A vast majority of the studies addressing the free radicals including hydroxyl radical is a damage compound of biochemical molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. When free radicals specially hydroxyl radical are not adequately removed from the body, it may damage biological macromolecules, leading to a variety of disease occurs. Therefore, the body should be protected by an enzymatic or non-enzymatic antioxidant defense system against free radicals. In order to explore the hypothesis that antioxidant plants can serve as therapeutic agents for diseases, the effect of Barberry fruit extracts was studied in an in vitro model. By evaluating their scavenging potential. Barberry fruits were collected from Babol, Iran and certified by the local scientist Mazandaran Province, Iran. The Barberry fruits were cleaned and dried at room temperature while keeping away from direct sunlight and then powdered. Suitable amounts of dried plant were coarsely grounded and used for extraction. The dry plant samples were extracted with water and/or ethanol. 10 g of Barberry fruits extracts powder was percolated by water for 24 hours. The extract was filtered and concentrated. Hydroxyl radical was produced as described previously. Then, Barberry fruits hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity was determined using deoxyribose degradation system, followed spectrophotometrically at 532 nm. As expected ,our data indicate that the level of hydroxyl radical generation in with aqueous and /or ethanol extracts of barberry fruit was decreased in comparison without barberry fruit extract in vitro system [(6.11±0.83, 5.28 ±1.44, mmol/ml) vs. (9.32±0.38, mmol/ml)], p<0.05, respectively. Indeed, our results revealed that the extracts of the Barberry fruit scavenge hydroxyl radical in vitro sample as compared to the controls. The barberry fruit extracts proved to be an effective for hydroxyl radical scavenging. The present data revealed that beneficial effect of Barberry fruit aqueous and ethanol extracts may be due to its free radical scavenging potential. It may therefore be interesting that he barberry fruit extracts has the unique capacity to quench free radicals.
Antioxidant; barberry fruit; aqueous and ethanol extracts; hydroxyl radical
Antioxidants are the essential defense mechanism to protect the body against free radical damage. The objective of the study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of different parts of Withania somnifera (leaves, fresh tubers and dry tubers) towards free radical DPPH and the extent of inhibition of lipid peroxidation using hydrogen peroxide as prooxidant. The plant extracts exhibited significant antioxidant effect in the order as follows: leaves>fresh tubers>dry tubers. The results suggested that Withania somnifera could be a potential source of antioxidants and may be used in preparations to combat free radical mediated damage.
Free radicals; Antioxidants; Lipid Peroxidation and Medicinal Plants
Cyanthillium cinereum (Less.) H. Rob. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally known for its medicinal properties, all aspects of which are yet to be exploited. This study was aimed at investigating the therapeutic potential of polar (methanolic and aqueous) and nonpolar (hexane and chloroform) crude extracts of the whole plant. Several parameters including free-radical (DPPH•, ABTS•+, H2O2 and •OH) scavenging, reducing power, protection of DNA against oxidative damage, cytotoxicity, inhibition of oxidative hemolysis in erythrocytes, total phenolic content and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were examined. All the free-radical generating assay models demonstrated positive scavenging efficiency with differential but considerable magnitudes for the four extracts. However, only the hexane extract showed significant H2O2 scavenging effect. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by thiobarbituric acid-malondialdehyde (MDA) reaction, and a high degree of inhibition was shown by all the extracts. Reducing power of the polar extracts was higher than the non-polar ones. All extracts showed a concentration-dependent increase in phenolic contents. Oxidative damage to erythrocytes was hindered by all extracts in diverse degrees. XTT assay showed that all extracts have mild cytotoxic property. The aqueous extract evidently demonstrated protective effect on pBR322 plasmid DNA against oxidative breakdown. These results suggested the potential of C. cinereum as medicine against free-radical-associated oxidative damage and related degenerative diseases involving metabolic stress, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.
Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS and RNS) has been implicated in several disorders and diseases, including ageing. Hence naturally occurring anti-oxidant rich-herbs play a vital role in combating these conditions. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro free-radical quenching capacity of a known Ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation called Vayasthapana Rasayana.
Methanol extracts of Vayasthapana Rasayana formulation (VRF) were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic content and reducing power. In vitro assays like DPPH, FRAP, ABTS scavenging to evaluate radical quenching potential were performed.
The formulation has shown 94% at 0.1 mg/ml DPPH free-radical scavenging activity as against 84% at 0.1 mg/ml for standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value 5.51 μg/ml for VRF and 39 μg/ml for standard). It has a significant higher ferric reducing potential also (OD 0.87 at 700 nm & 0.21 at 0.1 mg/ml for VRF and standard, respectively). The total phenolic content (gallic acid equivalent) of the VRF is 8.3 mg per g of dry mass. Total antioxidant capacity of the formulation, estimated by FRAP was 1150 ± 5 μM Fe(II)/g dry mass. ABTS radical scavenging activity of VRF was 69.55 ± 0.21% at 100 μg/ml concentration with a IC50 value of 69.87 μg/ml as against 9% and 95% by ascorbic acid and Trolox (at 70.452 μg/ml and 0.250 μg/ml concentrations, respectively).
In Indian traditional Ayurvedic system, use of VRF is in regular practice for mainly combating age-related disorders and diseases as many of the components of the Rasayana are known for their free-radical scavenging activity. This study has validated the potential use of VRF as an anti-oxidant to fight age-related problems.
To investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana camara (L. camara) various parts and the determination of their total phenolics content.
The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity(DPPH), xanthine oxidase inhibition activity and Griess-Ilosvay method.
The results showed that all the plant parts possessed antioxidant properties including radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and nitrites scavenging activities. The antioxidative activities were correlated with the total phenol. The leaves extract of L. camara was more effective than that of other parts.
This study suggests that L. camara extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.
Lantana camara; Cytotoxicity; Oral acute toxicity; Vero cell; Plant extract
Free radical production occurs continuously in all cells as part of normal cellular function. However, excess free radical production originating from endogenous or exogenous sources might play a role in many diseases. Antioxidants prevent free radical induced tissue damage by preventing the formation of radicals, scavenging them, or by promoting their decomposition. This article reviews the basic chemistry of free radical formation in the body, the consequences of free radical induced tissue damage, and the function of antioxidant defence systems, with particular reference to the development of atherosclerosis.
Key Words: free radicals • antioxidants • oxidative stress • coronary heart disease • atherosclerosis
This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this.
Antioxidant activity; DPPH; Madhuca indica; nitric oxide radical
It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.
Antioxidant; Caesalpinia bonduc; free radicals; lipid peroxidation
In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity, and hepatoprotective activity of methanol extracts from Polyalthia longifolia and Cassia spectabilis were evaluated using established in vitro models such as ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl radical (OH•), nitric oxide radical (NO•) scavenging, metal chelating, and antilipidperoxidation activities. Interestingly, all the extracts showed considerable in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the standard antioxidant which verified the presence of strong antioxidant compound in leaf extracts tested. Phenolic and flavonoid content of these extracts is significantly correlated with antioxidant capacity. Since P. longifolia extract was exhibited better in vitro antioxidant activities, it was subjected for in vivo hepatoprotective activity in paracetamol-intoxicated mice. Therapy of P. longifolia showed the liver protective effect on biochemical and histopathological alterations. Moreover, histological studies also supported the biochemical finding, that is, the maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture of the liver. Results revealed that P. longifolia leaf extract could protect the liver against paracetamol-induced oxidative damage by possibly increasing the antioxidant protection mechanism in mice. Our findings indicated that P. longifolia and C. spectabilis have potential as good sources of natural antioxidant/antiaging compounds.
Antioxidants play an important role to protect damage caused by oxidative stress (OS). Plants having phenolic contents are reported to possess antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents (total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthrocyanidins) of methanolic extracts from Morus alba (locally named as Tut and commonly known as white mulberry) stem barks (TSB), root bark (TRB), leaves (TL) and fruits (TF) to make a statistical correlation between phenolic contents and antioxidant potential.
The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of methanolic extractives were evaluated by in vitro standard method using spectrophotometer. The antioxidant activities were determined by total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine) radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay methods.
Among the extracts, TSB showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by TRB, TF and TL. Based on DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, the TSB extract was the most effective one with IC50 37.75 and 58.90 μg/mL, followed by TRB, TF and TL with IC50 40.20 and 102.03; 175.01 and 114.63 and 220.23 and 234.63 μg/mL, respectively. The TSB extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation with IC50 145.31 μg/mL. In addition, the reducing capacity on ferrous ion was in the following order: TSB > TRB > TL > TF. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins of TSB was found to be higher than other extractives.
The results indicate high correlation and regression (p-value <0 .001) between phenolic contents and antioxidant potentials of the extracts, hence the Tut plant could serve as effective free radical inhibitor or scavenger which may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant-based products. However, further exploration is necessary for effective use in both modern and traditional system of medicines.
Morus alba; Moraceae; Oxidative stress; Antioxidant; Correlation and regression
This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of petroleum ether (60–80°C), chloroform, and methanol extract of the fruits of Dregea volubilis Benth (Asclepiadaceae). The different antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radical, super oxide anion radical, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content were studied. The extracts exhibited potent total antioxidant activity that increased with increasing amount of extract concentration, which was compared with standard drug vitamin C at different concentrations as extracts. The different concentrations of all the extracts and vitamin C showed inhibition on lipid peroxidation. In addition, all the extracts had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, super oxide anion scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content depending on concentration. These various antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant such as vitamin C at different concentration as different extracts.
Dregea volubilis; free-radical scavenging; in vitro antioxidant
The role of free radicals in normal cellular functions and different pathological conditions has been a focus of pharmacological studies in the recent past. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals in general are essential for cell signaling and other vital physiological functions; however, excessive amounts can cause alteration in cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) balance, and disrupt normal biological functions. When there is an imbalance between activities of ROS and antioxidant/scavenging defense systems, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. A good number of studies have shown OS is involved in the development of several disease conditions, including male infertility. In the present article, generation of free radicals and their effects, as well as the mechanisms of antioxidant/scavenging defense systems are discussed, with particular focus on the testis. The review also discusses the contribution of OS on testicular dysfunction and briefly focuses on some OS-induced conditions that will alter testicular function.
Antioxidant; ROS; Scavenging; Superoxide anion; Testis
Sida cordata, a member of Family Malvaceae is used in folk medicine for various ailments including liver diseases. In this study we investigated, its flavonoid constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against different free radicals and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rat.
Dried powder of S. cordata whole plant was extracted with methanol and the resultant (SCME) obtained was fractionated with escalating polarity to obtain n-hexane fraction (SCHE), ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE), n-butanol fraction (SCBE) and the remaining soluble portion as aqueous fraction (SCAE). Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions. On account of marked scavenging activity SCEE was selected to investigate the hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced toxicity in Sprague–Dawley male rats by assessing the level of serum markers (alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, and γ-glutamyltransferase) and of liver antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-S-transfers (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Histology of the liver was performed to study alteration in histoarchitecture. Existence of active flavonoids was established by thin layer chromatographic studies.
Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolic contents were recorded in the methanol extract and its derived fractions. Although the extract and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities however, the most distinguished scavenging potential was observed for SCEE. Treatment of SCEE decreased the elevated level of serum marker enzymes induced with CCl4 administration whereas increased the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GST, GSR and GSH-Px). Hepatic concentration of GSH was increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased with SCEE administration in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Presence of apigenin with some unknown compounds was observed in SCEE by using thin layer chromatography.
These results revealed the presence of some bioactive compound in the ethyl acetate fraction, confirming the utility of S. cordata against liver diseases in folk medicine.
Sida cordata; Phytochemistry; Antioxidant assays; CCl4; Liver toxicity
Amorpha fruticosa L. and Phytolacca americana L. are native plants for North America, but invasive for Central Europe and the Mediterranean areas. Previous investigation reported DPPH radical scavenging activity of A. fruticosa seeds from Mississippi river basin and P. americana berries from Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate methanol extracts from leaves and fruits of these invasive species growing in Bulgaria for radical scavenging and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential.
Materials and Methods:
Antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH and ABTS free radicals; FRAP assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid system by FTC. Modified Ellman′s colorimetric method was carried out to quantify acetylcholinesterase inhibition potential. In addition, the quantities of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic derivatives were determinated using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent, AlCl3, and Na2MoO4, respectively.
The highest concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids were found in A. fruticosa leaves (786.70±1.78 mg/g dry extract and 32.19±0.29 mg/g dry extract, respectively). A. fruticosa fruit was found to be the most enriched in total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (153.55±1.11 mg/g dry extract) and demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity: DPPH, IC50 9.83 μg/mL; ABTS, IC50 2.90 μg/mL; FRAP 642.95±3.95 μg TE/mg de, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, 48.86±0.55% (2 mg/mL).
Phytolacca americana leaves and Amorpha fruticosa could be useful in therapy of free radical pathologies and neurodegenerative disorders.
Amorpha fruticosa; antioxidant activity; acetylcholinesterase inhibition; Phytolacca americana
The study was planned to evaluate modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Piper betle leaf (PBL) on ionizing radiation mediated oxidative stress leading to normal tissues damage during radiotherapy and other radiation exposures. The total polyphenols and flavonoids known as free radical scavenger (chelators) were measured in the extract. To ascertain antioxidant potential of PBL extract, we studied free radical scavenging, metal chelation, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP ) using in vitro assays. Mice were exposed to varied radiation doses administered with the same extract prior to irradiation to confirm its oxidative stress minimizing efficacy by evaluating ferric reducing ability of plasma, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and micro-nuclei frequency. PBL extract was effective in scavenging DPPH (up to 92% at 100 µg/ml) and superoxide radicals (up to 95% at 80 µg/ml), chelated metal ions (up to 83% at 50 µg/ml) and inhibited lipid peroxidation (up to 45.65% at 500 µg/ml) in a dose dependant manner using in vitro model. Oral administration of PBL extract (225 mg/kg body weight) 1 hr before irradiation in mice significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) radiation abated antioxidant potential of plasma and GSH level in all the observed organs. The treatment with extract effectively lowered the radiation induced lipid peroxidation at 24 hrs in all the selected organs with maximum inhibition in thymus (p < 0.01). After 48 hrs, lipid peroxidation was maximally inhibited in the group treated with the extract. Frequency of radiation induced micronucleated cells declined significantly (34.78%, p < 0.01) at 24 hrs post-irradiation interval by PBL extract administration. The results suggest that PBL extract has high antioxidant potential and relatively non-toxic and thus could be assertively used to mitigate radiotherapy inflicted normal tissues damage and also injuries caused by moderate doses of radiation during unplanned exposures.
oxidative stress; Piper betle; ionizing radiation; lipid peroxidation; glutathione
Artemisia parviflora leaf extracts were evaluated for potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed against ten standard reference bacterial strains. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using the ferric thiocyanate and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were compared. Phytochemical analyses were performed to identify the major bioactive constitution of the plant extract.
Hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of A. parviflora leaves exhibited good activity against the microorganisms tested. The n-hexane extract of A. parviflora showed high inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. Methanol extract showed strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, other extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity. The major derivatives present in the extracts are of terpenes, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins and volatile oil.
The results obtained with n-hexane extract were particularly significant as it strongly inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. flexneri. The major constituent of the n-hexane extract was identified as terpenes. Strong antioxidant activity could be observed with all the individual extracts. The antimicrobial and antioxidant property of the extracts were attributed to the secondary metabolites, terpenes and phenolic compounds present in A. parviflora and could be of considerable interest in the development of new drugs.
Artemisia; Terpenoids; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Radical scavenging activity
The use of plants and their derived substances increases day by day for the discovery of therapeutic agents owing to their versatile applications. Current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants having anticancer properties from plant origin since oxidants play a crucial role in developing various human diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of Sygygium fruticosum (Roxb.) (abbreviated as SF).
The dried coarse powder of seeds of SF was exhaustively extracted with methanol and the resulting crude methanolic extract (CME) was successively fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate to get petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and lastly aqueous (AQF) fraction. The antioxidant activities were determined by several assays: total antioxidant capacity assay, DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. The in vivo anticancer activity of SF was determined on Ehrlich’s Ascite cell (EAC) induced Swiss albino mice.
All the extractives showed strong antioxidant activities related to the standard. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the fractions was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>PEF>CHF. The TAC of EAF at 320 μg/mL was 2.60±0.005 which was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of standard catechin (1.37 ± 0.005). The ferrous reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was in the following order: EAF>AQF>CME>AA>CHF>PEF. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of EAF was 4.85 μg/mL, whereas that of BHT was 9.85 μg/mL. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, the EAF showed the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 of 43.3 and 68.11 μg/mL, respectively. The lipid peroxidation inhibition assay was positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with both DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic contents of SF were also positively correlated (p < 0 .001) with DPPH free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay. Based on antioxidant activity, EAF was selected for cytotoxic assay and it was found that EAF inhibited 67.36% (p < 0.01) cell growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg (ip) on day six of EAC cell incubation.
Our results suggest that EAF of seeds of SF possess significant antioxidant and moderate anticancer properties. Seeds of SF may therefore be a good source for natural antioxidants and a possible pharmaceutical supplement.
Syzygium fruticosum Roxb; Myrtaceae; Free radicals; Polyphenolics; Antioxidant activity; Anticancer activity
Antioxidant-the word itself is magic. Using the antioxidant concept as a spearhead in proposed mechanisms for staving off so-called "free-radical" reactions, the rush is on to mine claims for the latest and most effective combination of free-radical scavenging compounds. We must acknowledge that such "radicals" have definitively been shown to damage all biochemical components such as DNA/RNA, carbohydrates, unsaturated lipids, proteins, and micronutrients such as carotenoids (alpha and beta carotene, lycopene), vitamins A, B6, B12, and folate. Defense strategies against such aggressive radical species include enzymes, antioxidants that occur naturally in the body (glutathione, uric acid, ubiquinol-10, and others) and radical scavenging nutrients, such as vitamins A, C, and E, and carotenoids. This paper will present a brief discussion of some well- and little-known herbs that may add to the optimization of antioxidant status and therefore offer added preventive values for overall health. It is important to state at the outset that antioxidants vary widely in their free-radical quenching effects and each may be individually attracted to specific cell sites. Further evidence of the specialized nature of the carotenoids is demonstrated by the appearance of two carotenoids in the macula region of the retina where beta-carotene is totally absent.
Antioxidant; Carotenoid; Free-radical; Herb
The free radical scavenging potential of the plant Alocasia indica(Linn.) was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, iron chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin, rapid screening for antioxidant compounds by thin layer chromatography. The hydroalcoholic extract at 1000 μg/ml showed maximum scavenging of superoxide radical (87.17) by riboflavin-NBT-system, followed by scavenging of stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (83.48%), nitric oxide radical (74.09%) hydroxyl radical (60.96%) at the same concentration. However the extract showed only moderate activity by iron chelation (68.26%). That could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. This finding suggests that hydro alcoholic extract of A. indica possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to the standard ascorbic acid. The results justify the therapeutic applications of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value.
Antioxidant; free radicals; Alocasia indicia; lipid peroxidation; ascorbic acid
Herbal and natural products have been used in folk medicine for centuries throughout the world. There has been renewed interest in screening higher plants for novel biologically active compounds, particularly those that effectively intervene in human ailments in the field of chronic diseases. The present study has been taken up to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of Premna serratifolia leaf in various in vitro model systems. The methanolic extract of P. serratifolia leaf was obtained by soxhlet extraction method. The superoxide radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were determined. The tumor cell suppression cell potential was determined in three different cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) by SRB assay. The study showed that the methanolic extract of P. serratifolia was having free radical scavenging activity against superoxide radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The IC50 value showed the efficacy was dose dependent. The test extract showed cytotoxic activity against MCF7, HepG2 and A549 cells. The GI50, TGI and LC50 values were determined against each cell line and compared with standard drug Adriamycin. The present study proved the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of P. serratifolia leaf in the selective in vitro model systems. The further study has to be carried out in the aspects of isolation of functional molecules of the extract.
Antioxidants; cytotoxicity; tumor; Premna serratifolia; tumor cell
The present study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant potential of different parts of Oroxylum indicum. 2,2-diphelyl 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging potential and reductive ability assay of methanol extract of different parts i.e. root, root bark, stem, stem bark, leaves and fruits were performed. Leaves and bark extracts exhibits highest free radical scavenging activity than bark, stem and fruit extract. Leaves extract showed maximum reductive ability and found to contain maximum amount of polyphenolic compounds. The highest free radical activity may be due to presence of polyphenolic compounds.
Free radical scavenging; Oroxylum indicum; different parts; polyphenolic compounds
Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects.
The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica.
The antioxidant activity of these two medicinal plants was evaluated by measuring reducing ability, free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and hydrogen peroxide methods. The antioxidants compounds like ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also evaluated in these plants. Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica exhibited significant differences (P<0.05) in their antioxidant values. The methanolic extract of whole leaf powder of Baccopa monnieri exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activity than the Centella asiatica. The antioxidant components viz. ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also found in a higher concentration in Baccopa monnieri as compared to Centella asiatica.
It can be concluded from the study that regular use of Baccopa monnieri as a supplement could be more helpful compared to Centella asiatica in treatment of neurological disorders caused by free radical damage.
Baccopa monnieri; centella asiatica; DPPH; free radical scavenging activity; antioxidant activity; hydrogen peroxide; reducing ability
Amalakayas Rasayana (AR) is a polyherbal formulation mentioned in Ayurveda to treat aging and age-associated diseases. Being an antiaging drug, AR may have antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity to minimize free radical-induced damage which is a key cause of aging. The methanolic extract of AR was evaluated in vitro for total phenolic and tannin content, free radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The total phenolic content was measured using Folin-ciocalteu reagent against gallic acid [relative standard deviation (R2) = 0.998]. Total tannin was estimated using the Stephen method and was found to be 2.82% w/w. Free radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay and R2 was 1. Superoxide radical scavenging activity was done by ethylene diamine tetra acetate and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium Chloride assays against ascorbic acid and R2 was 0.976 (EC50= 77.5 μg/ml). Ferrous reducing power was evaluated by Oyaizu method where R2 was 0.986. All studies showed that AR possesses antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggest that the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of AR may explain its rasayana effect and justify its use as a medicine for age associated diseases.
Antioxidant; anti-radical; Amalakayas Rasayana; DPPH; reducing power
Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera are traditional medicinal plants that can be considered as sources of natural antioxidants. Herein we report the phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of their sequential extracts. Phenolic and flavonoid content were determined. Scavenging activity was checked against pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ and OH radical, in addition to DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by biochemical methods followed by principal component analysis. G. glauca leaf extracts were rich in phenolic and flavonoid content. Ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulbs and methanol extract of G. glauca stem exhibited excellent scavenging of pulse radiolysis generated ABTS•+ radical with a second order rate constant of 2.33×106 and 1.72×106, respectively. Similarly, methanol extract of G. glauca flower and ethyl acetate extract of D. bulbifera bulb with second order rate constants of 4.48×106 and 4.46×106 were found to be potent scavengers of pulse radiolysis generated OH radical. G. glauca leaf and stem showed excellent reducing activity and free radical scavenging activity. HPTLC fingerprinting, carried out in mobile phase, chloroform: toluene: ethanol (4: 4: 1, v/v) showed presence of florescent compound at 366 nm as well as UV active compound at 254 nm. GC-TOF-MS analysis revealed the predominance of diphenyl sulfone as major compound in G. glauca. Significant levels of n-hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid were also present. Diosgenin (C27H42O3) and diosgenin (3á,25R) acetate were present as major phytoconstituents in the extracts of D. bulbifera. G. glauca and D. bulbifera contain significant amounts of phytochemicals with antioxidative properties that can be exploited as a potential source for herbal remedy for oxidative stress induced diseases. These results rationalize further investigation in the potential discovery of new natural bioactive principles from these two important medicinal plants.
To investigate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and thrombolytic property of the fruits and leaves of Spondias dulcis (S. dulcis).
Methanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of S. dulcis were partitioned with chloroform and dichloromethane. The antioxidant potential of the crude extract and partitioned fractions were evaluated in terms of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging potential, reducing potential and total antioxidant capacity by specific standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and compared with vincristine sulfate. The thrombolytic activity was compared with streptokinase.
The methanolic fruit extract exhibited the highest phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity, among the other extracts, with the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity at a concentration of 10 µg/mL (IC50: 1.91 µg/mL) and maximum reducing power at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (EC50: 3.58 µg/mL). Though all extract showed moderate antimicrobial activity against the bacterial strains, weak or no activity against fungus. The range of LC50 value of all extracts was 1.335-14.057 µg/mL which was far lower than the cut off index for cytotoxicity. All extracts exhibited statistically significant (P<0.001) thrombolytic activity.
Our study suggested that S. dulcis exhibits antimicrobial activities against a wide variety of strains while it possesses significant antioxidant, cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity.
Spondias dulcis; Antioxidant activity; Antimicrobial activity; Cytotoxic activity; Thrombolytic activity; DPPH; IC50; LC50