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1.  Improvement of Lidocaine Local Anesthetic Action Using Lallemantia royleana Seed Mucilage as an Excipient 
Lallemantia royleana (Balangu) is a well known Iranian medicinal plant that its seed mucilage has many applications in modern pharmacology. Plant mucilage traditionally was used as a gel supplement, and natural matrix for sustained release of drugs. But it seems that these compounds are not a simple additive and also have many undiscovered pharmacological properties.
In this research, the anesthetic action of gel prepared from Balangu mucilage alone and its mixture with lidocaine hydrochloride are compared with the effect of commercial 2% lidocaine gel by rat tail flick test.
Mucilage of Balangu seed alone showed analgesic effect. Duration and potency of anesthesia induced by gel containing mucilage alone (0.01 g/mL) were identical to commercial 2% lidocaine gel. But, local anesthetic potency and duration of gel made from 2% lidocaine-mucilage gel mixture was significantly higher than commercial 2% lidocaine gel.
The gel prepared from mucilage causes a good analgesia with unknown mechanism. Besides, mixture of Balangu mucilage prepared gel with lidocaine improves lidocaine anesthesia. The increase in potency of lidocaine action results from mucilage dermal penetration enhancing effects; and longer anesthetic duration of this mixture are related to the capability of mucilage based gel for sustained drug release.
PMCID: PMC4232811  PMID: 25587334
Lidocaine; Plant mucilage; Anesthesia; Rats; Acute pain; Topical administration
2.  Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):16-19.
Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.113792
PMCID: PMC3733200  PMID: 23929988
Pharmacognosy; ruta chalepensis; ruta graveolens; rutaceae
3.  Khamiras, a natural cardiac tonic: An overview 
The Unani system of Medicine (Unanipathy), which originated in Greece, is based on the principles proposed by Galen, a Greek practitioner. Since then, many Arab and Persian scholars have contributed to the system. Among them Ibn-e-Sina, an Arab philosopher and Physicist who wrote ‘Kitab-al-shifa’ are worth mentioning. This system has an extensive and inspiring record in India. It was introduced in India around the tenth century A.D with the spread of Islamic civilization. At present, Unanipathy has become an important part of the Indian system of Medicine. Unani medicines have been used since ancient times, as medicines for the treatment of various ailments. In spite of the great advances observed in modern medicine in recent decades, Unani drugs still make an important contribution to healthcare. The Unani system of medicine is matchless in treating chronic diseases like arthritis, asthma, mental, cardiac, and digestive disorders, urinary infections, and sexual diseases. The medicines administered go well with the temperament of the patient, thus speeding up the process of recovery and also reducing the risk of drug reaction. The Unani system of medicine recognizes the influence of the surroundings and ecological conditions on the state of health of human beings. The system aims at restoring the equilibrium of various elements and faculties of the human body. It has laid down six essential prerequisites for the prevention of diseases and places great emphasis, on the one hand, on the maintenance of proper ecological balance, and on the other, on keeping water, food, and air free from pollution. These essentials, known as ‘Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya’, are air, food, and drink, bodily movement and repose, psychic movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, and excretion and retention. The Unani system is a secular system in temperament and is popular among the masses. In Unani medicine, although the general preference is for single drugs, compound formulations are also used in the treatment of various complex and chronic disorders. In the light of the present knowledge, this review is a small effort to discuss the efficacious nature of ‘Khamira’, a semi-solid preparation, which is traditionally used for cardiac ailments, such as, palpitations, weakness of the heart, and so on. On the basis of their constituents these are named as, Khamira Aabresham, Khamira Gaozaban, Khamira Marwareed, and so on. Khameeras are also used as general tonics for other vital organs like the liver and brain. In view of the increasing number of cardiac diseases, a thorough evaluation of this ancient work on Khamira is of special significance.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.67009
PMCID: PMC3147110  PMID: 21814439
Cardiotonic; khameera; Unani system of medicine
4.  Effect of Cycloart-24-en-3β-ol from Euphorbia Royleana Latex on Neuroenzyme AChE and Oxidative Metabolism of Freshwater Fish, Channa Punctatus 
Cycloart-24-en-3β-ol isolated from Euphorbia royleana latex possesses potent piscicidal activity against freshwater predatory fish Channa punctatus. Their short as well as long-term exposure causes significant (P<0.05) time and dose-dependent reversible alteration in the oxidative metabolism of the fish Channa punctatus Cycloart-24-en-3β-ol also shifts fish respiratory pathway, inhibits energy production and AChE activity reversibly may be advantageous for their use as environmentally safe piscicide for controlling the predatory fish C. punctatus population from carp culture ponds.
PMCID: PMC2816582  PMID: 20161954
Cycloart-24-en-3β-ol; Triterpenoid; Euphorbia royleana; AChE; Oxidative metabolism; Channa punctatus
5.  Standardization of a compound Unani herbal formulation “Qurs-e-Luk” with modern techniques 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(4):237-241.
Background:
With global realization that use of synthetic drugs is not safe on the long run, the medical fraternity at large is looking at alternatives from natural sources to combat diseases particularly those wherein conventional modern system of medicine has little to offer. On one hand, this realization has increased demand for herbal drugs and on the other hand need for quality standardization of these drugs has increased. Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad, being engaged in multidisciplinary research in Unani Medicine, has taken up standardization of herbomineral drugs used in this system of medicine. One such drug “Qurs-e-Luk” that is widely used by the practitioners of this system in mobilizing and reducing body fat has been utilized for standardization by modern techniques, so as to ascertain its quality.
Methods:
The parameters which were carried out are pharmacognostic studies, physicochemical parameters, high-performance thin layer chromatography, microbial load, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticidal residues revealing specific identities for the particular drug and to evaluate pharmacopoeial standards.
Results and Conclusion:
Results suggest that the drug is safe for therapeutic use and its batch to batch identification for quality control is possible on the basis of present study.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.69115
PMCID: PMC3141134  PMID: 21808574
Heavy metals; HPTLC studies; Microscopic properties; Physicochemical analysis; Qurs-e-Luk
6.  Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;33(1):15-21.
Background:
Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures.
Materials and Methods:
Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed.
Results:
Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit were also found. In the powder microscopy of whole plant, glandular trichomes, non-glandular trichomes, fragments of lamina, xylem elements, parenchyma cells and fibers are observed. Phytochemical screening reveals that the C. halicacabum extract contains glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolic compounds and saponin.
Conclusion:
Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in identification, quality, purity and standardization of C. halicacabum.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.134561
PMCID: PMC4140016  PMID: 25161325
Cardiospermum halicacabum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
7.  PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROOTS OF LESSER KNOWN MEDICINAL PLANT CAESALPINIA DIGYNA ROTTL 
Ancient Science of Life  2007;26(3):35-39.
Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. (Caesalpiniaceae) is shrubby perennial climber found in Eastern Ghats. Roots are astringent and used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicines. Bergenin, Caesalpinine A and Caesalpinine C were isolated from the roots. However, this medicinal plant has not been studied pharmacognostically. Hence, the present investigation reports pharmacognostical and physicochemical properties of roots of Caesalpinia digyna.
PMCID: PMC3330874  PMID: 22557239
Caesalpinia digyna; Caesalpiniaceae; Pharmacognosy; Physicochemical properties; Ayurveda
8.  Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;31(4):190-193.
Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.107347
PMCID: PMC3644757  PMID: 23661867
Botanical pharmacognosy; ethnobotany; Gmelina arborea; Gmelina asiatica; pharmacognosy; root; stem
9.  Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats 
Background
Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Methods
The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats.
Results
Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione Peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase and diminished level of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of STZ induced diabetic rats. Histopathological studies suggest the diminution in the pancreatic, liver and cardiac muscle damage.
Conclusion
Our research exertion clearly indicates the considerable antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant & pancreas/renal/hepatic/cardiac protective action of ALEx.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-243
PMCID: PMC4223618  PMID: 25026962
Albizzia Lebbeck Benth; Bark; Diabetes; Streptozotocin; Hypolipidemic; Antioxidant; Histopathology
10.  Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn 
Purpose:
Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available.
Materials and Methods:
Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality.
Results:
The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed.
Conclusion:
Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae) is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.
doi:10.4103/0975-7406.103266
PMCID: PMC3523529  PMID: 23248567
Physiocochemical; phytochemical; standardization
11.  Oxidative DNA damage preventive activity and antioxidant potential of plants used in Unani system of medicine 
Background
There is increasing recognition that many of today's diseases are due to the "oxidative stress" that results from an imbalance between the formation and neutralization of reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which can be removed with antioxidants. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants routinely used in the Unani system of medicine. Several plants were screened for radical scavenging activity, and the ten that showed promising results were selected for further evaluation.
Methods
Methanol (50%) extracts were prepared from ten Unani plants, namely Cleome icosandra, Rosa damascena, Cyperus scariosus, Gardenia gummifera, Abies pindrow, Valeriana wallichii, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Asphodelus tenuifolius and Cyperus scariosus, and were used to determine their total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents, in vitro scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO-, and capacity to prevent oxidative DNA damage. Cytotoxic activity was also determined against the U937 cell line.
Results
IC50 values for scavenging DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO- were in the ranges 0.007 ± 0.0001 - 2.006 ± 0.002 mg/ml, 2.54 ± 0.04 - 156.94 ± 5.28 μg/ml, 152.23 ± 3.51 - 286.59 ± 3.89 μg/ml, 18.23 ± 0.03 - 50.13 ± 0.04 μg/ml, 28.85 ± 0.23 - 537.87 ± 93 μg/ml and 0.532 ± 0.015 - 3.39 ± 0.032 mg/ml, respectively. The total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents were in the ranges 62.89 ± 0.43 - 166.13 ± 0.56 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract, 38.89 ± 0.52 - 172.23 ± 0.08 mg quercetin equivalent (QEE)/g extract and 0.14 ± 0.09 - 0.98 ± 0.21 mg AA/g extract. The activities of the different plant extracts against oxidative DNA damage were in the range 0.13-1.60 μg/ml. Of the ten selected plant extracts studied here, seven - C. icosandra, R. damascena, C. scariosus, G. gummifera, A. pindrow, V. wallichii and H. antidysenterica - showed moderate antioxidant activity. Finally, potentially significant oxidative DNA damage preventive activity and antioxidant activity were noted in three plant extracts: C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus. These three plant extracts showed no cytotoxic activity against U937 cells.
Conclusions
The 50% methanolic extracts obtained from different plant parts contained significant amounts of polyphenols with superior antioxidant activity as evidenced by the scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, NO, ·OH, O2.- and ONOO-. C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus showed significant potential for preventing oxidative DNA damage and radical scavenging activity, and the G. gummifera, A. pindrow, V. wallichii, H. antidysenterica, A. pyrethrum, A. tenuifolius and O. mascula extracts showed moderate activity. The extracts of C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus showed no cytotoxicity against U937 cells. In conclusion, these routinely used Unani plants, especially C. icosandra, R. damascena and C. scariosus, which are reported to have significant activity against several human ailments, could be exploited as potential sources of natural antioxidants for plant-based pharmaceutical industries.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-77
PMCID: PMC3020177  PMID: 21159207
12.  KUTAJA BIJA – ITS PHARMACOGNOSY 
Ancient Science of Life  1984;3(4):203-206.
Kutaja bija, Kudasappalai or Inderjou is an important seed drug in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Medicines. The market sample of Madras Crude drug trade has been identified in our laboratory as the seeds of Holarrhena – anti – dysenterica wall of the family Apocynaceae. The morphology, anatomy, fluorescence analysis and chemical studies of the drugs are reported.
PMCID: PMC3331573  PMID: 22557406
13.  Antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum and protection against DNA damage and cancer cell migration 
Background
Coriandrum sativum is a popular culinary and medicinal herb of the Apiaceae family. Health promoting properties of this herb have been reported in pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies. However, studies on C. sativum have always focused on the aerial parts of the herb and scientific investigation on the root is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of C. sativum root, leaf and stem, including its effect on cancer cell migration, and its protection against DNA damage, with special focus on the roots.
Methods
Powdered roots, leaves and stems of C. sativum were extracted through sequential extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Total phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging activities were measured. Anti-proliferative activitiy on the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was assayed using the MTT assay. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and of the caspases-3, -8 and -9 were assayed on treatment with the extract. Cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry. The scratch motility assay was used to assess inhibition of MCF-7 cell migration. DNA damage in 3 T3-L1 fibroblasts was evaluated by the comet assay. The components in the extract were identified by HPLC and GC-MS.
Results
The ethyl acetate extract of C. sativum roots showed the highest antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 200.0 ± 2.6 μg/mL) and had the highest phenolic content, FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities among the extracts. C. sativum root inhibited DNA damage and prevented MCF-7 cell migration induced by H2O2, suggesting its potential in cancer prevention and inhibition of metastasis. The extract exhibited anticancer activity in MCF-7 cells by affecting antioxidant enzymes possibly leading to H2O2 accumulation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptotic cell death by the death receptor and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.
Conclusions
This study is the first report on the antioxidant and anticancer properties of C. sativum root. The herb shows potential in preventing oxidative stress-related diseases and would be useful as supplements used in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as cancer.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-347
PMCID: PMC4028854  PMID: 24517259
Coriandrum sativum; Antioxidants; Anticancer activity; MCF-7; Hydrogen peroxide; Caspase; Cell cycle; DNA damage; Cancer cell migration; Comet assay
14.  Pharmacognostic evaluation of leaf of Cordia macleodii Hook., An ethnomedicinally important plant 
Ayu  2011;32(2):254-257.
Plants of ethnomedicinal importance have contributed for the development of many new pharmacologically effective molecules/chemical entities to modern medicine. India, the country having one of the richest biodiversity of its flora in its forest, with numerous tribal inhabitants, is able to contribute a lot from ethnomedicine to the ailing humanity. Cordia macleodii Hook. (Boraginaceae), an ethnomedicinal plant has been highlighted for its wound healing, aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective activities. It is a medium-sized tree, known as Panki/Shikari by the tribals, rarely found in the forests of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. So far, the plant has been studied neither for its pharmacognostical characters nor for its pharmacological actions except its hepatoprotective activity. Hence, it has been selected for a detailed investigation which includes pharmacognostic study of its leaf to find out the diagnostic characters and preliminary physicochemical analysis. Results of the study will help in identifying the plant pharmacognostically. Presence of alkaloids, glycosides and tannins were found during the study.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.92551
PMCID: PMC3296350  PMID: 22408312
Cordia macleodii; ethnomedicine; pharmacognostical evaluation
15.  Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(4):187-192.
Background:
Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source.
Materials and Methods:
The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units.
Results:
Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds.
Conclusions:
The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131969
PMCID: PMC4078467  PMID: 24991065
Combretum albidum; fluorescence analysis; macroscopy; microscopy; physicochemical; phytochemical
16.  Standardization of the finished product: Habbe Irqun Nisa - A Unani anti-inflammatory formulation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):38-44.
Background:
Habb (Pill) is one of the important dosage forms of Unani system of medicine. A number of effective formulations are manufactured in form of Habb because of its various advantages. Out of these, Habbe Irqun Nisa (HI) is a popular anti-inflammatory formulation used in the treatment of Warame Mafasil (arthritis) and Irqun Nisa (sciatica). Nowadays, with increased incidence of these diseases many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are being used in their treatment. Owing to the adverse effects of these drugs, the use of herbal medicines is seen as a better alternative. The basic requirement for the development of Unani system of Medicine is the standardization of single and compound drugs. HI is mentioned in National Formulary of Unani Medicne and selected for the present study.
Materials and Methods:
HI was prepared manually with the powder of crude drugs, passed through sieve no. 100 and mixed with 1% w/w of gum acacia in mucilage form. It was then dried at 60°C for 90 min and then tested for its standardization on different physicochemical parameters, e.g. organoleptic properties, pH values, moisture content, ash values, friability, hardness, weight variation, disintegration time, and thin layer chromatography (TLC).
Results and Conclusion:
The data evolved from this study will make it a validated product and will help in the quality control of other finished products in future research.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.113803
PMCID: PMC3733206  PMID: 23929993
Anti-inflammatory; Habb; standardization; Unani system of medicine
17.  STANDARDISATION OF “HAB – E – BUKHAR” (Unani Medicine) 
Ancient Science of Life  1985;5(1):37-39.
‘HAB-E-BUKHAR’ – a compound drug formulation in Unani System of medicine has been analysed. The microscopic method of identification of few of its ingredients (Sath-e-gulu, Thabasheer); Quantitative analysis of Quinine sulphate, other physio-chemical contents and the T.L.C. of the drug have also been reported here.
PMCID: PMC3331439  PMID: 22557497
18.  Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico- and Phytochemical Evaluation of Amaranthus Spinosus Linn. Root 
Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae) is found throughout India. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because it is a medicinal plant employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Pharmacognostic standardization; physico-and phytochemical evaluation of the roots of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out, to determine its macro-and microscopical characters, and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using the trinocular microscope. Total ash, water-soluble ash, acid-insoluble ash, sulfated ash values, and alcohol-and water-soluble extractive values were determined for physico-chemical evaluations. A preliminary phytochemical screening was also done to detect different phytoconstituents. Microscopically, the root showed cork, cortex, stellar region, and calcium oxalate crystals. Powder microscopy showed anamalous secondary growth in between the xylem vessels and Calcium Oxalate crystals in the cortex region. Total ash was approximately three times more than acid insoluble and water soluble ash. The ethanol soluble extractive was approximately the same as the water soluble extractive. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of the Petroleum-ether extract using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (6 : 1), showed six spots. In the chloroform extract, using Benzene : Ethyl acetate (4 : 1) nine spots were seen, and in the ethanol extract, using Chloroform: Methanol (93 : 7), only four spots were observed, using Iodine vapor as a viewing medium. Phytochemically, the root exhibited terpenes, alkaloids, glycosides, and sugars. These findings might be useful to supplement information with regard to its identification parameters, which are assumed significant in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs, in the present scenario, which lacks regulatory laws to control the quality of herbal drugs.
doi:10.4103/0975-1483.83770
PMCID: PMC3159276  PMID: 21897662
Amaranthus spinosus Linn.; pharmacognostic standardization; physicochemical evaluations
19.  Optimization of extracting stachyose from Stachys floridana Schuttl. ex Benth by response surface methodology 
Stachys floridana schuttl. E x benth, also named yinmiao, is a special and traditional Chinese vegetable that is usually used by some diabetes patients as a pharmaceutical plant for its high content of stachyose. Due to the lower cost and higher economic reward, Stachys floridana schuttl. Ex benth is a potentially new source to extract stachyose in the medicine and food industry. Here we optimized the extraction of stachyose from Stachys floridana schuttl. Ex benth by response surface methodology, the yeild can reach as high as up to 47.0% of stachyose at temperature of 60 °C, extraction time of 40 min, ethanol volume of 60% and ratio of solid–liquid at 1:10. Our primary result holds great promising for Stachys floridana schuttl. Ex bent extracting industry as well as diabetic medicine.
doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0413-1
PMCID: PMC3722405  PMID: 24426001
Stachys floridana Schuttl. ex Benth; Stachyose; Extraction; Response surface methodology
20.  Effect of crude extract of Bombyx mori coccoons in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis 
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days the silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk (Abresham) is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-E- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjan) has been documented. But action of extract of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not documented. That's why; it was decided to study its effect on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The Male New Zealand White rabbits all of 1.5kgs were selected for the study. After stabilization period (2 weeks) the rabbits were divided into 3 groups (Group I - Control, Group II Lesion Control and Group III treated with extract of Bombyx mori silk cocoon). Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were induced with 1% cholesterol diet. After induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis for twelve weeks, Group III rabbits were treated with Bombyx mori for 6 weeks (45 days). A significant decrease in hyperlipidemia was seen within 4 weeks of treatment. Histopathologically, the atherosclerotic plaques showed reduction in size. The third group showed a significant increase in the body weight and also an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. The study concludes that extract of Bombyx mori cocoons has a significant effect on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis probably because of its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect.
doi:10.4103/0975-9476.82527
PMCID: PMC3131775  PMID: 21760692
Atherosclerosis; Bombyx Mori; hyperlipidemia; silk worm; cocoon extract
21.  An analytical study of concordance between Mizaj and diseases in adult patients of NIUM Hospital, Bangalore 
Ancient Science of Life  2010;30(1):7-11.
Mizaj (Temperament) is one of the basic concepts ofUnani system of medicine upon which diagnosis and line of treatment of a disease are based. Every human being has been furnished a specific Mizaj through which an individual performs his functions properly. If it is disturbed, body becomes more susceptible to develop such diseases having same temperament as that of an individual. Objective of the study was to evaluate the relation of diseases in respect of Mizaj of the patients and to provide some knowledge for prevention of other diseases that may be related to identified Mizaj. Four hundred (400) patients fulfilling the criteria were enrolled in the study followed by their Mizaj were assessed by two pre structured proformas based on objective and subjective parameters given by Eminent Unani physicians. Following assessment of Mizaj of the patients, concordance between their Mizaj; Sue Mizaj Mufrad Sada (simple and single unbalanced temperament), Sue Mizaj Murakkab Sada (simple and compound imbalanced temperament) and Sue Mizaj Maaddi (imbalanced temperament due to humour) and disease was established, and it was observed that only patients of Sue Mizaj Barid (cold imbalanced temperament) and Sue Mizaj Balghami (imbalanced temperament due to phlegm) had significant concordance as compared to the rest. In the present study, non concordance between Mizaj and disease distribution may be attributed to those factors which tend to alter the Mizaj and have potential to produce diseases, like Mizaje Khilqi (congenital temperament), age, Masakin (residence), weather, diets, occupation and habit.
PMCID: PMC3336268  PMID: 22557416
Mizaj; Temperament; Diagnosis; Concordance and Disease of subject
22.  A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2014;8(15):36-44.
Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. “Jaundice curative tree” in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, β-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and β-sitosterol, 14α-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation.
doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125528
PMCID: PMC3931199  PMID: 24600194
Pharmacology; phytochemicals; therapeutic uses; Wrightia tinctoria
23.  Preliminary antimycobacterial study on selected Turkish plants (Lamiaceae) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and search for some phenolic constituents 
Background
The global resurgence of tuberculosis is a significant threat. Lamiaceae members have been used in folk remedies for centuries. This study was designed to assess the in-vitro antimycobacterial activity of eighteen crude extracts from six plants (Lamiaceae) and to characterize their phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
Methods
Six Turkish medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae (Stachys tmolea Boiss., Stachys thirkei C. Koch, Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth., Thymus sipthorpii Benth., Satureja aintabensis P.H. Davis, and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. ex Reich.) were collected in 2009 – 2010. Dried and crushed plant samples were subjected to sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order of increasing polarity. A broth microdilution method was employed to screen extracts against four mycobacterial strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were characterized by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.
Results
S. aintabensis, T. sibthorpii, and M. juliana were found to develop considerable activity against the four strains of M. tuberculosis with the minimal inhibitory concentrations value of 12.5-100 μg/ml. S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii extracts killed M. tuberculosis with the minimum bactericidal concentration value of 50–800 μg/ml. On the basis of these prominent antimycobacterial activity, we suggest that they could be a source of natural anti-tuberculosis agents.
Conclusion
S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii showed activity by killing Mycobacteria strains. The major phenolic compound was rosmarinic for T. sibthorpii and S. aintabensis. Flavonoids might be “a modal” for the drug design.
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-365
PMCID: PMC3878028  PMID: 24359458
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Antimycobacterial activity; Satureja aintabensis; Thymus sipthorpii,Lamiaceae; Phenolic; Flavonoid
24.  An Overview of Important Ethnomedicinal Herbs of Phyllanthus Species: Present Status and Future Prospects 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:839172.
The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius.
doi:10.1155/2014/839172
PMCID: PMC3932249  PMID: 24672382
25.  Evaluation of physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana, a Unani polyherbal formulation 
Pharmacognosy Research  2010;2(5):318-322.
Background:
Although the formulations of the Unani system of medicine are popular, not much scientific work has been reported so far. The present article is an attempt to establish the scientific basis of one of the popular Unani formulations Safoof-ESana, a polyherbal formulation widely used as a laxative.
Methods:
Investigations were carried out to study the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana and its active ingredients.
Results and Conclusion:
The values of percentage loss on drying, angle of repose, Hausner ratio, and Carr’s index of the formulation were calculated as 8.25 ± 0.582, 27.68, 1.23, and 19 respectively, which indicate that the moisture content of the formulation is within the range and depict good flow characteristics. The total ash, acid- nsoluble ash, and water-soluble ash were found to be 19.146 ± 0.237, 2.351 ± 0.223, and 49.216 ± 0.634, respectively; the value of total ash indicates that the inorganic contents of the formulation are below the limits. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the formulation and ingredients were prepared and evaluated for phytochemical analysis and extractive values, and the results show that alkaloids of the formulation are more soluble in water than in alcohol and the higher aqueous extractive value (45.784 ± 0.876) of Unani formulation depicts that water is a better solvent of extraction for the formulation than ethanol.
doi:10.4103/0974-8490.72332
PMCID: PMC3093045  PMID: 21589760
Phytochemical properties; physicochemical properties; Safoof-E-Sana; Tibb-e-Unani; Unani system of medicine

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