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1.  In vitro studies on protective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts against cadmium-induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes 
Cytotechnology  2013;66(1):9-16.
Cadmium is a modern environmental contaminant that is toxic and carcinogenic. Glycyrrhiza glabra is a traditional medicinal herb which grows in the various parts of the World. Recent studies demonstrated that G. glabra has antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and powerful antiinflammatory features. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic safety of extracts from G. glabra and its effects on cadmium (as CdCl2) induced genotoxicity. Therefore we evaluated the capability of G. glabra extract to inhibit the rate of micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formations induced by CdCl2. Moreover, to assess the effects of G. glabra on cell viability and oxidative status, we performed 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays. Our results showed that there were significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and MN frequencies of cultures treated with CdCl2 (5 ppm) as compared to controls. However, co-application of G. glabra extract (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and CdCl2 resulted in decreases of MN and SCE rates as compared to the group treated with CdCl2 alone. Again, the results of MTT and TAC assays clearly indicated dose dependent ameliorative effects of G. glabra extracts against CdCl2 toxicity. In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that G. glabra extracts provided increased resistance of DNA against CdCl2 induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes. So, the risk on target tissues of CdCl2 could be reduced and ensured early recovery from its toxicity.
doi:10.1007/s10616-012-9531-5
PMCID: PMC3886544  PMID: 23325115
Cadmium; Glycyrrhiza glabra; Genotoxicity; Human lymphocytes; Oxidative stress; Protective effect
2.  Protective role ofPhyllanthus niruri against nimesulide induced hepatic damage 
Present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) against nimesulide-induced hepatic disoder in mice by determining levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum and also by measuring the hepatic content of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismitase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); the free radical scavenger, reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Aqueous extract of P. niruri was administered either orally or intraperitoneally in different doses and times as needed for the experiments. Intraperitoneal of the extract (100 mg/kg body weight for seven days) reduced nimesulide (750 mg/kg body weight for 3 days) induced increased levels of GOT (37.0±1.8 units/ml in control group vs. 91.8±2.0 units/ml in nimesulide treated group vs. 35.0±1.0 units/ml in extract treated group), GPT (30.0±2.1 units/ml in control group vs. 88.4±2.9 units/ml in nimesulide treated group vs. 34.1±1.8 units/ml in extract treated group), and ALP (7.86±0.47 KA units/ml in control group vs. 23.80±0.60 KA units/ml in nimesulide treated group vs. 7.30±0.40 KA units/ml, in extract treated group) to almost nomal. In addition, P. niruri restored the nimesulide induced alterations of hepatic SOD (550±20 units/mg total protein in control group vs. 310±13 units/mg total protein in nimesulide treated group vs. 515±10 units/mg total protein in extract treated group), CAT (99.5±2 units/mg total protein in control group vs. 25.0±1.5 units/mg total protein in nimesulide treated group vs. 81.0±0.8 units/mg total protein in extract treated group), GSH (90±3 nmoles/mg total protein in control group vs. 17±4.2 nmoles/mg total protein in nimesulide treated group vs. 81±1 nmoles/mg total protein in extract treated group) and TBARS (measured as MDA, 36.6±3.0 nmoles/g liver tissue in control group vs. 96.3±5.2 nmoles/g liver tissue in nimesulide treated group vs. 41.2±1.7 nmoles/g liver tissue in extract treated group) contents. Dose-dependent studies showed that the herb could protect liver even if the nimesulide-induced injury is severe. Intraperitoneal administration of the extract showed better protective effect than oral administration. Combining all, the data suggest that P. niruri possesses hepatoprotective activity against nimesulide-induced liver toxicity and probably acts via an antioxidant defense mechanism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the hepatoprotective action of P. niruri against nimesulide induced liver damage.
doi:10.1007/BF02912892
PMCID: PMC3454258  PMID: 23105663
Nimesulide; oxidative stress; hepatotoxicity; Phyllanthus niruri; antioxidant; hepatoprotection
3.  Induction of an ATPase inhibitor protein by propylthiouracil and protection against paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity in the rat 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1998;124(6):1041-1047.
The purpose of the present study was to test the following hypothesis: propylthiouracil (PTU) treatments of rats induces an increase in the concentration and activity of the mitochondrial ATPase (m-ATPase) inhibitor protein (IF1). The PTU-induced elevated baseline levels of this inhibitor protein inactivated m-ATPase, and prevented hepatotoxicity by a toxic dose of acetaminophen (AAP) (paracetamol), by maintaining hepatic adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) levels.Male Wistar rats were either gavaged with a toxic dose of AAP alone, or after pretreatment with PTU for periods of 3 and 12 days.Twenty four hours after acetaminophen treatment alone, toxicity was manifested by: an approximately 10 fold increase in serum transaminase levels (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase); depletion of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and ATP levels; loss of inhibitor protein activity, and extensive pericentral necrosis of the hepatocytes. Propylthiouracil pretreatment for 12 days enhanced the concentration of the following metabolites in the liver: ATP (1.5 fold), ATPase inhibitor protein (IF1) (4.5 fold), and reduced glutathione (1.3 fold), while the activity of the inhibitor protein increased 2 fold. When the PTU treated rats were challenged with AAP, transaminases were not elevated, and only sporadic areas of necrosis were detected by histological examination of the liver tissue. In contrast to the 12 day treatment with PTU the 3 day treatment had no protection against AAP. No histological evidence of protection was manifested and the transaminases were not different from AAP treated controls. Most of the protective metabolites were depleted.Our findings suggest that PTU-induced increased concentration of inhibitor protein and GSH, are contributing factors in the prevention of hepatotoxicity by maintaining hepatic m-ATP levels and reducing the harmful effect of the toxic metabolite of AAP.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701917
PMCID: PMC1565484  PMID: 9720771
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication; propylthiouracil; ATPase; ATPase inhibitor protein; reduced glutathione; hypothyroidism
4.  Hepatoprotective effect of Rhodiola imbricata rhizome against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats 
Rhodiola imbricata is a perennial herb of the family Crassulaceae, which has significant traditional usage as medicine and is also known to biosynthesize phytochemicals such as flavonoids, coumarins and phenyl glycosides. The present investigation was aimed to estimate the hepatoprotective activity of R. imbricata rhizome acetone extract against paracetamol (2 g/kg) induced liver toxicity. Paracetamol was administered to induce hepatic damage in Wistar rats. 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of rhizome acetone extract and silymarin (25 mg/kg) were used as treatment groups. The blood samples were analyzed for biochemical markers of hepatic injury and tissue samples were subjected for estimation of liver antioxidants and histopathological studies. Analysis of the extract treated rats (400 mg/kg) showed an elevation of superoxide dismutase (0.326 units/min/mg protein), catalase (185.03 μmole of H2O2 consumed/min/mg protein), glutothione peroxidase (19.26 mg GSH consumed/min/mg protein) and reduced glutathione (16.2 μmole of GSH/mg protein). Moreover, the biochemical parameters in serum like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and lipid profiles were also improved in treated groups compared to the control. The oral administration of different doses of rhizome acetone extract significantly protected the hepatic cells from damage. The hematological and biochemical parameters were also normal in extract treated rats compared to the control and standard (silymarin) groups. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of some important phenolic compounds which could be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity. This study proved that R. imbricata could be taken as a good natural source of the hepatoprotective agent.
doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.04.001
PMCID: PMC4191600  PMID: 25313275
Hepatotoxicity; In vivo antioxidants; Histopathology; Hematology; Biochemical markers
5.  Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Karisalai Karpam, a polyherbal Siddha formulation against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2015;34(4):198-202.
Background:
The usage of Siddha medicine in Tamil Nadu and several parts of Southern India has considerably increased over the past two decades and it is steadily crossing the various geographies owing to its inexpensiveness compared to conventional medicines and has fairly high acceptance rates because of its herbal origin and therefore its nontoxic nature.
Aim:
This study aims to investigate the anti-hepatotoxic and antioxidant potential of the Karisalai Karpam formulation.
Materials and Methods:
Karisalai Karpam tablet at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o. doses were administered orally to rats for three consecutive days. Single dose of acetaminophen (3 g/kg, p.o.) was administered on the 3rd day. Animals were sacrificed 48 h after the administration of acetaminophen, and their serum bilirubin, different hepatic enzymes and in vivo antioxidant activity were estimated.
Statistical Analysis:
Data were evaluated using analysis of variance, followed by Tukey tests. A level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:
Pretreatment with Karisalai Karpam tablet showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective activity. Karisalai Karpam tablet (200 mg/kg) reduces serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, direct bilirubin by 67.8%, 72.3%, 47.6%, 61.3% and 62.9% respectively compared to disease control group. A significant increase (P < 0.001) in antioxidant enzyme level was observed in Karisalai Karpam treated animals. At higher doses, Karisalai Karpam prevented the depletion of glutathione in liver tissue.
Conclusion:
Results confirmed that Karisalai Karpam tablet could protect the liver against acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage possibly by increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in rats.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.160863
PMCID: PMC4535067  PMID: 26283804
Antioxidant activity; hepatoprotective; Indian traditional medicine; Karisalai Karpam; Siddha formulation
6.  Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Satureja macrostema 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2010;6(22):125-131.
Satureja Macrostema is used both as a functional food and as a drug. In this study, the antioxidative potential of the methanol extract of Satureja Macrostema (SM) was evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including DPPH, superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl radical scavenging and iron-chelating activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of SM was also determined by a colorimetric method. The extract exhibited powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and iron-chelating activity as well as a moderate effect on NO and superoxide anions. The protective effects of methanol extract of SM were studied in carbon tetrachloride-reduced biochemical markers of hepatic injury such as glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxalaoacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum bilirubin, cholesterol alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The increased level of HDL demonstrated dose dependant reduction in the in vivo peroxidation induced by CCl4. SM could protect from paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from paracetamol. Degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum transaminase (GOT and GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and bilirubin. Hexane and chloroform extracts did not show any effects. Results obtained in the present study suggest that S. Macrostema elicits hepatoprotectivity through antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.62901
PMCID: PMC2900060  PMID: 20668579
Satureja Macrostema; hepatoprotective activity; antioxidant effect; biochemical parameters
7.  Sleep deprivation-induced multi-organ injury: role of oxidative stress and inflammation 
EXCLI Journal  2015;14:672-683.
Sleep deprivation affects all aspects of health. Adverse health effects by sleep deviation are still underestimated and undervalued in clinical practice and, to a much greater extent in monitoring human health. We hypothesized that sleep deprivation-induced mild organ injuries; oxidative stress and inflammation might play a crucial role in inducing multi-organ injury. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6-7) were sleep-deprived for 0-72 h using a modified multiple platform boxes method. Blood and tissue were collected. Liver, heart, kidney, lung, and pancreatic injuries were evaluated using biochemical and histological analyses. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), total billirubin (TBIL), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine phosphokinase-myocardial band (CKMB), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine (CRE), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were assayed in blood. Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were measured. Histology revealed mild-to-moderate liver and lung injury in sleep-deprived mice. Sleep-deprived mice had significantly higher GOT, GPT, TBIL, CPK, CKMB, LDH, BUN, and α-amylase (AMYL) levels, which indicated liver, heart, kidney, and pancreatic injuries. Serum IL-1β at 24 h and IL-6 at 72 h were significantly higher in sleep-deprived than in control mice. Hepatic TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly higher, but IL-6 significantly lower in mice that had been sleep-deprived for 72 h. Sleep deprivation-mediated inflammation may be associated with mild to moderate multi-organ damage in mice. The implication of this study indicates sleep deprivation in humans may induce multi-organ injury that negatively affects cardiovascular and gastrointestinal health.
doi:10.17179/excli2015-245
PMCID: PMC4669910  PMID: 26648820
sleep deprivation; multi-organ injury; inflammation; oxidative stress
8.  Diets with corn oil and/or low protein increase acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity compared to diets with beef tallow in a rat model 
It has been reported that dietary polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We tested the hypothesis that diets rich in linoleic acid (18:2n-6) would affect acute liver injury after acetaminophen injection and that protein restriction might exacerbate the liver injury. We examined effects of feeding diets with either 15% (wt/wt) corn oil or 14% beef tallow and 1% corn oil for six weeks with either 6 or 20 g/100 g protein on acute hepatotoxicity. After the feeding period, liver injury was induced by injecting either with 600 mg/kg body weight acetaminophen suspended in gum arabic-based vehicle, or with vehicle alone during fasting status. Samples of liver and plasma were taken for analyses of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels and liver-specific enzymes [(Glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)], respectively. Whereas GSH level was significantly lower in only group fed 15% corn oil with 6 g/100 g protein among acetaminophen-treated groups, activities of GPT and GOT were significantly elevated in all groups except the one fed beef tallow with 20 g/100 g protein, suggesting low protein might exacerbate drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The feeding regimens changed the ratio of 18:2n-6 to oleic acid (18:1n-9) in total liver lipids approximately five-fold, and produced modest changes in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). We conclude that diets with high 18:2n-6 promote acetaminophen-induced liver injury compared to diets with more saturated fatty acids (SFA). In addition, protein restriction appeared to exacerbate the liver injury.
doi:10.4162/nrp.2009.3.2.95
PMCID: PMC2788177  PMID: 20016708
Fatty acid composition; linoleic acid; saturated fatty acid; acetaminophen; hepatotoxicity
9.  Antiulcer properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extract on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice 
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. is used in folk medicine for treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The hydroalcoholic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (HEGG) was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity and acute toxicity profile in mice. Various doses of HEGG (50-200 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals of different groups. Omeprazole and cimetidine at doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg were used as positive controls, respectively. Stomach was opened along the greater curvature then ulceration index was determined examining the inner lining of stomach.
Oral administration of the extract at 1600 mg/kg did not produce toxic symptoms and mortality in mice. 2950 mg/kg was determined as the oral LD50. The HEGG (50–200 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in ulcer index in HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer. G. glabra extract (50-150 mg/kg) showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions dose dependently. The extract effectively inhibited formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The extract (200 mg/kg) was more potent than omeprazole (30 mg/kg). HEGG reduced the ulcer index in hypothermic stress induced gastric ulcers in mice and the antiulcer effect was comparable to that of cimetidine.
The results indicated that G. glabra hydroalcoholic extract exerted an antiulcergenic effect that could be associated with increase in gastric mucosal defensive factors.
PMCID: PMC4673944  PMID: 26664383
Peptic Ulcer; Stress; Ethanol; Indomethacin; Glycyrrhiza glabra L
10.  Amomum cardamomum L. ethyl acetate fraction protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury via an antioxidant mechanism in rats 
Background
Medicinal herb-derived drug development has become important in the relief of liver pathology. Amomun cardamomum is traditionally used therapeutically in Korea to treat various human ailments including dyspepsia, hiccupping, and vomiting. We investigated to assess the protective effect of A. cardamomum on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage through antioxidant activity in hepatic tissues of Sprague–Dawley rats.
Methods
Antioxidant properties of different fractions from A. cardamomum from ethanol extracts were evaluated by an in vitro free radical scavenging systems. The protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction from A. cardamomum (EAAC) against CCl4-induced cytotoxicity was determined by a cell viability assay using HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. In vivo study, the influence of EAAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg following CCl4-induced hepatic injury was assessed. Serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined, as was lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA). Effect of EAAC on liver detoxification enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione (GSH), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was measured in rat liver homogenates. Liver cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1) expression level was determined by quantification of mRNA.
Results
Phytochemical analysis of A. cardamomum indicated that EAAC was enriched in total polyphenol and total flavonoid. Most of the tannins were confined to the hexane fraction. Hepatoprotective properties of EAAC were evident, with significantly reduced serum levels of GOT, GPT, and ALP compared with the control group. Improved hepatic antioxidant status was evident by increased SOD, GSH, and GST enzymes in rat liver tissue. Liver lipid peroxidation induced by CCl4 was apparent by increased intracellular MDA level. EAAC suppressed lipid peroxidation as evidenced by the significant decrease in MDA production. Expression of CYP2E1 was also significantly decreased at the higher concentration of EAAC, indicating the hepatoprotective efficacy of EAAC on acute liver damage.
Conclusion
These results indicated that EAAC has a significant hepatoprotective activity on CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in rats, which might be derived from its antioxidant properties and CYP2E1 downregulation.
doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1121-1
PMCID: PMC4886410  PMID: 27246748
Amomum cardamomum; Carbon tetrachloride; Oxidative stress; Hepatic injury; Antioxidant property
11.  Satkara (Citrus macroptera) Fruit Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats 
Although Citrus macroptera (Rutaceae), an indigenous fruit in Bangladesh, has long been used in folk medicine, however, there is a lack of information concerning its protective effects against oxidative damage. The protective effects of an ethanol extract of Citrus macroptera (EECM) against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were investigated in rats. Rats (treatment groups) were pretreated with EECM at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, orally for 30 days followed by acetaminophen administration. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered as a standard drug over a similar treatment period. Our findings indicated that oral administration of acetaminophen induced severe hepatic and renal injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by 2-fold higher lipid peroxidation (TBARS) compared to control. Pretreatment with EECM prior to acetaminophen administration significantly improved all investigated biochemical parameters, that is, transaminase activities, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride and creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and TBARS levels. These findings were confirmed by histopathological examinations. The improvement was prominent in the group that received 1000 mg/kg EECM. These findings suggested that C. macroptera fruit could protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatonephrotoxicity, which might be via the inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
doi:10.1155/2016/9470954
PMCID: PMC4789439  PMID: 27034701
12.  Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of methanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (Linn.) flower against acetaminophen-induced liver damage 
Objective
To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Clitoria ternatea (C. ternatea) flower extract against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity.
Methods
The antioxidant property of C. ternatea flower extract was investigated by employing established in vitro antioxidant assay. The C. ternatea flower extract was studied in this work for its hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, billirubin and glutathione with histopathological analysis.
Results
The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 105.40±2.47 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 72.21±0.05 mg/g catechin equivalent respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea flower extract was 68.9% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC50 value of 327.00 µg/mL. The results of acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity experiment showed that mice treated with the extract (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the level of glutathione was found to be restored in extract treated animals compared to the groups treated with acetaminophen alone (P<0.05). Therapy of extract also showed its protective effect on histopathological alterations and supported the biochemical finding.
Conclusion
The present work confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea flower against model hepatotoxicant acetaminophen.
doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(13)60075-4
PMCID: PMC4027306
Clitoria ternatea flower; Acetaminophen; Hepatoprotective; Antioxidant activity
13.  Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase (Mkp)-1 Protects Mice against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatic Injury 
Toxicologic pathology  2012;40(8):1095-1105.
c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation promotes hepatocyte death during acetaminophen overdose, a common cause of drug-induced liver failure. While mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (Mkp)-1 is a critical negative regulator of JNK MAPK, little is known about the role of Mkp-1 during hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the role of Mkp-1 during acute acetaminophen toxicity. Mkp-1+/+ and Mkp-1−/− mice were dosed ip with vehicle or acetaminophen at 300 mg/kg (for mechanistic studies) or 400 mg/kg (for survival studies). Tissues were collected 1–6 hr post 300 mg/kg dosing to assess glutathione levels, organ damage, and MAPK activation. Mkp-1−/− mice exhibited more rapid plasma clearance of acetaminophen than did Mkp-1+/+ mice, indicated by a quicker decline of plasma acetaminophen level. Moreover, Mkp-1−/− mice suffered more severe liver injury, indicated by higher plasma alanine transaminase activity and more extensive centrilobular apoptosis and necrosis. Hepatic JNK activity in Mkp-1−/− mice was higher than in Mkp-1+/+ mice. Finally, Mkp-1−/− mice displayed a lower overall survival rate and shorter median survival time after dosing with 400 mg/kg acetaminophen. The more severe phenotype exhibited by Mkp-1−/− mice indicates that Mkp-1 plays a protective role during acute acetaminophen overdose, potentially through regulation of JNK.
doi:10.1177/0192623312447551
PMCID: PMC3504636  PMID: 22623522
toxicity; hepatic; mouse; acetaminophen; Mkp-1; JNK
14.  Evaluation of the Hepato and Nephron-Protective Effect of a Polyherbal Mixture using Wistar Albino Rats 
Aim: A polyherbal formulation prepared from a mixture of leaves of Gongronema latifolia, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina (GOV) was evaluated for hepato-nephro protective properties against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Normal Wistar albino rats were orally treated with different doses of GOV extract (2, 4 and 8 g/kg b. wt), distilled water and some standard hepatoprotective drugs such as Liv 52 and silymarin for 14 days. However, a day prior to the 14th day, 3 g/kg body weight dose of Acetaminophen (APAP) was administered p.o. 1h before GOV and the standard drugs to induce hepatic and renal damage. The normal control was setup which received only distilled water. The serum levels of liver marker enzymes, biochemical analytes, antioxidant enzymes and hematological parameters were monitored.
Results: The results showed that pretreatment of experimental animals with a different doses of the polyherbal formulation dose dependently caused a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the levels of most of the measured hematological parameters but significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the levels of MCV and monocytes when compared to the APAP induced toxin control group. Rats pretreated with GOV exhibited significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum levels of ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Urea and a subsequent decrease in Albumin, Creatine and Total protein when compared to the normal rats. This trend in enzyme and biochemical analytes levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reversed when compared to toxin control group. GOV significantly (p < 0.05) and dose dependently increased the serum, kidney and hepatic CAT, GPx, GSH, GST, SOD and total protein activity in APAP induced damage in rats compared to the toxin control groups.
Conclusion: The data from this study suggest that the polyherbal formulation possess hepato and nephron-protective potential against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats, thus providing scientific rationale for its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/5875.4501
PMCID: PMC4129255  PMID: 25121002
Acetaminophen; Antioxidant; Gongronema latifolia; Hepatotoxicity; Liver marker enzymes; Nephron-protective; Ocimum gratissimum; Vernonia amygdalina
15.  The Hepatotoxicity and Testicular Toxicity Induced by Arecoline in Mice and Protective Effects of Vitamins C and E 
Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nuts which are widely chewed by southeast Asian and it manifests various toxic effects in different organs of human and animals. In this work, mature mice were treated by vitamins C plus E, arecoline, or both daily for four weeks. The results showed that arecoline significantly increased the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and significantly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissues. Additionally, the body weight, testis weight, sperm counts, motility and normal sperms also were significantly decreased. The supplement of vitamins C and E can bring the activities of ALP and GPT to normal levels and partially restore the sperm counts compared to the arecoline-treated group but have no other positive effects. In conclusion, the vitamins C and E partially attenuated the arecoline-induced hepatotoxiciy but basically had on protective effects against the arecoline-induced testicular toxicity.
doi:10.4196/kjpp.2014.18.2.143
PMCID: PMC3994301  PMID: 24757376
Arecoline; Hepatotoxicity; Protective effects; Testicular toxicity; Vitamins C and E
16.  Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L.) against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats 
The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation), antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH), and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw) orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model.
doi:10.1155/2013/987692
PMCID: PMC3707210  PMID: 23864853
17.  Effects of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Erythrocyte Membrane Rigidity, Oxidative Stress, and Hepatotoxicity Induced by CCl4 in Rats 
Background:
Previous findings have suggested that antioxidants may reduce the levels of free radicals, which induce oxidative damage and play a key role in various diseases. Thus, we evaluated the protective activity of a Pistacia atlantica extract on erythrocyte membrane rigidity, oxidative stress, and hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.
Materials and Methods:
Fresh leaves of P. atlantica were collected from the mountains in Yasuj, Iran. Acute oral toxicity (LD50) was evaluated in Wistar rats (200–230 g). Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups, out of which the negative and plant control groups received distilled water and P. atlantica extracts (500 mg/kg), respectively. The toxic rat group received CCl4, while the treatment group received CCl4 + P. atlantica extract. Blood plasma was utilized for the estimation of enzyme markers and lipid peroxidation, whereas hemolysate was applied for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. The levels of cholesterol and phospholipids in erythrocyte membranes were also determined. Rats were killed under anesthesia by cervical dislocation; liver was isolated from each rat and tissues homogenization was prepared for biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels.
Results:
LD50 values were determined for doses >3000 mg/kg (p.o.). The activities of glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and GSH in the protected group were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced compared with those of toxic rats. In addition, we observed a decrease in the cholesterol level and an increase in red blood cell membrane phospholipids, SOD, and catalase activities (p < 0.001) in the protected group, as compared with toxic rats. Administration of Pistacia atlantica extract normalized liver tissue MDA level (p < 0. 01) when compared to CCl4 treated group.
Conclusion:
The P. atlantica extract was able to normalize the levels of biochemical markers, including liver enzyme markers, first-line defense enzymes, and lipid peroxidation markers.
doi:10.5539/gjhs.v7n7p32
PMCID: PMC4803997  PMID: 26153201
antioxidant; Pistacia atlantica; SOD; catalase; liver enzyme; lipid peroxidation
18.  Chitosan promotes immune responses, ameliorates glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, but enhances lactate dehydrogenase levels in normal mice in vivo 
Chitosan, a naturally derived polymer, has been shown to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties; however, little is known about the effect of chitosan on the immune responses and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan has an effect on the immune responses and GOT, GPT and LDH activities in mice in vivo. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. The negative control group was treated with a normal diet; the positive control group was treated with a normal diet plus orally administered acetic acid and two treatment groups were treated with a normal diet plus orally administered chitosan in acetic acid at doses of 5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for 24 days. Mice were weighed during the treatment, and following the treatment, blood was collected, and liver and spleen samples were isolated and weighted. The blood samples were used for measurement of white blood cell markers, and the spleen samples were used for analysis of phagocytosis, natural killer (NK) cell activity and cell proliferation using flow cytometry. The results indicated that chitosan did not markedly affect the body, liver and spleen weights at either dose. Chitosan increased the percentages of CD3 (T-cell marker), CD19 (B-cell marker), CD11b (monocytes) and Mac-3 (macrophages) when compared with the control group. However, chitosan did not affect the phagocytic activity of macrophages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although it decreased it in the peritoneal cavity. Treatment with 20 mg/kg chitosan led to a reduction in the cytotoxic activity of NK cells at an effector to target ratio of 25:1. Chitosan did not significantly promote B-cell proliferation in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated cells, but significantly decreased T-cell proliferation in concanavalin A-pretreated cells, and decreased the activity of GOT and GPT compared with that in the acetic acid-treated group,. In addition, it significantly increased LDH activity, to a level similar to that in normal mice, indicating that chitosan can protect against liver injury.
doi:10.3892/etm.2016.3057
PMCID: PMC4812523  PMID: 27073440
chitosan; immune responses; glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; glutamic pyruvic transaminase; lactate dehydrogenase
19.  Toll-like receptor 4 blocker as potential therapy for acetaminophen-induced organ failure in mice 
Acetaminophen (APAP, 4-hydroxyacetanilide) is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. In addition to exhibiting hepatotoxicity, APAP exerts a nephrotoxic effect may be independent of the induced liver damage. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested as a potential class of novel therapeutic targets. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the TLR-4 blocker TAK-242 in the prevention of APAP-induced hepato-renal failure. Four groups of C57BL mice were studied: Vehicle-treated/control (VEH), APAP-treated (APAP), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)-pretreated plus APAP (APAP + NAC) and TAK-242-pretreated plus APAP (APAP + TAK) groups. Mice were clinically assessed then perfused 4 h later. Liver and kidney tissues were collected and examined histologically using basic hematoxylin and eosin staining to detect signs of necrosis and inflammation. Plasma samples were collected to measure the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and serum creatinine. In addition, liver and kidney tissues were assayed to determine the levels of reduced glutathione. The results of the present study indicate the potential role of TLR-4 in APAP-induced organ toxicity. In the APAP + TAK and APAP + NAC groups, histopathological examination indicated that pretreatment with TAK-242 or NAC afforded protection against APAP-induced injury. However, this protective effect was more clinically evident in the APAP + TAK group compared with the APAP + NAC group. The various biochemical parameters (serum enzymes and reduced glutathione) revealed no significant protection in either of the pretreated groups. Therefore, the present study indicated that the TLR-4 blocker had protective effects against acute APAP toxicity in liver and kidney tissues. These effects were identified clinically, histologically and biochemically. Furthermore, the TLR-4 blocker TAK-242 exhibited antioxidant properties in addition to anti-inflammatory effects.
doi:10.3892/etm.2015.2442
PMCID: PMC4487059  PMID: 26170942
acetaminophen; toll-like receptor 4; hepatotoxicity; nephrotoxicity
20.  Effect of amlodipine, lisinopril and allopurinol on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats 
Background
Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents such as acetaminophen may lead to serious liver injury. Calcium deregulation, angiotensin II production and xanthine oxidase activity are suggested to play mechanistic roles in such injury.
Objective
This study evaluates the possible protective effects of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol against experimental acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, aiming to understand its underlying hepatotoxic mechanisms.
Material and methods
Animals were allocated into a normal control group, a acetaminophen hepatotoxicity control group (receiving a single oral dose of acetaminophen; 750 mg/kg/day), and four treatment groups receive N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/kg/day; a reference standard), amlodipine (10 mg/kg/day), lisinopril (20 mg/kg/day) and allopurinol (50 mg/kg/day) orally for 14 consecutive days prior to acetaminophen administration. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity was performed by the assessment of hepatocyte integrity markers (serum transaminases), oxidative stress markers (hepatic malondialdehyde, glutathione and catalase), and inflammatory markers (hepatic myeloperoxidase and nitrate/nitrite), in addition to a histopathological study.
Results
Rats pre-treated with amlodipine, lisinopril or allopurinol showed significantly lower serum transaminases, significantly lower hepatic malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase and nitrate/nitrite, as well as significantly higher hepatic glutathione and catalase levels, compared with acetaminophen control rats. Serum transaminases were normalized in the lisinopril treatment group, while hepatic myeloperoxidase was normalized in the all treatment groups. Histopathological evaluation strongly supported the results of biochemical estimations.
Conclusion
Amlodipine, lisinopril or allopurinol can protect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, showing mechanistic roles of calcium channels, angiotensin converting enzyme and xanthine oxidase enzyme in the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen.
doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2015.04.004
PMCID: PMC5094429  PMID: 27829805
Acetaminophen; Allopurinol; Amlodipine; Hepatotoxicity; Lisinopril; Rat
21.  Protective Effect of Sundarban Honey against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Hepatonephrotoxicity in Rats 
Honey, a supersaturated natural product of honey bees, contains complex compounds with antioxidant properties and therefore has a wide a range of applications in both traditional and modern medicine. In the present study, the protective effects of Sundarban honey from Bangladesh against acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in experimental rats were investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with honey (5 g/kg) for 4 weeks, followed by the induction of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity via the oral administration of a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg). Organ damage was confirmed by measuring the elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB), urea, creatinine, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathological alterations observed in the livers and the kidneys further confirmed oxidative damage to these tissues. Animals pretreated with Sundarban honey showed significantly markedly reduced levels of all of the investigated parameters. In addition, Sundarban honey ameliorated the altered hepatic and renal morphology in APAP-treated rats. Overall, our findings indicate that Sundarban honey protects against APAP-induced acute hepatic and renal damage, which could be attributed to the honey's antioxidant properties.
doi:10.1155/2014/143782
PMCID: PMC4229961  PMID: 25530774
22.  PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FRACTION OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA LEAF EXTRACT ON CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY 
Ancient Science of Life  1994;14(1-2):71-76.
The hepatoprotective activity of a fraction of the leaf extract of A.indica against carbon tetrachloride : liquid paraffin (1:1) induced liver damage in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg was evaluated. A significant dose dependent hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by lowering of the elevated levels of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum of CCl4 : liquid paraffin (1:1) treated rats.
PMCID: PMC3336499  PMID: 22556679
23.  Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Cordia macleodii leaves 
This investigation was undertaken to evaluate ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii leaves for possible antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by four established, in vitro methods viz. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging method, iron chelation method and reducing power method. The extract demonstrated a significant dose dependent antioxidant activity comparable with ascorbic acid. The extract was also evaluated for hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage model in rats. CCl4 produced a significant increase in levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin. Pretreatment of the rats with ethanolic extract of C. macleodii (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg po) inhibited the increase in levels of GPT, GOT, ALP and total bilirubin and the inhibition was comparable with Silymarin (100 mg/kg po). The present study revealed that C. macleodii leaves have significant radical scavenging and hepatoprotective activities.
doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2009.10.007
PMCID: PMC3731011  PMID: 23960714
Antioxidant; Hepatoprotective; Cordia macleodii; DPPH; Nitric oxide
24.  Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study 
Background
A decoction comprised of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus root and Smilax glabra rhizome is used to treat cancer patients in Sri Lanka. However, the anti-carcinogenic properties of this decoction have not been experimentally confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the above decoction could protect against chemically induce hepatocarcinogenesis.
Methods
The effects of this decoction on diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocarcinogenesis were examined in male Wistar rats using the medium term bioassay system of Ito, based on a 2-step model of hepatocarcinogenesis. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 each. Groups 1 to 4 were injected with DEN (200 mg/kg) to initiate carcinogenesis. Twenty-four hours later groups 1 and 2 were administered the decoction at 4 g/kg body weight/day (dose 1) and 6 g/kg body weight/day (dose 2), respectively. Group 3 and group 4 were given distilled water instead of the decoction and a suspension of garlic powder (20 g/kg body weight/day) in distilled water (positive control), respectively. Group 5 and 6 were injected with normal saline and twenty-four hours later group 5 was given distilled water (normal control) while group 6 was given decoction dose 2 (decoction control). Oral feeding continued for two weeks after which all rats were subjected to 2/3 partial hepatectomy to promote carcinogenesis. Oral feeding continued for eight more weeks. At the end of the 10th week, rats were sacrificed and samples of livers taken for immunohistochemical studies.
Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the number, area and staining intensity of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci and the number of cells/cm2 of the positive foci in the livers of the six groups of rats.
Results
The number and area of DEN-mediated GST-P positive foci, number of cells/cm2 of foci and staining intensity of the foci were significantly (P > 0.001) reduced by the decoction and garlic in the order dose 2 = garlic >dose 1.
Conclusion
Overall results indicate that the decoction comprised of N. sativa, S. glabra and H. indicus has the potential to protect rat liver against DEN induced hepatocarcinogenesis
doi:10.1186/1477-3163-2-6
PMCID: PMC272933  PMID: 14613573
25.  Investigation of hepatoprotective activity of Cyathea gigantea (Wall. ex. Hook.) leaves against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats 
Objective
To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanolic leaf extract of Cyathea gigantea (C. gigantea) against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats.
Methods
The hepatoprotective activity for plant extract was investigated for paracetamol induced hepatoxicity in rats. Wistar albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups of 6 animals each and are given orally the following treatment for seven days. The normal control group was given 1% Na.CMC 1 mL/kg bw, p.o. Paracetamol at dose of 1 g/kg bw, p.o. was given as toxic dose for inducing hepatotoxicity. Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was given as reference standard. Two doses of C. gigantea extract i.e., 100 mg/kg, p.o. and 200 mg/kg, p.o. were tested for hepatoprotective activity. The treatment was given for seven days and after 24 h of last treatment blood was collected from retro-orbital plexus and analysed for various serum parameters like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB) and total protein (TP) in different groups.
Results
The paracetamol intoxication lead to histological and biochemical deteriorations. The treatment with methanolic leaf extract of C. gigantea reduced the elevated levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB and also reversed the hepatic damage towards normal which further supports the hepatoprotective activity of leaf extract of C. gigantea.
Conclusions
The methanolic extract of leaves of C. gigantea at doses of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw have significant effect on liver of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity model in rats.
doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60055-0
PMCID: PMC3609311  PMID: 23569929
Hepatoprotective; Cyathea gigantea; Paracetamol; Silymarin; Hepatotoxicity

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