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1.  CLINICAL STUDIES ON AMOEBIASIS AND GIARDIASIS EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF KUTAJA (HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA) IN ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CYST PASSERS 
Ancient Science of Life  1986;5(4):228-231.
The clinical study records the clinical presentations of forty cases with amoebias and / or giardiasis including the efficacy of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica) in intestinal amoebiasis. E. H. Cyst passers also have symptoms like loose motions, constipation, flatulence, abdominal cramping, diminished appetite and mucus in stools. Patients with giardiasis have more tendency to diarrhoea and flatulence with no mucus in stools. 70 per cent good response was observed in E. H. Cyst passers when treated with Kutaja bark. Therefore, it appears that well known anti – diarrhoeal traditional herbal drug Kutaja, may be helpful to an extent in treating the amoebiasis. It will prove to be a very economic drug
PMCID: PMC3331474  PMID: 22557529
2.  KATTU SIRAKAM – ITS PHARMACOGNOSY 
Ancient Science of Life  1984;3(3):140-142.
Kattusirakam or Vanajira is an important fruit drug in Siddha and Ayurveda systems of Medicine. The market sample of Madras has been identified in our laboratory as the fruits, commonly known as seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum (Willd) Kuntz. (Syn. Veronia anthelmintica Willd) of the family Compositate. The morphology, anatomy, fluorescence analysis and chemical characters of the drug are dealt with here.
PMCID: PMC3331554  PMID: 22557396
3.  STANDARDISATION OF DIKAMALI 
Ancient Science of Life  1984;4(2):106-109.
The gum Kidamali is an important oleoresin drug in the Indian System of Medicine. The market sample of Madras Crude drug trade has been identified as the gums of Gardenia gummifera Linn. f. of Rubiaceae. The morphology, microscopical structure of the source material, the fluorescence analysis and the chemical studies including thin layer chromatography of the drug are reported.
PMCID: PMC3331502  PMID: 22557460
4.  Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review 
Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.
doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C872
PMCID: PMC4025269
Avartani; Ayurveda; Helicteres isora Linn.; Marodphali; Anti-diarrheal
5.  Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview 
Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.2007001
PMCID: PMC2274994  PMID: 18392106
Ayurveda; Indian medicinal plants; reverse pharmacology; observational therapeutics; antioxidant
6.  Contribution of world health organization in the global acceptance of Ayurveda 
Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO). Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM) of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy), first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW) and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC) projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.90769
PMCID: PMC3255448  PMID: 22253507
Ayurveda; efficacy; standardization; safety; traditional medicine
7.  CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PATIKARAPARPAM 
Ancient Science of Life  1997;16(4):293-297.
Patikaraparpam, a Siddha formulation in prepared by trituration of potash alum with egg albumin followed by calcinatin. The three authentic laboratories made parpams as well as six commercial samples have been examined for their chemical composition. The analytical data that emerged from the analysis of the above samples showed that seven parpams contained only aluminium sulphate and they did respond to tests for potassium. An inspection of the crude drugs patikaram’ available in the market established that potash alum and ammonia alum are indiscriminateldy taken for use, according to literature, only potash alum should be used in Indian system of medicine. Patikarapparapam is indicated in urinary inflammations and obstructions and is a reputed diuretic. Potassium salts are established diuretic. These studies show that the raw drugs sellers, the pharamaceutists or manufacturers of medicine and the physician as well should make sure that only potash alum is used in Indian medicine.
PMCID: PMC3331171  PMID: 22556804
8.  Traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy for HIV/AIDS: a review of the literature 
Background
Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy (TIMH), which is used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas. India has an estimated 2.5 million HIV infected persons. However, little is known about TIMH use, safety or efficacy in HIV/AIDS management in India, which has one of the largest indigenous medical systems in the world. The purpose of this review was to assess the quality of peer-reviewed, published literature on TIMH for HIV/AIDS care and treatment.
Results
Of 206 original articles reviewed, 21 laboratory studies, 17 clinical studies, and 6 previous reviews of the literature were identified that covered at least one system of TIMH, which includes Ayurveda, Unani medicine, Siddha medicine, homeopathy, yoga and naturopathy. Most studies examined either Ayurvedic or homeopathic treatments. Only 4 of these studies were randomized controlled trials, and only 10 were published in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Overall, the studies reported positive effects and even "cure" and reversal of HIV infection, but frequent methodological flaws call into question their internal and external validity. Common reasons for poor quality included small sample sizes, high drop-out rates, design flaws such as selection of inappropriate or weak outcome measures, flaws in statistical analysis, and reporting flaws such as lack of details on products and their standardization, poor or no description of randomization, and incomplete reporting of study results.
Conclusion
This review exposes a broad gap between the widespread use of TIMH therapies for HIV/AIDS, and the dearth of high-quality data supporting their effectiveness and safety. In light of the suboptimal effectiveness of vaccines, barrier methods and behavior change strategies for prevention of HIV infection and the cost and side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for its treatment, it is both important and urgent to develop and implement a rigorous research agenda to investigate the potential risks and benefits of TIMH and to identify its role in the management of HIV/AIDS and associated illnesses in India.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-5-25
PMCID: PMC2637286  PMID: 19102742
9.  Protective effect of nutmeg aqueous extract against experimentally-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats 
Background:
Nutmeg a well-known spice used as a folk medicine in India to treat stomach ailments. Worldwide it is commonly used for food preservation and fragrance. Abundant references were given for nutmeg in ayurveda, unani, and siddha as a single drug or as an important constituent in formulations.
Objective:
In the present study, nutmeg aqueous extract (NMAET) was evaluated against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress.
Materials and Methods:
Antioxidant enzymes, liver functions tests, and lipid profile tests were performed using standard procedures. Histological examination of liver was done by fixing in formaldehyde solution and hematoxylin staining.
Results:
Oral administration of NMAET effectively inhibited the ISO-induced changes in the activities of hepatic marker and antioxidant enzymes in plasma and heart tissue along with lipid peroxidation levels. The liver sections of ISO administered rats showed massive fatty changes, necrosis, ballooning degeneration, and broad infiltration of the lymphocytes and the loss of cellular boundaries; these changes were completely absent in groups treated with extract. Analysis of variance and Duncan's Multiple Range tests were used to perform statistical analysis.
Conclusion:
Results suggest that the NMAET possess significant potential as hepatoprotective and antioxidative agent against ISO-induced damage in rats.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.123704
PMCID: PMC3891177  PMID: 24459388
Antioxidant enzymes; isoproterenol; lipid peroxidation; marker enzymes and hepatoprotective agent
10.  Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of Ayuvedic formulations 
Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine. The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, particularly as some medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayurvedic formulations. The World Health Organisation therefore persuaded the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to implement a pharmacovigilance program for Ayurveda, as a means to ensuring the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. After a year of due diligence, the pharmacovigilance program was launched nationally on 29 September 2008. Since that time, Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicines have been monitored according to the provisions of a protocol prepared by the National Pharmacovigilance Resource Centre, IPGTRA, Jamnagar, and approved by Department of AYUSH. The program was reviewed, first, on 21st January 2009 by the National Pharmaco-vigilance Consultative Committee for ASU drugs (NPCC-ASU), and again, on 15 Feburary, 2010, when an evaluation meeting effectively rubber stamped the program. Among the outcomes of these meetings were several suggestions of measures to improve the program’s efficiency. Recent developments include the constitution of pharmacovigilance centers at all Ayurveda Teaching institutes and research centers.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.74427
PMCID: PMC3117316  PMID: 21731371
Adverse drug reaction; Awareness; Ayurvedic medicine; Pharmacovigilance; Safety
11.  Chronopharmacognosy 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2012;6(11):6-15.
This study aims to review the concept of biological rhythms in medicinal plants. Dictionariesgenerally define pharmacognosy as the subject of the study of crude drugs of plant and animal origin. The name is derived from the Greek words pharmakon (drug) and gnosis (knowledge). Today pharmacognosy is also defined as the study of physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances, or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin, as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources. Also, another important phenomenon to be taken care of in the production of therapeutic compounds in medicinal plants is the use of circardian clock. The circardian clock is studied by chronobiology, which can be defined as a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar and lunar related rhythms. Thus, it is the scientific study of the effect of time on living systems and of biological rhythms. Also rhythmic oscillations in plants lead to the enormous production of particular compounds in plants at particular time, which may or may not produce any therapeutic effect in humans. Thus, the study of chronobiology and pharmacognosy can be put together as chronopharmacognosy
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.95852
PMCID: PMC3358969  PMID: 22654399
Chronobiology; circadian rhythm; melatonin; pharmacognosy
12.  Standardization of the finished product: Habbe Irqun Nisa - A Unani anti-inflammatory formulation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):38-44.
Background:
Habb (Pill) is one of the important dosage forms of Unani system of medicine. A number of effective formulations are manufactured in form of Habb because of its various advantages. Out of these, Habbe Irqun Nisa (HI) is a popular anti-inflammatory formulation used in the treatment of Warame Mafasil (arthritis) and Irqun Nisa (sciatica). Nowadays, with increased incidence of these diseases many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being used in their treatment. Owing to the adverse effects of these drugs, the use of herbal medicines is seen as a better alternative. The basic requirement for the development of Unani system of Medicine is the standardization of single and compound drugs. HI is mentioned in National Formulary of Unani Medicne and selected for the present study.
Materials and Methods:
HI was prepared manually with the powder of crude drugs, passed through sieve no. 100 and mixed with 1% w/w of gum acacia in mucilage form. It was then dried at 60°C for 90 min and then tested for its standardization on different physicochemical parameters, e.g. organoleptic properties, pH values, moisture content, ash values, friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, and thin layer chromatography (TLC).
Results and Conclusion:
The data evolved from this study will make it a validated product and will help in the quality control of other finished products in future research.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.113803
PMCID: PMC3733206  PMID: 23929993
Anti-inflammatory; Habb; standardization; Unani system of medicine
13.  A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE 
The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a standard drug. The various extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically from 0 to 3h after injection. We have determined the anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of the bark of Ficus bengalensis with oral administration doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. Positive results for flavonoids, sterols, and triterpene, tannins and saponins compounds were investigated by phytochemical analysis. The ethanolic extract of younger plant showed a greater anti-inflammatory effect compared with the standard drug indomethacin. Present studies besides confirming anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of younger more potent than mature plant help to identify from the comparative study of the bark of Ficus bengalensis.
PMCID: PMC3979180  PMID: 24825975
Anti-inflammatory; Ficus bengalensis; Moraceae; Indomethacin
14.  Health awareness and popularity of alternative medicines among people of Jamnagar town: A cross - sectional study 
Ayu  2012;33(1):33-37.
By 2020, it is predicted that non-communicable diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Indian traditional medicine system with the concept of personalized therapy in Ayurveda has the potential to offer remedies to these challenging health issues. Integration of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, the three Indian systems of medicine (ISM), along with homoeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine to ensure health for all citizens across the country is the new Mantra of the Union health ministry. To tap the potentials of our indigenous medicine systems and other popular systems of medicine it is important to assess the awareness among people and make efforts to popularize them. The present study was therefore carried out to assess the awareness among 200 respondents with the help of a multiple choice questionnaire by the interview method. Convenience sampling technique was employed. The awareness about lifestyle, diet, oil consumption needs more vigorous attention as observed in this study. The most popular choice was found to be groundnut oil. Around 4% of the participants used more than one medium of cooking. Forty-two percent of the participants observed fast regularly. Twenty-three percent of the participants did not include any form of exercise in their daily routine while walking was the most popular form of exercise performed by 43%. By using multiple comparisons it was observed that the difference between i) Allopathy- Homeopathy, ii) Allopathy – Ayurvedic and iii) Ayurvedic- Homeopathy as 15.5263, 7.1053 and 8.4211, respectively, are significant at α = 0.05. A larger sample size encompassing various economic strata could be a better index of popularity of various alternative medicine systems existing in different sections of our society.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100306
PMCID: PMC3456860  PMID: 23049181
Alternative and complementary medicine; health awareness; Indian system of medicine; popularity of Ayurveda
15.  PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES ON LEAF OF Coldenia procumbens Linn 
Ancient Science of Life  2002;22(1):67-75.
The plant Coldenia procumbens Linn. is used commonly in Indian system of medicine for various ailments. The present paper deals with detailed pharmacognosy of the leaf of coldenia procumbens Linn. and includes its Macro/Micro morphological (vein islet, vein termination numbers and stomatal index) anatomical characters, Physico chemical standards such as ash values, extractive values, crude fibre content and fluorescence characters of various extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under UV light. Prelimanary phytochemical tests on various extracts of the leaf have also been carried out.
PMCID: PMC3330985  PMID: 22557078
16.  SEIZURE DISORDERS-VIEWS OF THE INDIAN MEDICAL SYSTEMS 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2001;43(1):12-15.
The deschptions, etio-pathology and some aspects of treatment of the seizure disorders in the three Indian Systems of Medicine, namely The Siddha, The Ayurveda and The Unani are briefly mentioned. “If more or less, three humors cause disease, The learned count the wind is the first of these.”Medicine, Thirukkural
PMCID: PMC2955924  PMID: 21407831
Seizure disorder; ayurved; siddha; unani
17.  Pharmacognostic study of Lepidium sativum Linn (Chandrashura) 
Ayu  2011;32(1):116-119.
Pharmacognosy is the study of naturally occurring biological substances, principally those derived from plants that find use in medicine. The word “Pharmacognosy” is derived from the Greek “Pharmacon,” “a drug” and “gignosco,” to acquire knowledge of. It is closely related to both botany and plant chemistry and both originated from the earlier scientific studies on medicinal plant. The plant kingdom still holds many species of plants containing substances of medicinal value which have yet to be discovered large number of plants constantly being screened for their possible pharmacological value. The plant Chandrashura is being used for the treatment of Amavata, Sandhivata, and Katishula successfully. Here, an attempt is made to study the plant pharmacognostically; the part taken for study is the seed. Diagnostic features of seed and seed powder were also worked out and the details were presented.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.85742
PMCID: PMC3215407  PMID: 22131769
Amavata; gignosco; katishula; pharmacon; sandhivata
18.  Medical education in India: Time to encourage cross-talk between different streams 
Currently, India recognizes five different healthcare systems, collectively known as AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy), along with the conventional biomedicine. These systems have their own institutionalized structure for monitoring medical education and practice. However, because of the ‘parallel’ kind of policy model that is followed in India, there is no formal provision for any cross-talk between the professionals belonging to these different streams. This situation has not only given rise to mutual misgivings among these professionals regarding the strengths and weaknesses of each other, but also has led to a poor appreciation of the historical and socio-cultural connections these streams share with the community at large. To tackle these issues and to promote adequate participation of biomedicine experts in AYUSH-related research projects, ‘introduction of an AYUSH module in the current curriculum of MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) program’ has been proposed in this communication along with a possible roadmap for its implementation. It is also suggested that the experts in biomedicine be engaged for training AYUSH graduates in their respective specialties so that quality AYUSH education may be ensured.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.109556
PMCID: PMC3667436  PMID: 23741164
AYUSH; biomedicine; cross-talk; medical education
19.  Capacity building of AYUSH practitioners to study the feasibility of their involvement in non-communicable disease prevention and control 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(2):116-119.
Background:
Sharing of public health knowledge and skills by professionals in allopathic system of medicine with Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) professionals in India has always been considered as part of integrating the health system in India. But till date, a curriculum has not been framed for follow-up.
Materials and Methods:
A training course was developed for AYUSH professionals in India on the public health principles for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Three course chairs interacted with international and national public health and AYUSH experts, and the curriculum for a 3-month course was developed.
Results:
The curriculum comprised interactive lectures, problem-based exercise, field visits, and research protocol development. A total of four participants, nominated by the World Health Organization, India, were trained during the course, with significant (P = 0.00) improvement in knowledge from 53.2 to 80.0 points.
Conclusion:
A novel and feasible public health course for complementary and alternative medicine professionals on the public health principles for NCDs’ prevention and control is needed to bridge the demand gap for public health professionals in India.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.118552
PMCID: PMC3807955  PMID: 24167339
AYUSH course; non-communicable disease; public health
20.  PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON Sida acuta Burm.f. 
Ancient Science of Life  2002;22(1):57-66.
Sida acuta Burm.f. (Fam. Malvaceae) is used in Siddha system of medicine and in folk medical practice in Tamil Nadu under the names Arivalmooku pachilai or vattatiruppi. The leaves of this plant are used for their diuretic, demulcent, anthelmintic and wound healing properties. The present paper discusses the anatomy of petiole leaf and stem, microscopic constants, physico-chemical standards and fluorescence analysis of the drug.
PMCID: PMC3330990  PMID: 22557077
21.  Gastroprotective Effect of an Aqueous Suspension of Black Cumin Nigella sativa on Necrotizing Agents-Induced Gastric Injury in Experimental Animals 
Background/Aim
Previous studies on “Black seed” or “Black Cumin” Nigella sativa (NS) have reported a large number of pharmacological activities including its anti-ulcer potential. These studies employed either fixed oil, volatile oil components or different solvent extracts. In folkloric practices, NS seeds are taken as such, in the form of coarse dry powder or the powdered seeds are mixed with water. This study examines the effect of NS aqueous suspension on experimentally induced gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretion in rats to rationalize its use by herbal and Unani medicine practitioners.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted at the Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by various noxious chemicals (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin) in Wistar albino rats. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken in a separate group of rats. Gastric wall mucus contents and non-protein sulfhydryl concentration were estimated, and gastric tissue was examined histopathologically.
Results
An aqueous suspension of Black seed significantly prevented gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents. It also significantly ameliorated the ulcer severity and basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated Shay rats. Moreover, the suspension significantly replenished the ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus content levels and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histopathologically.
Conclusion
These findings validate the use of Black seed in gastropathies induced by necrotizing agents. The anti-ulcer effect of NS is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its antioxidant and anti-secretory activities.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.41731
PMCID: PMC2702910  PMID: 19568521
Habbatul-Barakah; Nigella sativa; stomach; ulcer; gastric acid
22.  Anti-nephrotoxic activity of some medicinal plants from tribal rich pockets of Odisha 
Pharmacognosy Research  2014;6(3):210-217.
Background:
Gentamicin, a strong cationic drug accumulated at biological membranes causes net increase in oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation leading to necrotic changes in renal tubles and consequently precipitates acute nephrotoxicity. Several phytoconstituents and plants extracts demonstrated significant anti-oxidant and cyto-protective activities. Vitex negundo Linn. (VN), Oroxylum indicum Vent. (OI) and Barringtonia acutangula Linn. (BA) are widely found throughout the Asian sub-continent including India, used extensively in different forms of Indian traditional medicine like Ayurveda and Unani.
Objective:
Nephroprotective activity of extracts of VN roots, OI whole plant and BA leaves were investigated against experimentally induced acute nephrotoxicity [Gentamicin (i.p; 80mg/kg for 7 days)] in Wistar rats as test animals.
Materials and Methods:
The rats were treated with Cystone (5 mL/kg; p.o) taken as positive control and methanol-dichloromethane (1:1) extracts of VN, OI and BA (200 mg/kg; p.o) as test drugs for 7 days. Following the said treatments, biochemical parameters of urine (volume, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) and serum (urea, creatinine, albumin and total protein) were estimated. Renal anti-oxidant markers viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in renal tissue were assayed. Tissue sections of kidneys from different groups were made and histopathological features were observed.
Result:
The extracts of VN, OI and BA significantly attenuated the nephrotoxicity by elevation of body weight, CAT, GPx and SOD or lowering urine LDH and creatinine, serum urea; serum creatinine and LPO respectively. Histopathological score of VN, OI and BA treated groups were 1+, 2+ and 2+ respectively against 4+ of the toxic group.
Conclusion:
The findings suggested the significant nephroprotection of VN roots followed by OI whole plant and BA leaves.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.132598
PMCID: PMC4080501
Gentamicin; nephroprotection; Oroxylum indicum Vent. whole plants and Barringtonia acutangula Linn. leaves; Vitex negundo Linn. roots
23.  A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2014;8(15):36-44.
Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. “Jaundice curative tree” in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125528
PMCID: PMC3931199  PMID: 24600194
Pharmacology; phytochemicals; therapeutic uses; Wrightia tinctoria
24.  Oxidative DNA damage preventive activity and antioxidant potential of plants used in Unani system of medicine 
Background
There is increasing recognition that many of today's diseases are due to the "oxidative stress" that results from an imbalance between the formation and neutralization of reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which can be removed with antioxidants. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants routinely used in the Unani system of medicine. Several plants were screened for radical scavenging activity, and the ten that showed promising results were selected for further evaluation.
Methods
Methanol (50%) extracts were prepared from ten Unani plants, namely Cleome icosandra, Rosa damascena, Cyperus scariosus, Gardenia gummifera, Abies pindrow, Valeriana wallichii, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Asphodelus tenuifolius and Cyperus scariosus, and were used to determine their total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents, in vitro scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO-, and capacity to prevent oxidative DNA damage. Cytotoxic activity was also determined against the U937 cell line.
Results
IC50 values for scavenging DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO- were in the ranges 0.007 ± 0.0001 - 2.006 ± 0.002 mg/ml, 2.54 ± 0.04 - 156.94 ± 5.28 μg/ml, 152.23 ± 3.51 - 286.59 ± 3.89 μg/ml, 18.23 ± 0.03 - 50.13 ± 0.04 μg/ml, 28.85 ± 0.23 - 537.87 ± 93 μg/ml and 0.532 ± 0.015 - 3.39 ± 0.032 mg/ml, respectively. The total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents were in the ranges 62.89 ± 0.43 - 166.13 ± 0.56 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract, 38.89 ± 0.52 - 172.23 ± 0.08 mg quercetin equivalent (QEE)/g extract and 0.14 ± 0.09 - 0.98 ± 0.21 mg AA/g extract. The activities of the different plant extracts against oxidative DNA damage were in the range 0.13-1.60 μg/ml. Of the ten selected plant extracts studied here, seven - C. icosandra, R. damascena, C. scariosus, G. gummifera, A. pindrow, V. wallichii and H. antidysenterica - showed moderate antioxidant activity. Finally, potentially significant oxidative DNA damage preventive activity and antioxidant activity were noted in three plant extracts: C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus. These three plant extracts showed no cytotoxic activity against U937 cells.
Conclusions
The 50% methanolic extracts obtained from different plant parts contained significant amounts of polyphenols with superior antioxidant activity as evidenced by the scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO-. C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus showed significant potential for preventing oxidative DNA damage and radical scavenging activity, and the G. gummifera, A. pindrow, V. wallichii, H. antidysenterica, A. pyrethrum, A. tenuifolius and O. mascula extracts showed moderate activity. The extracts of C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus showed no cytotoxicity against U937 cells. In conclusion, these routinely used Unani plants, especially C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus, which are reported to have significant activity against several human ailments, could be exploited as potential sources of natural antioxidants for plant-based pharmaceutical industries.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-77
PMCID: PMC3020177  PMID: 21159207
25.  In Vivo Effects of Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica, DC.) Leaf Extracts on Diarrhea Treatment 
Eugenia dysenterica is a plant typically found in the Cerrado biome and commonly used in popular medicine due to its pharmacological properties, which include antidiarrheal, skin healing, and antimicrobial activities. The effects of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract and infusion of E. dysenterica leaves on intestinal motility and antidiarrheal activity were evaluated using ricin oil-induced diarrhea in rats. At doses of 400 and 800 mg·Kg−1, the ethanolic extract decreased intestinal motility while the other extracts showed no significant effects. Moreover, serum levels of chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus were also measured in rats. Histopathologic and enzymatic analyses were also performed to investigate any toxic effect. Animals treated with infusion, ethanolic extract, ricin oil, and loperamide presented morphological alterations in the small intestine, such as mucosa lesion, epithelial layer damage, and partial loss and/or morphological change of villi. Furthermore, the liver showed congestion and hydropic degeneration. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in all treatments, but none rose above reference values. In summary, our results suggest that compounds present in leaves of E. dysenterica may have therapeutic benefits on recovery from diarrhea despite their toxic effects.
doi:10.1155/2011/309390
PMCID: PMC2952297  PMID: 20953423

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