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1.  Ayurveda–modern medicine interface: A critical appraisal of studies of Ayurvedic medicines to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis 
The potential of Ayurvedic philosophy and medicines needs to be recognized and converted into real life treatment paradigm. This article describes a comprehensive therapeutic approach used in Ayurveda and modern medicine to treat arthritis. We present concise summary of various controlled drug trials carried out by us to validate standardized Ayurvedic drugs using modern medicine protocol to treat Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis knees. Several of the latter are published. The trials consistently demonstrate excellent safety of Ayurvedic medicines but often fail to unequivocally show superior efficacy. Some key findings of a recently unpublished trial in OA knees are also presented to show equivalence between Ayurvedic medicine and celecoxib and glucosamine, and we speculate that equivalence trials may be a way forward. The data from the trials also supports the Ayurvedic ‘Rasayana’ concept of immune-modulation and healing. We need to interpret logic of Ayurveda when, adopting modern science tools in drug development and validation and much research is required. Validation of Ayurvedic medicines using the latter approach may lead to an evidence based Ayurveda – Modern Medicine interface. Also, in pursuit of finding better treatment solutions, we ought to step beyond the realm of only drugs and attempt validation of comprehensive specific treatment package as per classical Ayurveda. Finally, validation of a combined (Ayurveda and modern medicine) therapeutic approach with superior efficacy and safety is likely to be a major leap in overcoming some of the current frustrations to treat difficult disorders like arthritis using only modern medicines.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.72620
PMCID: PMC3087360  PMID: 21547047
Ayurveda; rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; clinical trials; Rasayana
2.  Exploring issues in the development of Ayurvedic research methodology 
Research is the prime need of contemporary Ayurveda, but modern research on Ayurveda has not been very rewarding for Ayurveda itself. Much of it uses Ayurveda to extend modern bioscience. In contrast, Ayurveda needs research designed to test and validate its fundamental concepts as well as its treatments. In this context, if Ayurveda is to be truly explored and validated in all its aspects, scientific inputs should conform to Ayurveda's principles and philosophy. While its evidence base, established since antiquity, may need further verification, research should now focus on the Science of Ayurveda, rather than merely looking for new drugs based on Ayurveda herbals; in-depth research is needed on Ayurveda. Such research will require teamwork between scientists and vaidyas based on truth and trust. Ayurveda research methodology requires the ‘whole system testing approach’, global participation with protocols evolved through intense interface with modern science, regulatory reforms to eliminate barriers, and to be investigated ‘as it is’, using approaches adapted from its own basic principles.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.65067
PMCID: PMC3151394  PMID: 21836794
Ayurveda; research; methodology
3.  Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development 
Mens Sana Monographs  2008;6(1):187-225.
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.
While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.
The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.
While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.
The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.
We thus realise that morbidity, disability, and death assail all three societies: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in infectious diseases, it is poverty/deprivation in its various manifestations that is the culprit in poverty-related diseases, and it is lifestyle stress in its various avatars that is the culprit in lifestyle diseases. It is as though poverty and lifestyle stress have become the modern “bacteria” of developing and developed societies, respectively.
For those societies afflicted with diseases of poverty, of course, the prime concern is to escape from the deadly grip of poverty-disease-deprivation-helplessness; but, while so doing, they must be careful not to land in the lap of lifestyle diseases. For the haves, the need is to seek well-being, positive health, and inner rootedness; to ask science not only to give them new pills for new ills, but to define and study how negative emotions hamper health and how positive ones promote it; to find out what is inner peace, what is the connection between spirituality and health, what is well-being, what is self-actualisation, what prevents disease, what leads to longevity, how simplicity impacts health, what attitudes help cope with chronic sicknesses, how sicknesses can be reversed (not just treated), etc. Studies on well-being, longevity, and simplicity need the concerted attention of researchers.
The task ahead is cut out for each one of us: physician, patient, caregiver, biomedical researcher, writer/journalist, science administrator, policy maker, ethicist, man of religion, practitioner of alternate/complementary medicine, citizen of a world community, etc. Each one must do his or her bit to ensure freedom from disease and achieve well-being.
Those in the developed world have the means to make life meaningful but, often, have lost the meaning of life itself; those in the developing world are fighting for survival but, often, have recipes to make life meaningful. This is especially true of a society like India, which is rapidly emerging from its underdeveloped status. It is an ancient civilization, with a philosophical outlook based on a robust mix of the temporal and the spiritual, with vibrant indigenous biomedical and related disciplines, for example, Ayurveda, Yoga, etc. It also has a burgeoning corpus of modern biomedical knowledge in active conversation with the rest of the world. It should be especially careful that, while it does not negate the fruits of economic development and scientific/biomedical advance that seem to beckon it in this century, it does not also forget the values that have added meaning and purpose to life; values that the ancients bequeathed it, drawn from their experiential knowledge down the centuries.
The means that the developed have could combine with the recipes to make them meaningful that the developing have. That is the challenge ahead for mankind as it gropes its way out of poverty, disease, despair, alienation, anomie, and the ubiquitous all-devouring lifestyle stresses, and takes halting steps towards well-being and the glory of human development.
doi:10.4103/0973-1229.40567
PMCID: PMC3190550  PMID: 22013359
Diseases of Poverty; Lifestyle Diseases; Optimism Deprivation; Farmer Suicides; Capability Deprivation; Well-Being; Longevity; Professional Burnout; Psychosomatic Ailments; Human Development; Faulty Lifestyle; Lifestyle Stress; Health Promoting Behaviours; Negative Emotions; Positive Health; The Simplicity Movement
4.  Systematic review of the concept of Yakrutotpatti (embryology of liver) 
Ayu  2014;35(1):5-8.
Ayurveda has its own view to understand the development of human body and its various organs. As the quotations are in a concise manner, it is essential to amalgamate the basics stated by various Acharyas with comprehensive explanation of modern science. The liver is a vital organ for metabolism. Acharyas have opined about the genesis of Yakrut (liver) from Rakta Dhatu (blood tissue). Parallel opinion in conventional anatomy states that abundant quantity of blood is responsible for the formation of sinusoids of liver. This huge quantity of blood comes from broken viteline and umbilical veins in the septum transversum. On the other hand, the raw material for the formation of blood cells and liver (septum transversum) is the same, being mesenchymal cells from the mesoderm. The present review was conducted to discover the similarities about the genesis of liver in the opinions of ancient and conventional medical science. This may be useful for utilizing the ancient medical science in a new perspective. Therefore, it is attempted to correlate the genesis of liver in Ayurveda with modern science.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.141895
PMCID: PMC4213968  PMID: 25364192
Angapratyanga Nirman; embryology; liver; Yakrut; Yakrutsharira
5.  Whole genome expression and biochemical correlates of extreme constitutional types defined in Ayurveda 
Background
Ayurveda is an ancient system of personalized medicine documented and practiced in India since 1500 B.C. According to this system an individual's basic constitution to a large extent determines predisposition and prognosis to diseases as well as therapy and life-style regime. Ayurveda describes seven broad constitution types (Prakritis) each with a varying degree of predisposition to different diseases. Amongst these, three most contrasting types, Vata, Pitta, Kapha, are the most vulnerable to diseases. In the realm of modern predictive medicine, efforts are being directed towards capturing disease phenotypes with greater precision for successful identification of markers for prospective disease conditions. In this study, we explore whether the different constitution types as described in Ayurveda has molecular correlates.
Methods
Normal individuals of the three most contrasting constitutional types were identified following phenotyping criteria described in Ayurveda in Indian population of Indo-European origin. The peripheral blood samples of these individuals were analysed for genome wide expression levels, biochemical and hematological parameters. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway based analysis was carried out on differentially expressed genes to explore if there were significant enrichments of functional categories among Prakriti types.
Results
Individuals from the three most contrasting constitutional types exhibit striking differences with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters and at genome wide expression levels. Biochemical profiles like liver function tests, lipid profiles, and hematological parameters like haemoglobin exhibited differences between Prakriti types. Functional categories of genes showing differential expression among Prakriti types were significantly enriched in core biological processes like transport, regulation of cyclin dependent protein kinase activity, immune response and regulation of blood coagulation. A significant enrichment of housekeeping, disease related and hub genes were observed in these extreme constitution types.
Conclusion
Ayurveda based method of phenotypic classification of extreme constitutional types allows us to uncover genes that may contribute to system level differences in normal individuals which could lead to differential disease predisposition. This is a first attempt towards unraveling the clinical phenotyping principle of a traditional system of medicine in terms of modern biology. An integration of Ayurveda with genomics holds potential and promise for future predictive medicine.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-6-48
PMCID: PMC2562368  PMID: 18782426
6.  THE PROGRESSIVE POTENTIAL OF AYURVEDA AND ITS POSSIBLE CONTRIBUTION TO HEALTH CARE TODAY* 
Ancient Science of Life  1985;5(1):21-29.
Ayurveda, the ancient Indian “Science of Life” and age – old traditional medical science of India, has a recorded history of more than 2000 years. During this period certain changes and developments occurred in the conceptual framework of this science as well as in the political, socio – economic, and religion contexts in which Ayurvedic science must be seen. In his historical process one observes a continuous systematization, diversification, and specialization of the science.
Yet, among the central concerns of Ayurveda has always been promotion and maintenance of health and prevention of disease. Especially on the first topic one finds beautiful expositions in the early samhitas of Ayurvedic writing. But there is hardly any further elaboration on this subject in the later literature and until today. “It's all been said in Caraka”.
As the importance of health promotion and prevention medicine for comprehensive health care is now recognised, what is required today are not flat statements such as “Ayurveda is prevention in itself” but a critical assessment of the respective issues of Ayurvedic or any other old tradtion with a view to their relevance today, with a clear sigth of their limitations, and without loosing out of sight the ways and means required for their implementations.
PMCID: PMC3331437  PMID: 22557494
7.  OA03.01. Biomedical studies on the classical ayurvedic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in AVT, Coimbatore (19762011): After the biomedical auscultation, Ayurveda at a turning point? 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S24.
Purpose:
In India today Ayurveda lacks recognition and is underused. Modern research seems to be a key in Ayurveda's recognition. But it did not show much result. Why is it so? The relation between Ayurveda and biomedicine might impact the results of the biomedical research on Ayurveda. How would it happen?
Method:
Through a casestudy: Two biomedical studies on the classical ayurvedic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis at the Ayurvedic Trust (AVT), Coimbatore : WHOICMR (1976-1984) and NIHNCCAM (2005-10) allow a comparative approach with an historical perspective. An ethnographic approach (interviews ; participative observation ; literary research) to describe actors’ representations, capabilities, practices and relations within a specific context. With an anthropological approach (dependance), the two studies’ examination as development projects through project analysis tools (objectives, functions, means, roles, achievements). A comparative examination through parameters assessed for each study: a) Objectives’ achievement; b) Ayurveda's dependance on biomedicine according to the functions of the studies projects; and for each actor (Ayurveda vs biomedicine): c) Interest for the objectives; d) means and roles according to the functions.
Result:
A)Biomedical studies on Ayurveda do not aim at a better recognition of Ayurveda: our case study is an exception. B)Biomedical research on Ayurveda, its results and its impact are significantly dependent on biomedicine in its relation to Ayurveda. C)The historical perspective shows a development of Ayurveda's abilities in research: a) higher education of ayurvedic physicians and researchers; b) more experience of and expertise on research; c) better scientific communication tools and expertise.
Conclusion:
The historical perspective indicates a movement towards Ayurveda's emancipation of biomedicine regarding research and the reformulation of its own agenda. Further research might include issues like the role of research in the recognition of Ayurveda and the overall relation between Ayurveda and biomedicine, specifically regarding the integrative approach. Social sciences might help.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123838
PMCID: PMC4147493
8.  A comprehensive review of Cataract (Kaphaja Linganasha) and its Surgical Treatment in Ayurvedic Literature 
Ayu  2010;31(1):93-100.
Ayurveda the science of life, since its origin is serving the mankind throughout in health & disease state of life. Shalakyatantra, one of its specialized branch deals with the science of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Orodental surgery & Head; was contributed and developed by Rajrishi Nimi, the King of Videha, who was a colleague of Atreya, Punarvasu, Dhanwantri, Bharadwaja, Kashyapa etc. The available literature related to this speciality is reproduced from original text of Nimitantra in Uttartantra of Sushruta samhita. So Rajrishi Nimi deserves all the credit and regards for Shalakyatantra and for being the first eye surgeon on this earth. The fact regarding the technique of cataract surgery adopted by ancient surgeons is still a matter of debate. Most of the medical fraternity accepts cataract surgery of ancient surgeons as couching procedure but after going through forth coming pages, the prevailing concept will prove to be a myth. It started with extra capsular extraction through small incision during the period of Sushruta Samhita but later shifted to couching like technique by Acharya Vagbhatta. Secondly, the objective of this literary research paper is to find proper co-relation of the disease cataract to those mentioned in Ancient Ayurvedic classic. Linganasha has been inadvertently taken as cataract but this is neither logical nor in accordance with classics. We find detailed description of cataract's differential diagnosis, indications, contra- indications, pre/intra/post operative procedures and complication in ancient texts of Ayurveda. Not only this, vivid description of treatment of various complications of cataract surgery are also given. Needless to say, no other surgically treatable diseases & its complications except Kaphaja Linganasha are given this much attention.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.68197
PMCID: PMC3215330  PMID: 22131692
Linganasha; Shalaka; Vedhana; Daivakrita; Lekhana; Aschyotana; Lepa; Seka
9.  Integrative endeavor for renaissance in Ayurveda 
Currently western medicine has assumed the central position in mainstream global healthcare. Openness to learn from contemporary disciplines of basic sciences, application of modern technology and further adoption of the evidence-based approach has helped western medicine gain its currently acknowledged position as mainstream modern medicine. Modern medicine has further developed forms of integrative medicine by developing interfaces with other systems of medicine, including traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. However, these developments do not seem to address all the problems facing global health care caused by overemphasis on pharmaco-therapeutic drug developments. On the other hand, Ayurveda which is founded on genuine fundamentals, has the longest uninterrupted tradition of healthcare practice, and its holistic approach to healthcare management emphasizes disease prevention and health promotion; if it opens up to incorporate emerging new knowledge into mainstream Ayurveda, and maintains fidelity to Ayurveda fundamentals, it will certainly provide a broad-based opportunity to address the majority of the problems that have emerged from global healthcare requirements. To bring these solutions to bear, however, it will be necessary to progress from the present “utilitarian ethos” to a “unifying ethos” for realization of medical integration.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.78179
PMCID: PMC3121253  PMID: 21731380
Ayurveda; global healthcare; integrative Ayurveda; integrative medicine
10.  OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S34.
Purpose:
Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra.
Method:
The present study was clinical, randomised, single blind trial. In the present research work Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra has been taken for comparative study wth snuhi apamarga ksharsutra. Thirty patients cases of fistulainano were selected from OPD/IPD of Shalya Tantra department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Total patients were divided into two equal groups. The patients of group A were treated with Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra and the patients of group B were treated with Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra.
Result:
In the study the effect of Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra was found better in pain, itching, pus discharge, tenderness and burning sensation and the rate of Unit Cutting Time was slightly higher as Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra.
Conclusion:
Though U.C.T of Guggulu Chitrak Kshara Sutra is slightly higher than Snuhi Apamarga Kshar Sutra, but in assessment parameter Guggulu Chitrak Kshar Sutra has been shown significant result. With guggulu chitrak ksharsutra post ligation complications like hypertrophied scar etc are not seen and this is easily available and cost effective.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123848
PMCID: PMC4147504
11.  PA01.51.Enriching the core 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S101.
Purpose:
Most of India population resides in rural and are not that economically sufficient to attend to rich healthcare bills of costly medicine, therapies and laboratory tests. The government is surely upto create more health centres and aid in future, as such this is a time taking project. On the other hand, an easy and effective way is following Ayurvedic life style and measures, moreover rural India is more closer to nature and the science of life, and it is more favourable to implement the ways mentioned in Ayurveda at core level. A study to verify the ways that can be advocated, from the basics of Ayurveda was projected.
Method:
Simple methods like following of dinacharya, ritucharya, sad vyavahar, plantation of home remedial medicinal plants along with the prime occupation of agriculture farming, using or organic fertilizer, following the medicinal ethics in rituals, protecting off from modern disorder causatives like sedentary lifestyle, junk canned foods, synthetic fertilizers, pollutants, etc. living in close with the nature, precisely Ayurvedic living seen to be very efficient.
Result:
The cost of healthcare expenses and maintainence was nullified, except the genetic and traumatic disorders most of them were very well handled or controlled before attaining full-blown condition. The concept of swasthavritta, nidaan parivarjan and samprapti vighatan could control most of the diseases. Health and happiness is a gift of life, was truly experienced. Implementing simple ways, which are in chorus with the lifestyle of rural, is not a complex issue. The results are highly benefitting and puts up a golden example for other to follow. It is in tune with enriching of public health through Ayurveda.
Conclusion:
Rural population is the core of our country. Health to them in an economical and easy way Ayurveda will result a comprehensive progress to the whole country, and set an example for the world to follow.
PMCID: PMC3800854
12.  Ayurveda: Between Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine 
Ayurveda is playing a growing part in Europe. Questions regarding the role of religion and spirituality within Ayurveda are discussed widely. Yet, there is little data on the influence of religious and spiritual aspects on its European diffusion. Methods. A survey was conducted with a new questionnaire. It was analysed by calculating frequency variables and testing differences in distributions with the χ2-Test. Principal Component Analyses with Varimax Rotation were performed. Results. 140 questionnaires were analysed. Researchers found that individual religious and spiritual backgrounds influence attitudes and expectations towards Ayurveda. Statistical relationships were found between religious/spiritual backgrounds and decisions to offer/access Ayurveda. Accessing Ayurveda did not exclude the simultaneous use of modern medicine and CAM. From the majority's perspective Ayurveda is simultaneously a science, medicine, and a spiritual approach. Conclusion. Ayurveda seems to be able to satisfy the individual needs of therapists and patients, despite worldview differences. Ayurvedic concepts are based on anthropologic assumptions including different levels of existence in healing approaches. Thereby, Ayurveda can be seen in accordance with the prerequisites for a Whole Medical System. As a result of this, intimate and individual therapist-patient relationships can emerge. Larger surveys involving bigger participant numbers with fully validated questionnaires are warranted to support these results.
doi:10.1155/2013/952432
PMCID: PMC3863565  PMID: 24368928
13.  CONSTITUTING THE OUTLINES OF A PHILOSOPHY OF AYURVEDA: MAINLY ON MENTAL HEALTH IMPORT 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1987;29(2):127-131.
SUMMARY
The antiquity of achievements of Hindus in the field of Mental health is explained. The chief points discussed in this article are: (1) The exact sense in which the school of ancient Indian Medicine (Ayurveda) is to be understood. (2) The interpretation of some of the fundamental philosophical issues governing the laws of mental sciences and (3) The relevance of such laws to modern scientific world. However, the present article limits its scope to Charaka Samhita- the most fundamental book on Ayurveda only.
PMCID: PMC3172459  PMID: 21927226
14.  Shad Garbhakara Bhavas vis-a-vis congenital and genetic disorders 
Ayu  2010;31(2):175-184.
Despite the advancements in diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions, medical science has failed to keep the incidence of congenital malformations under control. Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical system has given due emphasis on this and postulated various measures to minimize the risks. These measures start well before conception. According to Ayurvedic principles, proper preparation of the parents is an essential prerequisite for a healthy progeny. Pre-conception care is a set of interventions that identifies biomedical behavioral and social risks to the health of the mother and the baby. It includes both-prevention and management, emphasizing health issues that require action before conception, very early in pregnancy, for maximal impact. For meeting the objective of healthy progeny, Ayurveda scholars felt the importance of six procreative factors (Shadgarbhkarabhavas) such as Matrija, Pitrija, Aatmaja, Rasaja, Satmyaja, and Sattvaja. The conglomeration of these procreative factors is must for healthy progeny. The physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being of the person, proper nutrition of the mother during pregnancy, and practice of a wholesome regimen, play a prime role in achieving a healthy offspring, thus structuring a healthy family, society, and nation. Negligence toward any of these factors becomes a cause for unhealthy and defective child birth. The present literary / conceptual study, thus focuses mainly on interpreting these observations, on the basis of modern scientific knowledge.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.72384
PMCID: PMC3215361  PMID: 22131707
Atmaja; Matrija; Pitrija;  procreative factors; Rasaja; Sattmyaja; Sattvaja; shad-garbhakarbhavas
15.  Ayurveda research: Ontological challenges 
Collaborative research involving Ayurveda and the current sciences is undoubtedly an imperative and is emerging as an exciting horizon, particularly in basic sciences. Some work in this direction is already going on and outcomes are awaited with bated breath. For instance the ‘ASIIA (A Science Initiative In Ayurveda)’ projects of Dept of Science and Technology, Govt of India, which include studies such as Ayurvedic Prakriti and Genetics. Further intense and sustained collaborative research needs to overcome a subtle and fundamental challenge-the ontologic divide between Ayurveda and all the current sciences. Ontology, fundamentally, means existence; elaborated, ontology is a particular perspective of an object of existence and the vocabulary developed to share that perspective. The same object of existence is susceptible to several ontologies. Ayurveda and modern biomedical as well as other sciences belong to different ontologies, and as such, collaborative research cannot be carried out at required levels until a mutually acceptable vocabulary is developed.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.93942
PMCID: PMC3326789  PMID: 22529675
Ayurveda; biomedicine; ontology; pre and post-Galilean; postmodern
16.  “Science means learning to say—I don’t know”: An interview with Dr. Ashok D.B. Vaidya 
Dr. Ashok D.B. Vaidya, the stalwart in the fields of Experimental Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology, and Reverse Pharmacology turns 75 on Nov, 27, 2011. A former Clinical Research Head of CIBA Geigy Research Centre, his name has been synonymous with the concept of the Golden Triangle for resurgence of Ayurveda and its reinterpretation in modern scientific terms. At a time when most fields are populated by intellectual dwarfs and unethical operators, he stands like a giant–a scientist, a philosopher, and an ardent fighter for ethical values. In this free-wheeling interview with Ravindra R.Pandharinath, he discusses the milestones in his life, his inspirations, and dreams for the confluence of modern science, modern medicine, and Ayurveda as the new health care model for the 21st century
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.90771
PMCID: PMC3255454  PMID: 22253513
Dr. Ashok Vaidya; golden triangle; reverse pharmacology
17.  Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(Suppl 2):S310-S314.
The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of “traditional mental health promoting practices” was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a “mind control” as referred by Caraka, is achieved through “spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.
doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105556
PMCID: PMC3705701  PMID: 23858273
Achar rasayana; Ayurveda; psychotherapy; psychoveda; sattvavajaya
18.  Insights into Ayurvedic biology—sA conversation with Professor M.S. Valiathan 
Professor Marthanda Varma Sankaran Valiathan, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, ex President of the Indian National Science Academy, is a reputed cardiac surgeon who made original contributions to cardiology and the development of medical technology. He is widely recognized for his role in pioneering the joint culture of medicine and technology, and laying the foundations for the medical devices industry in India. He has pioneered several scientific studies in the field of Ayurveda and authored several books on the subject. In this free and frank interview he discusses three important phases in his life, and his passion for the convergence of modern biology and Ayurveda as a new discipline of science “Ayurvedic Biology”.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.104450
PMCID: PMC3545245  PMID: 23326096
Ayurvedic Biology; Professor Valiathan; interview
19.  Adverse drug reaction and concepts of drug safety in Ayurveda: An overview 
Drug safety is a very basic and fundamental concept in medical practice. ADRs play an important role in assessing patient safety in any system of medicine. Pharmacovigilance study is thus significant to understand treatment outcomes. Current raised issue with respect to complementary and alternative system medicine (CAM) like Ayurveda is increased in number of safety reports along with report misinterpretation; this generates the negative impact on system. Although, Ayurveda which is holistic system of medicine from India has elaborated the causes and methods of drug-induced consequences along with preventive measures the available data in classical texts is scattered. The compilation and analysis along with modern concept drug safety is need of the hour. Present literature review was conducted from various compendium of Ayurveda and electronic data base with search terms of ‘Vyapad’, ‘Viruddha’, ‘Ahita’, ‘herb–herb interaction’, ‘idiosyncrasy’, ‘Prakritiviruddha’ etc. The reported information was analysed for the possible correlation on concept of ADR and Pharmacovigilance of current science. Overall review demonstrated that drug interaction, iatrogenic, over dose, administration of unsuitable drugs, reprehensive drug administration with respect to disease, complication from five procedural therapies (Panchakarma) and reprehensible preparation of mineral drug are nearer to the modern causes of ADR. Thus, concept of drug safety and ADR is not new to the Ayurveda. The concept “Drug which is not appropriate to be used as medicine”(Abheshaja) of Ayurveda sounds similar as that of modern pharmacovigilance.
doi:10.1016/j.jyp.2013.10.001
PMCID: PMC3930110  PMID: 24563588
Pharmacovigilance; ADR; Ayurveda; Drug safety; Abheshaja
20.  PA01.47. Making ayurveda affordable and acceptable to all 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S97.
Purpose:
Ayurveda is eternal science of life because of its evolution is prior to human being itself. Ayurveda is part of our day to day life as a food & day routine. The study was performed as a survey in Delhi NCR (India) among the common men who use ayurveda or want ayurveda to be their system of medicine. The Aim of this study was to know their opinion that what are the ground realities and how ayurveda can be made more affordable and acceptable to them.
Method:
Sixty individuals were selected randomly comprising equally males and females. Age group was 18 to 70 yrs. All of them have undergone Ayurvedic treatment or have taken ayurvedic medicines as a part of their treatment. They were asked 31 questions about ayurveda under four categories as general questions, questions related to ayurvedic physicians, questions related to ayurvedic retailers and questions related to ayurvedic manufacturers. Their answers were taken on a printed questionnaire as a tick Yes, No and can’t say. Some questions were subjective to get suggestions of patients.
Result:
Result of the survey indicated some valuable points like 90% under study doesn’t know that BAMS are Ayurvedic Physicians. Pure Ayurvedic Retailers are rare; condition of ayurvedic medicines were not good at mixed ones. There was absolute majority for the expiry date on ayurvedic medicines & more research work on Ayurvedic preparations to make them tastier, easily differentiable & patient friendly.
Conclusion:
The results of the study should be addressed by the Ayurvedic Physicians, Ayurvedic manufacturers and retailers community on priority basis. The study also revealed the need of a broad based survey to get further insight of the present ayurvedic scenario in India & abroad and suggestions to make ayurveda more patients friendly and acceptable to all.
PMCID: PMC3800980
21.  AYURVEDIC APPROACH TO CLINICAL MEDICINE – PART II 
Ancient Science of Life  1985;4(4):197-201.
Having made out our points in relation to the “Anumanajnerya Bhavas” (Inferential examinations (with concrete example of “Manah Pariksana” and its actual practice we proceed in this present paper to ‘Pratyaksa” Pariksa (Direct clinical observations).
In this paper the utility and actual implementation of Ksaya and Vrddhi of DOSAS is being described. We have formulated out own type of utility and modus operandi. This has been discussed in the paper once again through the perspective of Caraka Cakrapanidatta and other relevant authors of ancient as well as modern times. Some correlations have also been studied at our department by u which also have been discussed. To our surprise some reciprocal correlation which are theoretically anticipated as usually done in not only Ayurvedic but even other sciences sometimes, have not been found in actual practice. Our only attempt is to make some, data based understanding on the basis of the assessment of the “Patient” as a whole and not only the disease. Incidentally the most easily detectable difference between Ayurveda and modern western medicine is the former being patient oriented and later disease oriented.
PMCID: PMC3331527  PMID: 22557477
22.  Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on forty-three patients of ulcerative colitis 
Ayu  2010;31(4):478-481.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease with a relapsing nature. It is a very challenging disease affecting a patient during the most active period of his life i.e. 20 to 40 years of age. The main features are ano-rectal bleeding with increased frequency of bowel evacuation, general debility and with abnormal structural pathology in the descending colon, particularly sigmoid colon. In modern medical science, there is no permanent curative and safe treatment for this disease. This study can be helpful for reducing the need of steroids and surgical processes in the patients of ulcerative colitis. A clinical study of 43 patients of ulcerative colitis has been conducted at the O.P.D. (outdoor patient department) and I.P.D. (indoor patient department) of the P D Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad. They were given Udumbara kvatha basti with oral Ayurveda medicaments including Kutaj ghan vati, Udumbara kvatha, and combination of Musta, Nagakesara, Lodhra, Mukta panchamrut rasa for a one-month period. Results were analyzed statistically by using the ‘t’ test. In this study, it was observed that the symptoms and signs, daily dose of steroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs were reduced by more than 75% with a highly significant result. The hemoglobin level was also increased.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82046
PMCID: PMC3202252  PMID: 22048543
Ayurveda; ulcerative colitis; Udumbara kvatha basti; Basti karma
23.  Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation 
Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders.
doi:10.1155/2013/376327
PMCID: PMC3705899  PMID: 23864888
24.  PHILOSOPHICAL PRESUPPOSITIONS OF AYURVEDA AND MODERN MEDICINE 
Ancient Science of Life  1984;3(3):123-128.
The theory of Ayurveda rests on the concepts of matter, vital principle, mind, and pure consciousness. It is a holistic theory of medicine, which aims at restoration of physical and mental health, and spiritual well-being in a sick person, so that he may self-actualize himself, and eventually, realize his nature as pure consciousness. Modern Western medicine tries to reduce consciousness, and vital principle to biochemical entities. It is a value-neutral science, and considers the aim of therapy as removal of pathological symptoms. Its theoretical position is weak. Interface between medical and value science is urgently needed.
PMCID: PMC3331560  PMID: 22557392
25.  Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal 
Background
Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings.
Methods
The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008.
Results
The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings, common Ayurvedic and earlier uses.
Conclusions
Although traditional herbal medicine is only a primary means of health care in far-west Nepal, the medicine has been pursued indigenously with complementing pharmacology and the Ayurveda. Therefore, further pharmacological evaluation of traditional herbal medicine deserves more attention.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-6-35
PMCID: PMC3012020  PMID: 21144003

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