloric claims on the use of a mixture of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia avicennioides root barks in tumor management exist without scientific evidence. This study aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antiproliferative activity of these plants and their mixture.
Materials and Methods:
Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extracts after which various concentrations (0 to 1 000 μg/ml) were incubated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines for 3 and 24 hours.
The extracts contained alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, phlobatannins, and terpenes. The separate extracts and their 1:1 mixture significantly (P<0.05) decreased the computed percentage viability of the cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
The antiproliferative activity may be due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the extracts and has a potential in the management of tumor.
Anogeissus leiocarpus; antiproliferation; Ehrlich ascites carcinoma; phytochemicals; Terminalia avicennioides
Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders.
To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO.
Materials and Methods:
The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis.
The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO.
Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol.
Antioxidants; GC-MS analysis; medicinal plants; Melia orientalis; phytocomponents
Plants and plant-based products are the bases of many modern pharmaceuticals that are current in use today for various diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the biochemical constituents and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing of the ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides. Phytochemical screening was done by standard procedures and HPTLC method was also established to analyze alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds from the ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that ethanol extracted more secondary metabolites than other solvents. HPTLC fingerprinting analysis showed the presence of various alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols (quercetin) in the ethanolic extract. It can be concluded that Evolvulus alsinoides may serve as a source of potent antioxidants that may be used in the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of phenolic compounds. HPTLC finger print of Evolvulus alsinoides may be useful in the differentiation of the species from adulterants and act as a biochemical marker for this medicinally important plant in the pharmaceutical industry and plant systematic studies.
Evolvulus alsinoides; high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC); secondary metabolites; convolvulaceae
Senna italica, a member of the Fabaceae family (subfamily Caesalpinaceae), is widely used traditionally to treat a number of disease conditions, such as sexually transmitted diseases and some forms of intestinal complications. The roots of Senna italica were collected from Zebediela subregion, Limpopo province (S.A), powdered and extracted with acetone by cold/shaking extraction method. The phytochemical composition of the extract was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chromatograms were visualised with vanillin-sulphuric acid and p-anisaldehyde reagents. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as TAE/g dry weight. The extract was assayed for the in vitro anticancer activity using Jurkat T cells, antioxidant activity using DPPH assay and antibacterial activity by bioautographic method and the microtitre plate method. The acetone extract of the roots of Senna italica inhibited the growth of Jurkat T cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The extract also had free radical scavenging activity as well as reasonable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 0,08 to 0.16 mg/ml in the same order as ampicillin the positive control. The biological activities observed in the acetone extract validated the ethnomedicinal use of Senna italica.
Senna italica; Antibacterial; Antioxidant; Antiproliferative
We investigated the role of terpenoid aldehydes in the resistance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Three-day-old, root-knot-resistant ('Auburn 623') and -susceptible ('Deltapine 16') seedlings were inoculated with M. incognita. Comparable portions of inoculated and noninoculated roots were harvested 2, 4, 7, and 10 days later. Terpenoid aldehydes were extracted, separated by thin-layer chromatography, eluted as their phloroglucinol derivatives, and measured colorimetrically. In noninoculated seedlings of each age, the susceptible cultivar contained more total and more of each of five specific terpenoid aldehydes (hemigossypol, methoxyhemigossypol, gossypol, lnethoxygossypol, dimethoxygossypol) than did the resistant cultivar. In both cultivars, the concentration of terpenoid aldehydes increased as seedlings aged. After inoculation, the concentration of terpenoid aldehydes was usually highest in the noninoculated, followed by the infected susceptible, infected resistant, and noninfected resistant seedlings in that order. The changes in concentration that occurred in response to infection, particularly at 7 and 10 days after inoculation, did correlate with host resistance, i.e., there was a net loss of total and each specific terpenoid aldelhyde in tlae susceptible cultivar, and a net gain in the resistant. Our data do not exclude the possibility that localized synthesis of terpenoid aldehydes is involved in resistance to root-knot nematodes.
Gossypium hirsutum; physiology; resistance