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Ancient Science of Life  1989;8(3-4):191-195.
Alchemy as art tries to imitate creation such as spontaneous generation. The magic wands of creation, of Chinese origin, would be a compass and a triangular carpenter's square. Creation is represented by the dual-natured soul, comprising of the spirit (Ruh) and “the” soul (Nafs). The ultimate source is creative energy which emanates form the Divine word of command. Creative energy, in its non-manifest form, would be ultrasonic energy, which can be represented by a humming sourd. This would be sympolized by the humming sound. This would be symbolized by the humming sound of bees represent creative energy and in fig 3 the fiddle, as direct producers of a humming sound.
PMCID: PMC3336720  PMID: 22557649
Ancient Science of Life  1986;6(2):69-76.
Galen's three souls incorporate previously existing ideas of soul. Soul is matter – cum – energy. As matter it is airlike, the finest by nature and as movement, like sound, the form of energy most subtle of its kind. Creator is depicted with Creation as the Cosmic egg and snake as Cosmic soul and the syllable Om, as the word incorporating creative energy. Om as humming sound is symbolized by Bees which produce such sound.
PMCID: PMC3331411  PMID: 22557550
4.  ALCHEMIST (Anesthesia Log, Charge Entry, Medical Information, and Statistics) 
This paper presents an automated system for the handling of charges and information processing within the Anesthesiology department of the University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences (UAMS). The purpose of the system is to take the place of cumbersome, manual billing procedures and in the process of automated charge generation, to compile a data base of patient data for later use.
ALCHEMIST has demonstrated its value by increasing both the speed and the accuracy of generation of patient charges as well as facilitating the compilation of valuable, informative reports containing statistical summaries of all aspects of the UAMS operating wing case load. ALCHEMIST allows for the entry of fifty different sets of information (multiple items in some sets) for a total of 107 separate data elements from the original anesthetic record. All this data is entered as part of the charge entry procedure.
PMCID: PMC2231879
Ancient Science of Life  1991;10(3):191-193.
The author presents in this article many evidence to prove that the cross is a symbol of soul.
PMCID: PMC3331288  PMID: 22556532
7.  A home for body and soul: Substance using women in recovery 
We report on an in-depth qualitative study of 28 active and former substance addicted women of low or marginal income on the core components of a harm reduction-based addiction recovery program. These women volunteered to be interviewed about their perceptions of their therapeutic needs in their transition from substance addiction to recovery.
Data were gathered about women’s experiences and essential needs in addiction recovery, what helped and what hindered their past efforts in recovery, and their views of what would constitute an effective woman-centred recovery program. The research was based upon the experience and knowledge of the women in interaction with their communities and with recovery programs. The study was informed by harm reduction practice principles that emphasize the importance of individual experience in knowledge construction, reduction of harm, low threshold access, and the development of a hierarchy of needs in regard to addiction recovery.
Three core needs were identified by study participants: normalization and structure, biopsychosocial-spiritual safety, and social connection. What hindered recovery efforts as identified by participants was an inner urban location, prescriptive recovery, invidious treatment, lack of safety, distress-derived distraction, problem-focused treatment, coercive elements of mutual support groups, and social marginalization. What helped included connection in counselling and therapy, multidisciplinary service provision, spirituality focus, opportunities for learning and work, and a safe and flexible structure. Core components of an effective recovery program identified by women themselves stand in contrast to the views of service providers and policymakers, particularly in regard to the need for a rural location for residential programs, low threshold access, multidisciplinary service provision of conventional and complementary modalities and therapies for integrated healing, long-term multi-phase recovery, and variety and choice of programming.
A key barrier to the addiction recovery of women is the present framework of addiction treatment, as well as current drug laws, policies and service delivery systems. The expectation of women is that harm reduction-based recovery services will facilitate safe, supportive transitioning from the point of the decision to access services, through independent living with community integration.
PMCID: PMC3878194  PMID: 24359089
8.  High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and secondary events in outpatients with coronary heart disease from the Heart and Soul Study 
JAMA internal medicine  2013;173(9):763-769.
Levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) predict secondary cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD).
To determine the association of hs-cTnT with structural and functional measures of heart disease and the extent to which these measures explain the relationship between hs-cTnT and secondary events.
Design, Setting, and Participants
We measured serum concentrations of hs-cTnT and performed exercise treadmill testing with stress echocardiography in a prospective cohort study of 984 outpatients with CHD who were enrolled between September 2000 and December 2002 and followed for a median of 8.2 years.
Main Outcomes Measures
Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, or cardiovascular death), determined by review of medical records and death certificates.
Of 984 participants, 794 (80.7%) had detectable hs-cTnT levels. At baseline, higher hs-cTnT was associated with greater inducible ischemia and with worse left ventricular ejection fraction, left atrial function, diastolic function, left ventricular mass, and treadmill exercise capacity. During follow-up, 317 participants (32.2%) experienced a cardiovascular event. After adjustment for clinical risk factors, baseline cardiac structure and function, and other biomarkers (NT-proBNP and C-reactive protein), each doubling in hs-cTnT remained associated with a 37% higher rate of cardiovascular events (HR 1.37, 95%CI 1.14, 1.65; P=0.001).
In outpatients with stable CHD, higher hs-cTnT levels were associated with multiple abnormalities of cardiac structure and function but remained independently predictive of secondary events. These findings suggest that hs-cTnT may detect an element of risk that is not captured by existing measures of cardiac disease severity.
PMCID: PMC3719880  PMID: 23568589
9.  Evaluating the dissemination of Body & Soul, an evidence-based fruit and vegetable intake intervention: challenges for dissemination and implementation research 
To evaluate whether the evidence-based Body & Soul program, when disseminated and implemented without researcher or agency involvement and support, would achieve similar results to earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials.
Prospective group randomized trial.
Churches with predominantly African American membership.
A total of 1033 members from the fifteen churches completed baseline surveys. Of these, 562 (54.4%) completed the follow-up survey six months later.
Church-based nutrition program for African Americans that included pastoral involvement, educational activities, church environmental changes, and peer counseling.
Main Outcome Measure
Daily fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was assessed at pre- and post-test.
Mixed-effects linear models.
At posttest, there was no statistically significant difference in daily servings of FV between the early intervention group participants compared to control group participants (4.7 vs, 4.4, P=0.38). Process evaluation suggested that added resources such as technical assistance could improve program implementation.
Conclusions and Implications
The disseminated program may not produce improvements in FV intake equal to those in the earlier efficacy and effectiveness trials, primarily due to lack of program implementation. Program dissemination may not achieve public health impact unless support systems are strengthened for adequate implementation at the church level.
PMCID: PMC3374882  PMID: 22406012
diet; health behavior; health promotion; program evaluation; African Americans
10.  Windows to the soul: vision science as a tool for studying biological mechanisms of information processing deficits in schizophrenia 
Cognitive and information processing deficits are core features and important sources of disability in schizophrenia. Our understanding of the neural substrates of these deficits remains incomplete, in large part because the complexity of impairments in schizophrenia makes the identification of specific deficits very challenging. Vision science presents unique opportunities in this regard: many years of basic research have led to detailed characterization of relationships between structure and function in the early visual system and have produced sophisticated methods to quantify visual perception and characterize its neural substrates. We present a selective review of research that illustrates the opportunities for discovery provided by visual studies in schizophrenia. We highlight work that has been particularly effective in applying vision science methods to identify specific neural abnormalities underlying information processing deficits in schizophrenia. In addition, we describe studies that have utilized psychophysical experimental designs that mitigate generalized deficit confounds, thereby revealing specific visual impairments in schizophrenia. These studies contribute to accumulating evidence that early visual cortex is a useful experimental system for the study of local cortical circuit abnormalities in schizophrenia. The high degree of similarity across neocortical areas of neuronal subtypes and their patterns of connectivity suggests that insights obtained from the study of early visual cortex may be applicable to other brain regions. We conclude with a discussion of future studies that combine vision science and neuroimaging methods. These studies have the potential to address pressing questions in schizophrenia, including the dissociation of local circuit deficits vs. impairments in feedback modulation by cognitive processes such as spatial attention and working memory, and the relative contributions of glutamatergic and GABAergic deficits.
PMCID: PMC3813897  PMID: 24198792
schizophrenia; visual system; fMRI; psychophysics; magnetic resonance spectroscopy
11.  Relationship of Urine Dopamine with Phosphorus Homeostasis in Humans: The Heart and Soul Study 
American journal of nephrology  2012;35(6):10.1159/000338483.
Urine dopamine (DA) is produced in the proximal tubule and has been found to increase in response to dietary phosphorus intake, and to contribute to greater urinary phosphorus excretion in animal models. Whether urine DA is associated with phosphorus homeostasis in humans is uncertain.
This was a cross-sectional study of 884 outpatients. DA was measured from 24-hour urine collections. We examined cross-sectional associations between urine DA and serum phosphorus, 24-hour urine phosphorus (as an indicator of dietary phosphorus absorption), fractional excretion of phosphorus (FEphos), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, eGFR, albuminuria, hypertension, heart failure, tobacco use, body mass index, and diuretic use.
Mean age was 66.6 ± 11 years and mean eGFR was 71 ± 21.3 ml/min/1.73 m2. The mean urine DA was 193 ± 86 µg/day, mean serum phosphorus was 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/dl, mean daily urine phosphorus excretion was 671 ± 312 mg/day, and mean FEphos was 17 ± 9%. In adjusted models, each standard deviation higher DA was associated with 78.4 mg/day higher urine phosphorus and 0.9% lower FEphos (p < 0.05 for both). There was no statistically significant association between urine DA, serum phosphorus, FGF-23 or PTH in adjusted models.
Higher dietary phosphorus absorption is associated with higher urine DA in humans, consistent with animal models. However, higher urine DA is not associated with FGF-23 or PTH, suggesting that known mechanisms of renal tubular handling of phosphorus may not be involved in the renal dopamine-phosphorus regulatory pathway in humans.
PMCID: PMC3873852  PMID: 22572568
Urine dopamine; Phosphorus; Kidney; Proximal tubule
12.  Depression and Inflammation in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: Findings from the Heart and Soul Study 
Biological psychiatry  2007;62(4):314-320.
Depression and inflammation independently predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Depression has been associated with elevated levels of inflammation in otherwise healthy patients without known CHD. However, studies investigating the link between depression and inflammation in patients with established CHD have produced inconclusive results.
We sought to examine the association of major depression with inflammation in 984 outpatients with established CHD from the Heart and Soul Study. We assessed current major depression with the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule and collected venous blood samples for measurement of five inflammatory biomarkers (white blood cell count, CD40 ligand, C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, and interleukin-6 [IL-6]). We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine the association of current depression with inflammatory markers, adjusted for potential confounding variables.
Of the 984 participants, 217 (22%) had current major depression. Depression was not associated with increased levels of any inflammatory marker. Contrary to our hypothesis, depression was associated with lower levels of CRP (p = .09), fibrinogen (p = .006), and IL-6 (p = .007) in both unadjusted and adjusted models.
We found no evidence that current depression is associated with greater inflammation in outpatients with CHD. Inflammation is unlikely to explain the adverse cardiovascular outcomes associated with depression in patients with established CHD.
PMCID: PMC2771569  PMID: 17434456
Epidemiology; heart disease; inflammation; major depressive disorder
13.  Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe 
Annals of Botany  2013;112(5):867-879.
Background and Aims
The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy.
The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today.
PMCID: PMC3747804  PMID: 23904443
Art history; Citrullus lanatus; Cucurbitaceae; cucurbit crops; crop diversity; crop history; domestication; plant iconography; watermelon
14.  The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis 
Annals of Botany  2009;103(8):1187-1205.
Background and Aims
Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae.
We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts.
Key Results and Conclusions
Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the six surviving archetypic manuscripts.
PMCID: PMC2685323  PMID: 19318382
Citrullus lanatus; Cucumis melo; Cucumis sativus; Lagenaria siceraria; Solanum melongena; Mandragora sp.; medieval horticulture; history of horticulture
15.  The Soul’s Wisdom: Stories of Living and Dying 
Current Oncology  2008;15(Suppl 2):s107.es48-s107.es52.
Cancer can lead to spiritual transformation, which can be seen as a form of alchemy. During this process, patients, family members, and even professional caregivers can find themselves having spiritual experiences that go beyond any they had previously encountered. This paper provides qualitative descriptions of the “Field” or “Soul Wisdom” experienced by patients and caregivers.
PMCID: PMC2528551  PMID: 18769614
16.  John Dee and the alchemists: Practising and promoting English alchemy in the Holy Roman Empire 
This paper investigates John Dee’s relationship with two kinds of alchemist: the authorities whose works he read, and the contemporary practitioners with whom he exchanged texts and ideas. Both strands coincide in the reception of works attributed to the famous English alchemist, George Ripley (d. c. 1490). Dee’s keen interest in Ripley appears from the number of transcriptions he made of ‘Ripleian’ writings, including the Bosome book, a manuscript discovered in 1574 and believed to have been written in Ripley’s own hand. In 1583, Dee and his associate Edward Kelley left England for East Central Europe, taking with them a proportion of Dee’s vast library, including alchemical books—the contents of which would soon pique the interest of continental practitioners. Kelley used Ripley’s works, including the Bosome book, not only as sources of practical information, but as a means of furthering his own relationships with colleagues and patrons: transactions that in turn influenced Ripley’s posthumous continental reception. The resulting circulation of texts allows us to trace, with unusual precision, the spread of English alchemical ideas in the Holy Roman Empire from the late sixteenth century.
PMCID: PMC3778895
John Dee; Edward Kelley; George Ripley; Alchemy; Rudolf II; Prague; Manuscript circulation
17.  Cupriavidus metallidurans: A Modern Alchemist 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2013;53(1):114-115.
PMCID: PMC3587520  PMID: 24426088
18.  Alchemists’ Visions: Cultural Norms in Eliciting and Analyzing Life History Narratives 
Journal of aging studies  1990;4(1):17-29.
Comparative study within a group of systematically elicited life narratives revealed key variations in narrative sequencing and conceptual templates. These dimensions are associated with significant differences in subjective meaning, frames for interpreting experience, and personal adjustment. This paper describes the study methods and results, and proposes that life histories be studied in the context of other similarly collected narratives, instead of one at a time. It outlines limitations of current methods of eliciting, analyzing, and writing up texts which may systematically obscure important dimensions of subjectivity and of cultural norms.
PMCID: PMC4309271
19.  Alchemists and toxicants. 
PMCID: PMC1519067  PMID: 7768216
23.  Deferred and immediate imitation in regressive and early onset autism 
Deferred imitation has long held a privileged position in early cognitive development, considered an early marker of representational thought with links to language development and symbolic processes. Children with autism have difficulties with several abilities generally thought to be related to deferred imitation: immediate imitation, language, and symbolic play. However, few studies have examined deferred imitation in early autism. The present study examined both deferred, spontaneous imitation and immediate, elicited imitation on a set of carefully matched tasks in 36 young children with autism: 16 with early onset autism, 20 with regressive autism and two contrast groups, younger typically developing children (n = 20) and age matched children with significant developmental delays (n = 21). Analyses of co-variance controlling for differences in verbal mental age revealed significant main effects for task, but no main effect of group and no interaction of task by group. Deferred imitation scores were lower than immediate imitation scores for all groups. Imitation performance was related to overall intellectual functioning for all groups, and there were moderate and significant relations between imitation in the immediate elicited condition and in the spontaneous deferred condition for all groups. Finally, there were no differences between onset subgroups in imitation scores, suggesting that the two share a similar phenotype involving both types of imitation.
PMCID: PMC2940420  PMID: 18221343
Autistic disorder; development; developmental delay; mental retardation; pervasive developmental disorder; preschool children; imitation
24.  Creating connections to life during life-threatening illness: Creative activity experienced by elderly people and occupational therapists 
The aim of this study was to discover and characterize components of engagement in creative activity as occupational therapy for elderly people dealing with life-threatening illness, from the perspective of both clients and therapists. Despite a long tradition of use in clinical interventions, key questions remain little addressed concerning how and why people seek these activities and the kinds of benefits that may result.
Qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 clients and 7 therapists participating in creative workshops using crafts at a nursing home in Sweden. Analysis of the interviews was conducted using a constant comparative method.
Engaging in creative activity served as a medium that enabled creation of connections to wider culture and daily life that counters consequences of terminal illness, such as isolation. Creating connections to life was depicted as the core category, carried out in reference to three subcategories: (1) a generous receptive environment identified as the foundation for engaging in creative activity; (2) unfolding creations—an evolving process; (3) reaching beyond for possible meaning horizons.
The findings suggest that the domain of creative activity can enable the creation of connections to daily life and enlarge the experience of self as an active person, in the face of uncertain life-threatening illness. Ultimately, the features that participants specify can be used to refine and substantiate the use of creative activities in intervention and general healthcare.
PMCID: PMC4217508  PMID: 16389735
Creative activity; elderly; life-threatening illness; occupational therapists
25.  A Marble Embryo: Meanings of a Portrait from 1900 
History Workshop Journal  2012;73(1):5-36.
Portraits of scientists use attributes of discovery to construct identities; portraits that include esoteric accessories may fashion identities for these too. A striking example is a marble bust of the anatomist Wilhelm His by the Leipzig sculptor Carl Seffner. Made in 1900, it depicts the founder of modern human embryology looking down at a model embryo in his right hand. This essay reconstructs the design and viewing of this remarkable portrait in order to shed light on private and public relations between scientists, research objects and audiences. The bust came out of a collaboration to model the face of the composer Johann Sebastian Bach and embodies a shared commitment to anatomical exactitude in three dimensions. His’s research agendas and public character explain the contemplative pose and unprecedented embryo model, which he had laboriously constructed from material a midwife supplied. The early contexts of display in the His home and art exhibitions suggest interpretive resources for viewers and hence likely meanings. Seffner’s work remains exceptional, but has affinities to portraits of human embryologists and embryos produced since 1960. Embryo images have acquired such controversial prominence that the model may engage us more strongly now than it did exhibition visitors around 1900.
PMCID: PMC3415954  PMID: 22606754

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