Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. (Caesalpiniaceae) is shrubby perennial climber found in Eastern Ghats. Roots are astringent and used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicines. Bergenin, Caesalpinine A and Caesalpinine C were isolated from the roots. However, this medicinal plant has not been studied pharmacognostically. Hence, the present investigation reports pharmacognostical and physicochemical properties of roots of Caesalpinia digyna.
Caesalpinia digyna; Caesalpiniaceae; Pharmacognosy; Physicochemical properties; Ayurveda
Katphala or Kaiphala, botanically equated with plant Myrica esculenta Buch. – Ham., is an important bark drug of Indian systems of medicine. It is one of the plant species, which are under imminent danger of extinction from U. P. Himalayas. Since, no pharmacognostic study on this drug is on record, the present investigations has been undertaken. In this article, macroscopic and microscopic characters of the bark as such, including diagnostic characters of the drug in powder form have been presented.
This communication deals with the detailed pharmacognostical aspects of commiphora mukul leaves which include morphological and anatomical characters and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the leaves. The microscopical characters of leaf powder are also reported with its salient features. The fluorescent behaviour of powdered drugs with some chemical reagents is also examined.
The leaves and seeds of Cassia tora (Family Caesalpinaceae) are used in the treatment of leprosy, ring worm, flatulence, colic, dyspepsia, constipation, cough, bronchitis and cardiac disorders in the Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The present study deals with the study of macroscopic characters of the leaves, ash values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents and fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light. Preliminary phytochemical studies on different extractives of the leaves were also performed. These studies will help in the identification of the plant for further research.
The plant Coldenia procumbens Linn. is used commonly in Indian system of medicine for various ailments. The present paper deals with detailed pharmacognosy of the leaf of coldenia procumbens Linn. and includes its Macro/Micro morphological (vein islet, vein termination numbers and stomatal index) anatomical characters, Physico chemical standards such as ash values, extractive values, crude fibre content and fluorescence characters of various extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under UV light. Prelimanary phytochemical tests on various extracts of the leaf have also been carried out.
The macroscopical characters of the leaves, leaf constants, physico-chemical constants, extractive values, colour, consistency, pH, extractive values with different solvents, micro chemical test, fluorescence characters of liquid extracts and leaf powder after treatment with different chemical reagents under visible and UV light at 254mn, measurement of cell and tissues were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters for leaves of Pithecellobium, dulce Benth which will enable the future investigators for identification of the plant. Preliminary phytochemical study on different extracts of the leaves were also performed.
Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae, was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards in order to ensure the use of only genuine and uniform materials of such herbal remedies, work on standardization assumes vital significance. Pharmacognostical study has therefore, been carried out, covering detailed morphological and anatomical characters, features of the powdered drug including leaf constants like Vein islet number, Vein termination number, Stomatal number, Stomatal index, Palisade ratio, Powder microscopy of the leaf and stem. Physical constants like ash values and extractive values.
Alpinia galanga Linn. (Willd) is an important raw drug used in large quantities in various indigenous formulations. In this paper the major diagnostic characters and the qualitative chemical and physical tests responsible for the pharmacognostic identity of the rhizomes have been reported.
The microscopic and macroscopic characters of the rhizome of Curcuma domestica Val. were studied. The behavior of the powdered drug in the presence of various chemicals was also studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the various extracts of the rhizome was done in order to ascertain the various chemical constituents present. These studies were carried out to identify this plant for future research work.
Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs.
Amaranthus spinosus Linn.; pharmacognostic standardization; physicochemical evaluations
The macroscopic characters of L. lavandulaefolia, physical constant values, behaviour on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characteristics after treatment with different chemical reagents of the powder of L. Lavandulaefolia were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical studies and TLC characterization of different extractives has also been performed. These studies will help in future for identifying the plant for further research.
L. Iavandulaefolia; Pharmacognostical studies; Phytochemical study
Today, World over, there is a great deal of interest in Ayurvedic system of medicine and thus the demand for various medicinal plants in the production of Ayurvedic medicines is ever increasing. Due to varied geographical locations where these plants grow, a great deal of adulteration or substitution is encountered in the commercial markets. Histological studies of the plant drugs are not only to study the adulterants but also are indispensable in accurate identification. Microscopic observations of the Phyllanthus species revealed the occurrence of anisocytic and paracytic type of stomata in Phyllanthus amarus , while only anisocytic type of stomata is present in P. fraternus and P. maderaspatensis. Epidermal cell walls of P. amarus and P. fraternus are wavy and straight walled epidermal walls are observed in P. maderaspatensis. In India all the above-mentioned species of Phyllanthus are called “Bhumyamalaki” and they are being used in the treatment of various liver disorders. However, all the species of Phyllanthus doesn’t have the active constituents responsible for the treatment of liver disorders. In the present investigation by using simple micro techniques accurate identification of different species of Phyllanthus has been established.
Bhumyamalaki; Pharamcognosy; Phyllanthus
Pharmacognostical investigations were carried out on the Erythrina indica leaves, followed by phytochemical investigation. On the methanolic extract of leaves, TLC was performed and indole alkaloids were identified with selected solvent system. The UV analysis was also performed on the components confirming the presence of the indole nucleus. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out on albino rats. Further, anti-inflammatory activity was compared to that of the standard drug indomethacin and percent inhibition of oedema was determined. Sedative hypnotic activity was also evaluated using pentobarbital which showed mild sedation.
Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name safed musali. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization to remove the controversy, a detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum has been carried out in this study .
Chlorophytum tuberosum; High Performance thin layer chromatography; pharmacognostic standardization; phytochemical analysis
Curcuma neilgherrensis Wight is a folk medicinal plant used in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of this herb are said to be successful in managing high blood glucose levels. This study is aimed at assessing the scientific appraisal of C. neilgherrensis in the course of pharmacognostical characters and phytochemical parameters, as these are not yet been done. Pharmacognostic study mainly covered the macroscopic and microscopic features of the leaves including powder microscopy, and revealed the presence of trichomes, spiral vessels etc. Phytochemical parameters such as pH, total ash value, water-soluble extract and MeOH extract values were assessed in the preliminary physicochemical screening. Qualitative analysis revealed the existence of certain chemical constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, organic acids and saponin glycosides. The crude extract of leaves was subjected to TLC and HPTLC for the separation of components.
Curcuma neilgherrensis; HPTLC; pharmacognosy; phytochemistry; TLC
Cycloart-24-en-3β-ol isolated from Euphorbia royleana latex possesses potent piscicidal activity against freshwater predatory fish Channa punctatus. Their short as well as long-term exposure causes significant (P<0.05) time and dose-dependent reversible alteration in the oxidative metabolism of the fish Channa punctatus Cycloart-24-en-3β-ol also shifts fish respiratory pathway, inhibits energy production and AChE activity reversibly may be advantageous for their use as environmentally safe piscicide for controlling the predatory fish C. punctatus population from carp culture ponds.
Cycloart-24-en-3β-ol; Triterpenoid; Euphorbia royleana; AChE; Oxidative metabolism; Channa punctatus
The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed.
The Macroscopic character of the leaves ash values, extractive values, behaviors on treatment with different chemical reagents, fluorescence characters under ultra violet light after treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of ficus racemosa Linn (fam. Moraceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical studies on different extractives of the leaves were also performed. These studies will help in future for identifying this plant for further research.
Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Triphala churnam were carried out. The churnam of triphala consists of equal quantities of deseeded fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is exclusively used in more than 200 drug formulations in Indian system of Medicine. The present study involved the pharmacognostical evaluation of Triphala, in which morphological and powder microscopical characters were established. In addition, physico-chemical parameters such as ash values viz, total ash (10.21± 0.42), acid insoluble ash (2.54 ± 0.06), water-soluble ash (5.46±0.24) and sulphated ash (13.12 ± 0.63), extractive values viz, alcohol soluble extractive (11.20±0.18)) and water-soluble extractive (52.56±2.04), fluorescent analysis and microchmical tests were determined. The preliminary phytochemical study revealed the presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugar and tannins in aqueous extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins in alcoholic extract. This standardization would be very much helpful for the identification of Triphala churnam to differentiate from other powdered sources.
Brahmi is a well-known herbal drug having an effect on brain as a memory enhancer. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst are both marketed in the name of Brahmi. The present study differentiates Bacopa monnieri and Bacopa floribunda in morphology, transverse section (T.S.) of root and leaf, powder microscopy, and chemical constituents. Morphological characters show color difference in flower, stem and leaf and differences in microscopic study, organoleptic study, and powder characteristics. Morphologically, Bacopa monnieri leaf is fleshy and more succulent than Bacopa floribunda leaf. There is also a difference in the interval of the stem internodes of the two. Physico-chemical analysis revealed presence of 26% bacoside A in Bacopa floribunda leaf and 27% in Bacopa floribunda stem, which is higher than the bacoside A content in leaf (22%) and stem (18%) of Bacopa monnieri. However due to the hemolytic action of bacoside A, which is the toxic effect of the chemical constituent, it seems likely that Bacopa monnieri is more popular in regular use than Bacopa floribunda.
Brahmi; Bacopa floribunda; Bacopa monnieri; bacoside A; HPTLC; pharmacognosy
Pharmacognostic standardizations of powdered and anatomical sections of the Toona ciliata bark was carried out to determine its macro- and microscopical characters and also some of its quantitative standards. Externally bark are Grey to reddish-brown in colour when it is dry, 200 mm in length, 20 to 60 mm in width and 2 to 3 mm in thickness outer surface brown coloured, strong odour, bitter taste, rough and hard, double quill and curved curvature. The transverse section (T. S.) revealed the presences of periderm, cortex, Sclerides, mednllary rays and phloem fiber. Physico-chemical evaluation includes ash values, extractive values and moisture content. These findings will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of the plant, which is gaining relevance in plant drug research.
Toona ciliata; Pharmacognostic standardization; physicochemical evaluations
The major diagnostic characters and qualitative chemical and physical tests responsible for the pharmacognostic identity of the leaf and of root of Polyscias fruticosa (L) Harms have been reported. Literature survey showed the absence of any systematic pharmacognostic studies for this plant.
Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part.
Tephrosia purpurea; rotenone; transverse section; fluorescence analysis; vessel elements
Nilgirianthus heyneanus is widely used in South India in place of Sahachara (Barleria prionitis L) and is considered as an important Vatahara drug. Detailed pharmacognosy of the root of N. heyneanus commonly known as Karim Kurinji (Malayalam) in Kerala has been carried out. Some of the diagnostic features of the drug are pigmented cystoliths in the cortex and pith region; yellow colour cell contents in the cortex region; thick walled and oval-elongated stone cells in the cortex region.
Artemisia pallens Wall. ex DC commonly known as “Davana” in Kannada and Artemisia abrotanum Linn. known as “Southernwood” (Asteraceae) are aromatic herbs, erect in habit, upto 60 cm tall, leaves are very small, much divided, bluish green. These plants find use in traditional systems of medicine viz., anthelmintic, tonic and antipyretic properties. Since, these species have not been scientifically evaluated; the present study was aimed to bring these plants under a suitable pharmacognostical scheme.