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1.  CLINICAL STUDIES ON AMOEBIASIS AND GIARDIASIS EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF KUTAJA (HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA) IN ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA CYST PASSERS 
Ancient Science of Life  1986;5(4):228-231.
The clinical study records the clinical presentations of forty cases with amoebias and / or giardiasis including the efficacy of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica) in intestinal amoebiasis. E. H. Cyst passers also have symptoms like loose motions, constipation, flatulence, abdominal cramping, diminished appetite and mucus in stools. Patients with giardiasis have more tendency to diarrhoea and flatulence with no mucus in stools. 70 per cent good response was observed in E. H. Cyst passers when treated with Kutaja bark. Therefore, it appears that well known anti – diarrhoeal traditional herbal drug Kutaja, may be helpful to an extent in treating the amoebiasis. It will prove to be a very economic drug
PMCID: PMC3331474  PMID: 22557529
2.  KATTU SIRAKAM – ITS PHARMACOGNOSY 
Ancient Science of Life  1984;3(3):140-142.
Kattusirakam or Vanajira is an important fruit drug in Siddha and Ayurveda systems of Medicine. The market sample of Madras has been identified in our laboratory as the fruits, commonly known as seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum (Willd) Kuntz. (Syn. Veronia anthelmintica Willd) of the family Compositate. The morphology, anatomy, fluorescence analysis and chemical characters of the drug are dealt with here.
PMCID: PMC3331554  PMID: 22557396
3.  PA01.57. A comparative study of Siddha & Ayurveda medication system of India 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S107.
Purpose:
As it is well served with the same Aryan and Dravidian primarily in India has developed two cultures to protect human health and resources to suit your needs individually developed treatment methods. Who stated in Ayurveda and Siddha. Ayurveda is expanding, but Siddha could not get into the main stream. Received medical science has Siddha valuable sources resulting from human community is deprived vast majority of today. Received medical science has Siddha purpose of this study contain the main stream in is.
Method:
History of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, History of Indian Sciences, Rigvedas, Atharvavedas, Sangamsahitya, Charaksaamhita, Shaiva Shakta Tantra etc and public mythics present study were used as the sources.
Result:
The study found that the difficulty of language of obtaining siddha was not included in the main stream of Indian medication., Then the formulas of Siddha therapeutics, the global medical science not only the rich are able to.
Conclusion:
The study also the conclusion of this study is that Indian society during the long evolutionary journey Aryan and Dravidian cultures as Siddha and Ayurveda are also mixed in their experiences and medical sources interchange wealthy have been themselves but its originality is maintained. Which consists in the fact that the botanical worlds where Ayurveda Himalayas while the original basis Siddha medicinal seaside minerals suit their environment, chemicals, and herbs the original base. Siddha medicine even today in the poisons, minerals, and ease of purification methods are available, whose use in the current upgrade medical science and is helpful in advancement and enrichment revealed that development and use of drugs in the locality, culture and the environment is essential to keep in mind.
PMCID: PMC3800860
4.  STANDARDISATION OF DIKAMALI 
Ancient Science of Life  1984;4(2):106-109.
The gum Kidamali is an important oleoresin drug in the Indian System of Medicine. The market sample of Madras Crude drug trade has been identified as the gums of Gardenia gummifera Linn. f. of Rubiaceae. The morphology, microscopical structure of the source material, the fluorescence analysis and the chemical studies including thin layer chromatography of the drug are reported.
PMCID: PMC3331502  PMID: 22557460
5.  Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):16-19.
Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.113792
PMCID: PMC3733200  PMID: 23929988
Pharmacognosy; ruta chalepensis; ruta graveolens; rutaceae
6.  Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of Ayuvedic formulations 
Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine. The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, particularly as some medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayurvedic formulations. The World Health Organisation therefore persuaded the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to implement a pharmacovigilance program for Ayurveda, as a means to ensuring the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. After a year of due diligence, the pharmacovigilance program was launched nationally on 29 September 2008. Since that time, Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani medicines have been monitored according to the provisions of a protocol prepared by the National Pharmacovigilance Resource Centre, IPGTRA, Jamnagar, and approved by Department of AYUSH. The program was reviewed, first, on 21st January 2009 by the National Pharmaco-vigilance Consultative Committee for ASU drugs (NPCC-ASU), and again, on 15 Feburary, 2010, when an evaluation meeting effectively rubber stamped the program. Among the outcomes of these meetings were several suggestions of measures to improve the program’s efficiency. Recent developments include the constitution of pharmacovigilance centers at all Ayurveda Teaching institutes and research centers.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.74427
PMCID: PMC3117316  PMID: 21731371
Adverse drug reaction; Awareness; Ayurvedic medicine; Pharmacovigilance; Safety
7.  Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review 
Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.
doi:10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C872
PMCID: PMC4025269  PMID: 25183085
Avartani; Ayurveda; Helicteres isora Linn.; Marodphali; Anti-diarrheal
8.  Contribution of world health organization in the global acceptance of Ayurveda 
Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO). Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM) of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy), first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW) and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC) projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.90769
PMCID: PMC3255448  PMID: 22253507
Ayurveda; efficacy; standardization; safety; traditional medicine
9.  OA03.02. The effect of kutaja pratisaraniya kshara in the management of ardra arshas. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S25.
Purpose:
To evaluate the effect of Kutaja Pratisaraniya Kshara and Apamarga Pratisaraniya Kshara in the management of Ardra Arshas and to compare the effect of both the Groups.
Method:
Cases presenting with classical signs and symptoms of Ardra Arshas were selected and randomly allocated into two groups i.e. GroupA and GroupB. In GroupA Apamarga Pratisaraniya Kshara was applied and in GroupB Kutaja Pratisaraniya Kshara was applied. The signs and symptoms of Ardra Arshas i.e. bleeding per rectum, pain, defecation, tonicity of anal sphincter, sloughing of the pile mass and size of Arshas was assessed before and after the completion of treatment.
Result:
After the 30 days of treatment with Kutaja Pratisaraniya Kshara provided significant relief in pain by 100%, in bleeding by 97.61%, in defecation 100%, slough by 100%, in colour of pile mass by 98.33%. in tonicity of the anal canal by 95% and in size of pile mass by 98.33%, and no recurrence noticed. After the 30 days treatment with Apamarga Pratisaraniya Kshara provided significant relief in pain by 100%, in bleeding by 97.7%, in defecation 95.5, in slough by 100%, in colour of pile mass by 98.1%. in tonicity of the anal canal by 95.2% and in size of pile mass by 96.6% and no recurrence noticed. On the basis of comparison of the effects as mentioned above it can be said that the application of Kutaja Kshara provided better relief in pain, defecation, slough and size of the pile mass of the patients in comparison to Apamarga Kshara.
Conclusion:
Group B cases showed better improvement when compared to Group A However all 20 cases of Group A and 20 cases of Group B showed good results.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123839
PMCID: PMC4147494
10.  Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview 
Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.2007001
PMCID: PMC2274994  PMID: 18392106
Ayurveda; Indian medicinal plants; reverse pharmacology; observational therapeutics; antioxidant
11.  PA02.12. Toxicity studies on shankha vati 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S57.
Purpose:
Shankha Vati, a classical Ayurvedic formulation that is widely used by the practitioners of Ayurveda, contains a heavy metal i.e. Parada (mercury) and a poisonous herbal drug i.e. Vatsanabha (Aconitum chasmantum Staff.ex.Holmes) along with other ingredients. There are certain apprehensions on this formulation, mainly due to the presence of its ingredient Vatsanabha. Shankha Vati (Bhaishajya Ratnavali 10/186 – 187, also in Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part1), is one of the formulations in which Vatsanabha is used without its usual coingredient and antidote Tankana (borax). With an hypothesis that classical combination of Shankha Vati is not completely safe and there could be some adverse effects due to the presence of poisonous ingredient Vatsanabha in it, and any possible adverse effects of Shankha Vati due to the presence of Vatsanabha will be nullified by the addition of Tankana to the formulation, another modified formulation with the addition of purified Tankana equal to the quantity of Vatsanabha in the classical Shankha Vati, was also taken up for the study.
Method:
Acute toxicity study as per OECD Guideline 425, and Chronic toxicity study (90 days with the recovery period of 30 days) as per AYUSH170 guideline (Guidelines for preclinical safety evaluation for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs and other traditional medicines in India) were carried out. Biochemical and haematological investigations were carried out on 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days. Histopathological study of acute chronic toxicity study were carried out.
Result:
Histopathological study of both acute and chronic toxicity study were also carried out. There were no toxicity related changes found in the animals treated classical Shankha Vati as well as modified Shankha Vati in both acute and chronic toxicity study. Similarly biochemical and haematological investigations also did not toxicity related changes.
Conclusion:
Classical formulation of Shankha Vati is completely safe and there is no need to modify the composition to make it safer.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123876
PMCID: PMC4147529
12.  Approaches in fostering quality parameters for medicinal botanicals in the Indian context 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2014;46(4):363-371.
India is among the important megabiodiversity centers of the world with nearly 45,000 known plant species. This diversity coupled with a rich heritage of traditional knowledge has made India a home to several important time-honored systems of health care such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Herbal medicines, however, are associated with a number of shortcomings including uniform efficacy and lack of appropriate quality control measures at various stages of product development. The review intends to outline the importance of fostering quality parameters towards standardization and manufacturing of botanicals for India to emerge as a leader in global market of herbal products. Literature survey was carried out on important parameters for processing and manufacturing of botanicals. The review highlights that there have been constant efforts for developing state of the art technologies in the field of herbal research. It also reflects that Government authorities have also taken a number of initiatives to formulate appropriate guidelines from standardization of raw materials to obtaining botanical products. However, in the Indian context, there exist certain lacunae in the current regulatory mechanisms which need to be strengthened and stringently implemented to ensure safety, purity and efficacy of herbal medicines. Towards this the approaches being developed globally can be adopted. Based on the literature reviewed, in our opinion, four areas viz., benefit sharing, investment by industry, standardization and national/international networking structure need immediate attention for strengthening Traditional Systems of Medicine in India.
doi:10.4103/0253-7613.135946
PMCID: PMC4118527  PMID: 25097272
India; quality control; regulations; standardization; traditional medicine
13.  Indian Systems of Medicine: A Brief Profile 
Medicinal plants based traditional systems of medicines are playing important role in providing health care to large section of population, especially in developing countries. Interest in them and utilization of herbal products produced based on them is increasing in developed countries also. To obtain optimum benefit and to understand the way these systems function, it is necessary to have minimum basic level information on their different aspects. Indian Systems of Medicine are among the well known global traditional systems of medicine. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide general information pertaining to different aspects of these systems. This is being done to enable the readers to appreciate the importance of the conceptual basis of these system in evolving the material medica. The aspects covered include information about historical background, conceptual basis, different disciplines studied in the systems, Research and Development aspects, Drug manufacturing aspects and impact of globalization on Ayurveda. In addition, basic information on Siddha and Unani systems has also been provided.
PMCID: PMC2816487  PMID: 20161896
Indian System of Medicine; Ayurveda; Unani; Siddha; Indigenous systems of medicine; Traditional systems of medicine
14.  Chronopharmacognosy 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2012;6(11):6-15.
This study aims to review the concept of biological rhythms in medicinal plants. Dictionariesgenerally define pharmacognosy as the subject of the study of crude drugs of plant and animal origin. The name is derived from the Greek words pharmakon (drug) and gnosis (knowledge). Today pharmacognosy is also defined as the study of physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances, or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin, as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources. Also, another important phenomenon to be taken care of in the production of therapeutic compounds in medicinal plants is the use of circardian clock. The circardian clock is studied by chronobiology, which can be defined as a field of science that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar and lunar related rhythms. Thus, it is the scientific study of the effect of time on living systems and of biological rhythms. Also rhythmic oscillations in plants lead to the enormous production of particular compounds in plants at particular time, which may or may not produce any therapeutic effect in humans. Thus, the study of chronobiology and pharmacognosy can be put together as chronopharmacognosy
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.95852
PMCID: PMC3358969  PMID: 22654399
Chronobiology; circadian rhythm; melatonin; pharmacognosy
15.  Traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy for HIV/AIDS: a review of the literature 
Background
Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy (TIMH), which is used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas. India has an estimated 2.5 million HIV infected persons. However, little is known about TIMH use, safety or efficacy in HIV/AIDS management in India, which has one of the largest indigenous medical systems in the world. The purpose of this review was to assess the quality of peer-reviewed, published literature on TIMH for HIV/AIDS care and treatment.
Results
Of 206 original articles reviewed, 21 laboratory studies, 17 clinical studies, and 6 previous reviews of the literature were identified that covered at least one system of TIMH, which includes Ayurveda, Unani medicine, Siddha medicine, homeopathy, yoga and naturopathy. Most studies examined either Ayurvedic or homeopathic treatments. Only 4 of these studies were randomized controlled trials, and only 10 were published in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Overall, the studies reported positive effects and even "cure" and reversal of HIV infection, but frequent methodological flaws call into question their internal and external validity. Common reasons for poor quality included small sample sizes, high drop-out rates, design flaws such as selection of inappropriate or weak outcome measures, flaws in statistical analysis, and reporting flaws such as lack of details on products and their standardization, poor or no description of randomization, and incomplete reporting of study results.
Conclusion
This review exposes a broad gap between the widespread use of TIMH therapies for HIV/AIDS, and the dearth of high-quality data supporting their effectiveness and safety. In light of the suboptimal effectiveness of vaccines, barrier methods and behavior change strategies for prevention of HIV infection and the cost and side effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for its treatment, it is both important and urgent to develop and implement a rigorous research agenda to investigate the potential risks and benefits of TIMH and to identify its role in the management of HIV/AIDS and associated illnesses in India.
doi:10.1186/1742-6405-5-25
PMCID: PMC2637286  PMID: 19102742
16.  Protective effect of nutmeg aqueous extract against experimentally-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats 
Background:
Nutmeg a well-known spice used as a folk medicine in India to treat stomach ailments. Worldwide it is commonly used for food preservation and fragrance. Abundant references were given for nutmeg in ayurveda, unani, and siddha as a single drug or as an important constituent in formulations.
Objective:
In the present study, nutmeg aqueous extract (NMAET) was evaluated against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress.
Materials and Methods:
Antioxidant enzymes, liver functions tests, and lipid profile tests were performed using standard procedures. Histological examination of liver was done by fixing in formaldehyde solution and hematoxylin staining.
Results:
Oral administration of NMAET effectively inhibited the ISO-induced changes in the activities of hepatic marker and antioxidant enzymes in plasma and heart tissue along with lipid peroxidation levels. The liver sections of ISO administered rats showed massive fatty changes, necrosis, ballooning degeneration, and broad infiltration of the lymphocytes and the loss of cellular boundaries; these changes were completely absent in groups treated with extract. Analysis of variance and Duncan's Multiple Range tests were used to perform statistical analysis.
Conclusion:
Results suggest that the NMAET possess significant potential as hepatoprotective and antioxidative agent against ISO-induced damage in rats.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.123704
PMCID: PMC3891177  PMID: 24459388
Antioxidant enzymes; isoproterenol; lipid peroxidation; marker enzymes and hepatoprotective agent
17.  CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PATIKARAPARPAM 
Ancient Science of Life  1997;16(4):293-297.
Patikaraparpam, a Siddha formulation in prepared by trituration of potash alum with egg albumin followed by calcinatin. The three authentic laboratories made parpams as well as six commercial samples have been examined for their chemical composition. The analytical data that emerged from the analysis of the above samples showed that seven parpams contained only aluminium sulphate and they did respond to tests for potassium. An inspection of the crude drugs patikaram’ available in the market established that potash alum and ammonia alum are indiscriminateldy taken for use, according to literature, only potash alum should be used in Indian system of medicine. Patikarapparapam is indicated in urinary inflammations and obstructions and is a reputed diuretic. Potassium salts are established diuretic. These studies show that the raw drugs sellers, the pharamaceutists or manufacturers of medicine and the physician as well should make sure that only potash alum is used in Indian medicine.
PMCID: PMC3331171  PMID: 22556804
18.  Gastroprotective Effect of an Aqueous Suspension of Black Cumin Nigella sativa on Necrotizing Agents-Induced Gastric Injury in Experimental Animals 
Background/Aim
Previous studies on “Black seed” or “Black Cumin” Nigella sativa (NS) have reported a large number of pharmacological activities including its anti-ulcer potential. These studies employed either fixed oil, volatile oil components or different solvent extracts. In folkloric practices, NS seeds are taken as such, in the form of coarse dry powder or the powdered seeds are mixed with water. This study examines the effect of NS aqueous suspension on experimentally induced gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretion in rats to rationalize its use by herbal and Unani medicine practitioners.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted at the Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by various noxious chemicals (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH, 25% NaCl and indomethacin) in Wistar albino rats. Anti-secretory studies were undertaken in a separate group of rats. Gastric wall mucus contents and non-protein sulfhydryl concentration were estimated, and gastric tissue was examined histopathologically.
Results
An aqueous suspension of Black seed significantly prevented gastric ulcer formation induced by necrotizing agents. It also significantly ameliorated the ulcer severity and basal gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated Shay rats. Moreover, the suspension significantly replenished the ethanol-induced depleted gastric wall mucus content levels and gastric mucosal non-protein sulfhydryl concentration. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histopathologically.
Conclusion
These findings validate the use of Black seed in gastropathies induced by necrotizing agents. The anti-ulcer effect of NS is possibly prostaglandin-mediated and/or through its antioxidant and anti-secretory activities.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.41731
PMCID: PMC2702910  PMID: 19568521
Habbatul-Barakah; Nigella sativa; stomach; ulcer; gastric acid
19.  Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):234-240.
Background:
Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae) commonly known in Hindi as “Dāruhaldi” and “Citra,” is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda.
Materials and Methods:
Samples of the whole plants of B. aristata were collected and identified. Hand and microtome sections were taken, stained and mounted and the cell content and cell wall structure were studied according to the method described by Kay and Johansen. Representative sketches were made with the help of camera Lucida. Methods for determining the quantitative values were the same as described elsewhere. For fluorescence analysis, the powder of the root, stem and leaf were examined under ultraviolet light. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values and water- and alcohol-soluble extractives were determined.
Results:
The detailed investigations carried on the pharmacognosy of the root; stem and leaf of B. aristata have brought out some salient diagnostic features, which allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. The determination of quantitative values, fluorescence analysis and the use of lycopodium spore analysis has specifically contributed to this differentiation.
Conclusion:
From the foregoing observation on the pharmacognosy of root, stem and leaf of B. aristata DC, the salient diagnostic characters of three parts have been presented, which can allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131981
PMCID: PMC4078475  PMID: 24991073
Berberis aristata; fluorescence analysis; macroscopic characters; microscopic characters; physico-chemical properties
20.  Standardization of the Unani drug – Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Javetri) – with modern analytical techniques 
Pharmaceutical Methods  2011;2(2):76-82.
Today, there is a tremendous demand of herbal medicine in the global market and the scarcity of data regarding the parameters and methods employed for assessing the quality of medicines. Aril (Mace) of Myristica fragrans Houtt., known as “Javetri,” belonging to the Myristicaceae family, plays a foremost role in the Unani system of medicine. It contains Myristicin, an active principle of drug isolated by column chromatography, and its structure was established by spectroscopic methods. Different solvent drug extracts posses pharmacological properties like hypocholesteremic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, chemopreventive action, etc. and hence there is a great need to determine the amount of myristicin present in the different extracts. The proposed method employed the High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) DESAGA Sarstedt Gruppe and pre-coated aluminum sheets of silica gel developed with 100% chloroform to quantitatively determine the myristicin concentrations present in various extracts that are responsible for their different pharmacological actions. An attempt was made through instrumental analysis for quantitative estimations that are widely accepted for the quality assessment of herbal drugs such as TLC and HPTLC studies, etc. Physicochemical parameters, microbial load, aflatoxin and heavy metals and fluorescence studies were also carried out to lay down the standard for genuine drug. HPTLC studies were carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts and detected at 254 nm. Estimated high amount of myristicin in the petroleum ether extract w.r.t. the other extracts was confirmed by spectroscopy. The present paper describes the isolation, characterization and quantification of myristicin along with chemical standardization in order to develop standard parameters for the genuine drug.
doi:10.4103/2229-4708.84438
PMCID: PMC3658037  PMID: 23781434
HPTLC; myristicin; physicochemical parameters; quantification; TLC
21.  OA01.43. Phytochemical And Tissue Culture Studies With Terminalia Arjuna 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S43.
Purpose:
There is genetic variability in Terminalia species which is a very tall tree ranging from 5 to 30 meters. Government of India has established a tissue culture laboratory and the callus formation and differentiation tests were conducted at Ranchi, and it was found that this plant can be used for pharmacognosy and fibre.
Method:
In pharmacognosy, through tissue culture, anti-oxidative properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia bark was tested against sodium flouride induced oxidative stress in heart. The activities of various antioxidant enzymes, levels of cellular metabolites reduced carbonyl contents were already determined in the cardiac tissue. Tissue culture is a specialised area of production which should be exploited by Ayurvedic researches. Terminalia Arjuna was cultured on nutrient media supplemented with different concentration of phyto-hormones along with auxins and cytokinins implemented with coconut water.
Result:
Adenine Sulphate at the rate 25 mg/lt were added for nodal and auxiliary explants, and these nodal explants and shoot tips of T. arjuna were cultured again to have shoot proliferation. This can be used for other herbal plants for exploitation in medicinal and other useful purposes. In Ayurveda it can help in cost reduction and efficacy enhancement.
Conclusion:
Culture the new variety of Terminalia species can be developed with the help of tissue culture from Ayurvedic point of view, which can reduce the level of lipid profile, and angiotensin activity should be compared with others.
PMCID: PMC3800922
22.  A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THE BARK OF FICUS BENGALENSIS IN PLANTS OF DIFFERENT AGE 
The medicinal plants have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. The aim of this study deals with the comparative evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Ficus bengalensis in plants of different age. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma model for chronic inflammation. Indomethacin was used as a standard drug. The various extracts were studied for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically from 0 to 3h after injection. We have determined the anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of the bark of Ficus bengalensis with oral administration doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of body weight to healthy animals. Positive results for flavonoids, sterols, and triterpene, tannins and saponins compounds were investigated by phytochemical analysis. The ethanolic extract of younger plant showed a greater anti-inflammatory effect compared with the standard drug indomethacin. Present studies besides confirming anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of younger more potent than mature plant help to identify from the comparative study of the bark of Ficus bengalensis.
PMCID: PMC3979180  PMID: 24825975
Anti-inflammatory; Ficus bengalensis; Moraceae; Indomethacin
23.  Non-codified traditional medicine practices from Belgaum Region in Southern India: present scenario 
Background
Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India.
Methods
The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed.
Results
One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration.
Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion.
Conclusion
Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and processing between non-codified traditional system of medicine and Ayurveda require further methodical studies to establish the relationship between the two on a more objective basis. However, the practice appears to be at crossroads with threat of extinction, because of non-inheritance of the knowledge and non-availability of medicinal plants. Hence conservation strategies for both knowledge and resources at societal, scientific and legislative levels are urgently required to preserve the traditional wisdom.
doi:10.1186/1746-4269-10-49
PMCID: PMC4084578  PMID: 24934868
Belgaum; Convenience sampling; Disease diagnosis; Ethnomedicine; Non-codified medicine; Preference ranking; Sharing of knowledge; Traditional medicine; Traditional practitioner; Western Ghats
24.  Health awareness and popularity of alternative medicines among people of Jamnagar town: A cross - sectional study 
Ayu  2012;33(1):33-37.
By 2020, it is predicted that non-communicable diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Indian traditional medicine system with the concept of personalized therapy in Ayurveda has the potential to offer remedies to these challenging health issues. Integration of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, the three Indian systems of medicine (ISM), along with homoeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine to ensure health for all citizens across the country is the new Mantra of the Union health ministry. To tap the potentials of our indigenous medicine systems and other popular systems of medicine it is important to assess the awareness among people and make efforts to popularize them. The present study was therefore carried out to assess the awareness among 200 respondents with the help of a multiple choice questionnaire by the interview method. Convenience sampling technique was employed. The awareness about lifestyle, diet, oil consumption needs more vigorous attention as observed in this study. The most popular choice was found to be groundnut oil. Around 4% of the participants used more than one medium of cooking. Forty-two percent of the participants observed fast regularly. Twenty-three percent of the participants did not include any form of exercise in their daily routine while walking was the most popular form of exercise performed by 43%. By using multiple comparisons it was observed that the difference between i) Allopathy- Homeopathy, ii) Allopathy – Ayurvedic and iii) Ayurvedic- Homeopathy as 15.5263, 7.1053 and 8.4211, respectively, are significant at α = 0.05. A larger sample size encompassing various economic strata could be a better index of popularity of various alternative medicine systems existing in different sections of our society.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.100306
PMCID: PMC3456860  PMID: 23049181
Alternative and complementary medicine; health awareness; Indian system of medicine; popularity of Ayurveda
25.  A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2014;8(15):36-44.
Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. “Jaundice curative tree” in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125528
PMCID: PMC3931199  PMID: 24600194
Pharmacology; phytochemicals; therapeutic uses; Wrightia tinctoria

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