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1.  PA02.06. Tracking the transitions in Guggulu Kalpana : An extensive review through Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S51.
Purpose:
Guggulu Kalpana enjoys a coveted position in the arena of Ayurvedic therapeutics. Guggulu Kalpana is widely used in Charak Samhita & Sushruta Samhita and its notable collection is described in Ashtanga Sangraha. Out of laghu trayi, Sharangadhara Samhita has described Guggulu kalpas at length. Though its present form is closely related to Guti Vati Kalpana, it has not been the case always. Present study was attempted to track these transitions in Guggulu Kalpana during period of Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi and propose the importance of this journey in the view of current Ayurvedic pharmaceutics and therapeutics.
Method:
A comprehensive review of Brihat Trayi and Laghu Trayi was done. Opinions of their critics as well as contemporaries were also taken into consideration. These views were collated on the basis of current trends and researches in Guggulu Kalpana.
Result:
Amongst other categories, main usage of Guggulu Kalpana was seen in form of Kwatha and Guti Vati Kalpana. Though used in great deal, Brihat Trayi doesn’t describe Guggulu in every respect. Different point of view regarding preparation of Guggulu Kalpana was observed in all these treatises. Various functional limitations and constant improvisations seemed to have shaped the Guggulu Kalpana in its today's form.
Conclusion:
Current status of Ayurvedic pharmaceutics in general and Guggulu Kalpana in particular, is greatly influenced by Sharangadhara Samhita. It mainly shows use of Guggulu in GutiVati form. The Brihat Trayi treatises, however display its use in Conjunction of Kwatha Kalpana chiefly. This paradigm shift in the pharmaceutics of Guggulu Kalpana highlights the buoyant and pliant nature of Ayurveda. The difference in choice of kalpana is explained on the basis of soluble alkaloid content and insoluble resinous gum content of Guggulu. Thus, this study is helpful to understand the progression of Ayurvedic therapeutics and prospective avenues for its advancement.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123867
PMCID: PMC4147523
2.  A contemporary approach on design, development, and evaluation of Ayurvedic formulation - Triphala Guggulu 
Ayu  2015;36(3):318-322.
Introduction:
Ayurvedic texts describe many formulations for different ailments. Triphala Guggulu (TG) is reputed for treating inflammatory conditions. These formulations have been considered complementary medicine or alternative to conventional medicines across the globe. These complex polyherbal formulations need science-based approach toward manufacturing process and chemical standardization.
Aim:
To evaluate TG tablets to meet modern pharmaceutical approaches and also standardization processes.
Materials and Methods:
Shodhana of Guggulu was performed using Triphala Kwatha (decoction) as mentioned in ayurvedic texts. This processed material was dried using spray drying technique, blended with other herbal powders as per formula and using suitable excipients was incorporated for compressing into tablets. Excipients and their concentrations were evaluated for various micromeritic properties and the formula that met the requirements was compressed.
Results:
The angle of repose was considered fair with a range of 25–30, Carr's index at a range between 17 and 30, and Hausner ratio of 1.21:1.44, which was well within the limits as per the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and among the three blends tested, blend Triphala Guggulu formulation-3 was found most suitable for tablets compression. Physical properties were well within the limits as per the USP and disintegration time was within 30 min.
Conclusion:
Modern pharmaceutical processing can very well be adapted for Guggulu preparations.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.182748
PMCID: PMC4895760  PMID: 27313420
Ayurvedic formulation; micromeritic properties; process controls; Triphala Guggulu
3.  Anti-arthritic activity of a classical Ayurvedic formulation Vatari Guggulu in rats 
In India, Vatari Guggulu has been traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The current study was undertaken to evaluate anti-arthritic activity of alcoholic extract of Vatari Guggulu in rats. Arthritis was induced by administration of formaldehyde (2%v/v) or Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the sub-plantar surface of left hind paw of the animals. The extract was administered to the rats by oral gavages in different doses. Joint swelling was measured in formaldehyde induced arthritis. Various physical, biochemical and histopathological parameters were determined in CFA induced arthritis. Vatari Guggulu extract (VGE) produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of joint swelling in both formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis. The treatment also brought to normalcy the increased white blood cell (WBC) count, rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with an enhancement of haemoglobin (Hb) levels and red blood cell (RBC) count. These effects were found to be dose dependent. These effects were comparable with standard drug indomethacin. Histo-pathological studies of the ankles of VGE treated animals exhibited significant improvements. VGE did not show any toxic symptoms even at a dose of 2000 mg/kg in acute toxicity studies on rats. Thus, Vatari Guggulu, a classical Ayurvedic formulation of the Indian System of Medicine, exhibited significant anti-arthritic activity in formaldehyde and CFA induced arthritis in rats. This study corroborates the claims of Ayurveda on Vatari Guggulu.
Graphical abstract
doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.08.007
PMCID: PMC5067862  PMID: 27774424
Vatari Guggulu; Formaldehyde; Adjuvant induced arthritis; ESR; Haemoglobin; Cholesterol
4.  THE FATE OF THE GIANT CELLS IN HEALING TUBERCULOUS TISSUE, AS OBSERVED IN A CASE OF HEALING TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS 
From the foregoing description of the histological changes in the leptomeninx it is quite evident that we are dealing with a chronic, stationary, healing form of tuberculous inflammation. This statement is substantiated, in the first place, by the clinical history. The only reasonable interpretation of the symptoms would establish the duration of the process as four months. The imaginable contingency that there existed first a meningeal syphilitic lesion that was dispersed by the iodide of potassium only to be followed by a tuberculous infection is so remote and unlikely that it need not be discussed. At all events the tuberculous leptomeningitis, which presented a typical distribution, began insidiously, existed at times in a latent condition, and pursued a very anomalous course, marked by a relative mildness of all the symptoms, and thus it came about that when an apparent or real improvement followed the administration of iodide of potassium able observers were induced to make an erroneous diagnosis. Death occurred as a result of an intercurrent infection. The long duration of the process is also shown, anatomically, by the thick layer of firm, translucent and gelatinous material that matted together the structures at the base, and also by the evident adhesions between the pia and the brain. The histological examination furnishes proof positive of the correctness of the conclusion in regard to the peculiar character of this process because it shows: (1) That the tuberculous proliferation is uniform in development and has reached nearly the same stage of evolution throughout the entire extent of the leptomeninx involved; it is not a process that has advanced by exacerbations and irregular extensions; the lesions are, generally speaking, of nearly the same age everywhere and must have begun at about the same time. (2) That only a very limited degree of caseous degeneration is present, pointing to an early arrest of the activity of the tubercle bacillus or to a very decided diminution or attenuation of its virulence. (3) That the subendothelial intimal proliferations of epithelioid cells, so generally found in acute tuberculous leptomeningitis,* have in this case become more or less completely changed into distinct fibrous tissue in which but very slight, if any, direct evidence of its tuberculous origin can be found. It is only by recognizing that the chronic endarteritis is most marked in correspondence with the most advanced adventitial tuberculous changes, and by finding an imperfect, much altered giant cell in one district of intimal thickening, that we were able to establish the direct kinship of the endovascular changes with those of the pia in general. (4) That acute inflammatory changes, in the form of emigration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and of fibrinous exudation, are entirely absent in all parts of the district involved. The presence of a turbid serous fluid is of course not at all inconsistent with the view that the anatomical changes are of long duration. (5) That the granulation tissue present is, in general, undergoing fibrillation and contains a rich supply of enabryonal capillary vessels as well as of larger blood-vessels of evidently new formation. The absence of any considerable extent of polymorphonuclear leucocytic infiltration in this tissue has already been referred to. The cells in the granulation tissue correspond to the cells of embryonal or formative connective tissue. Vacuolation is rarely present. (6) That the unusually large number of giant cells present are remarkably free from evidences of necrosis and degeneration of the character ordinarily observed in tuberculous proliferations, that they do not contain in demonstrable form tubercle bacilli, and that the majority of the giant cells seem to be separating into individual cells and smaller masses often with, but sometimes also without, evidences of nuclear disintegration. The possibility that these phenomena may signify fusion instead of the sundering of cells will be discussed below. For these reasons there can be no doubt that the general claim that we are dealing with an instance of chronic, healing tuberculous meningitis must be regarded as established beyond dispute. The growth of tubercle bacilli in the glycerine-agar tubes, inoculated with the fluid from the pial meshes, and the demonstration of tubercle bacilli, though in very small numbers, between the cells of the embryonal tissue, furnish the positive evidence that we are actually dealing with a tuberculous process due to living and not to dead bacilli. The degree of virulence of the cultures of tubercle bacilli was, unfortunately perhaps, not studied. The presence of living tubercle bacilli in a tissue free from active and acute changes characteristic of tuberculosis demonstrates that, whatever the actual degree of virulence of the bacilli may have been, the tissue in which they were found was at this time relatively immune from their action. The manner in which this immunity was produced, and in which the process of healing was initiated, need not be discussed at this time any further than to again direct attention to the fact that the bacilli lost their virulency as regards the cells in this leptomeninx before these cells underwent any marked degree of degeneration. The cells of the tuberculous proliferations survived the further action of the bacilli whose original effect it was to initiate cell accumulation or proliferation; the cells also retained sufficient vitality to develop, in some instances at any rate, into formative cells according as their origin would dictate, e. g. into fibroblasts. That fibroblasts are formed only by embryonal connective tissue cells, and not by wandering cells, such as the large mononuclear leucocytes, we are well aware, is possibly still a disputable assumption, and we do not consider it pertinent to discuss the question any further in connection with this study, but would only emphasize the point that some of the cells of tuberculous proliferations may, under favorable circumstances, become formative cells, and, furthermore, that the amount of formative tissue produced may be far in excess of what is actually needed for purposes of repair only. Surely the appearances here noted indicate that the bacillus of tuberculosis has the power to stimulate fixed cells to multiply, unless one assumes that all, or almost all, the formative cells here seen are derived from wandering cells attracted by the presence of the bacillus and its products. As to the ultimate fate of the formative and other cells in this healing tuberculous tissue no final statements can be made. It must be remembered that it is only one stage in the process of healing that is dealt with. The well marked evidences of fibrillation, the quite extensive formation of new vessels, the absence of evidences of degenerative changes in the uninuclear cells, all point to the production of new fibrous tissue as sure to occur, but it seems quite probable that occasional epithelioid cells may undergo or have undergone dropsical or other forms of degeneration, although it is certainly apparent that so far as the small cells are concerned the involution of the tuberculous tissue is not occurring through disintegration. Perhaps the most interesting feature in this case is the opportunity it affords to study the changes in the giant cells of healing, non-degenerated tuberculous tissue. In the first place, the large number of giant cells is quite remarkable. The general characters of the tissue in which they are found recall the fact that giant cells are regarded as quite constant elements in chronic mild tuberculosis; often the giant cells are the only cells that contain bacilli (Koch). In this instance the giant cells do not contain bacilli that are demonstrable by the usual methods; neither do they contain bodies that can be definitely interpreted as degenerate forms of bacilli such as those found by Metchnikoff, Stchastny, Weicker, and others, in the giant cells of Spermophilus guttatus, in avian and in human tuberculosis. Metchnikoff states, however, that he knows of the occurrence of such degenerate forms only in the Spermophilus guttatus under the circumstances mentioned, and in the rabbit and guinea-pig in mammalian tuberculosis, but not in man; consequently, the manner in which the giant cells rid themselves of the bacilli undoubtedly present in their interior at some time during their existence, must as yet remain without any explanation. In the description of the histological changes the various appearances presented by the giant cells are described somewhat minutely. The essential observations made concern, in my opinion, the further fate of giant cells which are still found to persist in healing nondegenerated tuberculous tissue. It was, I believe, quite conclusively shown that the consecutive changes appear to consist in the breaking up of the nuclei, the removal of the detritus by phagocytes, and the formation of a few apparently viable uninuclear cells in the case of more degenerated, exhausted giant cells, while other, and, as it would seem, better preserved or younger giant cells, separate into a number of individual, uninuclear cells with but little or no nuclear disintegration. Objection might be raised to this interpretation of the appearances in the giant cells. While no one could very well dispute the view that part of the giant cells are undergoing retrogressive and absorptive changes with the production of some viable cells, a question might well be raised concerning the nature of the process taking place in those giant cells that have been spoken of as splitting up or dividing into uninuclear cells and smaller multinucleated masses without much evidence of nuclear disintegration. It might be claimed that the process is one of fusion of many cells to form giant cells, and not one of division of fully formed giant cells into small cells. But a broad view of the processes described speaks against fusion. In the first place we are not dealing with a stage of tuberculous proliferation (Baumgarten), or cell accumulation (Metchnikoff), in which one would look for the production of giant cells, no matter which view concerning the histogenesis of tubercle be assumed as the correct one, because it has been demonstrated that, from whichever point of view the lesions are examined, the same positive conclusion that they are in the process of healing is reached; there is, therefore, no occasion for the formation of new giant cells in such wide-spread degree throughout the district involved. It might he claimed that the cells became arrested and, as it were, fixed in the act of fusion which was taking place in the early stage of the meningitis, but it would be difficult to understand the nature of the stimulus that could hold the cells together in such a peculiar manner for such a long time. It must be remembered that bacilli or bacillary detritus could not be found among the incomplete or in the complete giant cells. In the second place the difference between the cells that are undergoing disintegration and those regarded as dividing is essentially, to a certain extent at any rate, one of degree, because in the first instance there is not much, if any, doubt but that viable smaller cells are also formed, and in the second instance some, though often very slight, evidence of nuclear fragmentation is nearly always present; it would also be correct to infer that in advanced subdivision of a giant cell much, and perhaps all, of the nuclear detritus produced might have been removed up to the last trace; finally, the two extremes of these changes in the giant cells are connected by transition stages passing by gradation from the one to the other. Hence it is justifiable to conclude, for the time being, that in healing non-degenerated tuberculous tissue, the multinucleated giant cells may in part disintegrate and undergo absorption, in part form viable small cells; that both these changes may, and usually do, affect the same cell, but that in one class of cells—presumably the older or the more exhausted—the retrogressive process is predominant, while in a second class of cells—presumably the young and vigorous—the progressive changes are the more marked. In this connection it may be pointed out that while there cannot very well be any question but that we are dealing only with dividing and not coalescing cells, yet if this conclusion should be disputed and found incorrect, then the only remaining alternative would be to infer that this tissue furnished a unique and striking example of the formation of plasmodial masses by fusion in human tuberculosis, a conclusion to which many pathologists would refuse to subscribe, if for no other reason than because it is not in accordance with the almost universally accepted teachings of Baumgarten and Weigert in regard to the mode of formation of the giant cells in tuberculosis. Believing as I do that the giant cells under consideration are in the act of division and not at all of fusion, there remain to be discussed some of the histological and other features presented by the dividing cells. Many of the giant cells, perhaps the majority, contain larger and smaller vacuoles in the protoplasm. The exact significance of this vacuolation is not always clear. When the vacuolation accompanies an evident solution of the nucleus (karyolysis), there cannot be any doubt but that we are in the presence of a distinctly retrogressive process. Vacuoles are also most numerous in the giant cells that present other evidences of degeneration, such as coarseness of the granules in the protoplasm and extensive nuclear disintegration, but they occur as well around nuclei that stain deeply, around cells that seem to be separating from the giant cell, and even about nuclei that present mitoses. The formation of vacuoles seems to be responsible, to a certain extent at any rate, for the diminution in the volume of disintegrating and dividing giant cells, as shown by the clear spaces that form about them; these spaces are too large and occur too uniformly to be attributed solely to artificial shrinking produced by the hardening in alcohol. Further undoubted evidence of retrogression in certain giant cells is the occurrence of nuclear disintegration, or karyorhexis, which sets free larger and smaller chromatin masses that are recognized in the giant cell as well as in the interior of the phagocytes usually found around such cells. Almost all the polymorphonuclear leucocytes found in this tissue are met with around giant cells with broken-up nuclei. In many nuclei of disintegrating giant cells can be noted appearances that correspond well to certain stages in the complicated karyorhexis observed in anæmic necrosis by Schmaus and Albrecht; some of the nuclei with budding processes correspond particularly well with those in certain of their drawings; the interior of giant cells of tuberculous tissue may, it would seem, present conditions favorable to the development of this series of postnecrotic nuclear change. Vacuolation, karyolysis and karyorhexis are the essential steps that lead to destruction of the whole or parts of some of the giant cells; associated with these processes there is usually observed a splitting up of the body of the giant cell into irregular fragments with as well as without nuclei; and, as described, more or less phagocytosis of the resulting remnants of various kinds is seen. But evident degenerative and necrotic processes in a giant cell may be associated with progressive changes. While some nuclei undergo vacuolation or break up, others seem to become richer in chromatin and to stain more deeply at the same time that they seem to acquire cell bodies quite distinct from the protoplasm of the giant cells: this hyperchromatosis does not, therefore, seem to be a stage in karyorhexis. A very few but undoubted karyokinetic figures were found, together with evidences of division of the cell body formed in the giant cell protoplasm. Precisely similar changes are described by Klebs in healing pulmonary tuberculosis of the guinea-pig; the nuclei of the giant cells became rich in chromatin and karyokinetic figures occurred. Krückmann among others has found occasional mitoses in giant cells around foreign bodies, as well as elsewhere, but it would seem that such mitoses have always been interpreted as indicating the probable mode of formation of the giant cells rather than of their involution. The question of mitosis in existing multinucleated cells has recently been studied by Krompecher, who concludes that the individual nuclei of such cells may undoubtedly divide by mitosis, either simultaneously or at separate times. Division by amitosis can also occur, but mitosis is the only progressive form of division, amitosis being a retrogressive, disintegrating process that must be looked upon as an evidence of degeneration of the nucleus. Ziegler states that in division of giant cells whose nuclei have multiplied by mitosis it may happen that the separating cell remains enclosed in the protoplasm of the mother cell. A singular phase in the involution of the giant cells in this pia is to be found in the existence of progressive changes side by side with nuclear necrosis and with degeneration; this finding indicates that giant cells may contain many independent elements which, though apparently fused into one large cell, may preserve their individuality so that while some nuclei die, others proliferate and perhaps feed on the remnants of their dead brethren and form new, viable small cells. The nuclei in giant cells may be looked upon as representing independent centres, capable at times of existing even though the cell protoplasm is disintegrated. Many of the giant cells separate into individual cells, unaccompanied or unassociated with much evidence of necrosis. These cells may be regarded as the more vigorous forms. Here also are observed occasional mitoses—but on the whole extremely few—and very constantly an evident increase in the amount of chromatin in the nuclei of the new cells as compared with the amount ordinarily found in the nuclei of giant cells. These deductions concerning the persistence of the vitality of some of the nuclei, even in the presence of molecular and morphological changes in the cytoplasm and in other nuclei of the giant cell that lead to disintegration, are not entirely without the support of previous observations on cells, which, although made under different conditions, are nevertheless, it would seem, applicable to cells in general. Thus the brilliant investigations of Loeb upon the effects of various unfavorable surroundings, such as absence of oxygen or reduction of the amount of water, upon the cleavage of eggs of many kinds, show that the conditions which arrest development are qualitatively alike for nucleus and protoplasm, but quantitatively less for the protoplasm; when the irritability of the protoplasm is suspended the nucleus may segment without segmentation of the protoplasm, but upon re-establishment of favorable conditions the protoplasm may divide into about as many spheres as there are nuclei preformed—the nucleus persists, preserves the irritability of the cell and stimulates the protoplasm to segmentation. From the appearances of the giant cells here described it would seem, then, that some nuclei are able to maintain their vitality longer than others in the same cell, and under certain conditions to stimulate parts of the protoplasm to segment; in other cells all the nuclei have, as a rule, preserved their irritability. The groups of cells formed by the dividing of the giant cells can be traced by studying the process at the different stages in the different parts of the tissue. They assume an oval or spindle-shaped form, becoming more and more like the formative and endothelioid cells of young connective tissue, but their ultimate fate cannot be determined because it concerns essentially only one limited period in the involution of the tissue. It may be said with reasonable certainty, however, that the new cells do not form blood-vessels, but as regards their forming lymph-vessels nothing definite can be concluded. It would not be safe to draw any definite conclusions, from the appearances described, with regard to the origin and the mode of formation of the giant cells. The resulting small cells in general resemble very much endothelial and formative cells, but some of them are, at certain stages at any rate, not unlike large mononuclear leucocytes; their final fully developed or mature condition being unknown, no positive inference can be drawn as to their pre-giant-cell origin. The evidence points to the fact that the most probable origin of the giant cells, as indicated by their form and the apparent future career of their descendants, would be the fixed mesoblastic cells of the pia. In regard to the mode of formation of the giant cells it is quite clear that it must involve some process which is not incompatible with the viability of the small cells which may spring from the giant cells. Whether this would speak more in favor of formation by fusion than by karyokinesis of a single cell without division of the cell body cannot be well determined, and as long as authors are not agreed upon the question of the production of living, procreative cells by amitosis (direct segmentation, direct and indirect fragmentation) it would not be profitable to discuss the compatibility or incompatibility of the views of those investigators who trace the origin of giant cells to amitotic division, with the progressive changes that giant cells have been shown to be capable of. The fact that giant cells in tuberculous tissue, under certain conditions, undergo progressive changes and separate into small, living cells proves that they are not, as claimed by Baumgarten, Weigert and others, necrobiotic elements that are doomed to destruction from their very inception. On the other hand it lends more strength, if that were necessary, to the teleological view urged by Metchnikoff that they are living, defensive cells (whatever their origin may be), formed for the distinct purpose, like plasmodial masses in general, of isolating and removing foreign, harmful bodies, in this case the tubercle bacillus, and, having accomplished their object without being destroyed or exhausted, or the cause of their formation being removed or neutralized in some way, they, or their nuclei, may retain enough irritability to form a larger or smaller number of living, small, uninuclear cells.
PMCID: PMC2117963  PMID: 19866866
5.  Mahayograj guggulu: Heavy metal estimation and safety studies 
Objective:
This study was conducted to estimate the heavy metal profile and determine the safety of Mahayograj guggulu, an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparation.
Design:
Mahayograj guggulu, manufactured by Shree Baidynath Ayurved Bhawan Pvt. Ltd., Gwalior Road, Jhansi - 284 003 (of batch number-07 and manufacturing date October 2004) was procured from the local market. Heavy metal concentrations were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 40 Charles Foster strain albino rats of either sex with an average body weight of 160–250 g were divided into four groups (Groups I, II, III and IV), with 10 animals in each group. Group I served as the control, while Group II, III and IV rats received Mahayograj guggulu at a dose of 54 (dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose), 270 (five-times the dose equivalent to the human therapeutic dose) and 540 (10-times the dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose) mg/kg, p.o. for 120 days. The effect of drug administration was noted on the ponderal, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters. In addition, urine examination was also carried out. At the end of the study, only six rats per group were sacrificed as per the IAEC advice.
Results:
Mahayograj guggulu was found to be safe at all dose levels tested. No significant behavioral changes were noted in any of the groups studied. The effect on food and water consumption and fecal and urine output remained unaffected in all groups during the study period. No major alterations were observed in hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy and histopathology at the therapeutically advocated dose level. Heavy metal content measurement indicated levels of 25.8 µg/g for lead, 0.07 µg/g for mercury and 5.19 µg/g for arsenic.
Conclusions:
The test drug is well tolerated as no changes of a serious nature could be observed in any of the parameters assessed.
doi:10.4103/0974-7788.72486
PMCID: PMC2996572  PMID: 21170206
Heavy metal content; Mahayograj guggulu; safety; toxicity
6.  Comparative Anti-hyperlipidaemic activity of Navīna (fresh) and Purāṇa (old) Guggulu 
Ancient Science of Life  2015;35(2):101-109.
Objective:
Guggulu (Commiphora wightii [Arn.] Bhandari) is a well-known anti-hyperlipidaemic drug. Guggulsterones are active components of this drug which are responsible for this effect. The activity of Guggulu may depend upon its nature, fresh samples are recommended for their bṛhmaṇa (body mass increasing) effect; while lekhana (scarificant) effect is attributed to the old one. The comparative Anti-hyperlipidaemic activity of fresh and old samples has not been reported till date.
Materials and Methods:
Freshly collected and one year old samples of Guggulu were processed in gomūtra. Patients who satisfied inclusion criteria of Hyperlipidaemia were randomly distributed into two groups and the drug was administrated in a dose of 1 g with luke warm water twice a day for eight weeks.
Results:
Significant improvement was found in the symptoms of Medoroga and Lipid profile with treatment in both the groups. Fresh sample of Guggulu proved to have a better effect in lowering serum cholesterol (5.76%), triglyceride (17.17%), and very low density lipoprotein VLDL (18.36%) levels while old sample of Guggulu provided mild effect in lowering serum triglyceride (13.64%), VLDL (11.07%) and non-significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol (0.94%). Old sample of Guggulu also provided significant decreases in body weight (7.69%) and BMI (7.82%).
Conclusions:
Old Guggulu showed better effect on body weight, BMI and cardinal symptoms along with significant lipid lowering effect whereas fresh Guggulu showed better result on lipid profile.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.171672
PMCID: PMC4728861  PMID: 26865743
Commiphora wightii; fresh Guggulu; Guggulsterone; hyperlipidaemia; old Guggulu
7.  OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S34.
Purpose:
Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra.
Method:
The present study was clinical, randomised, single blind trial. In the present research work Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra has been taken for comparative study wth snuhi apamarga ksharsutra. Thirty patients cases of fistulainano were selected from OPD/IPD of Shalya Tantra department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Total patients were divided into two equal groups. The patients of group A were treated with Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra and the patients of group B were treated with Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra.
Result:
In the study the effect of Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra was found better in pain, itching, pus discharge, tenderness and burning sensation and the rate of Unit Cutting Time was slightly higher as Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra.
Conclusion:
Though U.C.T of Guggulu Chitrak Kshara Sutra is slightly higher than Snuhi Apamarga Kshar Sutra, but in assessment parameter Guggulu Chitrak Kshar Sutra has been shown significant result. With guggulu chitrak ksharsutra post ligation complications like hypertrophied scar etc are not seen and this is easily available and cost effective.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123848
PMCID: PMC4147504
8.  Design, Development and Rationalization of Sarpagandha Ghanvati 
Sarpagandha ghanvati is a classical Ayurvedic formulation widely prescribed for anxiety and insomnia. It contains Sarpagandha (roots of Rauwolfia serpentina L. (Benth.) Ex Kurz; Family: Apocyanaceae), Khurasani ajowan (Hyocyamus niger L.; Family: Solanaceae) seeds, Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Family: Valerianaceae) roots and Pipplamul (root of Piper longum L.; Family: Piperaceae). The objective of this study was to make a comparative evaluation of Ghanvatis and tablets of this formulation. Two tablet formulations were prepared; one incorporating only powders of all ingredients; the other with ethanol extracts of the first three ingredients and powder of Piper longum root. Similarly, two types of Sarpagandha ghanvati pills were prepared; one as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India; the other with ethanol extracts of the first three ingredients and powder of Piper longum root. Alcohol extracted 0.22% w/w of total alkaloids as against 0.061% w/w extracted by water. Tablets prepared with powders of all the ingredients had friability more than 3.0% where as those prepared with ethanol extract had very low friability. Ghanvatis, prepared as per the Ayurvedic formulary, did not show reserpine although other alkaloids were present. They showed less content uniformity and lower drug release. Ethanol extracted reserpine along with other alkaloids. Ghanvatis made with the alcoholic extracts exhibited better content uniformity and drug release than the traditional formulation. Tablets prepared with powders or extracts of the ingredients exhibited good content uniformity but the release of alkaloids from the tablets of powders was only 80%. Tablets of the extracts had good content uniformity with 90% release of the total alkaloids. Tablets prepared with alcoholic extracts using 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone as binder and 5% dried starch powder as disintegrating agent confirmed to all the requirements. Thus, the study shows tablets made with the extracts are superior to Ghanvatis and powder tablets.
PMCID: PMC4700718  PMID: 26798180
Alkaloids; Dissolution; Pills; Reserpine; Sarpagandha ghanvati
9.  Development and Characterization of Enteric-Coated Immediate-Release Pellets of Aceclofenac by Extrusion/Spheronization Technique Using κ-Carrageenan as a Pelletizing Agent 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(1):336-343.
In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare immediate-release enteric-coated pellets of aceclofenac, a poorly soluble nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has a gastrointestinal intolerance as its serious side effect. Formulation of enteric-coated pellets with improved solubility of aceclofenac could address both of these problems. To achieve these goals, pellets were prepared by extrusion–spheronization method using pelletizing agents that can contribute to the faster disintegration and thereby improve the solubility of the drug. Different disintegrants like β-cyclodextrin, kollidon CL, Ac-Di-Sol, and sodium starch glycolate were tried in order to further improve disintegration time. The pellets were characterized for drug content, particle size distribution, flow properties, infrared spectroscopy, surface morphology, disintegration rate, and dissolution profile. The formulations, which showed best disintegration and dissolution profiles, were coated with Eudragit L100-55, an enteric-coated polymer which does not dissolve at gastric pH but dissolves at intestinal pH, releasing the drug immediately in the dissolution medium. The optimized enteric-coated formulation containing 20% κ-carrageenan, lactose, and sodium starch glycolate as a disintegrant did inhibit the release of the drug for 2 h in 0.1 N HCl, whereas 87% of the drug was released within 45 min. The improvement was substantial when it was compared with solubility of pure drug under the same conditions. Thus, dissolution profiles suggested that combination of κ-carrageenan and sodium starch glycolate resulted into fast-disintegrating, immediate-release pellets, overcoming the bioavailability problem of the poorly soluble drug, aceclofenac, and enteric coating of these pellets avoids the exposure of aceclofenac to ulcer-prone areas of the gastrointestinal tract.
doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9389-9
PMCID: PMC2850460  PMID: 20195805
aceclofenac; enteric-coated; κ-carrageenan; pellets
10.  Efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Matra Basti of Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita in Mootraghata (benign prostatic hyperplasia) 
Ayu  2015;36(2):138-144.
Background:
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a senile disorder affects male of and above 40 years characterized by retention, incomplete voiding, dribbling, hesitancy, and incontinence of urine. This condition is comparable with Mootraghata in Ayurveda. Surgical intervention has been accepted as standard management, but has acute cystitis, acute epididymitis, erectile dysfunction, retrograde ejaculation, etc. as complications. Conservative treatment with modern medicine is also associated with side effects. Hence, to avoid such complications and improve the quality of life in senile age, conservative management with Ayurveda is attempted.
Aim:
To evaluate clinical efficacy of Kanchanara Guggulu and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in Mootraghata.
Materials and Methods:
Total 30 patients having signs and symptoms of BPH were selected from OPD and IPD of Shalya Tantra and enrolled equally into three groups (n = 10). Patients of Group A were administered with Kanchanara Guggulu (500 mg, 3 times a day orally), Group B were with Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti, while patients of Group C were administered both the drugs for 21 days. International prostate symptom score (IPSS) was used to assess the efficacy. paired and unpaired “t” test, Chi-square test were applied for significance.
Results:
In IPSS, Group B had shown the better results (84.27%) than the Group A (72.68%) and Group C (82.10%). In all objective parameters, Group C had shown better effect (23.60%) than Group A (15.70%) and Group B (18.24%). Symptomatic relief was better in Group B than Groups A and C. Comparison between three groups on objective parameters was better in Group C than in Group A and B.
Conclusion:
Kanchanara Guggulu orally and Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti is effective conservative management for symptomatic relief in BPH of senile age.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.175552
PMCID: PMC4784122  PMID: 27011713
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Dhanyaka Gokshura Ghrita; Kanchanara Guggulu; Matra Basti; Mootraghata
11.  Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;29(1):22-25.
Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) is about 2-3.5 mt heighted plant of Burceraceae family. The plant grows wild in the arid, rocky tracts, also in low rainy and hot areas. The part used in medicinal preparation is resin, collected by tapping the barks. Guggulu deserves high values in Ayurvedic medicines. Guggulu is Rasayana, Vatakaphaghna, and used in various diseases. Due to high values and excessive demands, improper methods of collection, uncontrolled forest destruction and poor knowledge of cultivation; number of plants highly decreased. Now it categorized as threatened plant. Hence cultivation and conservation of this plant is necessary. Guggulu can be propagated by seed and vegetative method. Germination through seed is very poor. Vegetative propagation through stem cutting is most common and successful method. Farming care is also necessary f or proper growth. Conservation can be effected by knowledge of collection methods and awareness.
PMCID: PMC3336300  PMID: 22557340
Commiphora mukul; tapping; cultivation; Germination; Vegetative propagation; Conservation
12.  A comparative study of Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati and Simhanada Guggulu on Amavata with special reference to Rheumatoid arthritis 
Ayu  2011;32(1):46-54.
The present study was aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati and Simhanada Guggulu along with Rasona Rasnadi Lepa in Amavata, and to compare the effect of these two therapies in the treatment. Total 101 patients of Amavata were registered for the present study and were randomly divided into two groups. In group A- Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati 2 Vati thrice/day was given for 3 months, while in group B- Simhanada Guggulu 2 Vati thrice a day for 3 months was adminstered. Along with this, Rasona Rasnadi Lepa was applied locally over affected joints twice daily in both groups. The effects of therapy in both groups were assessed by a specially prepared proforma. The results of the study showed that both the groups showed significant relief in symptoms; however, compared to Simhanada Guggulu, Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati showed better result in the management of Amavata. Simhanada Guggulu or Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati along with Rasona Rasnadi Lepa can be used as an effective ayurvedic intervention in the treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.85724
PMCID: PMC3215416  PMID: 22131757
Ama; Amavata; Rasona Rasnadi Ghanavati; Rheumatoid arthritis; Simhanada Guggulu; Vata
13.  A comparative study of Kaishora Guggulu and Amrita Guggulu in the management of Utthana Vatarakta 
Ayu  2010;31(4):410-416.
Vatarakta is the major example of Vata vyadhi, caused due to avarana pathology. The scenario of Utthana Vatarakta occurred owing to the margavarana pathology, which can very well be correlated with atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. The literature enlists a number of Guggulu prayogas in the management of Vatarakta. An additional cavernous revise was indispensable to bring out the precise outcome of these products. Keeping these visions in mind, the particular comparative study was performed with Kaishora guggulu and Amrita guggulu, which are explained in the same context. This is a single-blind comparative clinical study with a pre-test and post-test design, wherein a minimum of 30 patients of either sex, suffering from Utthana Vatarakta, in an age limit of 16 to 70 years, were selected and randomly categorized into two groups. The 15 patients of group A were treated with oral administration of Tab Kaishora guggulu 1 g thrice a day and the group B patients with Tab Amrita guggulu of the same dose pattern with anupana of lukewarm water. The therapeutic effect of the treatment was assessed in both the groups based on specific subjective and objective parameters. The results obtained were analyzed statistically in both the groups and the comparative effect was assessed using the unpaired “t” -test. In the present study, 80% of the patients from both the groups had madhumeha (Diabetes mellitus), shonita mada (Hypertension) or both. Fifty percent of the patients in group A and nearly 60% of the patients in group B, suffering from Utthana Vatarakta, had the habit of smoking.In both the groups, a statistically significant improvement was observed in all the criteria of assessment. The outcome of the study revealed an identical therapeutic efficacy of Kaishora guggulu and Amrita guggulu in Utthana Vatarakta. The use of Kaishora guggulu or Amrita guggulu as shamana Aushadhas was a perfect selection in the management of rakta margavaranajanya Utthana Vatarakta.
doi:10.4103/0974-8520.82027
PMCID: PMC3202258  PMID: 22048531
Utthana Vatarakta; Margavarana; Raktavahasrotas; Atherosclerosis; Peripheral Vascular Diseases
14.  Ayurvedic approach in the management of spinal cord injury: A case study 
Ancient Science of Life  2015;34(4):230-234.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with consequences such as full loss of spinal movements, incontinence of bladder functions, bed sores, etc. There is no satisfactory treatment available in biomedicine with only limited treatments only for enhancement of spinal cord function. These treatments have many limitations. Ayurvedic drugs and Pancakarma procedures have been in use to treat such conditions since a long time. We present a case of SCI with lesion at C4 level which was treated for 2 months with an Ayurvedic combined intervention. The combined treatment plan involved Ayurvedic oral medications (Brhadvātacintāmaṇi rasa - 125 mg, Ardhanāgavātāri rasa - 125 mg, Daśamūla kvātha - 40 ml, Aśvagandhācūrṇa [powder of Withania somnifera DUNAL] - 3 g, Amṛtā [Tinospora cordifolia WILLD] - 500 mg, Muktāśukti piṣṭi - 500 mg and Trayodaśāṅga guggulu - 500 mg) twice daily. Combined procedures involved such as śāliṣaṣṭika piṇḍasvedana (sudation with medicated cooked bolus of rice) every day for 2 months and Mātrā basti (enema) for first 15 days with Aśvagandhā oil. From 16th day, Mustādi yāpana basti (MYB, enema with medicated milk) was given for 16 days. After an interval of 7 days, MYB was further repeated for next 16 days. Substantial clinical improvement was reported after 2 months of the Ayurvedic treatment in existing neurological deficits and in quality of life.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.160870
PMCID: PMC4535072  PMID: 26283809
Matra basti; Mustādi yāpana basti; patient centered outcome; quadriplegia; spinal cord injury; stem cells therapy
15.  Development of a chewable tablet from Dugdhāmalakyādi Yoga: An Ayurvedic preparation 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(1):34-37.
Background:
Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most celebrated herbs in the Indian system of traditional medicine. It is one of the best Rasāyana-s (health promoting) drug. In Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga, Āmalaki (Embelica officinalis Gaertn.) powder is administered along with milk in case of svarabhaṅga (hoarseness of voice). Here an attempt is made to convert this formulation into chewable tablet without altering its property to improve its palatability, shelf life and fixation of proper therapeutic dose.
Methodology:
Chewable tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Here, Āmalaki powder was prepared initially and it was mixed with additives and preservatives. Granules were prepared from this mixture by adding binding agent, finally compressed in to tablets.
Results and Conclusion:
The physico-chemical analysis of Āmalaki standard are: Foreign Matter-Nil, Acid insoluble Ash-0.51%w/w, Water soluble Ash-2.01% w/w, Alcoholic Extractives-44.48%, Aqueous Extractives 67.52%, pH-3.1, Moisture content-8.19%. Quality control test for chewable tablet was carried out and found satisfactory with general characteristics of tablet viz. hardness 1.8, disintegration time 15-20 min, friability 0.5%, weight variation +/- 3%. The TLC of Āmalaki powder showed 3 spots with Rf value 0.14, 0.4, and 0.73 and the chewable tablets showed 2 spots with Rf value 0.31 and 0.89 under 254 nm. The adaptation of modern techniques or methods to convert the Ayurvedic formulations without altering its therapeutic property is necessary to made them suitable for the present trends of newer drug delivery dosage forms.
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.113802
PMCID: PMC3733205  PMID: 23929992
Embelica officinalis Gaertn; chewable tablets; Dugdhāmalakyādi yoga
16.  A novel high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of guggulsterones, piperine and gallic acid in Triphala guggulu 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2015;11(Suppl 1):S66-S72.
“Triphalaguggulu” is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of “Triphalaguggulu” preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.157696
PMCID: PMC4461971  PMID: 26109777
Gallic acid; guggulsterones; high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry; piperine; Triphalaguggulu
17.  PA01.70. A clinical study on the efficacy of Jalaukawacharana in the management of janu sandhigata vata w.s.r. To osteoarthritis of knee joint 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S120.
Purpose:
The sandhigata vata described in Ayurveda causes the symptomatology such as shula, sotha, stambhana, sparsha asahyata, sputana, akunchana prasarana vedana etc. whereas the osteoarthritis described in modern science can be correlated with sandhigata vata because it also produces the features such as inflammation, pain, stiffness, limited movements and deformity in severe cases. Osteoarthritis is the 2nd most common illness with 22 29% of prevalence in global population. Presently available modern medication is causing many side and toxic effects which sometimes may need hospitalization also. Hence it requires the need to find such a therapy which gives better relief without any side or toxic effects and also natural, cost effective and easily available. Hence the non surgical biological therapeutic means such jalaukawacharana was selected.
Method:
Total of 20 patients were selected on the basis of selection criteria (inclusion and exclusion criteria) and then they are grouped into two i.e. 10 each in Jalukawacharana and Yogaraja guggulu group. The jalukawacharana was done with 7 day interval for about 6 sittings in 1st group where as in 2nd group yogaraja guggulu 125mg thrice a day was given for 6 weeks. For assessment, the Koos was taken as subjective and range of motion was taken as objective parameter for proper assessment and they are subjected for statistical validity.
Result:
After analyzing, the jalukawacharana shown significant and remarkable result in comparison with Yogaraja guguulu. The symptomatology was reduced to great extent and range of motion is also improved a lot by jalukawacharana than with yogaraja guggulu.
Conclusion:
The janu sandhi gata vata can correlate or compared with osteoarthritis of knee joint. The non surgical, biological therapeutic means i.e. jalukawacharana shown good result in treating with janu sandhigata vata i.e. osteoarthritis of knee joint in comparison with standard group i.e. yogaraja guggulu.
PMCID: PMC3800875
18.  Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Novel Fast Disintegrating Tablets Using β Cyclodextrin as Diluent 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2010;11(4):1627-1635.
The objective of this work was to apply response surface approach to investigate main and interaction effects of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegrating tablet formulation using β cyclodextrin as a diluent. The variables studied were diluent (β cyclodextrin, X1), superdisintegrant (Croscarmellose sodium, X2), and direct compression aid (Spray dried lactose, X3). Tablets were prepared by direct compression method on B2 rotary tablet press using flat plain-face punches and characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y1), and hardness (Y2). Disintegration time was strongly affected by quadratic terms of β cyclodextrin, croscarmellose sodium, and spray-dried lactose. The positive value of regression coefficient for β cyclodextrin suggested that hardness increased with increased amount of β cyclodextrin. In general, disintegration of tablets has been reported to slow down with increase in hardness. However in the present study, higher concentration of β cyclodextrin was found to improve tablet hardness without increasing the disintegration time. Thus, β cyclodextrin is proposed as a suitable diluent to achieve fast disintegrating tablets with sufficient hardness. Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation validated prognostic ability of response surface methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using β cyclodextrin as a diluent.
doi:10.1208/s12249-010-9541-6
PMCID: PMC3011066  PMID: 21086083
β cyclodextrin; central composite design; fast disintegrating tablets; granisetron hydrochloride; response surface
19.  Pill Properties that Cause Dysphagia and Treatment Failure 
Background
Pills (tablets and capsules) are widely used to administer prescription drugs or to take supplements such as vitamins. Unfortunately, little is known about how much effort it takes Americans to swallow these various pills. More specifically, it is not known to what extent hard-to-swallow pills might affect treatment outcomes (eg, interfering with adherence to prescribed medications or causing clinical complications). It is also unclear which properties (eg, size, shape, or surface texture) Americans prefer or reject for their pills. To learn more about these issues, we interviewed a small group of individuals.
Methods
We invited individuals in waiting rooms of our tertiary health care center to participate in structured interviews about their pill-taking habits and any problems they have swallowing pills. We inquired which pill properties they believed caused swallowing problems. Participants scored capsules and pills of representative size, shape, and texture for swallowing effort and reported their personal preferences.
Results
Of 100 successive individuals, 99 participants completed the interview (65% women, mean age = 41 years, range = 23-77 years). Eighty-three percent took pills daily (mean 4 pills/d; 56% of those pills were prescribed by providers). Fifty-four percent of participants replied yes to the question, "Did you ever have to swallow a solid medication that was too difficult?" Four percent recounted serious complications: 1% pill esophagitis, 1% pill impaction, and 2% stopped treatments (antibiotic and prenatal supplement) because they could not swallow the prescribed pills. Half of all participants routinely resorted to special techniques (eg, plenty of liquids or repeated or forceful swallows). Sixty-one percent of those having difficulties cited specific pill properties: 27% blamed size (20% of problems were caused by pills that were too large whereas 7% complained about pills that were too small to sense); 12% faulted rough surface texture; others cited sharp edges, odd shapes, or bad taste/smell. Extra-large pills were widely loathed, with 4 out of 5 participants preferring to take 3 or more medium-sized pills instead of a single jumbo pill.
Conclusions
Our survey results suggest that 4 out of 5 adult Americans take several pills daily, and do so without undue effort. It also suggests that half of today’s Americans encounter pills that are hard to swallow. Up to 4% of our participants gave up on treatments because they could not swallow the prescribed pills. Up to 7% categorically rejected taking pills that are hard to swallow. Specific material properties are widely blamed for making pills hard to swallow; extra-large capsules and tablets are universally feared, whereas medium-sized pills with a smooth coating are widely preferred. Our findings suggest that health care providers could minimize treatment failures and complications by prescribing and dispensing pills that are easy to swallow. Industry and regulatory bodies may facilitate this by making swallowability an essential criterion in the design and licensing of oral medications. Such policies could lessen the burden of pill taking for Americans and improve the adherence with prescribed treatments.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2015.08.002
PMCID: PMC4589822  PMID: 26543509
dysphagia; medical compounds; pill swallowing
20.  Development of oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone nanoparticles for the management of pediatric asthma 
The purpose of the present study was to develop oral dispersible tablets containing prednisolone (PDS)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101), lactose, and croscarmellose sodium (CCS). The PDS-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by ionotropic external gelation technique in order to enhance the solubility of PDS in salivary pH. Prepared nanoparticles were used for the development of oral fast disintegrating tablets by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for disintegration time (DT), in vitro drug release (DR), thickness, weight variation, drug content uniformity, friability, and hardness. The effect of concentrations of the dependent variables (MCC, lactose, CCS) on DT and in vitro DR was studied. Fast disintegrating tablets of PDS can be prepared by using MCC, CCS, and lactose with enhanced solubility of PDS. The minimum DT was found to be 15 seconds, and the maximum DR within 30 minutes was 98.50%. All independent variables selected for the study were statistically significant. Oral fast disintegrating tablets containing PDS nanoparticles could be the better choice for the pediatric patients that would result in better patient compliance. From this study, it can be concluded that fast disintegrating tablets could be a potential drug delivery technology for the management of asthma in pediatrics.
doi:10.2147/DDDT.S86075
PMCID: PMC4662371  PMID: 26640367
asthma; superdisintegrant; prednisolone; oral tablets; MCC; CCS; factorial design; ANOVA
21.  The suitability of disintegrating force kinetics for studying the effect of manufacturing parameters on spironolactone tablet properties 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2003;4(2):50-56.
The aim of this paper was to study the effect of the granulate properties and tablet compression force on disintegrating force behavior in order to investigate the capability of the disintegrating force to characterize tablets that have the same composition but were manufactured in different conditions. Several tablets containing spironolactone in the external or internal granulated mixture of calcium carbonate and maize starch differing in particle size distribution, were prepared at 3 compression levels. The force developed by tablets during water uptake and disintegration was measured and plotted versus time. The curves obtained were analyzed by the Weibull equation in order to calculate the parameters characterizing the tablet disintegration kinetics. The disintegrating force time parameter, the maximum force developed, and the area under the curve were determined. In general, the reduction of time parameter value and/or the increase in maximum force developed corresponded to an acceleration in tablet disintegration. In addition, the area under the force curve increased in stronger tablets, monitoring in a sensitive way the tablet structural changes introduced by compression force. The results showed that the disintegrating force measurement can detect small changes in the structure of the tablet that cannot be discriminated by pharmacopoeia tests. The effect of manufacturing, in particular compression force, on tablet properties was quantified by the parameters of disintegrating force kinetics.
doi:10.1208/pt040217
PMCID: PMC2750595  PMID: 12916899
disintegrating force; spironolactone; tablet; granulation; compression force
22.  Formulation and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets containing rofecoxib solid dispersion 
AAPS PharmSciTech  2006;7(2):E167-E175.
The purpose of the present investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of rofecoxib by the preparation of its solid dispersion with polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30) using solvent evaporation method. Drug-polymer interactions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the preparation of rofecoxib mouth dissolve tablets, its 1∶9 solid dispersion with PVP K30 was used with various disintegrants and sublimable materials. In an attempt to construct a statistical model for the prediction of disintegration time and percentage friability, a 32 randomized full and reduced factorial design was used to optimize the influence of the amounts of superdisintegrant and subliming agent. The obtained results showed that dispersion of the drug in the polymer considerably enhanced the dissolution rate. The drug-to-carrier ratio was the controlling factor for dissolution improvement. FTIR spectra revealed no chemical incompatibility between the drug and PVP K30. As indicated from XRD and DSC data, rofecoxib was in the amorphous form, which explains the better dissolution rate of the drug from its solid dispersions. Concerning the optimization study, the multiple regression analysis revealed that an optimum concentration of camphor and a higher percentage of crospovidone are required for obtaining rapidly disintegrating tablets. In conclusion, this investigation demonstrated the potential of experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of mouth dissolve tablets containing solid dispersion of a hydrophobic drug.
doi:10.1208/pt070255
PMCID: PMC2750282  PMID: 16796372
rofecoxib; polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30; solid dispersion; solvent method; mouth dissolve tablets; factorial design
23.  Preparation and evaluation of sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan 
Aim:
Zolmitriptan is a 5-HT receptor agonist (1B/1D). It is used in the acute treatment of migraine having low bioavailability about 40% orally due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The purpose of the present research was to formulate fast acting sublingual tablets of zolmitriptan.
Materials and Methods:
Sublingual tablets were prepared using ispaghula husk powder, gellan gum, sodium alginate as super disintegrating polymers and citric acid, tartaric acid and camphor as permeation enhancers by direct compressible technique and evaluated for weight variation, thickness, friability, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time, wetting time, in-vitro drug release, in-vitro and ex-vivo permeation study. Stability study of optimized formulation was performed as per ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) guideline.
Results:
The in-vitro disintegration time of the optimized formulation (D5) was 9 ± 2 s and all formulations showed 100% of dissolution within 6 ± 2 min. Formulation containing 4% of gellan gum (D5) showed highest disintegration and 2% of citric acid formulation (P3) showed highest permeation 88% within 30 min and ex-vivo permeation was 52% within 30 min. Optimized formulation was stable for 1 month during stability study as per ICH guideline.
Conclusion:
The sublingual tablet formulation gives better results using natural super disintegrant for fast onset of action.
doi:10.4103/2230-973X.127737
PMCID: PMC3944614  PMID: 24678459
Ex-vivo permeation; natural super disintegrants; permeation enhancers; sublingual tablets; zolmitriptan
24.  PA03.19. Clinical study on the effect of Moorchita Tila Taila Shamana Sneha and Navaka Guggulu in Hyperlipidemia – A comparative study 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S88.
Purpose:
Hyperlipidemia is a disorder which is identified as a potential risk factor for multitudes of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and even hypertension. Hyperlipidemia is term used to denote raised serum levels of cholesterol or triglycerides or both. Though, there is no precise terminology for Hyperlipidemia mentioned in the Ayurvedic classics, A detailed study of Hyperlipidemia reveals its similarity to Asthayi Medo Dhatu Vriddhi on the basis of its Pathophysiology.
Method:
For Group A Moorchita Tila Taila 15ml twice daily as Shamana Sneha with Ushna jala for 30 days. For Group B Navaka Guggulu in Tablet form 500mg, 1 tab thrice daily for 30 days.
Result:
Both the groups A and B showed reduction in serum Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL–C and VLDL–C and Group A showed slight increase in HDL levels.
Conclusion:
Shamananga snehapana can be safely carried out in patients of Hyperlipidemia. Comparing both the groups, Group A treated with Moorchita Tila Taila Shamana Sneha showed better results in reducing serum lipid values than Group B treated with Navaka Guggulu
doi:10.4103/0257-7941.123916
PMCID: PMC4147563
25.  Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Disintegrating Tablets of Atenolol and Atorvastatin 
In this study, mouth-disintegrating tablets of atenolol and atorvastatin combination were formulated using superdisintegrants to impart fast disintegration. Fifteen formulations were prepared based on different concentrations of two superdisintegrants, croscarmellose sodium and Kyron-T134. Three different techniques such as direct compression, effervescent and sublimation were used to study the effect of manufacturing processes, nature and concentration of superdisintegrants on various features of these tablets. Five formulations were made using each method. Precompression studies like bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Carr's compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and compatibility studies such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were performed. Various features such as hardness, thickness, diameter, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, dissolution studies, wetting time, wetting volume, water absorption ratio, modified disintegration, uniformity of contents and stability were evaluated. Finally results were statistically analyzed by the application of one way ANOVA test. Formulation F13 containing Kyron-T134 (6%) and croscarmellose sodium (2%) was found to be the best among all fifteen formulations prepared in all aspects evaluated. Sublimation method is found to be the best among three methods of preparation used.
PMCID: PMC4355887  PMID: 25767322
Atenolol; atorvastatin; croscarmellose sodium; Kyron-T134; mouth-disintegrating tablets

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