Alchemy as art tries to imitate creation such as spontaneous generation. The magic wands of creation, of Chinese origin, would be a compass and a triangular carpenter's square. Creation is represented by the dual-natured soul, comprising of the spirit (Ruh) and “the” soul (Nafs). The ultimate source is creative energy which emanates form the Divine word of command. Creative energy, in its non-manifest form, would be ultrasonic energy, which can be represented by a humming sourd. This would be sympolized by the humming sound. This would be symbolized by the humming sound of bees represent creative energy and in fig 3 the fiddle, as direct producers of a humming sound.
Among the wide-spectrum contribution of the Rambam – the Maimonides – in philosophy to the word and to Judaism are his ideas on the body and on the soul and on the relations between them. His major approaches in these subjects are the following: 1) The body is the home of the soul, and the soul guides the body. That means the body and the soul are one unit. 2) The soul has five virtual parts. Each part is responsible for another activity in the human being. 3) Except for the treatment of diseases of the body and the soul with drugs, foods, physical exercise, etc., the Rambam believes that maintaining the health – of the body and of the soul – lies first of all, and probably exclusively, in observing the commandments and improving one’s ways, morals and conduct up to their highest levels, toward all of the world’s creatures. 4) The Rambam is of the opinion that one needs to persist in learning the Torah. One should worship God with awe and love and observe good values and virtues. All of these build the frameworks that maintain mental health and strengthen man’s abilities to develop skills for maintaining bodily health. This is so because body and soul are one – which is the basis of the Rambam’s philosophy of health and medicine.
Maimonides; Rambam; soul; body; soul-body
Galen's teaching on anatomy and physiology was generally accepted in the Middle Ages and this applies to the part he thought was played by the pneuma in the functions of the body. In this essay I have outlined the advances made after Galen in the study of the nervous system leading eventually to a time when the soul and the pneuma were no longer thought necessary for the proper functioning of the brain and nerves.
This paper depicts e paraphernalia of an alchemist who believed in imitating creation and generating a soul thereby. The magic wands of creation are a compass and a triangular carpenter's square. They can produce the dual natured soul Ruh or Spirit symbolized as Cock and Nafs of “the soul” as snake: The real creative energy by nature is ultrasonic energy, characterizing the word of command of the creator. Ultrasonic energy can be produced by fiddle which is depicted also as such a producer. Thus all the elements necessary to imitate creation have been depicted here.
The author presents in this article many evidence to prove that the cross is a symbol of soul.
Exposure to traumatic psychological stress increases risk for disease events and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the biological mechanisms of these effects are not known, inflammation may play a key role as it is both elevated by psychological stress and involved in the development and progression of CVD. In a prospective study of patients with stable CVD (n = 979), we examined if higher lifetime trauma exposure was associated with elevated levels of inflammation at baseline and at five-year follow-up, and with greater increases in inflammation over time. Inflammation was indexed by a composite score incorporating the inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and resistin. In follow-up analyses, we adjusted for sociodemographic factors, psychiatric disorders and health behaviors that were significantly associated with trauma exposure. Higher trauma exposure was associated with elevated inflammation at baseline (β = .09, p = .01) and at five-year follow-up (β = .09, p = .03). While levels of inflammation increased from baseline to follow-up in the sample, there was no significant association between trauma exposure and rate of change in inflammation. Findings were robust to adjustments for sociodemographic factors and psychiatric disorders, but health behaviors appeared to contribute to the association between trauma and inflammation at follow-up. This is the first large-scale demonstration of an association between lifetime trauma exposure and inflammation. High lifetime exposure to traumatic stress may contribute to an accelerated rate of CVD progression through elevated inflammation.
Aging; cardiovascular disease; C-reactive protein; immune system; inflammation; interleukin-6; psychological stress; resistin; traumatic psychological stress; tumor necrosis factor-α
We report on an in-depth qualitative study of 28 active and former substance addicted women of low or marginal income on the core components of a harm reduction-based addiction recovery program. These women volunteered to be interviewed about their perceptions of their therapeutic needs in their transition from substance addiction to recovery.
Data were gathered about women’s experiences and essential needs in addiction recovery, what helped and what hindered their past efforts in recovery, and their views of what would constitute an effective woman-centred recovery program. The research was based upon the experience and knowledge of the women in interaction with their communities and with recovery programs. The study was informed by harm reduction practice principles that emphasize the importance of individual experience in knowledge construction, reduction of harm, low threshold access, and the development of a hierarchy of needs in regard to addiction recovery.
Three core needs were identified by study participants: normalization and structure, biopsychosocial-spiritual safety, and social connection. What hindered recovery efforts as identified by participants was an inner urban location, prescriptive recovery, invidious treatment, lack of safety, distress-derived distraction, problem-focused treatment, coercive elements of mutual support groups, and social marginalization. What helped included connection in counselling and therapy, multidisciplinary service provision, spirituality focus, opportunities for learning and work, and a safe and flexible structure. Core components of an effective recovery program identified by women themselves stand in contrast to the views of service providers and policymakers, particularly in regard to the need for a rural location for residential programs, low threshold access, multidisciplinary service provision of conventional and complementary modalities and therapies for integrated healing, long-term multi-phase recovery, and variety and choice of programming.
A key barrier to the addiction recovery of women is the present framework of addiction treatment, as well as current drug laws, policies and service delivery systems. The expectation of women is that harm reduction-based recovery services will facilitate safe, supportive transitioning from the point of the decision to access services, through independent living with community integration.
Apoptosis is a fundamental biologic process by which metazoan cells orchestrate their own self-demise. Genetic analyses of the nematode C elegans identified three core components of the suicide apparatus which include CED-3, CED-4, and CED-9. An analogous set of core constituents exists in mammalian cells and includes caspase-9, Apaf-1, and bcl-2/xl, respectively. CED-3 and CED-4, along with their mammalian counterparts, function to kill cells, whereas CED-9 and its mammalian equivalents protect cells from death. These central components biochemically intermingle in a ternary complex recently dubbed the “apoptosome.” The C elegans protein EGL-1 and its mammalian counterparts, pro-apoptotic members of the bcl-2 family, induce cell death by disrupting apoptosome interactions. Thus, EGL-1 may represent a primordial signal integrator for the apoptosome. Various biochemical processes including oligomerization, adenosine triphosphate ATP/dATP binding, and cytochrome c interaction play a role in regulating the ternary death complex. Recent studies suggest that cell death receptors, such as CD95, may amplify their suicide signal by activating the apoptosome. These mutual associations by core components of the suicide apparatus provide a molecular framework in which diverse death signals likely interface. Understanding the apoptosome and its cellular connections will facilitate the design of novel therapeutic strategies for cancer and other disease states in which apoptosis plays a pivotal role.
apoptosis; apoptosome; cell death; death receptor
Three experiments examined 3- to 5-year-olds' use of eye gaze cues to infer truth in a deceptive situation. Children watched a video of an actor who hid a toy in 1 of 3 cups. In Experiments 1 and 2, the actor claimed ignorance about the toy's location but looked toward 1 of the cups, without (Experiment 1) and with (Experiment 2) head movement. In Experiment 3, the actor provided contradictory verbal and eye gaze clues about the location of the toy. Four- and 5-year-olds correctly used the actor's gaze cues to locate the toy, whereas 3-year-olds failed to do so. Results suggest that by 4 years of age, children begin to understand that eye gaze cues displayed by a deceiver can be informative about the true state of affairs.
This manuscript describes the overexpression, purification and crystallization of human SOUL protein (hSOUL). hSOUL is a 23 kDa haem-binding protein that was first identified as the PP23 protein isolated from human full-term placenta.
Human SOUL (hSOUL) is a 23 kDa haem-binding protein that was first identified as the PP23 protein isolated from human full-term placentas. Here, the overexpression, purification and crystallization of hSOUL are reported. The crystals belonged to space group P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145, c = 60 Å and one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.5 Å resolution at the ESRF. A preliminary model of the three-dimensional structure of hSOUL was obtained by molecular replacement using the structures of murine p22HBP (PDB codes 2gov and 2hva), obtained by solution NMR, as search models.
haem-binding proteins; SOUL
The SOUL protein is known to induce apoptosis by provoking the mitochondrial permeability transition, and a sequence homologous with the BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3) domains has recently been identified in the protein, thus making it a potential new member of the BH3-only protein family. In the present study, we provide NMR, SPR (surface plasmon resonance) and crystallographic evidence that a peptide spanning residues 147–172 in SOUL interacts with the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. We have crystallized SOUL alone and the complex of its BH3 domain peptide with Bcl-xL, and solved their three-dimensional structures. The SOUL monomer is a single domain organized as a distorted β-barrel with eight anti-parallel strands and two α-helices. The BH3 domain extends across 15 residues at the end of the second helix and eight amino acids in the chain following it. There are important structural differences in the BH3 domain in the intact SOUL molecule and the same sequence bound to Bcl-xL.
apoptosis; Bcl-xL; Bcl-2 homology 3 domain (BH3 domain); crystal structure; NMR; SOUL; surface plasmon resonance; BH, Bcl-2 homology; HEBP, haem-binding protein; HSQC, heteronuclear single-quantum coherence; MPT, mitochondrial permeability transition; rmsd, root mean square deviation; RZPD, Deutsches Ressouroenzentrum für Genomforschung; SPR, surface plasmon resonance
The author traces in this paper the clue of the Tridosha Doctrine consisting of Air, water and heat. Breath contains all the three. Probably the Tridosha doctrine arose while considering breath as soul.
Cancer can lead to spiritual transformation, which can be seen as a form of alchemy. During this process, patients, family members, and even professional caregivers can find themselves having spiritual experiences that go beyond any they had previously encountered. This paper provides qualitative descriptions of the “Field” or “Soul Wisdom” experienced by patients and caregivers.
This paper examines the authorial strategies deployed by Galen in his two main pharmacological treatises devoted to compound remedies: Composition of Medicines according to Types and Composition of Medicines according to Places. Some of Galen’s methods of self assertion (use of the first person; writing of prefaces) are conventional. Others have not received much attention from scholars. Thus, here, I examine Galen’s borrowing of his sources’ ‘I’; his use of the phrase ‘in these words’; and his recourse to Damocrates’ verse to conclude pharmacological books. I argue that Galen’s authorial persona is very different from that of the modern author as defined by Roland Barthes. Galen imitates and impersonates his pharmacological sources. This re-enactment becomes a way to gain experience (peira) of remedies and guarantees their efficacy.
Galen; Pharmacology; Compilation; Authority; Authorship; peira
Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005) and increasing physical activity of African American adults in the LMD region.
We used a quasi-experimental design in which 8 self-selected eligible churches were assigned to intervention or control. Assessments included dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and clinical measures. Statistical tests for group comparisons included χ2, Fisher’s exact, and McNemar’s tests for categorical variables, and mixed-model regression analysis for continuous variables and modeling intervention effects.
Retention rates were 85% (176 of 208) for control and 84% (163 of 195) for intervention churches. Diet quality components, including total fruit, total vegetables, and total quality improved significantly in both control (mean [standard deviation], 0.3 [1.8], 0.2 [1.1], and 3.4 [9.6], respectively) and intervention (0.6 [1.7], 0.3 [1.2], and 3.2 [9.7], respectively) groups, while significant increases in aerobic (22%) and strength/flexibility (24%) physical activity indicators were apparent in the intervention group only. Regression analysis indicated that intervention participation level and vehicle ownership were significant positive predictors of change for several diet quality components.
This church-based diet and physical activity intervention may be effective in improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of LMD African American adults. Components key to the success of such programs are participant engagement in educational sessions and vehicle access.
The prognostic value of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) is unknown. We sought to determine whether the 6MWT predicted cardiovascular events in ambulatory patients with CHD.
We measured 6MWT distance and treadmill exercise capacity in 556 outpatients with stable CHD between September 2000 and December 2002. Participants were followed for a median of 8.0 years for cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, and death).
Cardiovascular events occurred in 39% (218/556) of participants. Patients in the lowest quartile of 6MWT distance (87–419 meters) had 4 times the rate of events as those in the highest quartile (544–837 meters) (unadjusted HR 4.29, 95%CI 2.83–6.53, p<0.0001). Each standard deviation (SD) decrease in 6MWT distance (104 meters) was associated with a 55% higher rate of cardiovascular events (age-adjusted HR 1.55, 95%CI 1.35–1.78). After adjustment for traditional risk factors and cardiac disease severity measures (ejection fraction, inducible ischemia, diastolic dysfunction, NT-proBNP, and CRP), each SD decrease in 6MWT was associated with a 30% higher rate of cardiovascular events (HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.10–1.53). When added to traditional risk factors, the 6MWT resulted in category-free net reclassification improvement of 39% (95%CI 19%–60%). The discriminative ability of 6MWT was similar to treadmill exercise capacity for predicting cardiovascular events (c-statistics both 0.72, p =0.29).
Distance walked on 6MWT predicted cardiovascular events in patients with stable CHD. The addition of a simple 6MWT to traditional risk factors improved risk prediction and was comparable to treadmill exercise capacity.
Whether the integration of genetic/omic technologies in sports contexts will facilitate player success, promote player safety, or spur genetic discrimination depends largely upon the game rules established by those currently designing genomic sports medicine programs. The integration has already begun, but there is not yet a playbook for best practices. Thus far discussions have focused largely on whether the integration would occur and how to prevent the integration from occurring, rather than how it could occur in such a way that maximizes benefits, minimizes risks, and avoids the exacerbation of racial disparities. Previous empirical research has identified members of the personal genomics industry offering sports-related DNA tests, and previous legal research has explored the impact of collective bargaining in professional sports as it relates to the employment protections of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). Building upon that research and upon participant observations with specific sports-related DNA tests purchased from four direct-to-consumer companies in 2011 and broader personal genomics (PGx) services, this anthropological, legal, and ethical (ALE) discussion highlights fundamental issues that must be addressed by those developing personal genomic sports medicine programs, either independently or through collaborations with commercial providers. For example, the vulnerability of student-athletes creates a number of issues that require careful, deliberate consideration. More broadly, however, this ALE discussion highlights potential sports-related implications (that ultimately might mitigate or, conversely, exacerbate racial disparities among athletes) of whole exome/genome sequencing conducted by biomedical researchers and clinicians for non-sports purposes. For example, the possibility that exome/genome sequencing of individuals who are considered to be non-patients, asymptomatic, normal, etc. will reveal the presence of variants of unknown significance in any one of the genes associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), long QT syndrome (LQTS), Marfan’s syndrome, and other conditions is not inconsequential, and how this information is reported, interpreted, and used may ultimately prevent the individual from participation in competitive sports. Due to the distribution of genetic diversity that reflects our evolutionary and demographic history (including the discernible effects of restricted gene flow and genetic drift associated with cultural constructs of race) and in recognition of previous policies for “leveling” the playing field in competitive sports based on “natural” athletic abilities, preliminary recommendations are provided to discourage genetic segregation of sports and to develop best practice guidelines for genomic sports medicine programs that will facilitate player success, promote player safety, and avoid genetic discrimination within and beyond the program.
Legal issues; Personal genomics; Athletes; Sports; GINA; ELSI; Discrimination; Privacy; Sports medicine; Genetic screening
Telomere attrition is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies of telomere length in relation to kidney function are limited. We explored the association of kidney function with telomere length and telomere shortening.
The Heart and Soul study is a longitudinal study of patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). Measures of baseline kidney function included: serum creatinine, creatinine-derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRCKD-EPI), 24-hour urine measured creatinine clearance, cystatin C, cystatin C-derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio. Telomere length was measured from peripheral blood leukocytes at baseline (N=954) and 5 years later (N=608). Linear regression models were used to test the association of kidney function with i) baseline telomere length and ii) change in telomere length over 5 years.
At baseline, mean eGFRCKD-EPI was 72.6 (± 21.5) ml/min/1.73 m2, eGFRcys was 71.0 (± 23.1) ml/min/1.73 m2 and ACR was 8.6 (±12.3) mg/gm. Only lower baseline eGFRCKD-EPI was associated with shorter baseline telomere length (9.1 [95% CI 1.2–16.9] fewer base pairs for every 5 ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFRCKD-EPI). Lower baseline eGFRCKD-EPI (and all other measures of kidney function) predicted more rapid telomere shortening (10.8 [95% CI 4.3–17.3] decrease in base pairs over 5 years for every 5 ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFRCKD-EPI). After adjustment for age, these associations were no longer statistically significant.
In patients with CHD, reduced kidney function is associated with i) shorter baseline telomere length and ii) more rapid telomere shortening over 5 years, however these associations are entirely explained by older age.
kidney; CKD; telomere
To evaluate whether the evidence-based Body & Soul program, when disseminated and implemented without researcher or agency involvement and support, would achieve similar results to earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials.
Prospective group randomized trial.
Churches with predominantly African American membership.
A total of 1033 members from the fifteen churches completed baseline surveys. Of these, 562 (54.4%) completed the follow-up survey six months later.
Church-based nutrition program for African Americans that included pastoral involvement, educational activities, church environmental changes, and peer counseling.
Main Outcome Measure
Daily fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was assessed at pre- and post-test.
Mixed-effects linear models.
At posttest, there was no statistically significant difference in daily servings of FV between the early intervention group participants compared to control group participants (4.7 vs, 4.4, P=0.38). Process evaluation suggested that added resources such as technical assistance could improve program implementation.
Conclusions and Implications
The disseminated program may not produce improvements in FV intake equal to those in the earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials, primarily due to lack of program implementation. Program dissemination may not achieve public health impact unless support systems are strengthened for adequate implementation at the church level.
diet; health behavior; health promotion; program evaluation; African Americans
Cognitive and information processing deficits are core features and important sources of disability in schizophrenia. Our understanding of the neural substrates of these deficits remains incomplete, in large part because the complexity of impairments in schizophrenia makes the identification of specific deficits very challenging. Vision science presents unique opportunities in this regard: many years of basic research have led to detailed characterization of relationships between structure and function in the early visual system and have produced sophisticated methods to quantify visual perception and characterize its neural substrates. We present a selective review of research that illustrates the opportunities for discovery provided by visual studies in schizophrenia. We highlight work that has been particularly effective in applying vision science methods to identify specific neural abnormalities underlying information processing deficits in schizophrenia. In addition, we describe studies that have utilized psychophysical experimental designs that mitigate generalized deficit confounds, thereby revealing specific visual impairments in schizophrenia. These studies contribute to accumulating evidence that early visual cortex is a useful experimental system for the study of local cortical circuit abnormalities in schizophrenia. The high degree of similarity across neocortical areas of neuronal subtypes and their patterns of connectivity suggests that insights obtained from the study of early visual cortex may be applicable to other brain regions. We conclude with a discussion of future studies that combine vision science and neuroimaging methods. These studies have the potential to address pressing questions in schizophrenia, including the dissociation of local circuit deficits vs. impairments in feedback modulation by cognitive processes such as spatial attention and working memory, and the relative contributions of glutamatergic and GABAergic deficits.
schizophrenia; visual system; fMRI; psychophysics; magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Hostility is a significant predictor of mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), but the mechanisms that explain this association are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential mechanisms of association between hostility and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.
Methods and Results
We prospectively examined the association between self‐reported hostility and secondary events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and death) in 1022 outpatients with stable CHD from the Heart and Soul Study. Baseline hostility was assessed using the 8‐item Cynical Distrust scale. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the extent to which candidate biological and behavioral mediators changed the strength of association between hostility and secondary events. During an average follow‐up time of 7.4±2.7 years, the age‐adjusted annual rate of secondary events was 9.5% among subjects in the highest quartile of hostility and 5.7% among subjects in the lowest quartile (age‐adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30 to 2.17; P<0.0001). After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, participants with hostility scores in the highest quartile had a 58% greater risk of secondary events than those in the lowest quartile (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.09; P=0.001). This association was mildly attenuated after adjustment for C‐reactive protein (HR: 1.41, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.87; P=0.02) and no longer significant after further adjustment for smoking and physical inactivity (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.67; P=0.13).
Hostility was a significant predictor of secondary events in this sample of outpatients with baseline stable CHD. Much of this association was moderated by poor health behaviors, specifically physical inactivity and smoking.
coronary artery disease; epidemiology; hostility; mortality; observational studies
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). It is not known, however, whether psychosocial and behavioral protective factors moderate this association. In the current study, we examine whether multisystem resiliency – defined by healthy emotion regulation, strong social connections, and health behaviors (sleep and exercise) – predicts LTL and mitigates previously demonstrated associations between depression diagnosis and LTL. LTL was measured, using a quantitative PCR assay, in 954 patients with stable cardiovascular disease in the Heart and Soul Study. In a fully adjusted model, high multisystem resiliency predicted longer LTL (b = 80.00, SE = 27.17, p = .003), whereas each individual factor did not. Multisystem resiliency significantly moderated the MDD-LTL association (p = .02). Specifically, MDD was significantly related to LTL at 1 SD below the mean of multisystem resiliency (b = −142.86, SE = 56.46, p = .01), but not at 1 SD above the mean (b = 49.07, SE = 74.51, p = .51). This study suggests that MDD associations with biological outcomes should be examined within a psychosocial–behavioral context, because this context shapes the nature of the direct relationship. Further research should explore the cognitive, neural, and other physiological pathways through which multisystem resiliency may confer biological benefit.
Major depressive disorder; Telomeres; Cell aging; Resiliency; Social connections; Emotion regulation; Physical activity