In Rigveda Soma is an evergreen plant, with thousand stalks yellow hued bestowing auspicious energy. Resembling yellow fibres of hemp ephedra was rained in Chlnoso Ho-Ma, Yellow-hemp. It was Sanskritized as Soma. Being an energizer-cum-euphoriant its juice was consumed thrice daily. Finally it became a drug of longevity, rejuvenation and resurrection even god Soma. As drug it was substituted by Rasayana promisiig rejuvenation but also salvation. Soma with Water and Fire constitutes the proto-cosmology of Rigveda.
Specific features of Soma plant are implict from various references in Rigveda enabling its identity as ephedra. Its juice is an energizer – cum – euphoriant contrary to the intoxicant sura. Sura is beer prepared from barely malt. Soma is the juice of ephedra rich in ephedrine which is antisomnalent. At least one use of soma has never been substituted, as the drink of longevity for a newly born child.
A study was carried out to detect the changes in colour and quality attributes of aonla juice during storage after pasteurization at different temperatures. After extracting juice from aonla cv. Chakaiya, it was pasteurized at five different temperatures and preserved with 500 ppm SO2 in PET bottles under ambient conditions. Juice was periodically analysed for colour and chemical characters up to 9 months of storage. Though the contents of ascorbic acid and polyphenols in juice decreased with increase in storage period, the effect of pasteurization temperature was not significant. High degree of browning was observed in juice heated at higher temperatures (90 and 95 °C) as compared to lower temperatures (75 and 80 °C) throughout the storage period as indicated by increase in NEB values. The degree of browning was further confirmed by higher negative numerical values of whiteness index in Hunter’s scale for intensity of colour. HPLC data indicated that content of gallic acid in juice decreased initially but increased sharply as the storage period prolonged. Higher amount of gallic acid was detected after 9 months of storage in juice pasteurized at 95 °C than in juice heated at 75 °C. The contents of kaempferol and caffeic acid decreased throughout the storage period irrespective of pasteurization temperature. Though least browning was observed in juice pasteurized at 75 °C, but microbial growth was observed after 9 months of storage. Hence, pasteurization temperature of 80 °C was found optimum for preservation of aonla juice under ambient conditions.
Aonla juice; Pasteurization temperature; Storage; Browning; Polyphenols
Ephedra was a source of anti-fatigue drink. In later period it became a drink of immortality and longevity. The use of Soma as the first drink of a newly born child is mentioned in Rigveda. The author identifies the Soma of Rigveda with the Ephedra and established its use in ancient Rome and also highlights here its continuity among Zorostrains.
Reactive astrocytes are a pathological hallmark of many CNS injuries and neurodegenerations. They are characterized by hypertrophy of the soma and processes and an increase in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Because the cells obscure each other in immunostaining, little is known about the behavior of a single reactive astrocyte, nor how single astrocytes combine to form the glial scar. We have investigated the reaction of fibrous astrocytes to axonal degeneration using a transgenic mouse strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in small subsets of astrocytes. Fibrous astrocytes in the optic nerve and corpus callosum initially react to injury by hypertrophy of the soma and processes. They retract their primary processes, simplifying their shape and dramatically reducing their spatial coverage. At three days post-crush, quantitative analysis revealed nearly a two-fold increase in the thickness of the primary processes, a halving of the number of primary processes leaving the soma and an eight-fold reduction in the spatial coverage. In the subsequent week, they partially re-extend long processes, returning to a near normal morphology and an extensive spatial overlap. The resulting glial scar consists of an irregular array of astrocyte processes, contrasting with their original orderly arrangement. These changes are in distinct contrast to those reported for reactive protoplasmic astrocytes of the grey matter, in which the number of processes and branchings increase, but the cells continue to maintain non-overlapping individual territories throughout their response to injury.
glial lamina; optic nerve; white matter astrocytes; reactive astrocytes; optic nerve crush; glaucoma
To study sequential changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) morphology in mice after optic nerve crush and after induction of experimental glaucoma.
Nerve crush or experimental glaucoma was induced in mice that selectively express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in RGCs. Mice were euthanized 1, 4, and 9 days after crush and 1, 3, and 6 weeks after induction of glaucoma by bead injection. All YFP-RGCs were identified in retinal whole mounts. Then confocal images of randomly selected RGCs were quantified for somal fluorescence brightness, soma size, neurite outgrowth, and dendritic complexity (Sholl analysis).
By 9 days after crush, 98% of RGC axons died and YFP-RGCs decreased by 64%. After 6 weeks of glaucoma, 31% of axons died, but there was no loss of YFP-RGC bodies. All crush retinas combined had significant decreases in neurite outgrowth parameters (P ≤ 0.036, generalized estimating equation [GEE] model) and dendritic complexity was lower than controls (P = 0.017, GEE model). There was no change in RGC soma area after crush. In combined glaucoma data, the RGC soma area was larger than control (P = 0.04, GEE model). At 3 weeks, glaucoma RGCs had significantly larger values for dendritic structure and complexity than controls (P = 0.044, GEE model), but no statistical difference was found at 6 weeks.
After nerve crush, RGCs and axons died rapidly, and dendritic structure decreased moderately in remaining RGCs. Glaucoma caused an increase in RGC dendrite structure and soma size at 3 weeks.
Retinal ganglion cell morphology after optic nerve crush and experimental glaucoma.
Siddha is a traditional medical system of India. According to siddha system of medicine, chendooram is a red colour powder generally made of metallic compounds. Mercury is used in the form of rasa chendooram (red oxide of mercury). This paper deals with the standardization of Kantha chendooram. It is a Siddha preparation of 8 ingredients, viz. 1. Purified Lode Stone, 2. Purified Sulphur, 3. Lead wort root powder, 4. Eclipta juice, 5. Lime juice, 6. Milk, 7. Egg albumin, 8. Madar Latex. In this study an attempt was made to standardize Kantha chendooram which has not been attempted by researchers earlier. Standardization of Kantha chendooram was in terms of its organoleptic characters, qualitative identification of phytochemical constituents, metallic quantification and in terms of pharmacognostical standardization.
Ṛgveda is the oldest religious book of the Aryans. It picturises the early lives of the Aryans. We get mention of various diseases in this Veda. Skin - both in health and diseases had caught attention of the Vedic sages. Skin was not merely an organ of attraction and look but its colour was important socially. Mentions of various diseases like leprosy, guinea worm, jaundice etc., are interesting. Mention of different disorders of the nails and hair are also there, though in a very primitive and mystic form. Management strategy was consisted of herbs, amulates, chanting of mantras, touching the body, uses of water and sunrays etc. This may be presumed that this Veda founded the base for the Āyurveda of the later period.
Veda; Ṛgveda Saṃhiṭa; skin diseases
A new polymeric composite based on natural rubber reinforced with hemp has been processed by electron beam irradiation and characterized by several methods. The mechanical characteristics: gel fraction, crosslink density, water uptake, swelling parameters, and FTIR of natural rubber/hemp fiber composites have been investigated as a function of the hemp content and absorbed dose. Physical and mechanical properties present a significant improvement as a result of adding hemp fibres in blends. Our experiments showed that the hemp fibers have a reinforcing effect on natural rubber similar to mineral fillers (chalk, carbon black, silica). The crosslinking rates of samples, measured using the Flory-Rehner equation, increase as a result of the amount of hemp in blends and the electron beam irradiation dose increasing. The swelling parameters of samples significantly depend on the amount of hemp in blends, because the latter have hydrophilic characteristics.
A small scale motorized orange juice extractor was designed and fabricated, using locally-available construction materials. The essential components of the machine include feeding hopper, top cover, worm shaft, juice sieve, juice collector, waste outlet, transmission belt, main frame, pulleys and bearings. In operation, the worm shaft conveys, crushes, presses and squeezes the fruit to extract the juice. The juice extracted is filtered through the juice sieve into juice collector while the residual waste is discharged through waste outlet. Result showed that the average juice yield and juice extraction efficiency were 41.6 and 57.4%, respectively. Powered by a 2 hp electric motor, the machine has a capacity of 14 kg/h. With a machine cost of about $100, it is affordable for small-scale citrus farmers in the rural communities.
Orange fruits; Citrus sinensis; Juice extractor; Design; Construction; Testing; Juice yield; Extraction efficiency; Machine cost
One of the most spectacular evolutionary forces is predation, evidenced to stimulate polymorphism in many prey species. Shell colour polymorphism of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis is a well-known model in evolutionary research. Nevertheless, the knowledge on the ecological causes driving its evolution remains incomplete and proximal factors shaping predatory pressure on C. nemoralis morphs are unknown. We evaluated shell crushing resistance and thickness, constituting crucial snail anti-predator defences in two shell areas (the apex and labium) of eight C. nemoralis morphotypes differing in shell colour and banding pattern. A GLM showed a significant effect of shell colour, banding pattern and shell thickness on shell strength. Pink shells were stronger than yellow ones, and banded forms had stronger shells than unbanded snails. The labium (usually attacked by mice) was generally thicker and more resistant than the apex (usually crushed by birds). Thicker shells were more resistant to crushing, and the rate of shell strength increase per unit of shell thickness was greater in pink and banded individuals compared to yellow and unbanded ones. Yellow and unbanded morphs have been found to be preferred by mice in the previous studies, which suggests that shell strength may be an important trait used in prey selection by these shell-crushing predators. The differences in potential anti-predator defences among snail morphs, found in the present study, justify future research on direct effect of C. nemoralis morphs shell strength on predator selectivity.
Polymorphism; Shell crushing resistance; Labium; Banding type
The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy) has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation.
The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG) and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC) for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight). Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy.
Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice.
These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at −40°C and stored at −20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at −20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality.
Dates; Date juice; Juice concentrate; Enzyme clarification; Date beverage
Single-species populations of ciliates (Colpidium and Paramecium) experienced constant temperature or white or reddened temperature fluctuations in aquatic microcosms in order to test three hypotheses about how environmental colour influences population dynamics. (i) Models predict that the colour of population dynamics is tinged by the colour of the environmental variability. However, environmental colour had no effect on the colour of population dynamics. All population dynamics in this experiment were reddened, regardless of environmental colour. (ii) Models predict that populations will track reddened environmental variability more closely than white environmental variability and that populations with a higher intrinsic growth rate (r) will track environmental variability more closely than populations with a low r. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. (iii) Models predict that population variability is determined by interaction between r and the environmental variability. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. These results show that (i) reddened population dynamics may need no special explanation, such as reddened environments, spatial subdivision or interspecific interactions, and (ii) and (iii) that population dynamics are sensitive to environmental colour, in agreement with population models. Correct specification of the colour of the environmental variability in models is required for accurate predictions. Further work is needed to study the effects of environmental colour on communities and ecosystems.
Previous studies have shown increased secretion of total calcium in the duodenal juice of patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis compared with healthy subjects. In order to get more detailed information on calcium secretion and pancreatic stone formation in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, ionised and total calcium concentrations were determined in the duodenal juice of normal subjects, chronic alcoholics, and patients with various stages of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Total calcium secretion was in agreement with previously published data. Chronic alcoholics presented a significant increase of ionised calcium. In the course of pancreatitis all calcium fractions increased progressively revealing highest concentrations in patients with severe exocrine insufficiency. In non-calcified and calcified pancreatitis all calcium fractions were identical. It is suggested that the increase of ionised calcium originates from serum ionised calcium passing by diffusion into the damaged pancreatic duct system.
Leaf of Adhatoda vasica (Vasaka) is an important drug of Ayurveda, prescribed as an expectorant. Quinazoline alkaloids present in the leaves are established as active principles. In Ayurveda, its leaf juice (Vasa swarasa) is incorporated in many formulations. Classical method for extracting the juice (swarasa) from the leaf is an elaborate process, which involves subjecting a bolus of crushed fresh leaf to heat followed by squeezing out the juice. Commercially, to prepare the juice of Vasaka, manufacturers have been adopting different methods other than the traditional method. In an effort to evaluate these modified processes phytochemically to identify the process which gives juice of the quality that is obtained by traditional method, in terms of its alkaloid content, we prepared the leaf juice by traditional Ayurvedic method, its modification by steaming of leaf to simulate the traditional method and other methods adopted by some manufacturers. These juice samples were evaluated for the total alkaloid content by spectrophotometric method and vasicine content by thin layer chromatography densitometric method using high performance thin layer chromatography. The high performance thin layer chromatography method was validated for precision, repeatability and accuracy. The total alkaloid content varied from 0.3 mg/ml to 5.93 mg/ml and that of vasicine content varied from 0.2 mg/ml to 5.64 mg/ml in the juice samples prepared by different methods. The present study revealed that steaming of fresh leaves under 15 lb pressure yielded same quantity of juice as the traditional bolus method (25 ml/100 g leaf) and its total alkaloid content and vasicine content (4.05±0.12 and 3.46±0.06 mg/ml, respectively) were very high when compared to the other methods, though the traditional method was found to give the best quality juice with highest amount of total alkaloids (5.93±0.55 mg/ml) and vasicine (5.64±0.10 mg/ml) content.
Vasaka juice; total alkaloids; vasicine
A 66-year-old man suffered the symptoms of severe lead poisoning for 2 years before diagnosis. The man had a blood lead level (PbB) on admission to hospital of 98 microg/dL. A detailed investigation revealed that the poisoning occurred as a result of drinking a homemade red wine, for which analyses showed a lead concentration up to 14 mg/L--70 times the Australian maximum limit for lead in wine. The source of the lead was a highly corroded enamel bathtub in which grape crushings and juice were stored for a week prior to bottling. The corrosion of the enamel surface of the bathtub had resulted in pitted patches up to 1 mm in depth along the side of the bathtub. Powdering of the tub surface was evident below a level where wine had been in contact with the sides of the tub. The homemade wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and containing < 0.2 mg/L lead was placed in this tub for 7 days. Subsequent testing revealed a lead level of 310 mg/L. This high lead concentration is consistent with the surface area of enamel on the bathtub being in contact with a small liquid volume as in the case of the leaching test using commercial red wine. This case study highlights the importance of the use of food-grade materials for the preparation and storage of homemade beverages or food.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the discolouration effects of artificial saliva, granule lemon juice, coffee (without sugar), coca cola, sour cherry juice, fresh carrot juice and red wine on resin-based composite materials that are commonly used in restorative dentistry.
Colour of four brands of resin composites (Filtek Z 250 (3M Espe), Filtek Supreme (3M Espe), Quadrant (Cavex), Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer)) of A2 shade was measured after one day of immersion in eight different solutions. Colour measurements were obtained by using a XL-20 Trismus Colourimeter and colour differences (ΔE) were estimated. For statistical evaluation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Dunnett and Tukey tests were used at a significance level of 0.05.
For the four restorative materials tested, the lowest ΔE values were observed in the artificial saliva, while ΔE values were the highest in red wine group. When comparing the four different restorative materials, Filtek Supreme exhibited the least colour changes whereas Filtek Z250 was the least colour-stable.
Dental resin composites and drinking solutions were significant factors that may affect the colour stability. After immersion for one day, all materials showed visible colour changes. The red wine solution exhibited more staining than others in three groups. Filtek Supreme showed significantly the least colour change due to its nano particle sizes.
Colour; Composite; Drink
An in vivo study in rats demonstrated a cranberry juice product to inhibit the intestinal first-pass metabolism of the CYP3A substrate nifedipine. However, a clinical study involving the CYP3A probe substrate, midazolam, and a different cranberry juice product demonstrated no interaction. Since the composition of bioactive components in natural products can vary substantially, a systematic in vitro-in vivo approach was taken to identify a cranberry juice capable of inhibiting enteric CYP3A in humans. First, the effects of five cranberry juices, coded A-E, were evaluated on midazolam 1'-hydroxylation activity in human intestinal microsomes. Juice E was the most potent, ablating activity at 0.5% juice (v/v) relative to control. Second, juice E was fractionated to generate hexane-, chloroform-, butanol-, and aqueous-soluble fractions. The hexane- and chloroform-soluble fractions at 50 μg/ml were the most potent, inhibiting by 77% and 63%, respectively, suggesting that the CYP3A inhibitors reside largely in these more lipophilic fractions. Finally, juice E was evaluated on the oral pharmacokinetics of midazolam in 16 healthy volunteers. Relative to water, juice E significantly increased the geometric mean AUC0-∞ of midazolam by ∼30% (p=0.001), decreased the geometric mean 1'-hydroxymidazolam-to-midazolam AUC0-∞ ratio by ∼40% (p<0.001), and had no effect on geometric mean terminal half-life, indicating inhibition of enteric, but not hepatic, CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism of midazolam. This approach both demonstrated a potential drug interaction liability with cranberry juice and substantiated that rigorous in vitro characterization of dietary substances is required prior to initiation of clinical drug-diet interaction studies.
Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (called soft drinks) and juices, which have a high glycemic load relative to other foods and beverages, have been hypothesized as pancreatic cancer risk factors. However, data thus far are scarce, especially from non-European descent populations. We investigated whether higher consumption of soft drinks and juice increases the risk of pancreatic cancer in Chinese men and women.
A prospective cohort analysis was done to examine the association between soft drink and juice consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer in 60,524 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study with up to 14 years of follow-up. Information on consumption of soft drinks, juice, and other dietary items, as well as lifestyle and environmental exposures, was collected through in-person interviews at recruitment. Pancreatic cancer cases and deaths were ascertained by record linkage of the cohort database with records of population-based Singapore Cancer Registry and the Singapore Registry of Births and Deaths.
The first 14 years for the cohort resulted in cumulative 648,387 person-years and 140 incident pancreatic cancer cases. Individuals consuming ≥2 soft drinks/wk experienced a statistically significant increased risk of pancreatic cancer (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–3.15) compared with individuals who did not consume soft drinks after adjustment for potential confounders. There was no statistically significant association between juice consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer.
Regular consumption of soft drinks may play an independent role in the development of pancreatic cancer.
Background and Aim: Recently, considerable attention has been given to beverage intake as a source of calories which may be linked to pediatric obesity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the beverage intake in school children and adolescents aged 7 to 15 years old.
Methods: Six hundred and seven (607) out of 655 children participated in the study. One hundred percent fruit juice were classified those beverages that contain 100% fruit juice, without sweetener. Sweetened sugar beverages (SSBs) were included (fruit drinks sweetened fruit juice, fruit-flavored drink or drink that contained fruit juice in part, sweeten soft drinks, coffee, and tea).
Results: Around 84% of subjects consumed water while 81% of children who were included in the analysis consumed milk, 49.5% consumed 100% fruit juice, and 79.4 % SSBs. Whole milk was consumed by 40.9% of school children. Skim milk and 1% milk were consumed by 3.6% and 4.7% of the children, respectively. Children and adolescents consuming SSBs were 2.57 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.38) times more likely to become obese compared to normal peers.
Conclusion: Sugar beverage drinks but not 100% fruit juices and milk are associated with obesity. Further studies investigating the relationship among beverage consumption, total energy intake, and development of overweight are needed.
Sugar beverage intake; obesity; children; Greece
We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice.
Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation.
This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086
Propagation of a species requires periodic cell renewal to avoid clonal extinction. Sexual reproduction and the separation of germ cells from the soma provide a mechanism for such renewal, but are accompanied by an apparently mandatory ageing of the soma. Data obtained during the last decade suggest that a division of labour exists also between cells of vegetatively reproducing unicellular organisms, leading to the establishment of a soma-like and germ-like lineage with distinct fitness and longevity characteristics. This division of labour in both bacteria and yeast entails segregation of damaged and aggregated proteins such that the germ-like lineage is kept free of damage to the detriment of the soma-like lineage. In yeast, this spatial protein quality control (SQC) encompasses a CCT-chaperonin-dependent translocation and merging of cytotoxic protein aggregates. This process is regulated by Sir2, a protein deacetylase that modulates the rate of ageing in organisms ranging from yeast to worms and flies. Recent data also demonstrate that SQC is intimately integrated with the machinery establishing proper cell polarity and that this machinery is required for generating a soma-like and germ-like lineage in yeast. Deciphering the details of the SQC network may increase our understanding of the development of age-related protein folding disorders and shed light on the selective forces that paved the way for polarity and lineage-specific ageing to evolve.
replicative ageing; rejuvenation; spatial protein quality control; Sir2; polarity
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tomato juice drinking on the antimutagenicity of saliva.
Subjects were 22 healthy male university students. They were divided into tomato group and control group. The tomato group drank tomato juice for 10 days. The anti-mutagenicity of saliva was measured using the umu test.
In the tomato group, there was a significant increase in the inhibiting capacity of saliva on the mutagenicity of AF-2 after tomato juice drinking for 10 days. This increase was, however, temporary. In the control group, there was no such change in the inhibiting capacity of saliva.
These findings suggest the significant effect of tomato juice drinking on the anti-mutagenicity of saliva. In addition, lycopene may have played an important role in its mechanism.
anti-mutagenicity; human saliva; umu test; tomato juice drinking; lycopene
Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.
Fruit juice; Micro-Raman Spectroscopy; Pectin; Pectinase; Apple; Apricot