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Ancient Science of Life  1986;5(4):228-231.
The clinical study records the clinical presentations of forty cases with amoebias and / or giardiasis including the efficacy of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica) in intestinal amoebiasis. E. H. Cyst passers also have symptoms like loose motions, constipation, flatulence, abdominal cramping, diminished appetite and mucus in stools. Patients with giardiasis have more tendency to diarrhoea and flatulence with no mucus in stools. 70 per cent good response was observed in E. H. Cyst passers when treated with Kutaja bark. Therefore, it appears that well known anti – diarrhoeal traditional herbal drug Kutaja, may be helpful to an extent in treating the amoebiasis. It will prove to be a very economic drug
PMCID: PMC3331474  PMID: 22557529
2.  Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(Suppl 2):S310-S314.
The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of “traditional mental health promoting practices” was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a “mind control” as referred by Caraka, is achieved through “spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.
PMCID: PMC3705701  PMID: 23858273
Achar rasayana; Ayurveda; psychotherapy; psychoveda; sattvavajaya
3.  Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on forty-three patients of ulcerative colitis 
Ayu  2010;31(4):478-481.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease with a relapsing nature. It is a very challenging disease affecting a patient during the most active period of his life i.e. 20 to 40 years of age. The main features are ano-rectal bleeding with increased frequency of bowel evacuation, general debility and with abnormal structural pathology in the descending colon, particularly sigmoid colon. In modern medical science, there is no permanent curative and safe treatment for this disease. This study can be helpful for reducing the need of steroids and surgical processes in the patients of ulcerative colitis. A clinical study of 43 patients of ulcerative colitis has been conducted at the O.P.D. (outdoor patient department) and I.P.D. (indoor patient department) of the P D Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad. They were given Udumbara kvatha basti with oral Ayurveda medicaments including Kutaj ghan vati, Udumbara kvatha, and combination of Musta, Nagakesara, Lodhra, Mukta panchamrut rasa for a one-month period. Results were analyzed statistically by using the ‘t’ test. In this study, it was observed that the symptoms and signs, daily dose of steroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs were reduced by more than 75% with a highly significant result. The hemoglobin level was also increased.
PMCID: PMC3202252  PMID: 22048543
Ayurveda; ulcerative colitis; Udumbara kvatha basti; Basti karma
4.  Evaluation of Amoebicidal Potential of Paneth Cell Cryptdin-2 against Entamoeba histolytica 
Amoebiasis is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently, metronidazole is the gold choice medication for the treatment of this disease. However, reports have indicated towards the possibility of development of metronidazole-resistance in Entamoeba strains in near future. In view of the emergence of this possibility, in addition to the associated side effects and mutagenic ability of the currently available anti-amoebic drugs, there is a need to explore newer therapeutics against this disease. In this context, the present study evaluated the amoebicidal potential of cryptdin-2 against E. histolytica.
Methods/Principal Findings
In the present study, cryptdin-2 exhibited potent in-vitro amoebicidal activity against E. histolytica in a concentration dependent manner at a minimum amoebicidal concentration (MAC) of 4 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy as well as phase contrast microscopic investigations of cryptdin-2 treated trophozoites revealed that the peptide was able to induce significant morphological alterations in terms of membrane wrinkling, leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and damaged plasma membrane suggesting a possible membrane dependent amoebicidal activity. N-phenyl napthylamine (NPN) uptake assay in presence of sulethal, lethal as well as twice the lethal concentrations further confirmed the membrane-dependent mode of action of cryptdin-2 and suggested that the peptide could permeabilize the plasma membrane of E. histolytica. It was also found that cryptdin-2 interfered with DNA, RNA as well as protein synthesis of E. histolytica exerting the highest effect against DNA synthesis. Thus, the macromolecular synthesis studies correlated well with the observations of membrane permeabilization studies.
The amoebicidal efficacy of cryptdin-2 suggests that it may be exploited as a promising option to combat amoebiasis or, at least, may act as an adjunct to metronidazole and/or other available anti-amoebic drugs.
Author Summary
Intestinal amoebiasis, caused by Enatmoeba histolytica continues to be a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and is considered to be the third principal parasitic disease responsible for mortality in the world. In addition to the mutagenic ability and known toxicity of conventional anti-amoebic drugs, there are reports indicating the emergence of treatment failures to these drugs. Therefore, there has been a considerable interest in exploring the potential of various antimicrobial peptides having higher efficacy and lower toxicity to combat such parasitic infections. Herein, we present the amoebicidal efficacy of cryptdin-2, a Paneth cell alpha-defensin against E. histolytica. Cryptdin-2 was found to decrease the number of trophozoites of E. histolytica in a concentration dependent manner. By and large, cryptdin-2 could retain its amoebicidal activity in the presence of cations, bile salts and at various pH values. Microscopic analysis and N-phenyl napthylamine (NPN) uptake assay revealed membrane dependent amoebicidal action of the peptide. It was also demonstrated that cryptdin-2 has the potential to target the intracellular macromolecular synthesis machinery of Entamoeba. Based on these results, cryptdin-2 seems to be a promising agent for the development of novel therapeutics against amoebiasis or at least may act as an adjunct to conventional antibiotics against E. histolytica.
PMCID: PMC3243701  PMID: 22206022
5.  Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India 
Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata.
PMCID: PMC3566491  PMID: 23431340
6.  Melatonin reduces the severity of experimental amoebiasis 
Parasites & Vectors  2011;4:62.
Melatonin has immunomodulatory effects but very little is known about its influence in protozoan infections, such as Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebiasis, a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous melatonin interference in experimental amoebiasis and on interactions between human blood cells and E. histolytica trophozoites.
The effect of melatonin was investigated in models of experimental amoebiasis in hamsters and rats by evaluating the area of necrosis induced by E. histolytica. The activity of melatonin on the interactions between leukocytes and amoebae was determined by examining leukophagocytosis. For in vitro tests, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear human blood leucocytes were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites.
The areas of amoebic necrosis were significantly reduced in animals treated with melatonin. Melatonin treatment increased leukophagocytosis but was associated with a greater number of dead amoebae.
These results suggest that melatonin may play a beneficial role in the control of amoebic lesions, raising the possibility that this drug may be used as an adjuvant in anti-amoebic therapy.
PMCID: PMC3097001  PMID: 21501501
7.  19A. Practical Strategies for Integrating Ayurvedic Therapies Into the Integrative Medicine Clinical Encounter 
Focus Area: Experiential Workshop
The 3 Ayurvedic clinicians presenting this experiential session have delivered Ayurvedic medicine in diverse settings, including: a conventional managed care network using a group clinic format; with research participants at an academic medicine center; and in private practice. The 3 presenting Ayurvedic clinicians have approximately 50 years' combined experience practicing Ayurvedic medicine and have developed strategies for overcoming logistical and cultural challenges in working with patients. Ayurveda can be accessed for both acute and chronic conditions and includes multitarget therapies tailored to the unique constitution/imbalance profile of each patient, while accounting for any biomedical diagnoses. The focus of Ayurveda goes beyond symptom alleviation to the identification of the root cause of the imbalance and eventual resolution of the disorder. Ayurveda has a primary focus on modification of the diet and daily routine of the individual in an effort to create sustainable lifestyle change to promote overall health and prevent comorbid conditions. Ayurvedic clinicians also use herbal supplements, medicated oils, and hands-on manual therapies, as well as detoxification and rejuvenation therapies, to enhance healing holistically and synergistically and to create a state of durable well-being.
The presenters of this workshop will focus on 3 key areas of Ayurvedic clinical practice: (1) Ayurvedic diet, daily routine, and yoga therapy (JR); (2) herbal therapies and home detoxification regimens (CE); and (3) manual therapies and Ayurvedic acupressure points (PV). Participants in the workshop will have the opportunity to (1) sample some simple medicinal teas and experience Ayurvedic dietary theory according to food qualities; (2) experience the effects of simple Ayurvedic breathing techniques and therapeutic yoga poses; and (3) participate in a basic demonstration of Ayurvedic manual therapies and acupressure.
PMCID: PMC3875039
8.  PA01.80. The review of herbal anti-allergy and anti-histaminic drugs 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S130.
The symptoms of an allergic reaction communicate sensitization to certain antigens in the environment. Initiation of antigen reaction stimulates mast cells to release histamine into the blood which interacts with the cells to produce most of the symptoms of the allergy. Drugs that block only the action of histamine are known as antihistaminic while the drugs preventing mast cells from releasing histamine are considered as anti allergic agents. Ayurveda considers Mandagni (Jadharagni in hypofunctional state) as the root cause of the all diseases which produces Ama (Antigen/Visha). Drugs possessing Deepan, Pachan, and Vishaghna properties may prevent histamine release and allergic reactions. Udardaprashamana, Kandughna, Swasahara group of drugs may prevent acute histaminic reaction. Keeping this concept in view a critical review was made about the herbs mentioned in the classical Ganas and aushadhyogas of compilatory works of medieval India in addition to reported activities during 20th century research works. The study aims to identify herbs with Antihistaminic and Antiallergy activity and to discuss safety and efficacy of herbal anti histaminics over the drugs of modern medicine which may produce certain adverse effects like nausea, drowsiness, nasal burning etc.
Analysis of drugs mentioned in the management of pratishyaya, shwas, kasa, and skin conditions like Seetpitta, Udarda, Vicharchika etc. was made. Review of research data mentioned in various journals and monographs was also analysed.
Vishaghna and Udardaprashamana dashemani may have profound activity in controlling allergic reactions. Kandughna Dashemani may be useful to control fungal and allergic skin diseases. Pippali, Tulsi, Kantakari may be useful in the management of allergic disease of respiratory tract. Azadirachta indica (Nimba), Albezzia lebbeck (Shirish), Glycerrhyza glabra (Yashtimadhu) etc. have provided ample scientific evidence for antihistaminic activity.
Recent researches confirmed Anti histaminic and Anti allergic activity of Adhatoda vasica (vaasaa), Aloe vera (kumari), Azadirachta indica (nimba), Curcurma zedoaria (karchura), Nigella sativa (upakunchikaa), Inula racemosa (pushkarmoola), Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi), Benincasa hispida (krushmanda) etc. which are safer to use.
PMCID: PMC3800886
9.  Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview 
Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years.
PMCID: PMC2274994  PMID: 18392106
Ayurveda; Indian medicinal plants; reverse pharmacology; observational therapeutics; antioxidant
10.  Characterization of the Entamoeba histolytica Ornithine Decarboxylase-Like Enzyme 
The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are organic cations that are required for cell growth and differentiation. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, is a highly regulated enzyme.
Methodology and Results
To use this enzyme as a potential drug target, the gene encoding putative ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)-like sequence was cloned from Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite causing amoebiasis. DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of ∼1,242 bp encoding a putative protein of 413 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 46 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.61. The E. histolytica putative ODC-like sequence has 33% sequence identity with human ODC and 36% identity with the Datura stramonium ODC. The ORF is a single-copy gene located on a 1.9-Mb chromosome. The recombinant putative ODC protein (48 kDa) from E. histolytica was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Antiserum against recombinant putative ODC protein detected a band of anticipated size ∼46 kDa in E. histolytica whole-cell lysate. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of ODC, had no effect on the recombinant putative ODC from E. histolytica. Comparative modeling of the three-dimensional structure of E. histolytica putative ODC shows that the putative binding site for DFMO is disrupted by the substitution of three amino acids—aspartate-332, aspartate-361, and tyrosine-323—by histidine-296, phenylalanine-305, and asparagine-334, through which this inhibitor interacts with the protein. Amino acid changes in the pocket of the E. histolytica enzyme resulted in low substrate specificity for ornithine. It is possible that the enzyme has evolved a novel substrate specificity.
To our knowledge this is the first report on the molecular characterization of putative ODC-like sequence from E. histolytica. Computer modeling revealed that three of the critical residues required for binding of DFMO to the ODC enzyme are substituted in E. histolytica, resulting in the likely loss of interactions between the enzyme and DFMO.
Author Summary
Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular protozoan parasite that infects about 50 million people each year and can cause potentially life-threatening diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and extraintestinal abscesses. The infections are primarily treated by antiamoebic therapy. Drugs of choice for invasive amoebiasis are tissue-active agents, such as metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. Although drug resistance to E. histolytica does not appear to be a serious problem, there are occasional reports of failure with metronidazole, suggesting that clinical drug resistance may be developing. When identifying a drug target, it is important that the putative target be absent in the host, or, if it is present in the host, that the homologue in the parasite be substantially different from the host homologue so that it can be exploited as a drug target. Such is the case with the enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis, a pathway that has been exploited as a target to control disease caused by several parasites. We report, to our knowledge for the first time, molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of the ornithine decarboxylase from E. histolytica, a rate limiting enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway.
PMCID: PMC2217671  PMID: 18235846
11.  Antiamoebic and Toxicity Studies of a Carbamic Acid Derivative and Its Therapeutic Effect in a Hamster Model of Hepatic Amoebiasis 
Amoebiasis is an important public health problem in developing countries. Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebiasis, may develop resistance to nitroimidazoles, a group of drugs considered to be the most effective against this parasitic disease. Therefore, research on new drugs for the treatment of this common infection still constitutes an important therapeutic demand. In the present study we determined the effects of a carbamate derivative, ethyl 4-chlorophenylcarbamate (C4), on trophozoites of E. histolytica strain HM-1:IMSS. C4 was subject to various toxicity tests, including the determination of mutagenicity for bacterial DNA and changes in the enzymatic activities of eukaryotic cells. Genotoxicity studies were performed by the mutagenicity Ames test (plate incorporation and preincubation methods) with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, with or without metabolic activation produced by the S9 fraction of rat liver. C4 toxicity studies were performed by measuring enzymatic activity in eukaryotic cells by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-formazan test with Fischer 344 rat hepatocytes. C4 did not induce either frame-shift mutations in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium TA97 or TA98 or base pair substitutions in strains TA100 and TA102. The compound was not toxic for cultured rat hepatic cells. Trophozoites treated with 100 μg of C4 per ml were inhibited 97.88% at 48 h of culture; moreover, damage to the amoebae was also confirmed by electron microscopy. The antiamoebic activity of C4 was evaluated by using an in vivo model of amoebic liver abscess in hamsters. Doses of 75 and 100 mg/100 g of body weight reduced the extent of the amoebic liver abscess by 84 and 94%, respectively. These results justify further studies to clearly validate whether C4 is a new suitable antiamoebic drug.
PMCID: PMC549235  PMID: 15728919
12.  Contribution of world health organization in the global acceptance of Ayurveda 
Amongst the mandates of United Nations, health of mankind is the thrust area of UN through World Health Organization (WHO). Planning and execution of policies for mainstreaming of traditional medicines (TRM) of respective countries along with conventional system of medicine (allopathy), first in the country of origin followed by the international arena, is the priority agenda of operations of WHO. Within Indian context, WHO accorded prime focus to Ayurveda in its activities related to TRM.Sponsorship and encouragement of studies substantiating parameters of standardization, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines of Ayurveda are under chief consideration of WHO. In this review, several guidelines of WHO are summarized. Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Central Council of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha and numerous other collaborative centers of WHO in India are assigned with several Appraisal Project Work (APW) and Direct Financial Cooperation (DFC) projects that will strengthen Ayurveda as evidence-based medicine for its global acceptance. Implementation of pharmacovigilance program in Ayurveda, publication of documents for rational use and initiatives to prepare consumer guidelines for appropriate use of Ayurvedic medicines are some other contributions of WHO toward advancement of Ayurveda at national as well as global level. Here, we suggest further exploration, interaction and interpretation of traditional knowledge in the light of contemporary core sciences and biomedical sciences that can pave the way for accreditation of Ayurveda worldwide as an established system of medicine.
PMCID: PMC3255448  PMID: 22253507
Ayurveda; efficacy; standardization; safety; traditional medicine
13.  Growth Phase and (p)ppGpp Control of IraD, a Regulator of RpoS Stability, in Escherichia coli▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2009;191(24):7436-7446.
The antiadaptor protein IraD inhibits the proteolysis of the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, which promotes the synthesis of >100 genes during the general stress response and during stationary phase. Our previous results showed that IraD determines RpoS steady-state levels during exponential growth and mediates its stabilization after DNA damage. In this study, we show by promoter fusions that iraD was upregulated during the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase. The levels of RpoS likewise rose during this transition in a partially IraD-dependent manner. The expression of iraD was under the control of ppGpp. The expression of iraD required RelA and SpoT (p)ppGpp synthetase activities and was dramatically induced by a “stringent” allele of RNA polymerase, culminating in elevated levels of RpoS. Surprisingly, DksA, normally required for transcriptional effects of the stringent response, repressed iraD expression, suggesting that DksA can exert regulatory effects independent of and opposing those of (p)ppGpp. Northern blot analysis and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed two transcripts for iraD in wild-type strains; the smaller was regulated positively by RelA during growth; the larger transcript was induced specifically upon transition to stationary phase and was RelA SpoT dependent. A reporter fusion to the distal promoter indicated that it accounts for growth-phase regulation and DNA damage inducibility. DNA damage inducibility occurred in strains unable to synthesize (p)ppGpp, indicating an additional mode of regulation. Our results suggest that the induction of RpoS during transition to stationary phase and by (p)ppGpp occurs at least partially through IraD.
PMCID: PMC2786607  PMID: 19820090
14.  Effect of silica on resistance of mice to Entamoeba histolytica infection. 
Infection and Immunity  1984;45(2):399-402.
The role of macrophages in intestinal amoebiasis in mice has been investigated. The effect of injuring host macrophages on the course of infection was examined by using strains selected as being either genetically susceptible (C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6) or genetically resistant (A/J) to amoebiasis. Mice were treated with an intravenous injection of silica particles 1 day before infection with 2.5 X 10(5) or 5 X 10(5) polyxenic trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. The animals were killed at various times after infection, and the parasite burden in the cecum was measured. Silica treatment dramatically increased the growth of parasites in the susceptible mice. The same trend was evident, although less marked, in the resistant mice. The effect of silica treatment in experimental amoebiasis was much more pronounced in animals inoculated with 5 X 10(5) amoebae than in those with 2.5 X 10(5) amoebae. These data suggest that macrophages play an important role in host defense against amoebiasis in mice.
PMCID: PMC263236  PMID: 6086527
15.  A critical appraisal on Swarnaprashana in children 
Ayu  2014;35(4):361-365.
Administration of processed gold in children is a unique practice mentioned in Ayurveda as “Swarnaprashana” by Acharya Kashyapa thousands of years back. He explained evidently the administration of Swarna (gold) in children for the benefits of improving intellect, digestion and metabolism, physical strength, immunity, complexion, fertility, and life span. There are various formulations of gold and even along with herbal drugs explained by different Acharya for prolonged usage in children. Swarnaprashana in children can be mainly implicated in two contexts of Ayurveda; Lehana (supplementary feeds) and Jatakarma Samskara (newborn care). This review is an effort to critically evaluate the available data, which may be helpful in clearing some of the existing fallacies on the topic. The age and method of administration, benefits and dosage as per various classical textbooks of Ayurveda are discussed here along with the reports of related scientific studies. This review proposes that the benefits of Swarnaprashana can be achieved at multiple levels like as a general health promoter and in specific to enhancement of intelligence, digestion, metabolism, immunity, physical strength, complexion, or fertility. Ayurveda recommends only purified and processed form of gold for internal administration. The age at which Swarnaprashana should be administered and its duration can be determined depending upon the desired effect in children as a positive health care program.
PMCID: PMC4492018  PMID: 26195896
Ayurveda; children; gold preparation; immuno-modulator; Swarnaprashana
16.  Yoga and epilepsy: What do patients perceive? 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(Suppl 3):S390-S393.
Benefit of yoga therapy in the management of epilepsy is emerging. However, there is no data available about the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of yoga amongst people living with epilepsy (PLWE).
This study was designed to explore the KAP about yoga among PLWE.
Settings and Design:
The study was conducted on 300 PLWE attending the neurology out-patient services of a tertiary care hospital.
Three hundred PLWE (male:female=173:127; age: 31.6±12.4 years) attending the neurology out-patient services of a neuropsychiatry hospital were administered a pre-tested KAP questionnaire.
About 87.4% were on regular anti-epileptic drugs and half (50.3%) on monotherapy. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by the respondents included: Ayurveda (26.7%), yoga (25.6%) and homeopathy (16.3%) or folk medicine (29.1%). Nearly 33.7% of the respondents reported that yoga is beneficial in managing epilepsy. More than half the respondents (54.8%) were willing to practice yoga. Those who practiced yoga opined that regular practice of yoga might reduce dosage of medication (62.8%), their side effects (51.3%) and frequency of seizures (54.5%). Majority of the patients were willing to practice yoga, if yoga services were offered.
The gaps in KAP identified in this study point to the need for more systematic effort to bring about awareness of yoga in patients with epilepsy.
PMCID: PMC3768218  PMID: 24049205
Attitude; epilepsy; knowledge; practice; yoga
17.  Polyherbal formulation: Concept of ayurveda 
Pharmacognosy Reviews  2014;8(16):73-80.
Ayurveda is one of the traditional medicinal systems of Indian. The philosophy behind Ayurveda is preventing unnecessary suffering and living a long healthy life. Ayurveda involves the use of natural elements to eliminate the root cause of the disease by restoring balance, at the same time create a healthy life-style to prevent the recurrence of imbalance. Herbal medicines have existed world-wide with long recorded history and they were used in ancient Chinese, Greek, Egyptian and Indian medicine for various therapies purposes. World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the word's inhabitants still rely mainly on traditional medicines for their health care. The subcontinent of India is well-known to be one of the major biodiversity centers with about 45,000 plant species. In India, about 15,000 medicinal plants have been recorded, in which the communities used 7,000-7,500 plants for curing different diseases. In Ayurveda, single or multiple herbs (polyherbal) are used for the treatment. The Ayurvedic literature Sarangdhar Samhita’ highlighted the concept of polyherbalism to achieve greater therapeutic efficacy. The active phytochemical constituents of individual plants are insufficient to achieve the desirable therapeutic effects. When combining the multiple herbs in a particular ratio, it will give a better therapeutic effect and reduce the toxicity. This review mainly focuses on important of the polyherbalism and its clinical significance.
PMCID: PMC4127824  PMID: 25125878
Ayurveda; panchamahabhutas; polyherbal formulation
18.  Role of Triphala in dentistry 
Ayurveda is considered as the “science of life,” because the ancient Indian system of health care focused views of man and his illness. India has an age-old heritage of traditional herbal medicine. Conventional drugs usually provide effective antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections, but there is an increasing problem of antibiotic resistance and a continuing need for new solutions. Hence, now herbal drugs are being preferred to synthetic antibiotics. ‘Triphala’ is a well-known powdered preparation in the Indian system of medicine (ISM). It consists of equal parts of the Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. Currently, Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, antioxidant, anti-collagenase, and anti-microbial activities. The present review will focus on the comprehensive appraisal of Triphala and its several applications in dentistry.
PMCID: PMC4033874  PMID: 24872616
Emblica officinalis; dental caries; periodontitis; Terminalia chebula; Triphala
19.  Vajikarana: Treatment of sexual dysfunctions based on Indian concepts 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2013;55(Suppl 2):S273-S276.
Vajikarana or Vrishya chikitsa is a one of eight major specialty of the Ashtanga Ayurveda. This subject is concerned with aphrodisiacs, virility and improving health of progeny. As per Charak Samhita, by proper use of these formulations, one becomes endowed with good physique, potency, strength, and complexion and sexually exhilarated and sexually potent. This in turn is helpful in many common sexual dysfunctions, including Infertility, Premature Ejaculation and Erectile dysfunction. The therapy is preceded by living in strict compliance with the directions mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, various methods of body cleansing and other non-medicinal strategies like sexual health promoting conduct, behavior and diet. Certain individualized herbal and herbo-mineral combinations are administered as per the nature of a person according to the Ayurveda. Many limitations need to be considered before considering the use of theses therapy like lack of scientific studies, possibilities of adulteration in the herbal and herbo-mineral combinations available in market and possibilities of unexpected side-effects etc., The article calls upon initiating research in this area so that claims of ancient Ayurvedic texts could be substantiated and vajikaran therapy may be utilized by modern medicine.
PMCID: PMC3705695  PMID: 23858267
Aphrodisiac; sexual functioning improvement; vajikaran
20.  Yoga for schizophrenia: Patients’ perspective 
International Journal of Yoga  2015;8(2):139-141.
Yoga-based intervention is emerging as an effective add-on therapy in the management of schizophrenia. However, many barriers make it difficult for patients to avail yoga therapy programs. One of them is motivation for yoga therapy. Ways to address the barriers are critical to employ yoga as a treatment in this population.
This study aims at exploring patients’ willingness to participate in add-on yoga therapy programs on out-patient basis.
Settings and Design:
The study was conducted on 100 schizophrenia patients attending psychiatry out-patient services of a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 100 schizophrenia patients (male: female = 57:43; age: 35.8 ± 9.2 years) attending the psychiatry out-patient services of a tertiary neuropsychiatry hospital were administered a survey questionnaire.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Chi-square test was used for testing the significance of proportions. P < 0.05 was taken to be significant.
About 46% were aware that yoga is also one of the complementary therapies useful in schizophrenia. 32% had tried yoga in the past for some reasons, but only 31% of them were continuing yoga; commonest reasons for not continuing being lack of motivation (31%) and inability to spare time (27.6%). However, the majority (88.5%) of them were willing to take up add-on yoga therapy on out-patient basis along with their regular medical follow-up.
In spite of the lack of motivation to practice yoga, the majority of patients were willing to participate in add-on yoga therapy programs if given on out-patient basis along with their regular conventional medical follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4479892  PMID: 26170594
Complementary therapy; schizophrenia; yoga
21.  Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy 
Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70–80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.
PMCID: PMC3200033  PMID: 22028523
Ayurveda; epilepsy; non-pharmacological treatment; ketogenic diet; yoga
22.  Knowledge, attitude, and practices toward ayurvedic medicine use among allopathic resident doctors: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital in India 
Ayurveda is most commonly practiced form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in India. There are very few studies showing the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of allopathic doctors about Ayurvedic drugs and its use.
The study was initiated to assess KAP toward Ayurvedic medicine use among allopathic resident doctors.
Settings and Design:
Cross-sectional and prospective study.
Materials and Methods:
After obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethics Committee, allopathic resident doctors from clinical departments were approached personally. They were given pre-formed validated questionnaire to assess KAP toward Ayurvedic medicine use.
Statistical Analysis Used:
Descriptive statistics.
Allopathic residents had little knowledge about basic concepts of Ayurveda, that is, ‘panchakarma’ and ‘tridosha’. Majority residents (99%) had no opportunity to learn basics of Ayurveda, but 67% residents prescribed Ayurvedic medicines to patients. However, many residents (76%) mentioned that cross practice should not be allowed due to lack of knowledge. One resident knew that cross-practice was not allowed by law. The commonly prescribed proprietary Ayurvedic medicines were Liv-52 (39%), Shatavari (13%), Cystone (12%) and common ailments for which these medicines prescribed were liver disorders (34%), arthritis (18%), cough and cold (13%), kidney stones (11%), and piles (10%). Nearly 76% residents felt incorporation of Ayurveda with modern medicine would attract more patients and at the same time most residents (92%) agreed that Ayurvedic medicines need scientific testing before use. Though 50% of the residents agreed for voluntary training in Ayurveda, 80% denied compulsory training. Nearly 63% residents recommended Ayurveda among all CAMs. Most of residents heard of Ayurveda from their colleagues.
This study reveals that allopathic resident doctors had little knowledge about Ayurveda and Ayurvedic medicine use but engaged in prescription of Ayurvedic medicines. So some interventions should be taken to increase the knowledge and awareness of allopathic resident doctors about Ayurvedic medicine use.
PMCID: PMC3757582  PMID: 24010059
Allopathy; Ayurveda; cross-practice; knowledge; attitude; and practices study; residents
23.  Ancient origin and evolution of the Indian wolf: evidence from mitochondrial DNA typing of wolves from Trans-Himalayan region and Pennisular India 
Genome Biology  2003;4(6):P6.
A study of mitochondrial DNA diversity across three different taxonomically informative domains (cytochrome-B gene, 16S rDNA and hypervariable d-loop control region) revealed that the Himalayan wolf and the Indian Gray wolf are genetically distinct from each other as well as from all other wolves of the world
The two wolf types found in India are represented by two isolated populations and believed to be two sub-species of Canis lupus. One of these wolf, locally called Himalayan wolf (HW) or Tibetan wolf, is found only in the upper Trans-Himalayan region from Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Kasmir and is considered to be C. lupus chanco. The other relatively larger population is of Indian Gray wolf (GW) that is found in the peninsular India and considered to be C. lupus pallipes. Both these wolves are accorded endangered species status under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act. In 1998 for the first time in India, we initiated molecular characterization studies to understand their genetic structure and taxonomic status. Since then, we have analyzed the genetic variability in 18 of the total of 21 HW samples available in Zoological parks along with representative samples of GW, wild dogs and jackals. Our study of mitochondrial DNA diversity across three different taxonomically informative domains i.e., cytochrome-B gene, 16S rDNA and hypervariable d-loop control region revealed HW to be genetically distinct from the GW as well as from all other wolves of the world, including C. lupus chanco from China. Most importantly, d-loop haplotypic diversity revealed both HW and GW from India to be significantly diverse from other wolf populations globally and showed that these represent the most ancient lineages among them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Indian wolves as two independent lineages in a clade distinct and basal to the clade of all wolves from outside of India. Conservative estimate of evolutionary time-span suggests more than one million years of separation and independent evolution of HW and GW. We hypothesize that Indian wolves represent a post-jackal pre-wolf ancestral radiation that migrated to India about 1-2 mya and underwent independent evolution without contamination from other wolf like canids. The study thus, suggests that Indian subcontinent had been one major center of origin and diversification of the wolf and related canids. Further, the significant degree of genetic differentiation of HW from GW and of these two from other wolves, suggest the interesting possibility of them to be new wolf species/subspecies in evolution that may need to be described possibly as C. himalayaensis and C. indica (or as C. lupus himalyaensis and C. lupus indica), respectively. Thus for the first time, the study reveals new ancient wolf lineages in India and also highlights the need to revisit the origin, evolution and dispersion of wolf populations in Asia and elsewhere. Simultaneously, it increases the conservation importance of Indian wolves warranting urgent measures for their effective protection and management, especially of the small HW population that at present is not even recognized in the canid Red List.
PMCID: PMC4071266
24.  Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status 
Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.
PMCID: PMC3614196  PMID: 23569804
Asthma; Antiasthmatic plants; Ayurveda; Herbal medicines; Antiallergic activity; Medicinal property
25.  Phase 1 tolerability and antiamoebic activity studies with 1-methylsulphonyl-3-(1-methyl-5-nitro-2-imidazolyl)-2-imidazolidinone (Go.10213): a new antiprotozoal agent. 
Go.10213, a new nitroimidazole, was studied in 12 male volunteers for tolerability and in 20 patients with intestinal amoebiasis for antiamoebic activity. Go.10213 was well-tolerated by volunteers up to a dose of 400 mg X 3. Patients also tolerated well the dose of 100-150 mg X 3 for 7 days. In two patients, there were mild and transient side-effects like headache, dizziness, fatigue, etc. No neurological side-effects were observed. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, pulse rate and ECG. The organ function tests did not show any adverse effects of Go.10213 on bone-marrow, kidney, liver, etc. Go.10213, at a dose of 150 mg X 3, showed potent antiamoebic activity in 10 patients with intestinal amoebiasis, as judged by the clinical relief, the eradication of the trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica from stools and the healing of colonic ulcers. Go.10213, a novel nitroimidazole, may prove to be the most potent and safe agent against the protozoal infections, e.g. amoebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis.
PMCID: PMC1428073  PMID: 6639838

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