Alchemy as art tries to imitate creation such as spontaneous generation. The magic wands of creation, of Chinese origin, would be a compass and a triangular carpenter's square. Creation is represented by the dual-natured soul, comprising of the spirit (Ruh) and “the” soul (Nafs). The ultimate source is creative energy which emanates form the Divine word of command. Creative energy, in its non-manifest form, would be ultrasonic energy, which can be represented by a humming sourd. This would be sympolized by the humming sound. This would be symbolized by the humming sound of bees represent creative energy and in fig 3 the fiddle, as direct producers of a humming sound.
Galen's three souls incorporate previously existing ideas of soul. Soul is matter – cum – energy. As matter it is airlike, the finest by nature and as movement, like sound, the form of energy most subtle of its kind. Creator is depicted with Creation as the Cosmic egg and snake as Cosmic soul and the syllable Om, as the word incorporating creative energy. Om as humming sound is symbolized by Bees which produce such sound.
This paper presents an automated system for the handling of charges and information processing within the Anesthesiology department of the University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences (UAMS). The purpose of the system is to take the place of cumbersome, manual billing procedures and in the process of automated charge generation, to compile a data base of patient data for later use.
ALCHEMIST has demonstrated its value by increasing both the speed and the accuracy of generation of patient charges as well as facilitating the compilation of valuable, informative reports containing statistical summaries of all aspects of the UAMS operating wing case load. ALCHEMIST allows for the entry of fifty different sets of information (multiple items in some sets) for a total of 107 separate data elements from the original anesthetic record. All this data is entered as part of the charge entry procedure.
The author presents in this article many evidence to prove that the cross is a symbol of soul.
Cognitive and information processing deficits are core features and important sources of disability in schizophrenia. Our understanding of the neural substrates of these deficits remains incomplete, in large part because the complexity of impairments in schizophrenia makes the identification of specific deficits very challenging. Vision science presents unique opportunities in this regard: many years of basic research have led to detailed characterization of relationships between structure and function in the early visual system and have produced sophisticated methods to quantify visual perception and characterize its neural substrates. We present a selective review of research that illustrates the opportunities for discovery provided by visual studies in schizophrenia. We highlight work that has been particularly effective in applying vision science methods to identify specific neural abnormalities underlying information processing deficits in schizophrenia. In addition, we describe studies that have utilized psychophysical experimental designs that mitigate generalized deficit confounds, thereby revealing specific visual impairments in schizophrenia. These studies contribute to accumulating evidence that early visual cortex is a useful experimental system for the study of local cortical circuit abnormalities in schizophrenia. The high degree of similarity across neocortical areas of neuronal subtypes and their patterns of connectivity suggests that insights obtained from the study of early visual cortex may be applicable to other brain regions. We conclude with a discussion of future studies that combine vision science and neuroimaging methods. These studies have the potential to address pressing questions in schizophrenia, including the dissociation of local circuit deficits vs. impairments in feedback modulation by cognitive processes such as spatial attention and working memory, and the relative contributions of glutamatergic and GABAergic deficits.
schizophrenia; visual system; fMRI; psychophysics; magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Urine dopamine (DA) is produced in the proximal tubule and has been found to increase in response to dietary phosphorus intake, and to contribute to greater urinary phosphorus excretion in animal models. Whether urine DA is associated with phosphorus homeostasis in humans is uncertain.
This was a cross-sectional study of 884 outpatients. DA was measured from 24-hour urine collections. We examined cross-sectional associations between urine DA and serum phosphorus, 24-hour urine phosphorus (as an indicator of dietary phosphorus absorption), fractional excretion of phosphorus (FEphos), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, eGFR, albuminuria, hypertension, heart failure, tobacco use, body mass index, and diuretic use.
Mean age was 66.6 ± 11 years and mean eGFR was 71 ± 21.3 ml/min/1.73 m2. The mean urine DA was 193 ± 86 µg/day, mean serum phosphorus was 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/dl, mean daily urine phosphorus excretion was 671 ± 312 mg/day, and mean FEphos was 17 ± 9%. In adjusted models, each standard deviation higher DA was associated with 78.4 mg/day higher urine phosphorus and 0.9% lower FEphos (p < 0.05 for both). There was no statistically significant association between urine DA, serum phosphorus, FGF-23 or PTH in adjusted models.
Higher dietary phosphorus absorption is associated with higher urine DA in humans, consistent with animal models. However, higher urine DA is not associated with FGF-23 or PTH, suggesting that known mechanisms of renal tubular handling of phosphorus may not be involved in the renal dopamine-phosphorus regulatory pathway in humans.
Urine dopamine; Phosphorus; Kidney; Proximal tubule
Depression and inflammation independently predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Depression has been associated with elevated levels of inflammation in otherwise healthy patients without known CHD. However, studies investigating the link between depression and inflammation in patients with established CHD have produced inconclusive results.
We sought to examine the association of major depression with inflammation in 984 outpatients with established CHD from the Heart and Soul Study. We assessed current major depression with the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule and collected venous blood samples for measurement of five inflammatory biomarkers (white blood cell count, CD40 ligand, C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, and interleukin-6 [IL-6]). We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine the association of current depression with inflammatory markers, adjusted for potential confounding variables.
Of the 984 participants, 217 (22%) had current major depression. Depression was not associated with increased levels of any inflammatory marker. Contrary to our hypothesis, depression was associated with lower levels of CRP (p = .09), fibrinogen (p = .006), and IL-6 (p = .007) in both unadjusted and adjusted models.
We found no evidence that current depression is associated with greater inflammation in outpatients with CHD. Inflammation is unlikely to explain the adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with depression in patients with established CHD.
Epidemiology; heart disease; inflammation; major depressive disorder
Background and Aims
Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae.
We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts.
Key Results and Conclusions
Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the six surviving archetypic manuscripts.
Citrullus lanatus; Cucumis melo; Cucumis sativus; Lagenaria siceraria; Solanum melongena; Mandragora sp.; medieval horticulture; history of horticulture
This paper investigates John Dee’s relationship with two kinds of alchemist: the authorities whose works he read, and the contemporary practitioners with whom he exchanged texts and ideas. Both strands coincide in the reception of works attributed to the famous English alchemist, George Ripley (d. c. 1490). Dee’s keen interest in Ripley appears from the number of transcriptions he made of ‘Ripleian’ writings, including the Bosome book, a manuscript discovered in 1574 and believed to have been written in Ripley’s own hand. In 1583, Dee and his associate Edward Kelley left England for East Central Europe, taking with them a proportion of Dee’s vast library, including alchemical books—the contents of which would soon pique the interest of continental practitioners. Kelley used Ripley’s works, including the Bosome book, not only as sources of practical information, but as a means of furthering his own relationships with colleagues and patrons: transactions that in turn influenced Ripley’s posthumous continental reception. The resulting circulation of texts allows us to trace, with unusual precision, the spread of English alchemical ideas in the Holy Roman Empire from the late sixteenth century.
John Dee; Edward Kelley; George Ripley; Alchemy; Rudolf II; Prague; Manuscript circulation
Cancer can lead to spiritual transformation, which can be seen as a form of alchemy. During this process, patients, family members, and even professional caregivers can find themselves having spiritual experiences that go beyond any they had previously encountered. This paper provides qualitative descriptions of the “Field” or “Soul Wisdom” experienced by patients and caregivers.
Recent evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) are impaired in their ability to imitate gestures and movements generated by others. This impairment in imitation may be linked to difficulties in generating and maintaining internal representations in working memory (WM). We used a novel quantitative technique to investigate the relationship between WM and imitation ability. SZ outpatients and demographically matched healthy control (HC) participants imitated hand gestures. In Experiment 1, participants imitated single gestures. In Experiment 2, they imitated sequences of 2 gestures, either while viewing the gesture online or after a short delay that forced the use of WM. In Experiment 1, imitation errors were increased in SZ compared with HC. Experiment 2 revealed a significant interaction between imitation ability and WM. SZ produced more errors and required more time to imitate when that imitation depended upon WM compared with HC. Moreover, impaired imitation from WM was significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms but not with positive symptoms. In sum, gesture imitation was impaired in schizophrenia, especially when the production of an imitation depended upon WM and when an imitation entailed multiple actions. Such a deficit may have downstream consequences for new skill learning.
working memory; social cognition; sequence learning; mirror mechanism; simulation
Studies indicate that infants in our culture are exposed to significant amounts of TV, often as a baby-sitting strategy by busy caretakers. The question arises whether TV viewing merely presents infants with a salient collection of moving patterns or whether they will readily pick up information depicted in this 2-D representation and incorporate it into their own behavior. Can infants “understand” the content of television enough to govern their real-world behavior accordingly? One way to explore this question is to present a model via television for infants to imitate. Infants’ ability to imitate TV models was explored at 2 ages, 14 and 24 months, under conditions of immediate and deferred imitation. In deferred imitation, infants were exposed to a TV depiction of an adult manipulating a novel toy in a particular way but were not presented with the real toy until the next day. The results showed significant imitation at both ages, and furthermore showed that even the youngest group imitated after the 24-hour delay. The finding of deferred imitation of TV models has social and policy implications, because it suggests that TV viewing in the home could potentially affect infant behavior and development more than heretofore contemplated. The results also add to a growing body of literature on prelinguistic representational capacities. They do so in the dual sense of showing that infants can relate 2-D representations to their own actions on real objects in 3-D space, and moreover that the information picked up through TV can be internally represented over lengthy delays before it is used to guide the real-world action.
A number of major inventions in history have been based on bionic imitation. Heuristics, by applying biological systems to the creation of artificial devices and machines, might be one of the most critical processes in scientific innovation. In particular, prototype heuristics propositions that innovation may engage automatic activation of a prototype such as a biological system to form novel associations between a prototype's function and problem-solving. We speculated that the cortical dissociation between the automatic activation and forming novel associations in innovation is critical point to heuristic creativity. In the present study, novel and old scientific innovations (NSI and OSI) were selected as experimental materials in using learning-testing paradigm to explore the neural basis of scientific innovation induced by heuristic prototype. College students were required to resolve NSI problems (to which they did not know the answers) and OSI problems (to which they knew the answers). From two fMRI experiments, our results showed that the subjects could resolve NSI when provided with heuristic prototypes. In Experiment 1, it was found that the lingual gyrus (LG; BA18) might be related to prototype heuristics in college students resolving NSI after learning a relative prototype. In Experiment 2, the LG (BA18) and precuneus (BA31) were significantly activated for NSI compared to OSI when college students learned all prototypes one day before the test. In addition, the mean beta-values of these brain regions of NSI were all correlated with the behavior accuracy of NSI. As our hypothesis indicated, the findings suggested that the LG might be involved in forming novel associations using heuristic information, while the precuneus might be involved in the automatic activation of heuristic prototype during scientific innovation.
Deferred imitation has long held a privileged position in early cognitive development, considered an early marker of representational thought with links to language development and symbolic processes. Children with autism have difficulties with several abilities generally thought to be related to deferred imitation: immediate imitation, language, and symbolic play. However, few studies have examined deferred imitation in early autism. The present study examined both deferred, spontaneous imitation and immediate, elicited imitation on a set of carefully matched tasks in 36 young children with autism: 16 with early onset autism, 20 with regressive autism and two contrast groups, younger typically developing children (n = 20) and age matched children with significant developmental delays (n = 21). Analyses of co-variance controlling for differences in verbal mental age revealed significant main effects for task, but no main effect of group and no interaction of task by group. Deferred imitation scores were lower than immediate imitation scores for all groups. Imitation performance was related to overall intellectual functioning for all groups, and there were moderate and significant relations between imitation in the immediate elicited condition and in the spontaneous deferred condition for all groups. Finally, there were no differences between onset subgroups in imitation scores, suggesting that the two share a similar phenotype involving both types of imitation.
Autistic disorder; development; developmental delay; mental retardation; pervasive developmental disorder; preschool children; imitation
Understanding the creative process is essential for realizing human potential. Over the past four decades, the author has explored this subject through his brain-inspired drawings, paintings, symbolic sculptures, and experimental art installations that present myriad impressions of human creativity. These impressionistic artworks interpret rather than illustrate the complexities of the creative process. They draw insights from empirical studies that correlate how human beings create, learn, remember, innovate, and communicate. In addition to offering fresh aesthetic experiences, this metaphorical art raises fundamental questions concerning the deep connections between the brain and its creations. The author describes his artworks as embodiments of everyday observations about the neuropsychology of creativity, and its all-purpose applications for stimulating and accelerating innovation.
ArtScience; creativity; discovery; invention; innovation
Infants can imitate a novel action sequence from television and picture books; yet there has been no direct comparison of infants’ imitation from the two types of media. Varying the narrative cues available during the demonstration and test, we measured 18- and 24-month-olds’ imitation from television and picture books. Infants imitated from both media types when full narrative cues (Experiment 1; N = 76) or empty, meaningless narration (Experiment 2; N = 135) accompanied the demonstrations, but they imitated more from television than books. In Experiment 3 (N = 27), infants imitated from a book based on narration alone, without the presence of pictures. These results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in cognitive flexibility and infants’ emerging symbolic understanding.
Appropriate case management of suspected malaria in Cambodia is critical given anti-malarial drug resistance in the region. Improving diagnosis and the use of recommended malarial treatments is a challenge in Cambodia where self-treatment and usage of drug cocktails is widespread, a notable difference from malaria treatment seeking in other countries. This qualitative study adds to the limited evidence base on Cambodian practices, aiming to understand the demand-side factors influencing treatment-seeking behaviour, including the types of home treatments, perceptions of cocktail medicines and reasons for diagnostic testing. The findings may help guide intervention design.
The study used in-depth interviews (IDIs) (N = 16) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (N = 12) with Cambodian adults from malaria-endemic areas who had experienced malaria fever in the previous two weeks. Data were analysed using NVivo software.
Findings suggest that Cambodians initially treat suspected malaria at home with home remedies and traditional medicines. When seeking treatment outside the home, respondents frequently reported receiving a cocktail of medicines from trusted providers. Cocktails are perceived as less expensive and more effective than full-course, pre-packaged medicines. Barriers to diagnostic testing include a belief in the ability to self-diagnose based on symptoms, cost and reliance on providers to recommend a test. Factors that facilitate testing include recommendation by trusted providers and a belief that anti-malarial treatment for illnesses other than malaria can be harmful.
Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in Cambodia is complex, driven by cultural norms, practicalities and episode-related factors. Effective malaria treatment programmes will benefit from interventions and communication materials that leverage these demand-side factors, promoting prompt visits to facilities for suspected malaria and challenging patients’ misconceptions about the effectiveness of cocktails. Given the importance of the patient-provider interaction and the pivotal role that providers play in ensuring the delivery of appropriate malaria care, future research and interventions should also focus on the supply side factors influencing provider behaviour.
Treatment-seeking behaviour; Patient perceptions; Patient-provider interactions; Malaria diagnosis; Malaria treatment; Cocktail; ACT; Cambodia; Qualitative research
M[ND1]enopause is associated with urine phosphorus retention, which is mitigated by estrogen therapy. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a hormone originating from bone that regulates urine phosphorus excretion. Whether sex or estrogen therapy is associated with different FGF-23 levels is unknown.
Study Design & Setting
Cross-sectional study among ambulatory individuals with prevalent cardiovascular disease.
Sex, and among women, use or non-use of estrogen.
Serum phosphorus, tubular maximum reabsorption of phosphorus indexed to GFR (TMP/GFR), and plasma FGF-23 concentrations.
Among 987 participants, the mean age was 67 ± 11 years, 182 (18%) were female; 46 (25%) were taking estrogen. The mean eGFR was 71 ± 23 (SD) ml/min/1.73m2. Compared to women who were not taking estrogen, both women on estrogen therapy and men had significantly lower serum phosphorus concentrations, lower TMP/GFR (indicating higher urine phosphorus excretion), and lower FGF-23 concentrations with adjustment for age, demographics, and kidney function (P < 0.001 for each). Mean FGF-23 in RU/ml were 68.7 (95% CI, 59.7–79.0) in non estrogen using women, 43.8 (95% CI, 41.2–46.5) in men, and 45.1 (95% CI, 35.2–57.4) in women using estrogen in adjusted analysis (P< 0.001).
The majority of participants were men. Estrogen therapy was not randomly assigned.
Older women who are not taking estrogen have higher FGF-23 levels than either men or women taking estrogen. In the context of prior literature, these data suggest that post-menopausal phosphorus retention may stimulate higher FGF-23 concentrations after menopause.
Menopause; fibroblast growth factor-23; phosphorus; estradiol; sex hormones
Depression is known to increase the risk of coronary artery disease, but few studies have evaluated the association between depression and peripheral artery disease (PAD). We examined the association of depression with PAD and evaluated potential mediators of this association.
Methods and Results
We used data from the Heart and Soul Study, a prospective cohort of 1024 men and women with coronary artery disease recruited in 2000–2002 and followed for a mean of 7.2±2.6 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the validated 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Prevalent PAD at baseline was determined by self-report. Prospective PAD events were adjudicated on the basis of review of medical records. We used logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate the independent associations of depressive symptoms with prevalent PAD and subsequent PAD events. At baseline, 199 patients (19%) had depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire ≥10). Prevalent PAD was reported by 12% of patients with depression and 7% of those without depression (base model adjusted for age and sex: odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.06–3.04, P=0.03; full model adjusted for comorbidities, medications, PAD risk factors, inflammation, and health behaviors: odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 0.90–2.83, P=0.11). During follow-up, PAD events occurred in 7% of patients with depression and 5% of those without depression (base model adjusted for age and sex: hazard ratio 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.09–4.00, P=0.03; full model adjusted for comorbidities, medications, PAD risk factors, inflammation, and health behaviors: hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.65–2.71, P=0.44). Factors explaining >5% of the association between depression and incident PAD events included race/ethnicity, diabetes, congestive heart failure, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride levels, serum creatinine, inflammation, smoking, and levels of physical activity.
Depressive symptoms were associated with a greater risk of PAD. Because the association was explained partly by modifiable risk factors, our findings suggest that more aggressive treatment of these risk factors could reduce the excess risk of PAD associated with depression. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e002667 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.002667.)
depression; peripheral artery disease; risk factors